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CEG 307 TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING I

Course Contents:

- Introduction to Transportation Engineering;
- Design controls and criteria;
- Elements of design;
- Fundamentals of traffic engineering;
- Airport plan and layout;
- Aircraft data related to airport classification and design;
- Design standards.

Textbooks:
- Fundamentals of Transportation Engineering Robert G. Hennes & Martin Ekse
- Transportation Engineering (Planning and Design) R. J. Paquette, N. Ashford & P. H.
Wright
- FMWH Highway Manual Part I Design
- Highway Engineering Paul H. Wright
- Policies on Geometric Design of Rural Highways - AASHTO

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING
Definition of transportation
Definition of Transportation Engineering
Classification of transportation engineering namely Transportation Planning and Transportation
Development
Transportation medium includes Land, Air and Water.
Transportation means includes Vehicles, Trains, Ships, Pipelines, Belt Conveyors and Aircrafts.
Transportation systems provide the means of moving from one location to another.
TRANSPORTATION PLANNING
Transportation planning consists of those activities that collect information on the
performance of the existing transportation system; forecast future performance levels given
expected changes to key factors such as land use, price of fuel, and growth in employment; and
identify solutions to expected problems in system performance.

Basic Elements of Transportation Planning
Transportation planning is a process that consists of well-defined tasks that must be
accomplished before the final set of information is presented to those who must decide which
course of action is best for a region or community. Fig. 1 below presents a planning framework that
shows basic tasks as well as their interrelationship.




















Fig. 1 Basic elements of transportation planning

Monitor System
Performance
Develop and Analyze
Alternatives
Identify Deficiencies
and Opportunities
Goals and
Objectives
Facility
Inventory
Socio-economic
and Land Use
Database
Evaluate
Alternatives
Implement Plan
As shown in the Fig. 1 above, transportation planning is primarily a process of producing
information that can be used by decision makers to better understand the consequences of different
courses of action. The tasks that are part of identifying and assessing these consequences include
the following:

Inventory of Facilities
Transportation engineers and planners must know what the transportation network consists
of and the condition and performance of these facilities. In a state or urban area, much of the
transportation investment is aimed at upgrading the physical condition of a facility (e.g., repaving a
road or building a new bridge) or improving its performance (e.g., building a new road to serve
existing demand).
Transportation agencies are expected to have a very extensive inventory of road system in
their jurisdiction including number of lanes, type of pavement, the last time the pavement was
replaced, the capacity of the road, accident record, etc. Transit agencies are also expected to have
an inventory of the different assets that constitute a transit system (e.g., buses, stations, shelters, rail
cars, etc.).

Collect and Maintain Socioeconomic and Land Use Data
Land use maps and other sources can be used to collect information such as the number of
trips to schools, shopping centers, residential units, office complexes, etc which can then be used in
transportation planning. Special surveys and census can be used to collect data on different
socioeconomic characteristics of residents living in a community. Such socioeconomic data include
level of income, number of members in the household, number of autos in the household, number of
children, age of head of household, and highest level of education achieved.

Define Goals and Objectives
Goals are generalized statements that indicate the desired ultimate achievement of a
transportation plan. Examples of goals statements might be, The transportation system should
meet the mobility needs of the population or The transportation system should provide enhanced
economic development opportunities
Objectives are more specific statements that indicate the means by which these goals will be
achieved. For example, the goal of meeting the mobility needs of the population could have the
following objectives associated with it: Provide transit service to major markets in the region,
Reduce congestion on major highways, and Promote bicycle and pedestrian transportation.
Goals and objectives define the evaluation criteria that will be used later in the planning
process to assess the relative impacts of alternative projects and strategies. They also provide an
important linkage to the desires and values of the public that the transportation plan is serving.

Identify System Deficiencies or Opportunities
Transportation planning identifies and prioritizes those elements of the transportation system
where problems exist today or where problems will exist in the future given growth in travel.
Additionally, transportation planning can also identify areas where significant problems do not exist
today, but where changes to the system can provide opportunities for enhanced efficiency of
operation.

Develop and Analyze Alternatives
Once the planning process has identified areas where improvements are needed,
transportation planners define different strategies that could solve the problem. In the past, these
strategies have focused on improvements to highways, such as adding new lanes, improving traffic
control through signals or signing, or improving traffic flow through channelization.
However, other modern strategies that can be used to solve the transportation problem
include reducing the demand for transportation through flexible working hours, and application of
advanced transportation technologies to the operation of a road system, known as intelligent
transportation systems. Such systems might include network surveillance through video cameras,
centralized control centers that can re-route traffic around incidents, and dynamic traffic control
devices that provide coordinated traffic signal timings to maximize the amount of traffic that can
flow through a set of intersections.

