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Great Mosque of Crdoba in Crdoba, Spain.

In the 10th
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Arabic language influence on the Spanish language
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Arabic influence on the Spanish language has been significant due to the Muslim rule
in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492 AD.
Contents
1 History
2 Lexical influence
2.1 List of words of Arabic origin
2.1.1 A (Ababol to Alguaza)
2.1.2 A (Alhadida to Azumbre)
2.1.3 B
2.1.4 C
2.1.5 D, E
2.1.6 F, G
2.1.7 H, I
2.1.8 J , K
2.1.9 L, M
2.1.10 N, O, P, Q
2.1.11 R, S, T
2.1.12 V, X, Y, Z
2.2 Words with a coincidental similarity to Arabic
3 Other influences
4 Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic origin
4.1 Major towns, cities and regions
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4.2 Geographical features
5 Given names and surnames
6 See also
7 References
8 Suggestions for further research
8.1 Selected reference works and other academic literature
8.2 Selected resource pages of universities and research institutes
9 External links
History
The Spanish language, also called Castilian, is a Romance language that evolved from the Roman Vulgar Latin in central areas of the Iberian
Peninsula, following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the late fifth century. Loan words from Arabic began to filter (be Latinized) into
Castilian as the number of Arabic speakers in the fertile lower reaches of the Ebro valley gradually increased in the 8th and 9th centuries. This lexical
influence reached its greatest level during the Christian Reconquista, when the emerging Kingdom of Castile conquered large territories from
Moorish rulers in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries. These territories had large numbers of speakers of Arabic, as well as many who spoke local
Romance dialects (Mozarabic language) that were heavily influenced by Arabic. Arabic words and their derivatives were also brought into Castilian
by Mozarab Christians who emigrated northwards from Al Andalus in times of sectarian violence, particularly during the times of Almohad and
Almoravid rule in the 12th and 13th centuries.
The degree to which the Arabic language percolated through the Iberian Peninsula varied enormously from one area to another and is the subject of
academic debate. However, it is generally agreed that Arabic was used among the local elites, Muslim and Christian, and that the prevalent
vernacular in many areas was Mozarabic, a continuum of Arabic-influenced local Romance dialects. Only the southern Emirate of Granada in the
time of the Nasrid dynasty, which had had a large influx of Arabic speakers as the Reconquista advanced, became totally Arabized, or at least no
evidence of a local Romance in the late Middle Ages has been found.
Much of the Arabic influence upon Spanish came indirectly through the various Arabized Romance dialects that were spoken in areas under Moorish
rule, known today by scholars as Mozarabic. This resulted in Spanish often having both Arabic and Latin derived words with the same meaning. For
example, aceituna and oliva (olive), alacrn and escorpin (scorpion), jaqueca and migraa (migraine), alcanca and hucha (piggy bank).
The influence of the Arabized Mozarabic and of Arabic itself is more noticeable in the Spanish dialects from regions with a longer history of Moorish
domination than those where it was shorter-lived. For this reason, the dialects of the southern half of the country, known collectively as castellano
meridional or Southern Castilian, seem collectively to show a higher degree of preference for Arabisms. Northern Spanish dialects tend to prefer
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Romance synonyms to terms of Arabic origin, such as the Romance calendario vs. Arabic almanaque, hucha vs. alcanca, espliego vs. alhucema,
etc. However, among the southern dialects, Arabic influence does not strictly coincide with the historical retreat of Moorish rule from the Peninsula.
For example, Murcian Spanish, a dialect of the south-east, has been shown to contain a much larger number of unique Arabisms than eastern (or
upper) Andalusian, which is the dialect of the region with the longest Moorish history. Because Canarian and all Latin American dialects are mainly
derived from Southern Castilian, Spanish words of Arabic origin are all present in most varieties of Modern Spanish.
A number of words were also borrowed from Moroccan Arabic principally as a result of Spain's protectorate over Spanish Morocco in the 19th and
20th centuries, although these are of minor significance.
The Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands has also adopted a small number of words from Hassaniya Arabic, principally from Canarian sailors who
fish in proximity to the Saharan coast as well as by those Canarians who returned fromWestern Sahara after the Green March of 1975.
Lexical influence
The influence of Arabic on the Spanish language is fundamentally lexical but its other influences are also briefly examined in this article. It is
estimated that there are about one thousand Arabic roots,
[1][2]
and approximately three thousand derived words, for a total of around four thousand
words
[1][3][4]
or 8%
[5]
of the Spanish dictionary - the second largest lexical influence on Spanish after Latin.
[6]
See Influences on the Spanish
language for more on how the number of Arabisms in Spanish has been estimated. The exact number of words of Arabic origin and their derivatives
in Spanish is not known, and many words not included on this list are regionalisms: words which are used in certain parts of Spain and/or Latin
America but are generally unknown elsewhere.
The high point of Arabic word use in Spanish was in late medieval times and has declined since then, but hundreds are still used in normal
conversation. The vast majority of these words are nouns, with a limited number of verbs (seven, little used at present), few adjectives and adverbs,
and a one preposition, hasta ("until"), which may reflect that as wide and very important, this influence did not change the structure of the romance
language.
[7]
List of words of Arabic origin
This is an open list of Spanish words acquired directly fromClassical and Andalusi Arabic, listed in alphabetical order. This list includes the Spanish
meaning of the word as well as the Arabic etymology. No fixed standard of Arabic transliteration is used.
Rationale for inclusion
Due to the large influence of Arabic on Spanish vocabulary, this list is relatively restrictive:
This list has been edited to include only words which are considered to appertain to the Spanish language and the Hispanic culture and society.
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Arabic words which may be understood by Spanish speakers, but remain foreign to the Hispanic civilisation such as Ayatol, J ihad, or Chiita,
are excluded from this list.
Only words which have passed directly from Arabic are included. Arabic words which entered the Spanish language through other,
non-Iberian, Indo-European languages (such as Ayatol, Beduino, Sof, or sorbete) are not included. Included as exceptions to this rule are
lcali and lgebra, words of Arabic origin which are thought to have entered Spanish through "Low Latin"
[8]
as suggested by their initial
stress (the Arabic definite article al- is not normally borrowed as a stressed syllable).
Generally, only Spanish root words are listed, derivations not being included. For example, aceite (from az-zeit, oil) is included but not
aceitera, aceitero, aceitn or aceitoso. On the other hand, aceituna (olive) is included since it derives not from az-zeit but from az-zeituna in
Arabic, even though the root of the Arabic word is the same. Aceituno (olive tree), on the other hand, would not be included, since it shares the
same root as aceituna. An exception to this rule may be made when the derived word is much more commonly used than the root word, when
the meaning of the derivative has no evident connection with the root word or when it is not clear that one is derived from the other (e.g. horro
and ahorrar).
Words derived from Mozarabic are not included (Mozarabic being fundamentally a Romance language), unless the Mozarabic word is itself
derived from classical or Andalusi Arabic.
Words acquired from Berber or Hebrew (or other Afro-Asiatic languages) are not included.
The etymology and meaning of most of these words can be verified on the site of the Real Academia de la Lengua Espaola (http://www.rae.es),
although a small minority are only available in other sources or past editions of this dictionary.
Many of these words will be unfamiliar to a number of Spanish speakers because their use is restricted to certain regions or they are no longer in
regular use.
A (Ababol to Alguaza)
ababol: Poppy. In Aragon, Navarre, Albacete and Murcia. From Andalusian Arabic Happapwr, a fusion of the Arabic word Hab () "seed"
and the Latin papver.
1.
abacero: owner of an abacera, small food shop. From Andalusi Arabic *ab azzd ( ) "owner of supplies." 2.
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Ababol, poppy
abad: descendant/lineage of Mohammed ben Abad, founder of the Taifa Kingdom of Seville in the 11th
century AD. From Andalusi Arabic 'abbd ().
3.
abalorio: cheap jewellery or jewellery beads. From Andalusi Arabic al ballri (made of) glass
From Classical Arabic: billawr. Ultimately from Greek , "beryl"
4.
abarraz: stavesacre (Delphinium staphisagria), a medicinal plant. From Andalusi Arabic bb arrs
( ) "head seeds."
5.
abas: pertaining to the Abbasid dynasty, which overthrew the Umayyads in the 8th century. 6.
abelmosco: musk seeds, an aromatic plant. From Andalusi Arabic abb al musk ( ) literally
"musk seeds." Classical Arabic: abbu 'l musk.
7.
abencerraje: used in expression: "Zegres y abencerrajes", which means "partisans of opposite interests". The Abencerrajes (in Arabic aban
as-sarr) was an Arabic family of the Kingdom of Granada, rivals of the Zegres in the 15th century.
8.
abenuz: ebony. From Arabic abanus () of the same meaning. 9.
abismal: screw in head of a spear. From Arabic al-mismar () "nail." 10.
abitaque: a cut of wood used in construction of a certain shape and dimension. From Arabic Tabaqa () "layer" or "intermediate chamber." 11.
acebibe: raisin. From Arabic zabib () of the same meaning. 12.
acebuche: wild olive tree, or wood fromsuch a tree. From Andalusi Arabic azzabb. 13.
aceche: copper, iron or zinc sulphate. From Hisp-Ar. *azzj, < az-zj, < From Classical Arabic az-zj. 14.
aceifa: Muslim summer military expedition. From Arabic /Saif "summer". 15.
aceite: oil. From Arabic az-zayt () "oil." 16.
aceituna: olive. From Arabic (az-zaytun) "olive." 17.
aceitun: precious cloth from the Orient. From Arabic az-zaytuni, a possible adaptation of the Chinese city Ts-Thung. 18.
acelga: Chard. From Arabic as-silqa of the same meaning. 19.
acmila: beast of burden; tax formerly paid in Spain. From Arabic az-zamilah "beast of burden." 20.
acemite: wheat husk; a type of wheat porridge. From Arabic as-samid (). 21.
acenefa see cenefa. 22.
acea: watermill. From Arabic as-saniyah "the lifter." 23.
acequia: irrigation canal. From Arabic as-saqiyah ()"the irrigator." 24.
acerola: fruit of the trees Malpighia emarginata or M. glabra, generally found in the Americas, of the Malpighiaceae family. This should be 25.
