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Islam is The Religion of Peace

11/09/2006
Introduction
Terrorism is of two kinds: terrorism that is evil based upon wicked tyrannical acts, and
terrorism that is good and desired based on necessary and justified acts. The terrorism
that is evil is injustice, double standards, tyranny, and aggression, in all the hateful
connotations that these words imply. It targets women and children, civilians and non
combatants, trying to force defeat and difficult political decisions by spreading terror.
This kind is what most people immediately think about when hearing the word terrorism.
!ften people associate it with what they have been preconditioned to picture by various
government agencies and segments of the mass media. "uslims are routinely portrayed
as terrorists even though many are either totally innocent of the charge or are more
innocent than many of their antagonists who aggress against them. "uslim terrorism is
a media and think tank byword, even though one would be hard pressed to find the
e#uivalent term of $ewish, %hristian, &indu or 'uddhist terrorism in usage. %ertain
institutions and individuals with known agendas and backings have been instrumental
in fabricating and perpetuating misinformation, e(aggeration, and previously dis#ualified
and refuted misunderstandings and slanders.
The terrorism that is desired and based on necessary and justified acts is enforcing the
rule of just laws, providing fair punishments commensurate to the crimes committed, and
preparing and defending against attacks, aggression, and corruption. It is used against the
criminal evildoers themselves, and never targets women, children and noncombatants.
)e use the word terrorism here in a new and positive connotation, perhaps unimagined
by the reader. In this positive sense terror is rightfully struck into the hearts of the
evildoers, the enemies of *llah, as a deterrent so that they will fear a #uick and harsh
retribution for any evil acts they perpetrate or conspire to enact. In this sense only it is
termed terrorism, although just and beneficial terrorism condoned in principle as
legitimate by all universally. *llah +,)T- says in the "ajestic .ur/an about the justified
form of terrorism which we are speaking and which prevents and deters aggression:
+Make ready against them your strength to the utmost of your power, including
steeds of war, to strike terror into the hearts of the enemies of God and your
enemies, and others besides them whom you may not know but whom God knows
well. Whatever you spend in the cause of God will be repaid unto you, and you will
not be treated unjustly.- +0:12-
!ne might claim that we are using terror here in its linguistic meaning and outside the
scope of the technical legal definition of terrorism, but since that definition is hotly under
contention because no universally accepted standard has been agreed upon, since many
grievances against the hypocrisy and double standards of the major powers that are
coming more and more into light, and since might is still not considered legally right, the
point we are emphasi3ing is a return to universal common sense: terror can have a
negative and a positive sense according to circumstance and conte(t.
Terrorism invariably does not arise in a vacuum but in a historical conte(t of
persecutions, injustices, and grievances that build up over time to the point of e(plosion
and rebellion. * common form of undeniable terrorism is state terrorism, but this is often
purposely neglected or downgraded in legal and government sponsored e(aminations of
the issues surrounding terrorism for the simple fact that those who hold power often do
not wish that their institutional and party crimes are e(posed as crimes against humanity
and as incidents of state terrorism. That their agendas of labeling others but not their own
operatives as criminals and terrorists are not discovered. Is clandestine assassination and
murder a form of terrorism4 Is torture and rape a form of terrorism4 Is deliberate military,
political, economic and environmental sabotage resulting in mass death a form of
terrorism4 *re wholesale persecutions of one racial or ethnic group or one class with
lynching, killing and beatings of some others terrorism4 Is target bombing a form of
terrorism4 Is the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on major
population centers a form of terrorism4 )hat is justifiable collateral damage4 If these
acts are not terrorism, then what are they e(actly4 If they are not legal and justified, then
what do we call numerous e(amples around the globe during the 52
th
century of
unprecedented human wars and mass destruction4 )hat do they call the implemented
policies of what is coerced upon the world nowadays in this 56
st
century, and which some
neoconservative minded pundits call the 7roject 8or a 9ew *merican %entury, and
related 7*: *";<I%*9*4 "any difficult issues remain under investigation and
contention, and demand serious and reasonable answers from scholars and politicians
alike.