Evaluate Alternatives
Evaluation brings together all the information gathered on individual alternatives and
provides a framework to compare the relative worth of the alternatives. In addition, evaluation
includes methods for comparing in an analytical way the relative value of the alternatives. One of
the most used approaches is the benefit/cost ratio, which compares the alternatives on the basis of
discounted benefits and costs.

DESIGN AND LOCATION OF HIGHWAY

Introduction
The earliest forms of roads (highways) consisted mainly of hard tracks cleared of vegetation
and compacted by human and animal traffic. These were later widened because of heavier traffic
and gravels and broken cobblestones were poured onto the tracks to take vehicular traffic. Even
these types of roads were found to be non-satisfactory in performance to ever increasing traffic
volume.
In the face of modern development therefore, the need for more resistant highway brought
about the idea of all-weather roads. These roads not only facilitate movement but also provide more
resistant and durable tracks for comfortable ride.
In Nigeria today, unpaved roads (earth and gravels) are mainly in the rural areas and farm
settlements while paved roads (flexible and rigid) are mainly in urban areas and between towns and
cities.

Classification of Roads
Roads are classified into three groups in Nigeria:
1. Trunk A roads
These are federally maintained roads and usually link the state capitals to the central
administration.

2. Trunk B roads
These are maintained by individual state governments and include all the roads linking the
towns within the state to the state headquarters.

3. Local roads
These are roads under the care of the local government authorities.

The highway types as defined in Highway Manual include the following:
- Arterial Highway a general term denoting a highway primarily for through traffic,
usually on a continuous route.
- Expressway A divided arterial highway for through traffic with full or partial control
of access.
- Freeway An expressway with full control of access and all grade crossings eliminated.
- Major Street or Major Highway An arterial highway with intersections at grade and
direct access to abutting property, and on which geometric design and traffic control
measures are sued to expedite the safe movement of through traffic.
- Through Street or Through Highway Every highway or portion thereof at the entrance
to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to stop before
entering or crossing the same when stop signs are erected.
- Local Street or Local Road A street or road primarily for access to residence, business
or other abutting property.
- Divided Highway A highway with separated roadways for traffic in opposite
directions.
- Toll Road, Bridge, or Tunnel A highway, bridge, or tunnel open to traffic only upon
payment of a direct toll or fee.
- Cul-De-Sac Street A local street open at one end only, and with special provisions for
turning around.
- Dead-End Street A local street open at one end only, without special provisions for
turning around.

Principles of Highway Location
Some detailed guiding principles should be kept in mind in selecting the location for a
highway. The following outline is not in any particular order nor complete. In addition, some of
the elements tend to contradict one another; in practice, the location is selected which represents the
best compromise solution.
1. For the highway to serve its function of allowing convenient, continuous, free-flowing
traffic operation, it should be located where it can best meet the major traffic desire lines
and be as direct as possible.
2. Keep grades and curvature to the minimum necessary to satisfy the service requirements
of the highway.
3. Avoid sudden changes in sight distance, especially near junctions.
4. Avoid having a sharp horizontal curve on or adjacent to a pronounced vertical curve.
5. In urban areas, site the highway through undeveloped or blighted areas, along the edges
of large parklands, and in general, away from highly-developed, expensive land areas.
6. In urban areas, locate the highway as closed as possible to the principal parking
terminals.
7. In rural areas, locate as much as possible of the new highway on existing ones, so as to
minimize the use of farmland and reduce total initial and maintenance costs.
8. Locate along the edges of properties rather than through the middle, so as to cause the
minimum interference to cultivation and avoid the need for subway construction.
9. Avoid the destruction or removal of man-made culture.
10. Keep the highway away from cemeteries, places of worship, hospitals, schools and
playgrounds.
11. The effect of the proposed highway on existing ro future utilities above, on or under the
ground should be considered. It may be such as to warrant changes in order to avoid
expensive relocation of these utilities.
12. Never have two roads intersecting near a bend or at the top or bottom of a hill.
13. In the case of a motorway, the need for an interchange with another road may dictate an
alignment that will intersect the other highway at a place, at an angle and in terrain that
will best permit the interchange to be constructed.
14. Avoid intersections at-grade with railway lines. If possible have the highway pass over
the railway where it goes into a cutting.
15. Seek favourable sites for river crossing. Preferably these should be at right angles to the
stream center line.
16. Do not have a bridge located on or adjacent to a highway curve.
17. Avoid the need for deep cuttings and expensive tunnel construction.
18. Avoid locations where rock is close to the surface, as this will usually require at least
some expensive excavation.
19. In hilly terrain, be aware of the possibilities of landslides.
20. To minimize drainage problems, select a location on high ground in contrast to one in a
valley.
21. Avoid bogs, marshes and other low-lying lands subject to flooding.
22. Locate the highway on soil, which will require the least pavement thickness above it.
23. Locate the highway adjacent to sources of pavement materials.
24. When the needs of all other factors have been satisfied, the best location is the one,
which results in the minimum total cost of earthworks. This means that the minimum
quantities of excavation should be so balanced with the quantities of embankment as to
require a minimum of haulage with little need for overhaul.
25. In hilly terrain, the highway should cross ridges at their lowest points.
26. Avoid the unnecessary and expensive destruction of wooded areas.
27. Avoid placing the highway at right angles to the natural drainage channels.
28. To relieve the monotony of driving on a long straight road, it is an advantage to site it so
as to give a view of some prominent feature ahead.