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differentiated from the European Service Tree (Sorbus domestica), family Rosaceae. From Arabic zu 'rrah (). Originally from Syriac
zarr.
acetre: bucket or cauldron used to extract water from a well; small cauldron used to spray holy water in Christian liturgy. FromArabic as-saTl
().
26.
aciar: (or acial): instrument used to keep farm-animals still by squeezing their ear or snout. From Arabic az-ziyr. 27.
acbar: aloe (both the plant and its bitter juice); bitterness, grief, distaste. From Arabic aS-Sabr ( ). 28.
acicalar: to clean or polish (Acicalarse in reflexive form); to make oneself look good by combing, shaving etc. From Arabic aS-Siqal, an
instrument used for polishing things.
29.
acicate: spurs or the spikes on spurs; incentive. From Arabic (Muzil) as-siqaT "what takes away weaknesses." 30.
acidaque: Muslim dowry. From Arabic as-Sidaq, dowry in Islamic law. 31.
acimut: azimuth, an astrological concept - the angle with which the meridian forms a vertical circle which passes through a point in the globe.
From Arabic assumut plural of samt.
32.
acin: handle on the stirrup. From Arabic suyr (), plural of sayr () "strap." 33.
acirate: line of soil used to separate different plots of land; path between two lines of trees. From Arabic SirT (). 34.
acitara or citara: thin wall, normally on a bridge. From Arabic sitrah (), wall to avoid falls. 35.
achacar: to blame. From Arabic tashakk (): to complain or to blame. 36.
adafina: pot used by Hebrews to cook. It is buried in embers on Friday night, where it cooks until Saturday. From Arabic: dafina ()
"buried."
37.
adalid: leader; general of Spanish militia. From Arabic dalil (). 38.
adaraja: each of the gaps made by the bricks in a horizonally unfinished wall. From daraja (). 39.
adarga: leather shield. From Arabic daraqah. 40.
adrgama:(rarely used today) flour. From Arabic darmaka. 41.
adarme: small portion of something; type of measurement. From Arabic dirham (). 42.
adarvar: to shock. From Arabic darb () "blow." 43.
adarve: wall of a fortress; protection, defense. From Arabic darb () 44.
adaza: sorghum. From Arabic duqsah. 45.
adefera: a small, square wall or floor tile. From Arabic add-ddafeera. 46.
adehala: that which is granted or taken as obligatory with the price in the leasing or sale of a property. From Mozarabic ad ihala and originally 47.
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from Arabic ihala "offering credit."
adelfa: oleander. From Arabic ad-difla () of the same meaning. 48.
ademn: gesticulation which expresses the will to do something. From Arabic aD-Daman (), literally meaning legal guarantees. The
change of meaning is due to the exaggerated promises and gesticulations which were offered in such a plea.
49.
ademe: wooden structures used to strengthen tunnels in mines. From Arabic di'mah. 50.
aderra: cord used to press grapes or olives in order to obtain their juice. From Andalusi Arabic ad-dirra a noose or cord used to punish those
who were guilty of fraud.
51.
adiafa: present or refreshment given to sailors when back from a voyage. From Arabic Diyafa () "present of hospitality." 52.
adivas: a disease provoking throat inflammation in animals. From Arabic aD-Dibbah "wolverine" - which is the old Arabic name for this
disease.
53.
adive: a type of canid similar to a fox. From Arabic di'b (). 54.
adobe: brick made fromclay. FromArabic at-tuba ( from Coptic tbe) of the same meaning, and from ad-dabba. 55.
adoqun: paving-stone, cobble; block. From Arabic Dukkan bench of rock or wood. 56.
ador: in regions where water for irrigation is restricted and shared out by local authorities, irrigation-time for each farm/field. From Arabic
dawr.
57.
aduana: customs house; customs. From Arabic diwan (). 58.
aduar: semi-permanent rural settlement, normally used for Gypsies, bedouins or Amerindians in South America. From Bedouin Arabic
duwwar.
59.
adcar: type of silk made from the outside of the silk-worm's cocoon. From Andalusi Arabic Haduqa. 60.
adufe:tambourine used by Spanish Muslims. From Arabic Duff (). 61.
adul: in Morocco, asessor of the Cad. From Arabic adl "trustworthy person." 62.
adula: see dula. 63.
adunia: (adverb) lots. From Andalusi Arabic addunya, originally from classical Arabic duniya () "the (whole) world." 64.
adutaque: same meaning as adrgama. From Arabic duqaq () "fine flour." 65.
afn: effort; desire; zeal. From afanar. 66.
afanar: to steal; to work with passion. From Arabic fanaa () "extinction", "annihilation through passion." 67.
aguajaque: the whitish resin of fennel. From Arabic aw-washaq "contaminated with water." 68.
agela: Renta de los derechos sobre prstamos consignados en documento pblico. From Arabic Hawalah. 69.
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Ajedrez, chess
ajabeba: Moorish flute. From Classical Arabic sabbabah. 70.
ajaquefa: Roof. Same origin as Azaquefa. 71.
ajaraca: Ornamental loop in Andalusian and Arabic architecture. From Andalusi Arabic Ash-sharakah "loop". 72.
ajarafe: terrace. FromClassical Arabic saraf "commanding height." 73.
ajebe: Alum; Para rubber tree. From Arabic as-Shabb. 74.
ajedrea: plant in the genus Satureja (family Lamiaceae), about three decimeters in height, with many branches and dark, narrow leaves. It is
cultivated as an ornamental in gardens. From Arabic assariyya or assiriyya, ultimately from Latin satureia.
75.
ajedrez: chess. FromArabic ash shatranj () which is from Persian Shatranj from the Sanskrit
Chaturang (four armed) as was the shape of the original chess board in India
76.
ajenuz: nutmeg flower or Roman Coriander (Nigella sativa). From Andalusi Arabic Shanuz and
ultimately Classical Arabic Shuniz.
77.
ajimez: bent; window divided in the center by a vertical divider; salient balcony done of wood and with
lattice windows. From Arabic samis.
78.
ajomate: pluricellular alga formed by very thin filaments, without knots, bright and of intense green
color. It abounds in fresh waters of Spain. From Classical Arabic gumam.
79.
ajonjol: sesame; herbaceous, annual plant of the family of the Pedaliaceae, a meter high, straight stem,
serrate and almost triangular leaves, white or rosy corolla, and fruit with four delicate, yellowish, oily
and edible capsules and many seeds. From Classical Arabic gulgulan "sesame."
80.
ajorca: bangle; type of gold hoop, silver or another metal, used by the women to adorn the wrists, arms or the feet. FromClassical Arabic
shuruk, ultimately from the word shirk "strap."
81.
ajorrar: To drag, to tow. See Jorro. 82.
ajuagas: equine animal ulcers. From Classical Arabic shuqaq. 83.
ajuar: a collection of household and personal items (clothes, furniture, jewelry etc...) which women in Spain traditionally prepare from a
young age for the day in which they marry and move in with their husband. FromArabic Shawar.
84.
alacena: cupboard. From Classical Arabic iznah (). 85.
alacet: foundation of a building. FromClassical Arabic asas (). 86.
alacrn: scorpion. From Classical Arabic aqrab () of same meaning. 87.
aladar: Tuft of hair which falls on either side of the head. From Arabic idar. 88.
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Alacrn, scorpion
aladroque: Anchovy. From Andalusi Arabic Al Hatruk, "big mouthed". 89.
alafa: wage; pay. From Classical Arabic alafah "subsistence allowance." 90.
alafia: grace; pardon; mercy. From Andalusian Arabic al afya ultimately from Classical Arabic
afiyah () "health."
91.
alahlca: tapestry to adorn the walls. Perhaps of alailaca from Andalusian Arabic ilaqa, and this
of Classical Arabic ilqah () perhaps meaning "hanger."
92.
alajor: Tax which was paid to owners of land where buildings were built. From Arabic Ashur,
period of ten days before Easter when debts were paid and alms were given.
93.
alaj: Andalusian cake made of almonds, nuts, pine nuts, bread, spices and cooked honey. From al Hashu "filling". 94.
alamar: A type of decorative attachment which is buttoned on clothing. From Andalusi Arabic Alam, decoration (in clothes). 95.
alambique: alembic. From Arabic al-anbiq "the cup/container holding water", in turn fr Greek. 96.
alambor: Two meanings in Spanish with two different etymologies. 1)Embankment, from Andalusi Arabic Harabul "rim", from classical
Arabic verb Hawwala, "to alter". 2) Type of Orange tree. From Catalan l'ambor, singular of els zambors, derived from Andalusi Arabic
Azzambu.
97.
alamn: Village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights. From Arabic al amin. 98.
alamud: Steel bar used to close windows. From Arabic amud. 99.
alaqueca: A type of blood-coloured quartz. From Arabic 'aqiq. 100.
alrabe: Arab. From Andalusi Arabic (maintaining the definite article al arabi. 101.
alarde/alardear: To boast/to show off. From Arabic ,show (Alaard ) 102.
alarife: 1)Architect 2) Builder (in mining) 2) Astute or quick witted person (in Argentina and Uruguay). From Arabic al 'arif: The expert. 103.
alarije (uva): A type of grape. From Arabic al'aris. 104.
alaroz: Crossbar which divides a window or a door. From Arabic al'arud: Obstacle placed to block entry. 105.
alaroza: Fiance or newly wed wife. From Arabic Andalusi Arabic al arusa. 106.
alatar: Drug, spice or perfume dealer. From Arabic al attar. 107.
alatrn: Nitrate foam. FromArabic nattrun. 108.
alazn/alazano: Reddish cinnamon coloured. (Used commonly to describe horses). From Arabic al ashab. 109.
alazor: safflower. From Arabic al usfur. 110.
albacara: Wall around a fortress (within which cattle were normally kept. From Arabic bab al-baqqara The cattle door. baqara () means 111.