"any of the national and secular governments and systems claim to champion human
rights, peace, prosperity, and happiness for man, but in reality we see that they practice
narrow national and party politics meant to empower and enrich selected groups, and that
they are inherently fragmented and self contradictory by seeking to serve various special
interest groups while professing to serve the general public good. The legislations of
these regimes and agencies enact laws and policies that serve the interests of power and
wealth in their societies. The social, political, economic, and environmental conse#uences
of unchecked power and greed for profit and lu(ury is detrimental to the majority of
mankind and is leading humanity in general to irreversible devastation and destruction.
Islam, on the other hand, is a comprehensive and universal religion for all races and
classes of people not oriented to serve a specific category or group of people but specially
aimed to address the needs of all humanity with its moral, spiritual, social, legal, political
and economic systems. Its moral purity and clarity, simplicity in a strict monotheistic
creed and faith, and comprehensive prohibition of all types of criminality, oppression and
injustice appeals to all classes and categories of people, regardless of race, culture,
education, social and economic status. The aim of Islam is to establish the ideal human
society and brotherhood spreading general benevolence and the divine guidance among
men for their betterment and salvation. 7art of its mission is to establish justice at all
times and all levels, to maintain amicable relations even with potential enemies as long as
there are no open acts of hostilities, and to promote peace whenever possible. *llah the
*lmighty states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+It may be that God will grant love and friendship between you and those whom you
hold as enemies. For God has power over all things !nd God is Most Forgiving,
Most Merciful. God forbids you not, with regard to those who do not fight you for
your Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with
them" for God loves those who are just. God only forbids you, with regard to those
who fight you for your Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support others
in driving you out, from turning to them for friendship and protection. #hose who
turn to them $in these circumstances% do wrong.- +12:>?-
These verses call for peace with those that refrain from the hostile actions mentioned.
*nd *llah "ost =lorified said in &is "ajestic .ur/an:
+If they incline towards peace, then incline towards peace, and trust in God, for &e
is !ll'&earing and !ll'(nowing.- +0:16-
This verve states that whenever the enemy inclines towards peace it is incumbent on the
"uslims to incline towards peace.
It is hoped that researchers and scholars will investigate Islam and its laws and principles
with impartiality and thoughtful reflection. The true beauty and awesomeness of Islam is
only evident in fuller vitality to those who live by it and practice it, but all students can
admire just laws, universal brotherhood, noble and rational principles, and e(cellent
moral e(amples of purity, uprightness, truthfulness, generosity, courageousness, and
justice. !ne of the evidences of the greatness of this @ivine faith is that, regardless of the
weak support e(tended by the followers of Islam and the vast war waged against it by its
vicious critics and enemies, it has resisted corruption and distorting innovations, and
continues to spread on its own merits and values in the various parts of the world. )hat is
behind this e(pansion of Islam, despite the weaknesses of the "uslims, e(cept the
inherent strength of the truth and justice that by nature dissipates and con#uers all
falsehood and injustice4 In Islam people find full satisfaction that includes both their
spiritual and moral, and their physical and practical e(pectations and needs.
*s for the people who refuse to open their eyes, see, hear and investigate the truth, they
will undoubtedly remain mired in false desires, narrow biasness and ignorant prejudices.
* wellknown principle is that man by nature rejects that which he fears. &e fears that
which he is ignorant about, and therefore, makes enemies of what he does not know.
*llah has described them in the =lorious .ur/an saying:
+Many are the jinn and men We have made for Hellfire: they have hearts wherewith
they understand not, eyes wherewith they see not, ears wherewith they hear not. They
are like cattle. Nay! They are even more misguided. They are the heedless and
neglectful.- (7:179)
%attle follow blindly, but at least they follow the natural laws and instincts created by
*llah for their survival while many of men follow blindly custom and their leaders,
rejecting what Allah has revealed for mans own benefit and salvation As Allah
mentions:
+Nay! They say: We found our fathers following a certain religion, and we do guide
ourselves y their footste!s.-+AB:55-
I do hope and pray that *llah, the ;(alted, will bring benefit from what we read, hear and
say. !urs is a humble effort, presented with a pure intent, to contribute to the wealth of
human information and to advance understandings. The writer offers, in addition, an open
invitation to all those who are interested in learning more about Islam to communicate
with him at the address given, and would be delighted to answer all in#uiries about Islam
and provide additional literature on it.