Having these guiding principles, the highway engineer will then embark on route location,
which includes Reconnaissance Survey, Preliminary Survey and Final Survey.

Highway Surveys and Location
In the relocation or reconstruction of existing highways and the establishment of new ones,
highway surveys are required for the development of project plans and the estimation of costs.
Highway surveys usually involve measuring and computing horizontal and vertical angles, vertical
heights (elevations), and horizontal distances. The surveys can also be used to prepare base maps
with contour lines and longitudinal cross sections, as required.
Highway surveying techniques have been revolutionized during the past decade due to the
rapid development of electronic equipment and computers. These techniques can be grouped into
three general categories:
a. Conventional and traditional ground survey methods
b. Digital ground survey methods
c. Remote sensing techniques.

The performance of good surveys requires well-trained engineers who have an
understanding of the planning, design, and economic aspects of highway location and who are
sensitive to the social and environmental impacts of highway development.
The tasks involved in the highway location include:
(i) Desk studies
(ii) Reconnaissance survey
(iii) Preliminary survey
(iv) Final location survey

(i) Desk Studies
A desk study includes the preliminary steps of evaluation of all available data procured in
the form of maps, aerial photographs, mosaic, or charts and may require the application of a large
variety of engineering, environmental, social, and economic knowledge. The type and amount of
data collected during this initial phase will vary with the functional classification of the road and the
nature and size of the project.
The categories of desirable data are as follows:
1. Engineering data
i) Topographic and geological maps
ii) Stream and drainage basin maps
iii) Climatic records
iv) Preliminary survey maps of previous projects
v) Traffic surveys and capacity studies

2. Environmental data
i) Agricultural soil surveys indicating soil erodibility
ii) Water quality studies
iii) Air pollution studies
iv) Noise and noise attenuation studies
v) Fish and wildlife inventories
vi) Historical studies

3. Social data
i) Demographic and land-use information
ii) Census data, etc.

4. Economic data
i) Overall costs of previous projects
ii) Unit construction cost data
iii) Agricultural, industrial and commercial activities and trends
iv) Property values.

When all the available data have been assembled, a detailed analysis should reveal
information pertinent to the proposed project. For example, analysis of the available information
may allow the engineer to determine the advisability of selecting an entirely new location or
improving the existing one.
After an exhaustive study of topographic maps, drainage maps, soil maps, and other data is
made in the office, a series of proposed locations may be selected for a field investigation.

(ii) Reconnaissance Survey
The reconnaissance survey consists of a field investigation that usually provides a means of
verification of conditions as determined from the preliminary desk study. For example, building
symbols on maps do not indicate the true values of property under consideration, and this
information can usually be secured by field investigation. A study is made of the profiles and
grades of all alternative routes and cost estimates made for grading, surfacing, structures, and right-
of-way. A comparison of alternative routes in this fashion will aid the final selection of the most
likely location.

(iii) Preliminary Survey
A preliminary survey is made to gather information about all the physical factors that affect
the tentatively accepted route. In general, a regular survey party carries out the work. The raw data
is normally acquired using some of the conventional surveying equipment including:
a) Tapes, Theodolite and level
b) Theodolite and Electromagnetic Distance Measurement
c) Combined Theodolite and EDM system
d) Total Station