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"cow" in Arabic.
albacea: executor (of a will). From Andalusi Arabic Sahb al Wassiya ( ); "the owner of the will". 112.
albacora: Albacore. From Arabic al-bakura "premature" or al-bakrah "young camel." 113.
albadena: Type of tunic or silk dress. FromArabic badan: Type of shirt which covers the torso. 114.
albahaca: Basil. From Arabic habaqah. 115.
albaho: Pale yellowish colour (used commonly for cattle). From Arabic bahi: Shining. 116.
albal: Official document. From Arabic al bara'ah. 117.
albaida: Anthyllis cystoides (Flowering plant). From Arabic al baida: "The white one". 118.
albanega:1) Net used for hair. 2) Rabbit trap. From Arabic al baniqa. 119.
albaal: Sewer. FromAndalusi Arabic al ball: "Swallower". 120.
albail: Construction worker. From Andalusi Arabic al banni. Originally from classical Arabic banna. 121.
albaqua: The remainder. From Arabic al-baqi () of the same meaning. 122.
albarn: Invoice. FromArabic al-bara'ah. 123.
albarazo: Vitiligo. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Barash. 124.
albarda: Pack-saddle. From Arabic al-barda'ah. 125.
albardn: Clown or fool. From Andalusi Arabic albardn: "insolent". Originally fromClassical Arabic bardan: "Idiot (Cold headed)". 126.
albardn: Plant endemic to the Spanish steppes, similar in nature and use to Esparto. From Arabic "al-bardi": "papyrus". 127.
albaricoque: Apricot. From Arabic al-barqouq () "plum" or "early-ripe." 128.
albarrada: 1) Same meaning as alcarraza (Clay vase). 2) Stone Wall. From Arabic al-barradah: "the cooler". 129.
albarrn: 1) Farm boy 2) Shepherd 3)Person with no fixed residence. From Andalusi Arabic al-barrani: "Outsider". 130.
albatoza: Small, covered boat. From Arabic al-gattosha: grebe (Due to the Arabic custom of giving names of birds to vessels. 131.
albayalde: Cerrusite. From Arabic al-bayad. 132.
albitar: Vet. From Arabic al-baytar. 133.
albenda: Decorated white linen. From Arabic al-band. 134.
alberca: Water deposit for irrigation. In Mexico and Honduras it is also the term of choice for swimming pool. FromArabic al-birka. 135.
albrchigo: Apricot tree. From Andalusi Arabic albershiq. 136.
albihar: Mayweed. From Arabic Al-Bahar. 137.
albitana: 1)Fence to protect plants in gardening. 2) Prolongation of the keel or stern post of a ship. From Arabic al-bitana. 138.
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alboaire: The craft of decorating churches and domes with "azulejos". From Andalusi Arabic al buhaira: Lagoon. 139.
albogue: Single-reed clarinet used in Spain. FromArabic al-bq (): The horn or the trumpet. 140.
alboheza: Malva, from Andalusi Arabic Hubayza. 141.
albohol: Morning glory, from Andalusi Arabic al hubuul: "rope". 142.
albolln: Drainage or sewage. From Mozarabic Ballan and ultimately from Classical Arabic balla'ah. 143.
albndiga: Meatball; ball. From Arabic al-bunduqa () "the ball." 144.
albrbola: J oy, celebratory noise. From Arabic walwalah. 145.
alborga: Matweed sandal. From Arabic albla 146.
alborna: A type of large vase. From Arabic barniya. 147.
albornoz: Bath-robe. From al-burnos (); "bathrobe". 148.
alborona: A type of Andalusian vegetable stew. From Arabic al buranniya "Buran's (stew)." Buran was the wife of Caliph Ma'moun. 149.
alboroque: 1) A present or prize given in exchange of a service. 2) The kind treatment and lavish attention offered and received in anticipation
of a commercial transaction. From Andalusi Arabic al-borok, possibly ultimately from Classical Arabic arbun.
150.
alboroto: Riot, joy. Comes from arabism alborozo (joy), from andalus-arab al-burz derived from Classical Arabic al-burz, "military parade
previous to a campaign".
151.
alborozo :Extreme chaos or happiness. From Andalusi Arabic Al buruz: Military parade prior to an expedition. 152.
albotn: Turpentine Tree. From Arabic butm of the same meaning. 153.
albricias: 1) Term used to congratulate someone. 2) Present or gift provided to a bringer of good news. From Arabic Bushra. 154.
albudeca: A bad watermelon. From Andalusi Arabic al batiHa. 155.
albufera: Lagoon. From Arabic al buhaira. 156.
albur: This term has a wide range of meanings: 1) Flathead mullet (Spain and Cuba), 2) a card combination in a card game known as Banca, 3)
a chance occurrence on which an enterprise hedges its bets, 4) an expression which has a double or hidden meaning (Mexico and Dominican
Republic) 4)an amourous affair (Nicaragua), 5) a lie, slander or rumour (Puerto Rico and Honduras). From Arabic al-boori.
157.
alcabala: 1) A tax on commercial transactions. 2) Police checkpoint outside cities and on main roads (Colombia and Venezuela). From
Andalusi Arabic al qabala.
158.
alcabor: Hollow interior of a chimeney or oven. From Arabic al qabw. 159.
alcabtea: A type of linen. From Arabic al qubtiya, meaning "egyptian" or "coptic". 160.
alcacel or alcacer: 1) Green Barley 2) A Barley field. From Arabic al qasil. 161.
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alcachofa: Artichoke. Fromal-arshoof of the same meaning. 162.
alcaduz: Water pipe. FromArabic Qds () meaning "water-wheel scoop" 163.
alcafar: Limbs of a cuadruped (normally a horse). From Arabic al kafal. 164.
alcahaz: Birdcage. From Arabic qafa () of the same meaning 165.
alcahuete: Accomplice, a person who helps another in a love affair, specially an illicit one; gossipy person. Alcahuete comes from hispanic
arabic alqawwad (the messenger), and this fromClassical Arabic qawwad. This "messenger" carried messages to a married woman's lover. By
extension it became commonly known as any person who sets up a love affair, generally illicit.
166.
alcaicera: In Granada and other towns of the former Nasarid Kingdom, an establishment where silk farmers presented their produce under the
rights reserved to the Muslim rulers. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Qaysariya, originally from the Latin Cesarea.
167.
alcaide: Alcaide is a term which historically referred to various positions of government authority. In modern Spanish it most commonly refers
to a prison warden. From Arabic al qa'id, "military commander".
168.
alcalde: Mayor. From Arabic al-qadi (the judge). Qadi comes from the verb qada (to judge). 169.
lcali: alkali. From Arabic qalawi () of the same meaning. 170.
alcaller: Clay artisan or his helper. From Andalusi Arabic al qallal. 171.
alcamiz: An obsolete term referring to a list of soldiers. Its etymology is an erroneous transmision of at-taymiz, "Military inspection" in
Andalusi Arabic and "Distinction" in Classical Arabic.
172.
alcamonas: Seeds used in spice mixes such as anisseed or cumin. It is also a now obsolete expression referring to the act of hiding things.
From Arabic kammuniya, a cumin-based concoction.
173.
alcana: Henna or Henna tree. From Arabic, Hinna. 174.
alcan: Commercial street or neighbourhood. From Arabic qanaah: Drains or water pipes. 175.
alcanca: Clay money box, penny or piggy bank. From Andalusi Arabic alkanzyya, derived fromclassical Arabic kanz: treasure. 176.
alcndara: Hook used to hang clothes or fowl. From Arabic Kandarah. 177.
alcanda: Sorghum. From Andalusi Arabic qatniyya. 178.
alcandora: A type of shirt. From Arabic qandura. 179.
alcanera: A now obsolete rural term for a type of artichoke. From Andalusi Arabic al-qannariya, an Arabic rendering of the Latin cannaria. 180.
alcanfor: Camphor. From Andalusi Arabic Al-Kafur. 181.
alcntara/alcantarilla: drain; From Arabic al-qantarah meaning bridge. 182.
alcaparra: caper. From Andalusian Arabic al-kaparra. Via Latin and Greek. 183.
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alcaravn 184.
alcaravea 185.
alcarcea 186.
alcarraza 187.
alcarria: 188.
alcatanes 189.
alcatara (or alquitara) 190.
alcatifa 191.
alcatraz: Cormorant. From Arabic al-qars, meaning sea eagle. 192.
alcaucil, artichoke. From Spanish Arabic: alqabsl[a], that comes from mozarab diminutive kapia, and this from Spanish Latin: captia,
head. (Standard latin, Caput-itis)
193.
alcavela 194.
alcazaba: palace. From Arabic al-qasbah, (), "the quarter". 195.
alczar: citadel; palace. From Arabic al-qasr () "the citadel." 196.
alcazuz (or orozuz) 197.
alcoba: alcove. From Arabic al-qubba "the vault" or "the arch." 198.
alcohela 199.
alcohol: fromArabic al-kuhul () fine powder of antimony sulfide used as eye makeup. 200.
alcoholar 201.
alcolla 202.
alcor 203.
alcora 204.
alcorc 205.
alcorque 206.
alcorza 207.
alcotn 208.
alcotana 209.
alcrebite 210.
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alcuacil 211.
alcubilla 212.
alcua 213.
alcuza 214.
alcuzcuz 215.
alchub 216.
aldaba 217.
aldea/aldeano: Village/Villager. 218.
aldiza 219.
alefriz 220.
aleja 221.
alejija 222.
alema 223.
alerce 224.
aletra 225.
aleve/alevoso/alevosa 226.
aleya 227.
alfaba 228.
alfbega 229.
alfada 230.
alfaguara: Geyser. From Arabic fawwra (): spout, fountain, jet d'eau 231.
alfahar/alfaharera 232.
alfaida 233.
alfajeme 234.
alfajor: Sweet almond shortbread. FromSpanish Arabic far, and this from Persian afor (juice). 235.
alfalfa: alfalfa. From Arabic al-fafaa literally "the best kind of fodder" 236.
alfaneque (two meanings, a type of bird, from Arabic al-fanak and a tent from Berber afarag) 237.
alfanje: A type of sword. From The Arabic al-janyar "dagger" 238.
