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EE407 Renewable Electrical Energy Resources

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EE407:Renewable Electrical Energy
Resources
Lecture-1
Jameel Ahmad
Assistant Professor
jameel.ahmad@umt.edu.pk
Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Management and Technology
Course Information
Lecture: EE407, Lectures Monday and Wednesday 2:40pm-4pm, SEN 603
Class website: www.moodle.umt.edu.pk
Class Instructor: Jameel Ahmad, Assistant Professor , Email:
jameel.ahmad@umt.edu.pk
Office Hours on office door
Grading: Home work + Quizzes (25%), Midterm (25%) Final 50%
Exam(comprehensive)
5-7 Homework and 5-7 quizzes
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Textbook(s) for the course
Required Textbook:
Wind Energy Explained
Theory Design and Application
J F Manwell
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1. Renewable and
efficient power systems
by Gilbert M Masters
2. Renewable Energy
Resources Third ed.
J ohn Twidell and Tony
Weir
ReferenceBooks
Grading Policy
Assignments+Quizzes: 25%
Mid Term: 25%
Final Exam (Conceptual): 50%
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Course Outline:
Lecture 1: Introduction to the course
Lecture 2: Renewable energy systems types, current status and future
Lecture 3: Energy in the wind, types of wind turbines and their characteristics
Lecture 4: Assessment of annual energy output of wind turbine using bins method
Lecture 5: Wind turbine aerodynamics
Lecture 6: Mathematical modeling of wind energy conversion systems
Lecture 7: Control of wind energy conversion systems
Lecture 8: Variable speed wind turbines and their grid interface
Lecture 9: Grid interconnection standards and Economics of WECS
Lecture 10: Wind diesel hybrid power systems
Lecture 11: Solar energy systems
Lecture 12: Photovoltaic cell, modules, panels and their characteristic
Lecture 13: Photovoltaic system engineering
Lecture 14: Power electronics and control of PV systems
Lecture 15: Maximum power point tracking in PV systems
Lecture 16: Energy storage technologies
Lecture 17: Introduction to solar water pumping systems
Lecture 18: Micro-hydro power
Lecture 19: Micro-hydro sizing and electromechanical system
Lecture 20: Micro-hydro power electrical system and control
Lecture 21: Ocean energy systems
Lecture 22: Wave energy conversion systems
Lecture 23-25: students project presentations - I
Lecture : students project presentations - II
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Module #1: Overview of Energy
Consumption
Lecture A: The need for Alternative
Energy Sources
Lecture B: When will we run out of oil?
Lecture C: Exponential Growth and the
Need for Energy Conservation
Lecture D: Fundamentals of Electricity
and Electricity Generation
Module #2: Solar Energy
Lecture A: Basics of Solar Energy
Lecture B: Solar Thermal Power and
Photovoltaic Technology
Lecture C: Solar Collection and Energy
Transport
Lecture D: Large Scale Solar Energy
Production
Module #3: Energy Storage and
Transportation
Lecture A: Energy Storage Facilities
Lecture B: The Viability of Natural Gas
Lecture C: Alternative Fuels and
Transportation
Lecture D: Electric Vehicles and
Hydrogen
Module #4: Wind and Hydro
Lecture A: Wind Energy and Production Line
Facilities
Lecture B: Wind Power II: Western Regional
Potential
Lecture C: Overview of Hydroelectric Power
Lecture D: Cheap Energy vs Environment:
The Salmon Issue
Module #5: Energy from the Earth: The Oceans, Geothermal and Biomass
Lecture A: Energy From the Oceans
Lecture B: Energy from Geothermal and Biomass: Feasible?
Lecture C: Implications and Summary
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THE CONCEPT OF ENERGY
Energy can be described as the capacity to do work.
Energy can be stored within systems in various forms.
Energy can be converted from one form to another and
transferred between systems.
The total amount of energy is conserved in all
conversions and transfers.
Non-Renewable Energy Sources
Conventional
Petroleum
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclear
Unconventional (examples)
Oil Shale
Natural gas hydrates in marine sediment
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Renewable Energy Sources
Solar photovoltaics
Solar thermal power
Passive solar air and water heating
Wind
Hydropower
Biomass
Ocean energy
Geothermal
Waste to Energy
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Dr. Sammia Shahid
Integration of Alternate
Energy Resources
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Energy is the Blood in Todays Economics
The five main forms of energy are:
Heat
Chemical
Electromagnetic
Nuclear
Mechanical
Two States of Energy are:
Kinetic
Potential
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Availability vs. Utility
Electrical Energy is most useful. Can be converted into all the other
typesof energy.
Thermal Energy is most available. Can be produced in almost any
location by burning fuels.
Chemical Energy is most easily stored. Can be converted into
thermal or electrical energy easily.
What are fossil fuels ?
A fuel is any substance used as a source of energy,
including heating, transport, electricity generation
and other uses.
Most of the worlds energy is provided by the burning
of fossil fuels.
Coal, Oil and Gasare called "fossil fuelsbecause they
are natural combustible substances formed originally
fromdead plantsand animals.
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Oil originates from the chemical decomposition of
microorganisms that got buried under geologic formations in
the sea millions of years ago.
In some cases the
sea retreated,
which explains why
oil is also found on
land.
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-Oil was a gift from
nature.
-It took millions of
years to produce
-When its gone, its
gone forever
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An oil well isnt like a cars fuel tank.
With a car you can drive at
full speed until the moment
you run out of fuel.
Thats because your tank is
a hollow cavity. The fuel
fills the bottom of the tank
and theres nothing
preventing it from being
pumped out.
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But an oil well isnt a hollow cavity.
Its a large deposit of stones
or sandstone sandwiched
between two layers of
impervious rock. The hollow
spaces between the stones or
sand are filled with thick and
viscous oil.
A pipe is lowered into the
mixture of oil and stones or
sand and the oil is pumped
up.
It takes time for oil to ooze from
zones of high pressure to the zone
of low pressure near the pipe.
Click
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In order to extract the oil from an oil field, a
large number of wells are drilled.
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Products Made from a Barrel of Crude Oil