Field sheets or field books are required to record all observations by hand. Data loggers are
available for automatic recording of observations when Total Station is used.
A primary traverse or baseline is established as an open traverse consisting of tangent
distances and deflection angles following approximately the line recommended in the
reconnaissance report. Traditionally, conventional ground surveys are carried out by the use of
Theodolite to measure angles in both vertical and horizontal planes, the Levelling instrument for
measuring changes in elevations (heights), and the tape for measuring horizontal distances.
However, with developments in electronics, EDM mounted on Theodolite or total station can now
be used more effectively for most surveying projects.
When the preliminary line has been established, the topographic features are recorded. The
extent to the right and left of the traverse line to which the topography should be determined will
vary but should not be less than the proposed width of right-of-way.
Using the preliminary survey as a basis, a preliminary survey map is drawn. The
preliminary map should show all tangents with their bearings and distances, all deflection angles,
ties to property corners, etc. Certain topographic features such as streams, watercourses, lakes,
hills, and ravines, and man-made features such as buildings, drainage structures, power lines, and
other public facilities are shown on the map.

(iv) Final Location Survey
The final location survey is the detailed layout of the selected route, during which time the
final horizontal and vertical alignments are determined and the final positions of structures and
drainage channels are also determined. The final location survey serves the dual purpose of
permanently establishing the centerline and collecting the information necessary for the preparation
of plans for construction. The line to be established should follow as closely as is practical, the line
drawn on the preliminary map, conforming to the major and minor control points and the alignment
that was previously determined.
The first step in the final location survey requires the establishment of the centerline, which
is used as a survey reference line, upon which property descriptions are based for the purpose of
purchasing right-of-way. Level work is of the utmost importance, because the grade line,
earthwork, and drainage are designed from the level notes. Finally, cross-sections levels are taken
at intervals ranging from 1 to 5m in the transverse direction and longitudinally at regular interval of
25m stations and at any intermediate points with abrupt slope changes.







ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRIC DESIGN
The essential design features of a roadway or railway are its location and its cross-section.
In the horizontal plane, the locations of points are referenced to a coordinate system in which the
positive y-axis is north and the positive x-axis is east. Positions along the y-axis are called latitudes
and those along the x-axis are called longitudes (departures).
Customarily, points along the route are identified by chainages (stations), the distance in
metres from some reference point, commonly the beginning point for the project. The location of
points in the vertical plane (or along the z-axis) is given as the elevation above mean sea level.
The cross section of a roadway is described by its dimensions at a right angle to the direction
of the alignment, including widths, clearances, slopes, and so on.

A CIRCULAR CURVES - GENERAL
A highway route survey is initially laid out as a series of straight lines (tangents). Once the
centerline location alignment has been confirmed, the tangents are joined by circular curves that
allow for smooth vehicle operation at the speeds for which the highway was designed.

















Figure 1 Circular curve terminology
Figure 1 illustrates how two tangents are joined by a circular curve and shows some related
circular curve terminology. The point at which the alignment changes from straight to circular is
known as the BC (beginning of curve). The BC is located distance T (subtangent) from the PI
(point of tangent intersection). The length of circular curve (L) is dependent on the central angle
and the value of R (radius).
The point at which the alignment changes from circular back to tangent is known as the EC
(end of curve). Since the curve is symmetrical about the PI, the EC is also located distance T from
the PI. From geometry, the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent at the point of
tangency. Therefore, the radius is perpendicular to the back tangent at the BC and the forward
tangent at the EC.
The terms BC and EC are also referred to by some agencies as PC (point of curve or
curvature) and PT (point of tangency), and by others as TC (tangent to curve) and CT (curve to
tangent).

B CIRCULAR CURVE GEOMETRY
Most curve problems are calculated from field measurements (A and the chainage of PI) and
from design parameters (R). Given R (which is dependent on the design speed) and A, all other
curve components can be computed.
Analysis of Figure 2 will show that the curve deflection angle (PI, BC, EC) is
2
A
and that
the central angle at 0 is equal to A, the tangent deflection.
The line (0 PI), joining the center of the curve to the PI, effectively bisects all related lines
and angles. For the following derivation of equations, refer to Figure 2.

Tangent: In triangle BC, O, PI,
R
T
= tan
2
A

T = R tan
2
A
(1)
Chord: In triangle BC, O, B,
R
C 2 / 1
= sin
2
A

C = 2R sin
2
A
(2)















Figure 2 Geometry of the circle

Mid-ordinate:
R
OB
= cos
2
A

OB = R cos
2
A

But OB = R M
R - M = R cos
2
A

M =R |
.
|

\
| A

2
cos 1 (3)

External: In triangle BC, O, PI, O to PI = R + E

E R
R
+
= cos
2
A

E = R
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|

A
1
2 / cos
1
(4)
= R |
.
|

\
|

A
1
2
sec (alternate)













Figure 3 Relationship between the degree of curve (D) and the circle

From Figure 3,

Arc:
R
L
t 2
=
360
A
,
360
2
A
= R L t (5)

where A is expressed in degrees and decimals of a degree.