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alfaque 239.
alfaqueque 240.
alfaqu 241.
alfaqun 242.
alfaraz 243.
alfarda (two meanings from al-farda and from al-fardda) 244.
alfarero: potter 245.
alfardn 246.
alfareme 247.
alfarje 248.
alfarrazar 249.
alfaya 250.
alfayate 251.
alfazaque 252.
alfizar: Window ledge. From Arabic al-Hayzar "the one which takes possession". 253.
alfeique 254.
alfereca 255.
alferez 256.
alferraz 257.
alferza 258.
alficoz 259.
alfil: bishop, in chess. From Arabic al-feel () "the elephant." 260.
alfilel/alfiler 261.
alfinge 262.
alfitete 263.
alfiz 264.
alfol 265.
alfombra (two meanings from al-jumra and al-humra) 266.
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alfncijo: pistachio. From Arabic al-fustuq. 267.
alfndega 268.
alforfn 269.
alforja: saddlebag. From Arabic al-khurj ( ) "saddle-bag", portmanteau 270.
alforre 271.
alforrocho 272.
alforza 273.
alfstigo 274.
alfoz: Neighborhood, district. From Arabic hauz () meaning "Precinct" or "City limits" 275.
algaba 276.
algadara 277.
algaida 278.
algalaba 279.
algalia 280.
algalife 281.
algar 282.
algara 283.
algarada 284.
algaraba: incomprehensible talk; gabble; gibberish. From Arabic al-'arabiya: "Arabic". 285.
algarivo 286.
algarazo: Short rainstorm. From Arabic al 'ard: "cloud". 287.
algarrada 288.
algarrobo: carob. From Arabic al-kharouba "the carob." 289.
algavaro 290.
algazafn 291.
algazara 292.
algazul 293.
lgebra: algebra. From the name of al-Khwarizmi' book Hisab al-jabr wal-muqabala "The Calculus of Subtraction and Equality." 294.
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algecireo 295.
algodn, "cotton", from Arabic "al-qun ()", meaning "the cotton" 296.
algorfa 297.
algoritmo, algorithm, that comes from the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, , famous mathematician. 298.
algorza: 299.
alguacil, "Sheriff", from Arabic "al-wazr ()", meaning "Minister" 300.
alguaquida: fuel for a fire. From Arabic waqda () meaning "Fuel" 301.
alguaza: Window or door hinge.From Arabic wasl "juncture". 302.
A (Alhadida to Azumbre)
alhadida: Old Spanish term for Hadith. 1.
alhaite: jewel. From Arabic al hayt "string". 2.
alhaja: jewel. FromArabic al-hagah "the valuable thing." 3.
alhamar: Red matress or bed cover. From Arabic hanbal: fur bedcover. also from Arabic Alhamar/Al-Ahmar (the red) 4.
alhamel: (Andalusian Spanish) Beast of burden or human porter. From Arabic hammal. 5.
alham: Stone bench normally covered with azulejos. Refers to the Grenadine town of Alhama. 6.
alhandal: Colocynth. From Arabic Alhandhal. 7.
alhana: 1) Bedroom 2) cupboard 3) A type of small mattress. From Andalusi Arabic al haniyya: Alcove. 8.
alhaqun: Weaver. FromArabic plural Al Hayikeen. Weavers. 9.
alharaca: Violent reaction to a small issue. From Arabic haraka. 10.
alhavara: Flour. From Arabic huwara. 11.
alhel: Aegean Wallflower. From Arabic hiri. 12.
alhea: Spanish word for Henna and the plant from which it is derived. 13.
alholva:Fenugreek. From Arabic hulbah- 14.
alhor: Same meaning and etymology as more commonly used term Alfol. 15.
alhorre: 1) Feaces of newly born child. From Arabic hur: feaces. 2)Skin rash common in babies. Commonly used in expression yo te curar el
alhorre when threatening to beat a child. From Arabic Shakatu el hurr, skin infection.
16.
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alhorra: (or ahorra): Expression used for when a slave is freed. From Arabic al-hurriya: Freedom. 17.
alhucema: Lavender. From Arabic: huzama. 18.
alhucea: Woodruff. From Arabic uhshina. 19.
aliara: Drinking horn. From Andalusian Arabic al fiyara. 20.
alicante: Vernacular name of two different types of posionous snakes present in Spain and Northern Mexico respectively. From Arabic al
aqrab: scorpion.
21.
alicatar: To till. From Arabic qat "to cut". 22.
alicate: Pliers. From Arabic laqaat: "tongs. 23.
alidada: Alidade. From Andalusian Arabic: al'idada. 24.
alifa: (Used in Andalusian and Mexican Spanish) Sugar cane which is two years old. From Arabic halifa: "successor". 25.
alifafe: 1)Light indisposition. 2) Type of tumor which develops on the legs of horses from excessive work. From Arabic: ifash: Sowing bag. 26.
alifara 27.
alijar 28.
alimara 29.
alioj 30.
alirn 31.
alizace 32.
alizar 33.
aljaba 34.
aljabibe 35.
aljama 36.
aljama/aljamiado: Medieval Romance Spanish or Mozarabic written in Arabic script. 37.
aljaraz 38.
aljarfa 39.
aljbana 40.
aljerife 41.
aljez 42.
aljibe 43.
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aljfar/aljofarar 44.
aljofifa 45.
aljor (or aljez) 46.
aljuba 47.
aljuma 48.
aagaza 49.
almacabra 50.
almacn: deposit, dry goods store. FromArabic al-majzan of makhzan () "the storage" or "the depot." 51.
almacera 52.
almciga 53.
almadn 54.
almdena 55.
almada 56.
almadraba: Tuna fishing in Andalusia and particularly in Cadiz province. From Andalusi Arabic Al-madraba, "place where one beats
something or fights", in reference to the fishing technique.
57.
almadraque 58.
almagazn 59.
almagra 60.
almahala 61.
almaizar 62.
almaja 63.
almajaneque 64.
almajar 65.
almajara 66.
almalafa 67.
almanaque: almanac (see etymology section in the article for further discussion). From Arabic al-manakh () "the climate." Or possibly
from Greek almenichiakon "calendar."
68.
almacebe 69.
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almarada 70.
almarbate 71.
almarcha 72.
almarjo 73.
almarr 74.
almarraja or almarraza 75.
almrtaga (two meanings, from al-marta'a and al martak) 76.
almstica 77.
almatroque 78.
almazara: olive press. From Arabic "al-ma3Sara" (), "juicer". 79.
almazarrn 80.
almea (two meanings, from almay'a and 'alima) 81.
almeja 82.
almenara (two meanings, from al-manara and al-minhara) 83.
almez 84.
almbar 85.
almicantarat 86.
almijar 87.
almijara 88.
almijarra 89.
almimbar 90.
alminar 91.
almiraj/almiraje/almiral 92.
almirez 93.
almirn: Dandelion. From Andalusian Arabic: al Mirun. 94.
almizate 95.
almizcle/almizque 96.
almocadn 97.
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almocafre 98.
almocrabe 99.
almoceda 100.
almocrebe 101.
almocr 102.
almodn 103.
almfar 104.
almofariz 105.
almofa 106.
almofrej/almofrez 107.
almogama 108.
almogvar 109.
almohada: Pillow, fromArabic al-makhada with the same meaning. 110.
almohade 111.
almoharrefa 112.
almohaza 113.
almojbana 114.
almojama (see mojama) 115.
almojarife 116.
almojaya 117.
almona 118.
almoneda 119.
almoraduj/almoradux 120.
almorvide: 121.
almor 122.
almorona: See alborona. 123.
almotacn 124.
almotalafe 125.
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almotazaf/almotazn 126.
almozala/almozalla 127.
almud 128.
almudano 129.
almuerzo 130.
almunia 131.
alpargata 132.
alpechn 133.
alpiste 134.
alquera: farmhouse. From Arabic al-qaria "the village." 135.
aloque 136.
aloqun 137.
alpargata 138.
alquequenje 139.
alquera 140.
alquermes 141.
alquerque (Two meanings from al-qirq and al-qariq) 142.
alquez 143.
alquezar 144.
alquibla 145.
alquicel 146.
alquilar: Rent. 147.
alquimia 148.
alquinal 149.
alquitira 150.
alquitrn 151.
alrota 152.
altabaca 153.
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altama 154.
altramuz 155.
alubia: pea bean 156.
aludel 157.
aluquete/luquete 158.
alloza 159.
amn 160.
mbar 161.
mel 162.
amn 163.
amir 164.
anacalo 165.
anacora 166.
anafaga 167.
anafalla/anafaya 168.
anafe 169.
anaquel 170.
andorra 171.
andrajo 172.
anea 173.
anejir 174.
anorza 175.
anteba 176.
aacal 177.
aacea/aacear 178.
aafea 179.
aafil 180.
aagaza 181.
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aascar 182.
aazme 183.
aicos 184.
ail (ultimately from Sanskrit nilah "dark blue") 185.
arab 186.
arancel 187.
arbelln/arbolln 188.
arch 189.
argadillo 190.
argamandel 191.
argamula 192.
argn 193.
argel 194.
argolla 195.
arguello/arguellarse 196.
arije 197.
arimez 198.
arjorn 199.
arnad 200.
arrab 201.
arrabal 202.
arracada 203.
arrez 204.
arrayn 205.
arrecife 206.
arrejaque/arrejacar 207.
arrelde 208.
arrequife 209.
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arrequive 210.
arriate 211.
arrics 212.
arroba 213.
arrobda 214.
arrocabe 215.
arrope 216.
arroz: Rice. 217.
scar/scari 218.
asequi 219.
asesino: assassin. From Arabic hashshshin "someone who is addicted to hashish (marijuana)." Was originally used to refer to the followers of
the Persian Hassan-i-Sabah ( ), the Hashshashin.
220.
atabaca 221.
atabal 222.
atabe 223.
atacar : to tie, to button up. FromAndalusi Arabic tkka, originally from classical Arabic tikkah, ribbon used to fasten clothes. 224.
atacir 225.
atafarra/ataharre 226.
atafea 227.
atahona 228.
atahorma 229.
ataifor 230.
ataire 231.
atalaya 232.
atalvina 233.
atambor 234.
atanor 235.
atanqua 236.