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There Are No More Giant Oil Fields Being
Discovered
In spite of
advanced
exploration
technology we are
finding smaller and
smaller oil fields
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for each
barrel of oil that
is being
discovered
Were
consuming 4
barrels
The Partys Over, Richard Heinberg
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Saudi saying:
My father rode a
camel.
I drive a car.
My son flies a jet
airplane.
His son will ride a
camel.
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The advantage and
disadvantages of using
fossil fuel
Advantages
Very large amounts of electricity can be generated in
one place using coal, fairly cheaply.
Transporting oil and gas to the power stations is easy.
Gas-fired power stations are very efficient.
A fossil-fuelled power station can be built almost
anywhere
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Disadvantages
Pollution
Burning any fossil fuel produces carbon dioxide, which
contributes to the "greenhouse effect", warming the Earth.
Burning coal produces more carbon dioxide than burning
oil or gas. It also produces sulphur dioxide, a gas that
contributes to acid rain. We can reduce this before
releasing the waste gases into the atmosphere.
Mining coal can be difficult and dangerous.
Strip mining destroys large areas of the landscape.
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What is Nuclear Power?
Nuclear power is generated using Uranium, which is a
metal mined in various parts of the world. Some military
ships and submarines have nuclear power plants for
engines.
Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's
energy needs, and produces huge amounts of energy
from small amounts of fuel, without the pollution that
you'd get from burning fossil fuels
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How it works
Nuclear power stations work in pretty much the same way as
fossil fuel-burning stations, except that a "chain reaction" inside
a nuclear reactor makes the heat instead.
The reactor uses Uranium rods as fuel, and the heat is
generated by nuclear fission. Neutrons smash into the nucleus
of the uranium atoms, which split roughly in half and release
energy in the form of heat.
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Advantages
Nuclear power costs about the same as coal,
so it's not expensive to make.
Does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so
it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
Produces huge amounts of energy from small
amounts of fuel.
Produces small amounts of waste.
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Disadvantages
It is very, very dangerous.
It mustbe sealed up and buried for many
years to allow the radioactivity to die away.
It is reliable,
but a lot of money has to be spent on safety
- if it doesgo wrong, a nuclear accident can
be a major disaster.
People are increasingly concerned about
the safety.
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Energy Resources
Renewable (16%)
Solar
Wind
Falling, flowing water
Biomass
Non-renewable (84%)
Oil
Natural gas
Coal
Nuclear power
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SOLAR ENERGY
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Direct and Diffuse solar radiation
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Solar Technologies for Electricity
Generation
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Solar Electricity Technologies
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Advantages
Solar energy is free - it needs no fuel
and produces no waste or pollution.
In sunny countries, solar power can be used where
there is no easy way to get electricity to a remote
place.
Handy for low-power usessuch as solar powered
garden lights and battery chargers
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Disadvantages
Doesn't work at night.
Very expensive to build solar power stations.
Solar cells cost a great deal compared to the amount of
electricity they'll produce in their lifetime.
Can be unreliableunless you're in a very sunny climate. In
the United Kingdom, solar power isn't much use except for
low-power applications, as you need a very large area of
solar panels to get a decent amount of power.
Low efficiency (5-15%); Very high initial costs; lack of
adequate storage materials (batteries); High cost to the
consumer
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Tidal Power
The tide moves a huge amount of water twice
each day, and harnessing it could provide a great
deal of energy - around 20%of Britain'sneeds.
Although the energy supply is reliable and plentiful,
converting it into useful electrical power is not easy.
There are eight main sites around Britain where tidal
power stationscould usefully be built.
Only around 20 sites in the world have been
identified aspossible tidal power stations.
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How it works: Tidal Barrages
These work rather like a
hydro-electric scheme,
except that the dam
is muchbigger.
A huge dam
(called a "barrage") is built
across a river estuary.
When the tide goes
in and out, the water
flows through tunnels
in the dam.
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Advantages
Once you've built it, tidal power is free.
It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste.
It needs no fuel.
It produces electricity reliably.
Not expensive to maintain.
Tides are totally predictable.
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Disadvantages
A barrage is very expensive to build, and affects a
very wide area - the environment is changed for
many miles upstream and downstream. Many birds
rely on the tide uncovering the mud flats so that they
can feed. There are few suitable sites for tidal
barrages.
Only provides power for around 10 hours each day,
when the tide is actually moving in or out.
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Hydro Power
We have used running water as an energy
source for thousands of years, mainly to
grind corn.
The first use of water to generate electricity
was in 1882 on the Fox river, in the USA,
which produced enough power to light
two paper mills and a house.
Nowadays there are many hydro-electric
power stations, providing around 20% of
the world's electricity. The name comes
from "hydro", the Greek word for water.
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How it works
A dam is built to trap water, usually in a
valley where there is an existing lake.