From Figure 3,
D and R:
R
D
t 2
100
360
= ,
R
D
58 . 5729
= (6)
Arc:
R
D
t 2
100
360
= ,
R
D
58 . 5729
= (7)

where D (degree of curve) is defined as the central angle subtended by 100ft of arc.



C. VERTICAL ALIGNMENT
(a) General
The longitudinal profile of the proposed highway is first drawn as a series of intersecting
gradients. The straights subsequently form tangents to vertical curves, which are fitted to them.
The geometric proportions encountered in most cases point to the fact that the simple
parabola is the most convenient to use.
The vertical alignment affects:
a. The construction cost of the project.
b. The operating cost of vehicles using the road.

The vertical alignment must have good correlation with the horizontal alignment and ensure
good sight distances over crests. Care must be taken to avoid:
i. very short sag vertical curves
ii. sharp drop immediately after a long up-grade
iii. short grade between crest and sag curves
iv. combination of two vertical curves in the same direction they must be replaced by
a single vertical curve.

Grades and Grade Control
The vertical alignment of the roadway and its effect on the safe and economical operation of
the vehicle constitutes one of the most important features of highway and railway design. The
vertical alignment, which consists of a series of straight lines connected by vertical parabolic or
circular curves, is known as the grade line. When the grade line is increasing from the horizontal, it
is known as a plus grade, and when it is decreasing from the horizontal it is known as a minus
grade.

Establishment of vertical alignment
1. An ideal situation is one in which the cut is balanced against the fill without a great deal
of borrow or an excess of cut to be wasted.
2. All hauls should be downhill if possible, and not too long.
3. Ideal grades should have long distances between points of intersection, with long vertical
curves between grade tangents to provide smooth riding qualities and good visibility.
4. The grade should follow the general terrain and rise and fall in the direction of the
existing drainage.
5. In rock cuts and in flat, swampy areas, it is necessary to maintain higher grades.
6. The presence of grade separations and bridge structures also control grades.
7. Change of grade from plus to minus (summit curves) should be placed in cuts, and
changes from a minus grade to a plus grade (sag curves) should be placed in fills.
8. Urban projects will usually require a more detailed study of grade controls and a fine
adjustment of elevations than do rural projects.
9. In urban projects, it is best to adjust the grade to meet existing conditions because of
additional expense when doing otherwise.
10. Grades are normally dependent on design speed and topography.


D. VERTICAL CURVES - GENERAL
Vertical curves are used in highway and street vertical alignment to provide a gradual
change between two adjacent grade lines.















Figure 4 Vertical curve terminology (profile view shown).

From Figure 4,
g
1
= slope (in percent) of the lower chainage grade line,
g
2
= slope (in percent) of the higher chainage grade line,
BVC = beginning of the vertical curve,
EVC = end of the vertical curve,
L = length of vertical curve. This is same as the projection of the curve onto a
horizontal surface and as such corresponds to plan distance.
A = algebraic change in slope direction i.e. A = g
2
g
1


There are two types of vertical curves viz: Summit or Sag vertical curve (see Figure 5). The
parabolic curve is used almost exclusively in connecting grade tangents because (1) it has a constant
rate of change of slope, and (2) ease of computation of vertical offsets, which permits easily,
computed curve elevations.
(i) The rate of change of slope of a simple parabola is constant, i.e.
k
dx
Y d
=
2
2
(8)

(ii) The offset (y) from the grade (see Figure 5) is proportional to the square of
distance from tangent point, i.e.,

2
Ax y = (where A = constant) (9)
Integrating equation (8),
B kx
dx
dY
+ = (where B is constant) (10)
From Figure 6, it will be noted that:
when x = 0, %
1
g
dx
dY
= , %
1
g B = ,

when x = L, %
2
g
dx
dY
= ,

Substitute %
2
g
dx
dY
= , and x = L in equation (10)






























Figure 5 Summit (Crest) and Sag Vertical Curves
% %
1 2
g kL g + = ,
L
g g
k
) (
1 2

=

Equation (10) becomes:
%
)% (
1
1 2
g x
L
g g
dx
dY
+
(


= , (11)