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ataracea 237.
atarazana 238.
atarfe 239.
atarjea 240.
atarraga 241.
atarraya 242.
atad: Coffin. 243.
atauja 244.
ataurique 245.
atifle 246.
atijara 247.
atncar 248.
atoba 249.
atocha 250.
atracae 251.
atoque 252.
atraca/atriaca 253.
atn: Tuna. 254.
atuta 255.
auge: Surge/rise. 256.
aulaga 257.
avera 258.
ayatol 259.
azabache 260.
azabara 261.
azacn 262.
azacaya 263.
azache 264.
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azafate/azafata 265.
azafrn: saffron. From Arabic za'firan of the same meaning. Perhaps from safra "yellow." 266.
azahar: White flower, especially fromthe orange tree. FromSpanish Arabic azzahr, and this from Classic Arabic zahr, flowers 267.
azal 268.
azamboa 269.
azndar 270.
azaque: from Arabic zakt (Arabic: [zk], "that which purifies"[1]). See article zakat. 271.
azaquefa: Covered portico or patio. From Andalusi Arabic assaqifa, portico. 272.
azar: luck; chance. FromArabic az-zahr "the dice." or North African Arabic az-zhar "luck". 273.
azarbe 274.
azarcn 275.
azarja 276.
azarnefe 277.
azarote 278.
azfar 279.
azofra/azofrar 280.
azogue (two meanings: from az-za'uq and from as-suq) 281.
azolvar 282.
azorafa 283.
azote: Smacking, beating, scourge. From Arabic Sawt. 284.
azotea: Flat roof or terrace. From Andalusi Arabic assutyha, diminutive of sath, terrace in classical Arabic. 285.
azoya 286.
azcar: sugar. From Arabic () sukkar of the same meaning. 287.
azucar 288.
azucena 289.
azuche 290.
azud 291.
azufaifa/azufaifo 292.
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azul: Blue. Derived from Arabic Azraq (). 293.
azulaque (or zulaque) 294.
azulejo 295.
azmbar 296.
azumbre: Measurement for liquids equivalent to around two litres. From Del Andalusi Arabic aTTmn, and this from classical Arabic:
Tum[u]n, "an eighth".
297.
B
babismo: Babism. From Arabic "door." 1.
babucha: Slippers. From Arabic Baboush, derived from Persian "Papoosh" literally meaning "foot covering". The transition fromPersian "p"
to Arabic "b" occurs due to lack of the letter p in the Arabic alphabet. "Pa-" in Persian means foot and "poosh" means covering. Persian "pa" or
foot shares the same root with other Indo-European languages, i.e. Latin pede[m], French "pied", Spanish "pie" and "pata",etc.
2.
badal: Cut of meat from the back and ribs of cattle, close to the neck. FromAndalusi Arabic bad'a "Calf muscle" derived from classical Arabic
bad'ah "piece".
3.
badn: Trunk of an animal. From Arabic badan. 4.
badana: 1) Sheepskin, 2) hat lining 3) Lazy person. From Arabic bitana, "lining". 5.
badea: 1) Watermelon or Melon of bad quality. 2) Insipid cucumber 3) Weak person 4) Unimportant thing. From Arabic battiha: "bad melon". 6.
badn: Dip in land, road, sidewalk or ford. From Arabic batin: Sunken (land). 7.
bagarino: Free or hired sailor, as opposed to a press-ganged or enslaven one. Same origin as bahar. 8.
bagre: a freshwater fish that has no scales and has a chin. From Arabic baghir or baghar. 9.
bahar: Bird of prey. From Arabic bahri: "from the sea". 10.
baja: pasha, Turkish officer or governor of high rank. From Arabic basha ultimately from Turkish pasha of the same meaning. 11.
balad: 1) Unimportant thing or matter. 2) Something of the land our country. From Arabic baladiy "From the country". 12.
balaj/balaje: Purple ruby. From Arabic Balahshi: From Balahshan (region in central Asia where these stones are found). 13.
balate 14.
balda (and baldo) 15.
baldar 16.
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balde: 1)Free. 2) without cause or 3) in vain. from Arabic batil "false" or "useless." 17.
bancal 18.
bao 19.
baraka 20.
barbacana 21.
barcino 22.
bardaje 23.
bardoma/bardomera 24.
barragn 25.
barrio/barriada: Area, district or neighbourhood in a town. From Arabic barri "outside". 26.
bata (either from Arabic batt of French ouate) 27.
batn 28.
batea 29.
baurac 30.
bayal 31.
belez 32.
bellota: acorn, the fruit or seed of the oak tree. FromArabic balluta of the same meaning. 33.
ben 34.
benimern 35.
benjui 36.
berber 37.
berbers 38.
bereber 39.
berenjena/berenjenal 40.
bezaar/bezoar 41.
biznaga 42.
bocac 43.
bodoque/bodocal 44.
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bfeta 45.
brax 46.
born 47.
borona 48.
botor 49.
buja 50.
bulbul 51.
burche 52.
buz 53.
buzaque 54.
C
cabila: tribe of Berbers or Bedouins. From Arabic qabila "tribe." 1.
cachera 2.
cad 3.
cadira 4.
caf: coffee. From qahwa () of the same meaning. 5.
cfila 6.
cafiz (or cahiz) 7.
cafre 8.
caftn 9.
cid (same origin as alcaide) 10.
caimacn 11.
cala 12.
calabaza: Pumpkin or squash. From Arabic qerabat (), plural of qerbah(), meaning wineskin. 13.
calafate/calafatear 14.
calahorra 15.
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cal (same root as lcali) 16.
clibo/calibre 17.
cambuj 18.
camocn 19.
canana-cartridge belt 20.
cncana/cancanilla 21.
cncano 22.
cande (in azcar cande) 23.
canfor 24.
caraba 25.
crabe 26.
crabo: owl; dog. Taken from qaraab and kalb "dog", respectively. 27.
caracoa 28.
caramida 29.
caramuzal 30.
caravana 31.
caravasar 32.
carcajada/carcajear 33.
carcax 34.
carmen/carme: From Spanish Arabic krm, and this from Classic Arabic karm, vine. 35.
carmes: crimson. From quirmizi 36.
carmn 37.
carraca 38.
carrafa 39.
crtama/crtamo 40.
catn 41.
catifa 42.
cazurro 43.
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cebiche 44.
cebt 45.
ceca 46.
cedoaria 47.
cegatero 48.
cegr 49.
ceje 50.
celem/celemn/celeminero 51.
cenacho 52.
cendolilla 53.
cenefa 54.
ceneque 55.
cen 56.
cenia 57.
cenit 58.
cequ 59.
cerbatana 60.
cero: zero. From sifr of the same meaning. 61.
cets 62.
ceut 63.
chafariz 64.
chafarote 65.
chaleco 66.
charrn 67.
chifla 68.
chilaba (from Moroccan Arabic) 69.
chiquero 70.
chiriva 71.
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chisme 72.
chivo 73.
choz 74.
chupa 75.
chuzo 76.
cian 77.
cibica 78.
cica 79.
cicalar 80.
cicatear 81.
cicatero (cicatero has a different root to cicatear) 82.
cicln 83.
ciclar 84.
ciclatn 85.
cid 86.
cifaque 87.
cifra/cifrar 88.
cmbara 89.
cimboga 90.
cimitarra 91.
circn 92.
citara 93.
civeta/civeto 94.
coba/cobista 95.
cofa 96.
coima 97.
coime 98.
colctar 99.
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cora 100.
Corn: from qur'aan (), the Muslim holy book. 101.
corbacho 102.
corma 103.
cotona 104.
cubeba 105.
crcuma 106.
curdo 107.
cuscuta 108.
D, E
dado: die (cube or stamp). From Classical Arabic a'dad "numbers." 1.
daga - dagger 2.
dahr 3.
daifa 4.
dante 5.
darga (or adarga)-shield 6.
drsena-dock/basin 7.
daza 8.
derviche 9.
descafilar 10.
destartalado 11.
dey 12.
dirham 13.
divn-divan/couch 14.
droga-drug 15.
druso 16.
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dula/dular 17.
edris 18.
ejarbe 19.
elche 20.
elem 21.
embelecar/embeleco 22.
emir (or amir) 23.
encaramar 24.
enchufar/enchufe: 1) To plug in/plug; 2) To connect, 3) to offer an unmerited job or a post through personal connections. From Andalusi
Arabic Juf derived from Classical Arabic Jawf: stomach; internal cavity.
25.
engarzar-to set/thread 26.
enjalma 27.
enjarje 28.
enjeco 29.
escabeche: Pickle or marinade. From Arabic as-sukbaj. Originally from Persian Sekba. 30.
escafilar (see descafilar) 31.
escaque/escaquear 32.
espinaca-spinach 33.
exarico 34.
F, G
faca 1.
falagar 2.
falca 3.
falleba 4.
faltriquera-pocket 5.
fala/faluca 6.
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fanega/hanega 7.
fanfarrn 8.
faranga (or haragn), lazy, idler, loafer 9.
farda 10.
fardacho 11.
farfn 12.
frfara 13.
farnaca 14.
farota 15.
farruco: Insolent or "cocky". From Andalusian Arabic Farrouj: Cock. 16.
fels 17.
fetua 18.
fez 19.
fideo 20.
filel 21.
foceifiza 22.
fondol 23.
fondac/fonda 24.
foz 25.
fulano, "any one" without naming, X of people. Arabic: Fulan. 26.
fustal 27.
fustete 28.
gabn 29.
gabela 30.
gacel/gacela 31.
gafet 32.
galacho 33.
galanga 34.
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galbana 35.
glibo 36.
galima 37.
gandula/gandula 38.
gaan 39.
garbi: Sirocco wind. 40.
garama 41.
garbino 42.
gardacho 43.
garfa 44.
grgol 45.
garra 46.
garrafa 47.
garrama 48.
garroba 49.
gazpacho 50.
gil 51.
gomer 52.
granad 53.
grisgrs 54.
guadamac 55.
gujara 56.
gujete 57.
guala 58.
guarismo 59.
guifa 60.
guilla 61.
guma 62.
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gurapas 63.