Water is allowed to flow through tunnels in
the dam, to turn turbines and thus drive
generators.
Notice that the dam is much thicker at the
bottom than at the top, because the
pressure of the water increases with depth.
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Advantages
Once the dam is built, the energy is virtually free.
No waste or pollution produced.
Much more reliable than wind, solar or wave power.
Water can be stored above the dam ready to cope with
peaks in demand.
Hydro-electric power stations can increase to full power
very quickly, unlike other power stations.
Electricity can be generated constantly.
No pollution; Very high efficieny (80%); little waste heat; low
cost per KWH; can adjust KWH output to peak loads
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Disadvantages
The dams are very expensive to build.
However, many dams are also used for flood control
or irrigation, so building costs can be shared.
Building a large dam will flood a very large area
upstream, causing problems for animals that used to
live there.
Finding a suitable site can be difficult - the impact on
residents and the environment may be unacceptable.
Water quality and quantity downstream can be
affected, which can have an impact on plant life
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Geothermal
The centre of the Earth is around 6000 degress
Celsius - hot enough to melt rock. Even a few
kilometresdown, the temperature can be over
250 degrees Celsius.
In general, the temperature rises one degree
Celsius for every 36 metresyou go down.
In volcanic areas, molten rock can be very close
to the surface.
Geothermal energy has been used for
thousands of years in some countries for cooking
and heating.
The name "geothermal" comes from two Greek
words: "geo" means "Earth" and "thermal" means
"heat".
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How it works
Hot rocks underground heat water to produce steam.
We drill holes down to the hot region, steam comes
up, is purified and used to drive turbines, which drive
electric generators.
There may be natural "groundwater" in the hot rocks
anyway, or we may need to drill more holes and
pump water down to them.
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Advantages
Geothermal energy does not produce any pollution,
and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
The power stations do not take up much room, so
there is not much impact on the environment.
No fuel is needed.
Once you've built a geothermal power station, the
energy is almost free.
It may need a little energy to run a pump, but this can
be taken from the energy being generated
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Disadvantages
The big problem is that there are not many places
where you can build a geothermal power station.
You need hot rocks of a suitable type, at a depth
where we can drill down to them.
The type of rock above is also important, it must be of
a type that we can easily drill through.
Sometimes a geothermal site may "run out of steam",
perhaps for decades.
Hazardous gases and minerals may come up from
underground, and can be difficult to safely dispose of.
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Wind Farm
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Alternate Technologies
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Batteries
Electrical Energy Storage Devices
Battery Types
Primary
Non-Chargeable
(Disposable) Batteries
Secondary
Chargeable Batteries
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Leclanch Cells (zinc carbon or dry cell)
Alkaline Cells
Mercury Oxide Cells
Zinc/MnO
2
Cells
Aluminum / Air Cells
Lithium Cells
Liquid cathode lithium cells
Solid cathode lithium cells
Solid electrolyte lithium cells
Lithium-Iron Cells
Magnesium-Copper Chloride Reserve Cells
Primary Disposable Batteries
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Leadacid Cells
Zinc/MnO
2
Cells (Mechanical Recharging)
Nickel/Cadmium Cells
Nickel/Metal Hydride (NiMH) Cells
Lithium Ion Cells
Rechargeable Alkaline Manganese Cells
Secondary Rechargeable
Batteries
Fuel Cell
an electrochemical energy conversion device
To convert the chemicals hydrogen and oxygen into
water, and in the process it produces electricity.
Battery: the other electrochemical device that we are
all familiar.
A battery has all of its chemicals stored inside, and it
converts those chemicals into electricity too.
This means that a battery eventually "goes dead" and
you either throw it away or recharge it.
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Animation of PEMFC
- Transportation applications
- Space application
- avoids the need of pure H
2
- envisaged for
stationary power
plants
- high volumetric energy
density
Types of Fuel Cells
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Hydrogen Fuel-cell Car
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Decentralized Power System
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Energy Crisis in Pakistan
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Energy Resources
Available To Us
Indigenous Resources of Oil & Gas
Hydroelectric
Nuclear
Solar & Wind Energy
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Primary Energy
Supplies By Source
Oil, 32.1%
Gas, 48.3%
LPG, 0.6%
Coal, 7.6%
Hydro Electricity,
10.6%
Nuclear
Electricity, 0.6%
Imported
Electricity, 0.1%
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Pakistan Indigenous
Natural Reserves
Conventional
Gas- 30 TCF
Oil 436, Million bbls
Tight Gas- 40 TCF
Coal -185 Billion Tons
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What has gone wrong?
Failure to build dams
resulted not a single Mw
produced in 9 years.
IPPs have been struck with
cash flow problems.
Oil prices have soared high.
Today debt runs in billions.
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Mega projects are .. distant realities
Big businesses .. are no more feasible
What is available at the shelf are
micro businesses
Go micro
Go indigenous
and build people up
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How to reverse the power
crisis
Alternative Sources
Wind
Wind is a source of
cheap power for speeds
above 5m/s.
Some projects of
Alternative Energy
Development Board
50Kw at Nooriabad
WIND SYSTEM CAPITAL COSTS
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0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1989 1991 1993 1995 1996 2000
150 kW
225 kW
300 kW
500 kW
600 kW
1650 kW
c
a
p
i
t
a
l