Integrating equation (11),
C x g
x
L
g g
Y + +

=
1
2
1 2
2
)% (
(12)

x = 0 when y = 0, C = 0
From Figure 6,
x
Y y
g
+
= %
1


Equation (12) becomes:
x
x
Y y x
L
g g
Y |
.
|

\
| +
+

=
2
)% (
2
1 2


Y y
x
L
g g
Y + +

=
2
)% (
2
1 2



L
Ax x
L
g g
y
200 2 100
) (
2 2
1 2
=

=

where A = algebraic difference between the two grades measured in percent.
The vertical offset (y) from the grade at any point (x) from the tangent point is given by


L
Ax
y
200
2
= (13)



Computation of the High or Low Point on a Vertical Curve
The highest point on the vertical curve does not lie vertically below or above the point of
intersection, except in the case where the two grades are equal. The highest point occurs when
the gradient is zero.
This means that equation (11) may be equated to zero, i.e.,
%
)% (
1
1 2
g x
L
g g
dx
dY
+
(


= = 0

%
)% (
1
1 2
g x
L
g g
=
(


,

A
L g
x
1

= (14)
Thus, the highest point occurs at a point (x) given by equation (14).
Substituting equation (14) into equation (13) to determine the vertical offset (y) at the
highest point gives:


A
L g
A
L g
L
A
y
200 200
2
1
2
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=


A
L g
y
200
2
1
= (15)


N.B. - The above formulas apply only for the symmetrical curve, i.e., one in which the tangents
are of equal length. The unequal tangent or unsymmetrical vertical curve is a compound
parabolic curve. Its use generally is warranted only where a symmetrical curve cannot meet
imposed alignment conditions.





E. DESIGN CONTROLS AND CRITERIA
The geometric design of a road is the arrangement of the visible elements of a road, such as
alignment, grades, sight distances, widths, slopes, etc. These elements are influenced by the
following design controls and criteria:
i) Functional classification of the roadway being designed.
ii) Design speed.
iii) Topography.
iv) Cost and available funds.
v) Human sensory capacities of drivers, bikers and pedestrians.
vi) Size and performance characteristics of the vehicles that will use the facility.
vii) Safety considerations.
viii) Social and environmental concerns.

However, the principal design criteria for highways for which there are design standards and
procedures are:
a) Traffic volume
b) Design speed
c) Vehicle Characteristics
d) Highway Capacity.

1. Traffic Volume
The number of vehicles passing a particular section of the road per unit time at a specified
time is called traffic volume. This study can be carried out separately for vehicles and pedestrians
or combined.
The purposes of traffic volume study can be listed as follows:
a. It establishes the importance of any road and thus help in deciding the relative
priority for improvement and expansion.
b. The data are used for planning, designing and regulation phase of traffic engineering.
c. It helps in the design of road pavements, bridges and culverts.
d. It helps in the design of new routes and new facilities.
e. It helps analyse traffic pattern and trend.

The general unit for reporting traffic using a particular facility is the average daily traffic
(ADT). Numerically, the ADT is the total annual volume of traffic divided by the number of days
in the year. The ADT is readily obtainable where continuous counts of traffic are available. ADT
volumes are useful in economic study of the highway and also in the design of the structural
elements of the road.
Counting of traffic may be done mechanically or manually. Photo electric cells, magnetic
detectors, radar detectors and impulse actuated recorders are some of the mechanical or automatic
count devices.

Traffic Projection Factor
Normal increase in traffic volume for long term can be expected to be about 5 per cent
compounded. Traffic projection factor gives the ultimate volume at the end of design period.
According to the Highway Manual of the FMW&H, the Design Hourly Volume (DHV)
should be representative of the future year chosen for design. It should be predicted on current
traffic allowing for normal traffic growth, generated traffic or diverted traffic and development
traffic. A period of 20 years shall be used generally as the basis for design; but this period shall be
reduced to 10 years where stage construction is involved.

Definitions
a. Normal Traffic: - Normal traffic growth is the increase in traffic volume due to
increase in number of transport vehicles.
c. Generated Traffic: - This is the traffic created due to extra facility provided.
d. Development Traffic: - It is the traffic which is due to improvements carried out in
adjacent area.
e. Current Traffic: - It is that traffic which would immediately use a new road or an
improved one when opened to traffic.

The formula used for analyses as developed in the United Kingdom is:
A = ( )
2
1 r P +
Where
A = Number of vehicles per day for design
P = Number of vehicles per day at last census
r = Annual rate of increase in traffic and may be taken as 0.05 (i.e. 0.5%)
n = Number of years between last census and year of consideration for widening.

2. Design Speed
The design speed is the speed selected for the purpose of correlating those features of the
highways such as curvature, super-elevation and visibility distances for safe operation of vehicles.
The design speed is the highest continuous speed at which individual vehicles can travel
with safety upon the highway, when weather conditions are favourable, traffic density is low, and
the design features of the highway are the governing factors of safety.
The design speed is therefore dependent upon:
(ii) The terrain of the proposed route.
(iii) Type and volume of traffic anticipated.
(iv) Type of highway.
(v) Environmental conditions.

