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EXPERIMENT 5

CENTER OF GRAVITY AND EQUILIBRIUM


2F MT
Group 3
#15 Eroles, Ruzelle
#16 Espineli, Sharika Mae
#17 Fernando, Kamilah
#18 Galapon, Chester Bill
#19 Galinato, Jeana May
#20 Garcia, Jairish Keith

ABSTRACT
The center of gravity is the location of
the average position of the mass in the object.
In other words, it is the mean position of the
mass in a certain system. Another concept used
in this experiment is the concept of torque
which is the capability of rotating objects
around a fixed axis. When dealing with torques,
the concept of equilibrium is still present. An
object can be acted on by several torques at a
time. If the size and direction of the torques
acting on the object are exactly balanced, then
there is no net torque acting on the object and
the object is said to be in equilibrium. The
concepts of center of gravity, equilibrium and
torque is applied in this experiment. In set-up A,
the meter stick was put into equilibrium and
then adjusted in another manner in which the
point of support is placed in another location.
Then, using the weights, the set-up was brought
again into equilibrium by adjusting the weight
used in such a way that the meter stick would
again be balanced. This was performed in order
to observe how the weight of the beam on
which the forces act behaves like a force
concentrated at the center of gravity of the
beam. In set-up B, the initial system where the
point of support is measured and placed at
mark 30 cm then by placing weights 200 g, 100
g and 20 g at marks 10 cm, 20 cm and 90 cm
respectively. Lastly, by using a 50 g weight and
by positioning it at a certain point at the right
side of the set-up, the combination of the
weight and distance must bring the said set-up
to rotational equilibrium.
GUIDE QUESTIONS
1. Define the following:
a. the moment of a force
- The moment of a force, also called
torque, is the measure of a forces tendency to
produce torsion and rotation about an axis,
equal to the vector product of the radius vector
from the axis of rotation to the point of
application of the force and the force vector.
b. the center of gravity
- It is the point at which the entire
weight of a body may be considered as
concentrated so that if supported at this point
the body would remain in equilibrium in any
position.
2. Differentiate translational and rotational
equilibrium.
Translational equilibrium is a balanced
system in which it remains at rest and is not
moving in any direction along a plane. It relates
to any forces on any object. It is when all the
forces acting on a particular object add up to
zero and have no resultant force. Rotational
equilibrium, on the other hand, is a balanced
system in which it not moving clockwise or
counter clockwise and the total angular
acceleration is zero.
3. A uniform rod 1.00 m long weighs 150.0 N
and is supported on some fulcrum. Weights of
40.0 N and 50.0 N are suspended from the two
ends of the rod. Find the position of the fulcrum
if the system is in equilibrium.
0.5 + x
x

150 N
0.5 x

40 (0.5 + x) + 150 (x) 50 (0.5 x) = 0
20 + 40x + 150x 25 + 50x = 0
- 5 + 240x = 0
- 5 = - 240x
x = 0.0208 m
0.5 + x:
0.5 + 0.0208 m = 0.5208 m
0.5 x:
0.5 0.0208 m = 0.4792 m
4. A uniform rod 10.0 m long and weighing
150.0 N is supported horizontally by props P
and R a distance of 2.0 m and 8.0 m from one
end. Weights of 250.0 N, 100.0 N and 120.0 N
are attached at distances of 1 m, 7 m and 10 m
respectively from the same end. Find the force
on each prop.
F
1
=250 N F
3
= 100 N F
4
= 120
N
2 cm 5 cm 8 cm

1 cm P F
2
= 150 N 7 cm R 10 cm

P + R = F
1
l
1
+ F
2
l
2
+ F
3
l
3
+ F
4
l
4

If fulcrum is placed on R:
P = (250N)(7m) + (150N)(3m) + (100N)(1m) +
(120)(2m)
P = 2540 N
F
P
l
P
= 2540 N
F
P
(6m) = 2540 N
F
P
= 423.33 N
If fulcrum is placed on P:
R = (250N)(1m) + (150N)(3m) + (100N)(5m) +
(120)(8m)
R = 2160 N
F
R
l
R
= 2160 N
F
R
(6m) = 2160 N
F
R
= 360 N
CONCLUSION
From the experiment performed, the
relationship of equilibrium, torque and center
of gravity has been shown. Both set-ups
achieved equilibrium after adjusting certain
elements in the system. All objectives in the
said experiment were achieved.
SOURCES
https://www.udemy.com/blog/translational-
equilibrium/
http://www.merriam-
webster.com/dictionary/center%20of%20gravit
y
http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Moment+of
+force
http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-
12/airplane/equilibt.html

40 N 50 N