c
o
s
t
s
(

$
/
k
W
)
capital costs include turbine, tower, grid connection, site
preparation controls and land
Advantages & Disadvantages
Available on large scale; supplemental power in windy areas; best
alternative for individual homeowner
Highly variable source; relatively low efficiency (30%); more power
than is needed is produced when the wind blows; efficient energy
storage is thus required
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Alternative Sources
Solar
Pakistan is an ideal country
for solar power.
Pakistan Council
for Renewable Energy &
Technology has conducted
substantial R&D.
Alternative Sources
Small Hydro Electric Power
Suitable terrains are
available
where this is a desirable
option
2 head, 250gpm, Produces
2,500watts
Immiscible Stream Power Generator
Only 13 head,12dia propeller,
Produces 200watts
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Garbage Power
Example: Fauji Cement
12t/hr
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Community Bio-Gas Plant
85cum
50 Farm families Gas:70cum/day Power:30KW
FORECASTED RENEWABLE COSTS
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Wind
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
PV
c
e
n
t
s

/

k
W
h
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
40
30
20
10
0
100
80
60
40
20
0
Biomass
Geothermal
Solar thermal
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
c
e
n
t
s

/

k
W
h
10
8
6
4
2
0
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
15
12
9
6
3
0
1980 1990 2000 2010 2020
all costs are levelized in constant year 2000 dollars
Source: NREL Energy Analysis Office (www.nrel.gov/analysis/docs/cost_curves_2002.ppt)
PERSPECTIVES
Understanding of the scientific principles underlying renewable resources is
essential
Awareness of the role that renewables can play is important
Challenges in the integration of renewables are major
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TOPICAL OUTLINE
Engineering aspectsof alternative source generation technologies:
thermodynamicsconsiderations;
solar resource and solar array systems;
wind resource and wind generation systems;
hydro, geothermal,
closed systemfuel cells;
role of power electronic circuitsin renewable technologies;
economicsof varioustechnologies;
environmental attributes CO2emissionsetc
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