H, I
habiz: Donation of real estate under certain conditions to muslim religious institutions. From Classical Arabic: abs: amortized. 1.
habs: Same meaning as "Habiz" is Morroco. From Arabic ubs: Property belonging to the deceased used for charity. 2.
hachs: Hashish. From Classical Arabic Hashish": Grass. 3.
hacino: Miser or From Andalusian Arabic azn". 4.
hadruba: Hump (on someone's back): From Andalusian Arabic adbba. 5.
hafiz: Guard or Minder. FromAndalusian Arabic fi. 6.
hlara: (Same meaning and etymology as "Frfara") 1) Interior lining of egg. 2) Coldsfoot. Form Andalusian Arabic: falalla. 7.
hamud: Descendants of Ali Ben Hamud, founders of the Mlaga and Algericas Taifas during the 11th century. 8.
haragn: 1) Someone who refuses to work. 2) In Cuba and Venezuela, a type of mop. From Andalusian Arabic: khra kan: "Was shit". 9.
harambel: See "arambel". 10.
harbar 11.
harn 12.
harma 13.
harn 14.
Hasan 15.
hasta: "Until". From Arabic hatta (same meaning). Influenced by Latin phrase 'ad ista'
[9]
16.
hataca 17.
hazaa 18.
he: Adverb used in following manner: "he aqu/ah/all": Here it is/there it is. From Arabic haa.
[9]
19.
hgira 20.
hobacho/hobacha 21.
holgazn: Lazy person. From Arabic Kaslan. Influenced by Holgar. 22.
holgar 23.
hoque/oque 24.
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horro/horra 25.
imam, imn 26.
imela 27.
islam 28.
J, K
jabal : Wild Boar. From Arabic jebeli: Fromthe mountains. Perhaps originally from Khanzeer Jebel: Mountain Pig. 1.
jabaln 2.
jbega 3.
jabeca 4.
jabeque 5.
jab : A type of apple and type of grape. From Andalusi Arabic shab, a type of apple. 6.
jcara 7.
jcena 8.
jacerino 9.
jadraque 10.
jaez 11.
jaguarzo 12.
jahar 13.
jaharral 14.
jaharrar 15.
jaima 16.
jaique 17.
jalear 18.
jalma (or enjalma) 19.
jaloque 20.
jamacuco 21.
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jametera 22.
jmila 23.
japuta 24.
jaque 25.
jaqueca: Migraine. From Arabic Shaqiqa, with same meaning. 26.
jquima 27.
jara 28.
jarabe: Syrup. Usually in the context of cough syrup or linctus. 29.
jaraz 30.
jarcha 31.
jareta 32.
jaricar 33.
jarifo/jarifa 34.
jarqua 35.
jarra: Pitcher or other pot with handle(s). From arrah, same as english jar. 36.
jatib 37.
jazarino/jazarina 38.
jazmn: jasmine. FromArabic yasmin then fromPersian word the same word 39.
jebe 40.
jeliz 41.
jemesa 42.
jeque: From Arabic shaikh or sheikh, older 43.
jerife: From Arabic sharif, noble, respected. 44.
jeta: Snout, face, cheek (in both literal and figurative sense). From Arabic khatm: "snout". 45.
jifa 46.
jinete 47.
jirafa: giraffe. From ziraffa of the same meaning. 48.
jirel 49.
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jofaina: a wide and shallow basin for domestic use. From ufaynah. 50.
jofor 51.
jorfe 52.
joroba 53.
jorro 54.
juba/aljuba/jubn 55.
julepe 56.
jurda 57.
jurel 58.
kermes 59.
L, M
laca: resinous substance tapped from the Lacquer Tree. From Arabic lak, taken from Persian lak, ultimately from Sanskrit laksha literally
meaning "one hundred thousand" referring to the large number of insects that gather and sap out all the resin from the trees.
1.
lacre 2.
lapislzuli: lapis lazuli, a deep blue mineral. From Arabic lazaward () from Persian lagvard or lazward, ultimately from Sanskrit
rajavarta literally meaning "ringlet of the king."
3.
latn: brass. From Arabic latun from Turkish altn "gold." 4.
lad: lute. From Arabic al 'ud () "the lute." 5.
lebeche: Southeasterly wind on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. From Andalusi Arabic Labash. 6.
leben: a Moorish beverage prepared fromsoured milk. From Arabic labani () "dairy." 7.
leila: from Arabic layla () "night." 8.
lelil: Shouts and noise made by moors when going into combat or when celebrating parties. From la illaha ila allah( ): There is no
god but Allah; Ya leil () : Night of mine; ya 'ayouni ( ) : My eyes.
9.
lima: lime. From Arabic limah of the same meaning. 10.
limn: lemon. From laymoon (), derived fromthe Chinese word limung. 11.
loco: crazy. From Arabic lawqa "fool." 12.
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macabro 13.
macsura 14.
madraza 15.
magacn 16.
magarza/magarzuela 17.
maglaca 18.
maharon/maharona 19.
maharrana/marrana/marrano 20.
mahozmedn 21.
maimn 22.
majareta 23.
majzn 24.
mamarracho 25.
mameluco 26.
mamola 27.
mandesmo 28.
mandil 29.
maquila 30.
marab 31.
maraved 32.
marcasita 33.
marchamo 34.
mrfega 35.
marfil 36.
marfuz/a 37.
margomar 38.
marjal 39.
marlota 40.
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marojo 41.
maroma 42.
marrano pig; cf. Arabic muharram "forbidden". 43.
marras 44.
mrraga 45.
masamuda: (adj) Individual from the Berber Masmuda tribe, from which originate the Almohades, a movement which ruled Spain and North
Africa in the 12th century. From Arabic: Masamuda.
46.
matafala 47.
mrtaga 48.
mscara 49.
matarife 50.
mate 51.
matraca 52.
matula 53.
mauraca 54.
mazapn 55.
mazar 56.
mazarrn 57.
mazmodina 58.
mazmorra: Dungeon. From Arabic matmura "silo". 59.
mazorca: corn cob; roll of wool or cotton. From Andalusi Arabic: Masurqa, derived from classical Arabic Masura () : a tube used as a
bobbin (sewing) .
60.
meca: Place which is attractive because of a particular activity. From Arabic Mekkah(). 61.
mechinal 62.
mejala 63.
mejunje 64.
mendrugo 65.
mengano/mengana: Expression of similar meaning as fulano or zutano, used always after the former but after the latter, meaning "whoever". 66.
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From Arabic man kan meaning "whoever".
mequetrefe: Nosy or useless person. From Andalusi Arabi qatras meaning person of boastful demeanor. 67.
mercal 68.
metical 69.
mezquino 70.
ma: A military term, formerly designating a regular native unit composed of 100 men in the Spanish protectorate of northern Morocco; by
analogy, any colonial army. From Arabic Mi'ah: one hundred().
71.
mihrab: 72.
miramamoln 73.
moaxaja 74.
mogataz 75.
mogate 76.
moharra 77.
moharracho 78.
mohatra 79.
mohedal 80.
mohino 81.
mojama (originally almojama): Delicacy of phoenician origin from the region of Cadiz. It consists of filleted salt-cured tuna. Fromthe Arabic
al mushama: "momified or waxed".
82.
moj 83.
momia 84.
mona 85.
monf 86.
morabito 87.
moraga 88.
morapio 89.
mozrabe 90.
mudjar 91.
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muft 92.
mujalata 93.
mulato: Likely from Muwallad, as with the Muladi. Walad ( ) means, "descendant, offspring, scion; child; son; boy; young animal, young
one". According to DRAE, from mulo (mule), in the sense of hybrid.
94.
mulqua 95.
muslim / muslime: (Adjective) Muslim.
[10]
A rare alternative to musulmn. From Arabic Muslim (). 96.
N, O, P, Q
nab: Prophet among arabs. From Arabic nabiy. 1.
nacar: Innermost of the three layers of a seashell. From Catalan nacre, derived from Andalusi Arabic naqra, small drum. 2.
ncara: Type of small metallic drum used historically by the Spanish cavalry. Same etymology as nacar. 3.
nadir: Nadir, the point on the celestial sphere opposite the zenith directly below the observer. From nadheer. 4.
ndir: In Morocco, administrator of a religious foundation. 5.
nagela: Small hut for human habitation. From Andalusi Arabic nawalla: hut. 6.
naife: High quality diamond. From Andalusi Arabic nayif. Originally from classical Arabic na'if: excellent. 7.
naipe: Playing card. From Catalan nap. Originally from Arabic ma'ib. 8.
naranja: Orange. from Arabic nranja, fr Persian nrang, fr Sanskrit nranga, fr a Dravidian language akin to Tamil nau "fragrant". 9.
narguile 10.
natrn 11.
nazar: Related to the Nasrid kingdom or dynasty of Granada. 12.
nenfar: Water-lily. From Arabic naylufar from Persian nilofer, niloofar, niloufar. 13.
nesga: 14.
noria: Watermill, Ferris wheel. From Arabic na'urah. 15.
nuca: Nape of the neck. From Arabic nu
'
, via Medieval Latin nucha. 16.
ojal: "I hope"; "I wish that...". Fromlaw ha allh "God willing."
[11]
17.
ole! (or ol): The most famous expression of approval, support or encouragement, possibly comes from wa-llah , by Allah! 18.
omeya: adj. Related to the Umayyad. 19.
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orozuz 20.
ox: Expression to scare away wild and domesticated birds. From Andalusi Arabic Oosh. 21.
papagayo 22.
quermes 23.
quilate/quirate: Carat or Karat. From Andalusi Arabic Qirat. 24.
quilma 25.
quina 26.
quintal: weight unit of about 46 kg. In its current use under the metric system, it represents 100 kg. From Andalusi Arabic Qintar, through
Syriac and ultimately Latin.
27.
R, S, T
rabadn 1.
rabal 2.
rabazuz 3.
rabel 4.
rbida 5.
rafal 6.
rafe 7.
ragua 8.
rahez 9.
ramadn 10.
rambla 11.
rauda 12.
rauta 13.
real: Military encampment; plot where a fair is organized; (in Murcia region) small plot or garden. From Arabic rahl: camping. 14.
rebato 15.
rebite 16.