Recommended values are given in Table 1 below:-

Table 1 DESIGN SPEED
[Highway Design Manual, 1973]
Type of
Highway

Terrain
Design Speed (km/hr)
AASHTO *Minimum Desirable
Limited Access All Terrain 96 112
Unlimited
Access
Level
Rolling
Hilly
96
80
64
112
96
80
112
96
80
*Not recommended

3. Vehicle Characteristics
Vehicle characteristic dimensions are of great importance in the design of parking facilities.
In such cases, where the economy permits, consideration should be given to the possibility of
making provision for one or two doors open.
The layout of roads, especially junctions, must be related to the vehicles using them. Hence,
vehicle sizes are essential in geometric design, especially for sharp radius turns. On the other hand,
the size, weight and features of legally permitted vehicles govern the standards to be set for lane
width, vertical clearance, pavement thickness and bridge loadings.
Four (4) design vehicles have been adopted to represent the main vehicle types in use (U.S.
practice). The design vehicles are:
P = Passenger cars
SU = Single unit or buses
WB 40 = Medium Semi-trailer combination
WB 50 = Large Semi-trailer combination

Typical dimensions of various design vehicles are given in Table 2 below:
Table 2 DESIGN VEHICLE
[Highway Design Manual, FMWH]

Design
Vehicle

Dimensions (metres)
Type Symbol Wheel Base Overall
Length
Overall Width Height
Passenger Car P 3.4
(11)
5.8
(19)
2.1
(7)
-
Single Unit
Truck (Buses)
SU 6.1
(20)
9.1
(30)
2.6
(8.5)
4.1
(13.5)
Small semi-
trailer
combination

WB40

12.2
(40)

15.2
(50)

2.6
(8.5)

4.1
(13.5)
Large semi-
trailer
combination

WB50

15.2
(50)

16.8
(55)

2.6
(8.5)

4.1
(13.5)

Note: Figures in brackets are in feet.
Weights (tons)
AASHTO Maximum
Single axle - 10 12
Tandem axles - 16 20
Max. Gross Weight - 43 69


4. Highway Capacity
The Highway Capacity Manual defines the practical capacity (or design capacity) as the
number of vehicles that can pass over a given section of the roadway during one hour under
specified traffic conditions and operating at a level of service.
The level of service depends on:
(i) Probability of traffic interruptions
(ii) Desired speed of operation
(iii) Location and type of highway facility.
(iv) Cost of vehicle operation.
(v) Building, operating, and maintenance of the highway.

As shown in Table 3(a) below, the manual recommends maximum practical capacities as follows:-
(i) Two lane road - 900 pcu/hr
(ii) Three lane road - 1500 pcu/hr
(iii) Multi-lane road - 1000 pcu/hr
* pcu = passenger car unit
Table 3(a) DESIGN CAPACITY FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF RURAL ROADS
(Two-Way Total) [British Standards]
Passenger Car Unit per hour (p.c.u./hr)
Type of Road Roads in Rural Areas Highway Capacity Manual
Two-Lane Carriage way 900 900
Three-Lane Carriage way 1500 1500
Dual Two-Lane Carriage way 3300 1000 per lane in the
direction of heavier flow Dual Three-Lane Carriage way 5000









Table 3(b) DESIGN CAPACITY FOR URBAN ROADS
[British Standards]
Type of Road Capacity (p.c.u./hr) Remarks
Four-lane urban motorway
(with grade separation)
3000 Capacity for one direction
of flow
Six-lane urban motorway
(with grade separation)
4500 Capacity for one direction
of flow (Highest distributor)
Two-lane all purpose road with
unlimited access
1500 Capacity for both direction
of flow
Three-lane all purpose road
with limited access
2200 Capacity for both
directions
Four-lane all purpose road with
limited access
2400 Capacity for both
directions
Two-lane all purpose road with
capacity restrictions
600 - 750 Two way capacity waiting
vehicles and junctions


F. SIGHT DISTANCE
Under ideal conditions, geometric design standards should ensure that vehicles are mutually
visible within eyesight distance of each other. Highway designs must ensure that the driver has
ample distance of clear vision ahead so that he can avoid hitting unexpected obstacles and can pass
slower vehicles safely. Recommended sight distances are given below in Tables 1 and 2 below.

1) STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCE (Horizontal Alignment)
Sight distance at every point on the highway should be as long as possible but never less
than the minimum stopping sight distance.
The safe stopping sight distance is the minimum distance required for stopping a vehicle
traveling with or near the design speed before reaching a stationary object or vehicle on the
highway. The safe stopping (or non-passing) sight distance can be considered as the sum of two
components viz:

(a) Perception - Reaction Distance
This is the distance covered within the period the stationary vehicle/object is sighted and
actual braking operation starts. The elements, which make up the reaction time, depend upon many
modifying factors and individual driving abilities.
AASHTO recommends P-R time of 2.5 seconds for Rural Roads and 1.5 seconds for Urban
Roads. Therefore, for a rural road, the distance covered during P-R time of 2.5 seconds is d
1
where

d
1
= vt (1)
where v = speed in (metre/sec)
t = perception-reaction time (seconds)
d
1
= distance covered (metres)

If in expression (1), the speed is expressed in km/hr, then
d
1
= 5 . 2
3600
1000
|
.
|

\
|
v
=
44 . 1
v
metres


ii) Braking distance
This is the distance, d
2
, covered during the actual braking operation. This is estimated by
utilizing the principle that the change in kinetic energy is equal to force multiplied by distance.


gf
v
d
2
2
2
= (2)
where
d
2
= braking distance (metres)
v = driving speed (metres/sec)
f = coefficient of friction between tyres and road surface
g = acceleration due to gravity = 9.81m/sec
2


If the speed is expressed in V km/hr,

f
v
d
2 . 254
2
2
=
Therefore, safe stopping (non-passing) sight distance
D = d
1
+ d
2
=
44 . 1
v
+
f
v
2 . 254
2

When the vehicle is on a slope q%, the braking distance is modified to

) ( 2 . 254
2
2
q f
v
d

=
Upward grades carry positive signs as against negative signs for downward grades. This means that
upward braking distances are shorter than those for downward grades.

Stopping (non-passing) sight distance over crests is the longest distance a driver whose eye
is 1.143m (3.75ft) above the pavement can see the top of an object 0.15m (o.50ft) high on the road.
See Figure 1 for approved AASHTO method of measuring stopping sight distance over crests.
Under the condition where the difference in grade is small, ease of riding and appearance may
demand longer curves than value allowed for sight distance.


Table 1 DESIRABLE STOPPING SIGHT DISTANCES
*[AASHTO Recommended Sight Distances]

DESIGN
SPEED
(km/hr)
P-R DISTANCE BRAKING DISTANCE STOPPING SIGHT
DISTANCE (metres)
Time
(sec)
Distance
(m)
Coeff. of
friction (Wet
surface)
Distance
(on level
ground)

Computed
Rounded
for Design

40
60
80
100
110
120
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
27.8
41.7
55.6
69.4
76.4
83.3
0.36
0.33
0.31
0.30
0.29
0.27
17.5
42.9
81.2
131.1
164.1
209.8
45.3
84.6
136.8
200.5
240.5
293.1
45
85
135
200
240
290
* Note: used mainly for horizontal sight distance

(2) PASSING SIGHT DISTANCE
In the design of the horizontal alignment of two/three lane carriageways, provision should
be made for adequate passing sight distance in order that faster vehicles may overtake slower-
moving vehicles without any fear of head-on collision.
The safe passing sight distance is the distance required to allow safe overtaking at or near
the design speed in the face of an on-coming vehicle.



Table 2(a): SIGHT DISTANCE RURAL ROADS (British Practice)

Carriageway
Design Speed
(Km/hr)
Stopping Sight Distance Overtaking
Sight Distance
(crests)
Minimum
Stopping
Sight Distance
k value for
crest
k value for
sags
Dual Two
Lane

120
105 75 -- 300
Three Lane 100 50 50 450 210
Two Lane 80 20 30 360 140
Table 2(b): SIGHT DISTANCE URBAN ROADS (British Practice)
Design Speed
(km/hr)
Minimum Overtaking
Sight Distance (m)
Minimum Stopping
Distance (m)
80 360 140
60 270 90
50 225 70
30 135 30


Table 2(c): SIGHT DISTANCES (metres)
Design
Speed
(km/hr)
STOPPING PASSING
UK AUSTRALIA USA UK AUSTRALIA USA
60 90 80 84 270 300 457
80 140 120 107 360 450 549
100 210 170 145 450 750 640
120 300 250 183 -- -- --


Table 2(d): Highway Manual Design (Federal Republic of Nigeria)
Design Speed
(km/hr)
Passing Sight Distance
(metres)
48 244
64 396
80 518
96 610
112 701