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recamar 17.
recua 18.
redoma 19.
rehala 20.
rehal 21.
rehn: Hostage or captive. From Arabic , captive, ransom. 22.
rejalgar: realgar. From Andalusi Arabic reheg al-ghar: "powder of the cave" 23.
requive 24.
resma 25.
retama 26.
rincn: Corner. From Andalusi Arabic rukan, derived from classical Arabic Rukn. 27.
robda 28.
robo (or arroba) 29.
roda 30.
rom/rum 31.
ronzal 32.
roque 33.
sajelar 34.
salema 35.
sanda: Watermelon. From Arabic Sindiya "from Sindh (province of Pakistan)". 36.
sarasa: Homosexual or effeminate man. From "Zaraza". 37.
sarraceno 38.
sebestn 39.
seccul 40.
serafn 41.
siroco 42.
sof 43.
sfora 44.
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soldn 45.
soltan 46.
suf 47.
sura 48.
tabal (or atabal) 49.
tabaque 50.
tabefe 51.
tabica 52.
tabique 53.
taca 54.
tafurea 55.
tagarino/tagarina 56.
tagarnina 57.
taha 58.
tahal 59.
tahona 60.
tahr 61.
taifa: Refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish
Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Crdoba in 1031. Used in numerous expressions. Can also mean 1) a faction 2) a
group of people of ill judgement. 3) un reino de Taifas (a kingdom of Taifas) can also refer to a chaotic or disorderly state of affairs. From
classical Arabic Ta'ifah: faction.
62.
tajea 63.
talco 64.
talega 65.
talvina 66.
tmara 67.
tamarindo 68.
tambor 69.
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tara 70.
taracea 71.
taraje 72.
taras 73.
tarbea 74.
tarea: Task. From Arabic araand root(), "to throw". 75.
tareco 76.
tarida 77.
tarifa 78.
tarima 79.
tarqun 80.
tarraya 81.
taza: cup. From Tasa. 82.
trtil 83.
tbar 84.
tochib 85.
tomn 86.
toronja 87.
toronjil 88.
trafalmejas 89.
truchimn/na 90.
trujamn/na 91.
tuera 92.
tumbaga 93.
Tunec 94.
turbit 95.
turqu (in Azul Turqu) 96.
tuta (or atuta) 97.
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V, X, Y, Z
vacar: from Arabic baqari () "bovine." 1.
valenc: Uva Valencia. A type of grape fromMurcia region in South East Spain. 2.
velmez: from Arabic malbas () "clothing." 3.
verdn: Spontaneous growth of grass or sprouting. From Arabic bardi (Same etymology as albardn). Influenced by Spanish word "Verde". 4.
visir: vizier. From Arabic wazir () "minister." 5.
ybel: from Arabic jabal; "mountain" 6.
zabalmedina: in the Middle Ages, judge with civil and criminal jurisdiction in a city. From Arabic Sahib al Medina "Chief of the City." 7.
zabarcera: women who sells fruits and other food. Same origin as abacero 8.
zabazala: imam who leads Islamic prayer. From Arabic SaHb aS-Salah "Leader of prayer." 9.
zabazoque: same meaning as almotacn. From Arabic SHb as sq "Leader of the Market." 10.
zbila: aloe vera (used mainly in Latin America) From Andalusi Arabic sabra, originally from classical Arabic Sibar. 11.
zabra: type of vessel used in the Bay of Biscay in the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Modern Age. From Arabic zauraq. 12.
zacatn: in some villages, a square where clothes are sold. From saqqatin, plural of saqqat: seller of clothes. 13.
zafar: a number of meanings in Spain and Latin American countries: To free, to untie, to ignore, to unknit among others. From Arabic azaHa:
to take away.
14.
zafar: Granada zafar: a type of pomegranate. Higo zafar: a type of fig. From Arabic Safr. 15.
zafariche: Structure used for placing clay urns. Same etymology as jaraz (see above). 16.
zafio: Uncouth. From Andalusi Arabic Fellah safi: "Mere peasant". 17.
zafrn: See Azafran. 18.
zaga: Backside of something. Cargo on the back of a truck. From Arabic Saqah: Rear, rearguard. 19.
zagal: boy. From Andalusian Arabic zal, traditional Arabic zull. Same meaning. 20.
zagaya (or azagaya) 21.
zagua 22.
zagun: hall. From Andalusian Arabic istawn, traditional Arabic usuwn(ah). 23.
zaga 24.
zaharrn 25.
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zahn 26.
zahn 27.
zahora: (Mainly used in Spanish region of La Mancha): Large meal accompanied by dancing or partying. From Arabic Islamic termsuhoor. 28.
zahor 29.
zaida 30.
zaino 31.
zala 32.
zalamel 33.
zalea/zalear 34.
zalema/zalama 35.
zalmedina: Same meaning and origin as zabalmedina. 36.
zalona 37.
zamacuco 38.
zambra: Traditional festivity of the Moriscos in Spain which is maintained by the Gypsy community of Sacromonte, Granada. FromAndalusi
Arabic Zamra, originally from classical Arabic Zamr.
39.
zanahoria: carrot, presumably from Andalusi Arabic safunariyya, Classical Arabic: isfanariyya. 40.
zaque: Leather recipient for wine or extracting water from a well. Drunken person. From Andalusi Arabic zaqq. Originally from classical
Arabic ziqq.
41.
zaquizam 42.
zaragelles 43.
zaranda/zarandillo/zarandaja 44.
zarandear: To shake vigorously / push around / toss about. From Zaranda. 45.
zaratn: Breast cancer. From the Arabic saratan: crab. 46.
zarazn: 47.
zarco 48.
zarracatn 49.
zarzahn 50.
zatara 51.
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zjel 52.
zoco (or azogue): market. From Arabic souk of the same meaning. 53.
zofra 54.
zorzal: Thrush, intelligent person. From Andalusi Arabic Zurzal, originally from classical Arabic zurzur. 55.
zubia: Place where a large amount of water flows. FromArabic Zubya. 56.
zulaque 57.
zulla 58.
zumaque: sumac. From Arabic simaq of the same meaning. 59.
zumo: fruit juice. From Arabic zum. 60.
zuna: Sunnah, fromArabic Sunnah 61.
zurriaga or zurriago: Refers to a type of whip and to a lark. From Andalusi Arabic surriyaqa 62.
Words with a coincidental similarity to Arabic
el. The Spanish definite articles el / la / lo / los / las, like most definite articles in the Romance languages, derive from the Latin demonstratives
ille / illa / illud. The similarity to the Arabic article al is a mere coincidence.
usted. The formal second-person pronoun usted is derived from a shortening of the old form of address Vuestra merced, as seen in dialectal
Spanish vosted, Catalan vost, etc. Usted is the remaining form from a number of variants used in Renaissance Spanish, such as Ust, Uced,
Vuesa Merced, Vuesarced, Vusted, Su Merced, Vuesasted or Voaced.
[12]
The possibility of a link with the Arabic word ustdh
('mister'/'professor'/'doctor') seems very remote.
Other influences
The suffix . Arabic has a very common type of adjective, known as the nisba or relationship adjective, which is formed by adding the suffix -
(masc.) or -iyya (fem.) to a noun. This has given Spanish the suffix - (both masc. and fem.), creating adjectives from nouns which indicate
relationship or belonging. Examples are Marbell, Ceut, Maghreb, Zaragoc, Andalus or Alfons.
1.
Expressions. A number of expressions such as "Ole!" (sometimes spelled "ol" ), possibly from wa'llah, or ojal, from law sha'a Allah, have
been borrowed directly fromArabic. Furthermore, many expressions in Spanish might have been calqued from their Arabic equivalent.
Examples would be si Dios quiere, que Dios guarde or bendito sea Dios.
2.
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Toponyms (place names) in Iberia of Arabic origin
There are hundreds if not thousands of place names derived from Arabic in the Iberian peninsula including provinces and regions, cities, towns,
villages and even neighborhoods and streets. They also include geographical features such as mountains, mountain ranges, valleys and rivers.
Toponyms derived from Arabic are common in all of Spain (including much of the North of the country) except for those regions which never came
under Muslim rule or where it was particularly short-lived. These regions include Galicia and the Northern coast (Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque
country) as well as northern Catalonia and Aragon. Regions where place names of Arabic origin are particularly common are the Eastern Coast
(Valencia and Murcia) and the region of Andalusia. In Portugal, the frequency of Arabic toponyms increases as one travels south in the country.
Those toponyms which maintained their pre-Islamic name during the Muslim period were generally Arabized, and the mark of either the old Arabic
pronunciation or the popular pronunciation from which it derived is noticeable in their modern names: e.g. Hispalis - Ishbiliya - Sevilla.
Major towns, cities and regions
Albarracn City of Aragn. Derived from Al Ban Razin, name of the Berber family of the town.
Alcal de Henares City in the Community of Madrid. Derived from al-qal'a (), meaning citadel or fortress.
Axarqua Eastern region of Mlaga province, From Arabic Ash-sharqua(): The eastern/oriental (region).
Andaluca Most populated and 2nd largest autonomous community in Spain. Derived from , Al Andalus, the Arabic name for Muslim
Iberia.
Albacete city and province of Castilla-La Mancha. Derived from Arabic Al Basit () (the plain).
Algarve Region of southern Portugal. From Arabic al gharb(), the west.
Algeciras City and port in Cadiz province. Derived from Al Jazeera Al Khadra ( ) meaning the green island.
Almera City and province of Andaluca. From Al Meraya, the watchtower.
Alpujarras (originally Alpuxarras) Region extending South of Granada into Almera. FromArabic Al-Busherat: The grasslands.
Calatayud City of Aragn. Derived from Qal'at Ayyb (Arabic ) meaning "(Ayyb) Jobs Fortress".
Gibraltar British overseas territory and name given to surrounding area in Southern Spain (Campo de Gibraltar). From Arabic Jbel Tariq,
"Mountain of Tariq", or Gibr Tariq meaning "Rock of Tariq".
Guadalajara City and province of Castilla la Mancha. From Wd al-ijrah (Arabic ), River or canyon of Stones.
Jan City and province of Andalusia From Arabic Jayyan, crossroads of caravans.
Medina Sidonia: Town and municipality in Cadiz province, from madina, city.
Tarifa town in Cadiz province, Andalusia. Originally Jazeera Tarif ( ): the island of Tarif. Derived from the first name of the Berber
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conqueror Tarif ibn Malik.
La Sagra, an arid region between Toledo and Madrid. Name derived from arabic Sahra "desert".
Ubeda, a town in J an province, Andalusia. From the Arabic Ubadat el Arab.
Sanlcar de Barrameda, a city in the northwest of Cdiz province, Andalusia. "Sanlcar" may have derived fromthe Arabic shaluqa (),
the Arabic name for the Levant wind called sirocco or jaloque; "Barrameda" was derived from bar-am-ma'ida, an Arabic phrase for "water
well of the plateau".
Geographical features
Guadiana river. Meaning "River Anae" (from the original Latin name Fluminus Anae, "River of Ducks").
Guadalquivir river. Derived from Arabic: al-wd al-kabir , "the big river".
Javalambre. Mountain in southern Aragon, Jabal 'Amr, meaning "Mountain of 'Amr".
Mulhacn. Highest mountain in peninsular Spain. Named after 15th century Sultan of Granada Ali Muley Hacn Abu al-Hasan.
Pico Almanzor. Mountain in the Gredos Mountains of Central Spain. Named after "Almanzor" Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir, defacto ruler of Al
Andalus in late 10th - early 11th centuries.
Cape Trafalgar. From Andalusi Arabic Taraf-al-ghar ('Western Cape' or 'Cape of the West').
Given names and surnames
Given names
Almudena (from the Virgin of Almudena, patroness of Madrid, Spain) and Ftima (derived from Our Lady of Ftima) are very common Spanish
names rooted in the countrys Roman Catholic tradition, but both of which share Arabic etymologies originating in place names of religious
significance. Guadalupe, a name present throughout the Spanish-speaking world, but particularly in Mexico, also shares this feature.
A number of given names of Arabic origin have been popular throughout the Spanish-speaking world for some time, such as Omar or Soraya
(probably popularized after the late Soraya Esfandiary-Bakhtiari). More recently, some other names have become popular, particularly in the
Caribbean area, such as Zahira.
Surnames
Surnames of indirect Arabic origin, such as Medina, Almunia, Guadarrama or Alcaide are very common, often referring to toponyms or professions,
but they don't have Arabic origin properly speaking. No Arabic surnames remain as a result of Muslim descendence, except for recent immigrants.
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The reason for it is that, throughout Spanish history, it was common practice for ethnic and religious minorities to change their surnames to escape
persecution by the Catholic Church. Furthermore, Spanish Muslims were compelled to adopt Christian surnames by a series of royal decrees in the
16th century. 16th century Morisco leader Muhammad Ibn Ummaya, for example, was born to the Christian name Fernando de Crdoba y Valor.
See also
Influences on the Spanish language
Influence of Arabic on other languages
List of Arabic loanwords in English
List of French words of Arabic origin
List of Portuguese words of Arabic origin
References
^
a

b
Dworkin, Steven N. (2012). A History of the Spanish Lexicon: A Linguistic Perspective (http://books.google.com/books?id=V4f8ZpJ AhgIC&pg=PA83).
Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0199541140.
1.
^ Martnez Egido, Jos Joaqun (2007). Constitucin del lxico espaol (http://books.google.com/books?id=cbVIY4qAA9cC&pg=PA15). p. 15. 2.
^ Versteegh, Kees (2003). The Arabic language (http://books.google.com/books?id=OHfse3YY6NAC&pg=PA228) (Repr. ed.). Edinburgh: Edinburgh
University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0748614362.
3.
^ Lapesa, Raphael (1960). Historia de la lengua espaola (http://books.google.com/books?id=uJ dbJK_sl2oC&pg=PA255). Madrid. p. 97. 4.
^ Quintana, Luca; Mora, Juan Pablo (2002). "Enseanza del acervo lxico rabe de la lengua espaola" (http://cvc.cervantes.es/ensenanza/biblioteca_ele/asele
/pdf/13/13_0697.pdf). ASELE. Actas XIII: 705.: "El lxico espaol de procedencia rabe es muy abundante: se ha sealado que constituye, aproximadamente,
un 8% del vocabulario total"
5.
^ Macpherson, I. R. (1980). Spanish phonology. (http://books.google.com/books?id=9VrpAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA93). Manchester: Manchester University Press.
p. 93. ISBN 0719007887.
6.
^ La extraordinaria riqueza de nuestros arabismos (http://cvc.cervantes.es/lengua/biblioteca_fraseologica/n1_cantera/lexico_02.htm) 7.
^ Corominas, J oan (1973). Breve diccionario etimolgico de la lengua castellana (Madrid: Gredos) 8.
^
a

b
The Diccionario de la Lengua Espaola (http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=hasta) of the Real Academia Espaola 9.
^ DRAE: 'muslime' (http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=muslime) 10.
^ http://buscon.rae.es/draeI/SrvltConsulta?TIPO_BUS=3&LEMA=ojal DRAE entry 11.
^ Victoria B. TORRES: 'VUESTRA MERCED Y SUS ALOMORFOS EN EL TEATRO DE CALDERN' (http://dspace.unav.es/dspace/bitstream/10171 12.
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/4188/1/ART%C3%8DCULO%207_VUESTRA%20MERCED%20Y%20SUS%20ALOMORFOS%20EN%20EL%20TEATRO%20DE%20CALDER
%C3%93N,%20VICTORIA%20B.%20TORRES.pdf) (In Spanish)
Suggestions for further research
In the English language, search the online catalogs of United States university libraries using the Library of Congress (LC) subject heading, "Spanish
language foreign elements".
When searching Spanish language Web sites, use the subject term, "arabismos".
Selected reference works and other academic literature
These works have not necessarily been consulted in the preparation of this article.
Abu-Haidar, J. A. 1985. Review of Felipe Mallo Salgado, Los arabismos del castellano en la baja edad media (consideraciones histricas y
filolgicas). Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 48(2): 353-354. University of London. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org
/sici?sici=0041-977X%281985%2948%3A2%3C353%3ALADCEL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X
Cabo Pan, Jos Luis. El legado del arabe (http://www.sgci.mec.es/be/media/pdfs/articulos/Mosaico083.pdf). Mosaico 8:7-10. Revista para la
Promocin y Apoyo a la Enseanza del Espaol. Ministerio de Educacin y Ciencia del Reino de Espaa, Consejera de Educacin y Ciencia
en Blgica, Pases Bajos y Luxemburgo. [Article with convenient, short word lists, grouped by theme. In PDF. Refer to Mosaico's portal page.
(http://www.sgci.mec.es/be/publicaciones/mosaico/articulos.htm) ]
Corominas, J oan. 1980-1991. Diccionario crtico etimolgico castellano e hispnico. Madrid: Gredos. The first edition, with the title
Diccionario crtico etimolgico de la lengua castellana (19541957) includes an appendix that groups words according to language of origin.
Corriente, Federico. 2003. Diccionario de arabismos y voces afines en iberorromance. (2nd expanded ed.; 1st ed. 1999) Madrid: Gredos. 607
p.
Real Academia Espaola (Royal Spanish Academy). Diccionario de la lengua espaola (DRAE) (http://www.rae.es), online.
Mallo Salgado, Felipe. 1991/1998. Los arabismos del castellano en la Baja Edad Media : consideraciones histricas y filolgicas. Salamanca:
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Universidad de Salamanca. 554 p. [2nd ed., corrected and enlarged; 1st ed. 1983]
Ibid. 1996. Vocabulario de historia rabe e islmica. Madrid: Akal. 330 p.
Marcos Marn, Francisco 1998 Romance andalus y mozrabe: dos trminos no sinnimos. Estudios de Lingstica y Filologa Espaolas.
Homenaje a Germn Coln. Madrid: Gredos, 335-341.
Ibid. 1998 Toledo: su nombre rabe y sus consecuencias lingsticas hispnicas. Revista del Instituto Egipcio de Estudios Islmicos en
Madrid, XXX, 1998, 93-108.
Sola-Sol, J osep Mara. 1983. Sobre rabes, judos y marranos y su impacto en la lengua y literatura espaolas. Barcelona: Puvill. 279 p.
Spaulding, Robert K. 1942/1971. How Spanish Grew (http://books.google.com/books?id=Vl8lFy4qQX4C&printsec=frontcover&
dq=%22how+spanish+grew%22+spaulding&source=bl&ots=eS3j6QZDOY&sig=f2hwmxrgIMJ47fBineBX_F_OrxY&hl=en&ei=jSU-
TOioEsP7lwfr6Kz5BQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false). Berkeley: University
of California Press. Chapter 5: "Arabic Spain", pp. 5362.
Toro Lillo, Elena. La invasin rabe. Los rabes y el elemento rabe en espaol. In the Cervantes Virtual Library
(http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/scclng/01350531966682286190680/p0000001.htm). Includes a brief list of historical
sound changes. Useful bibliography.
Selected resource pages of universities and research institutes
Instituto de Estudios Islmicos y del Oriente Prximo. Search results consisting of Institute publications whose entries contain the word
"arabismos" (http://www.ieiop.com/publicaciones/buscador.php)
Universidad de Granada. Holdings under the subject "arabismos" (http://adrastea.ugr.es/search*spi/dArabismos/darabismos/-3%2C-
1%2C0%2CB/exact&FF=darabismos&1%2C14%2C)
External links
La invasin rabe. Los rabes y el elemento rabe en espaol (http://www.cervantesvirtual.com/servlet/SirveObras/scclng
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/01350531966682286190680/p0000001.htm), by Elena Toro Lillo; Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes
Arabic Influences in Various Languages (http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/arabicspanish.htm)
Size and nature of the Spanish vocabulary (http://spanish.about.com/od/spanishvocabulary/a/size_of_spanish.htm)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Arabic_language_influence_on_the_Spanish_language&oldid=619305542"
Categories: Spanish etymology Lists of Spanish words of foreign origin Spanish language Arabic words and phrases Arabic language
Islam in Spain
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