The author e(presses his deep gratitude to *llah "ost ;(alted for &is continuing aid.
*ny and all shortcomings and omissions in this booklet are his for which he takes
responsibility, and re#uests from all the readers forgiveness, and seeks the pardon and
forgiveness from *llah the "ost "erciful.
"ay *llahCs 'lessings and "ercy be upon the 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- the final
7rophet and "essenger of *llah to mankind, and may the blessings and peace of *llah
also be upon his family and companions and all those who follow their guidance and the
footprints until the @ay of $udgment.
#he Meaning of Islam
The word Islam means submission to *llah the *lmighty, the %reator and Dord of all
creation, with the entire soul and body, by obedience to what &e commanded and
prohibited in &is <evealed Daw, by compliance and willful yielding of one/s will to &is
)ill and $udgments, and by acceptance of all that *llah has predestined for man on earth.
*llah is the "ost 'eneficent and "erciful who knows all man/s rightful needs, who
enjoins all that is good and warns against all that is evil. Thus &is revealed Daw is
perfectly suited to the universal needs, rights and responsibilities of man.
The *lmighty *llah states in the =lorious .ur/an in relation to 7rophet Ibraheem
+*braham- +*,-:
+"ehold! His #ord said to him: $umit. He said: % sumit to the #ord and &herisher of
the 'niverse.- (!:1"1)
The word ,alam means 7eaceE and is derived from the same *rabic threeletter root
)*M as the word Islam. ,alam is one of the *ttributes of *llah, blessed be &is 9ames
and *ttributes and ;(alted &is "ajesty, as the .ur/an states:
+(llah is He, there is no other god e)ce!t Him* the $overeign, the Holy +ne, the
$ource of ,eace -and ,erfection., the /uardian of 0aith, the ,reserver of $afety, the
1)alted in Might, the %rresistile, the $u!reme: /lory is to (llah! High is He aove the
!artners they attriute to Him.- (#9:!")
E,alamE is also one of the names of $annah +7aradise-. The *lmighty *llah states in the
=lorious"
+0or them will e a Home of ,eace with their #ord. He will e their 0riend, ecause
they !racticed righteousness.- ($:1!7)
The inhabitants of 7aradise will greet each other with E,alam when they meet their
Dord, *llah as he mentioned:
+Their salutation on the 2ay they meet Him will e 3,eace4 and He has !re!ared for
them a generous 5eward.- ("#:%%)
"uslims e(change the purified and noble greetings *s,alamu *laikum +7eace be
upon you- when they meet, when they pass by one another, when they call one another.
;ven when a "uslim enters his own home and finds no one there, he says as,alamu
*laikum since he offers this greeting upon the angels who are present in that place and
upon himself. This form of greeting helps to relieve the hearts from all forms of enmity
and grudges and rancor people may keep within them, replacing it with good will, mutual
respect, tran#uility, security and happiness. !ften "uslims greet one another by saying
the fuller version, which has been taught by the 7rophet of *llah: C*s,alamu *laikum
wa rahmatulClaahC i.e. May +eace and ,lessings of !llah be upon you, and &is
Mercy.
In the 7rophetic traditions +hadith- we find the words of the "essenger of *llah +pbuh-
which make the spreading of this greeting from among the traits of the perfection of faith:
6ou would not enter ,aradise until you ac7uire full faith, and you would not ac7uire
full faith until you love one another. $hould not % guide you to an action which if you
estalish among one another, you would love one another8 $!read the greeting of
3$alaam4 -,eace. as much as you can amongst yourselves -in the community..4
+"uslim-
*nd the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3+ffer food generously to others* initiate the greeting of 3!eace4 amongst yourselves
to those whom you know and those whom you do not know.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
The purpose of Islam is to continually seek to please *llah, the %reator and Dord of the
Gniverse, by universal good and righteous deeds. *llah says in his =lorious 'ook, the
.ur/an:
++ ,eo!le of the "ook! There has come to you +ur Messenger revealing to you much
that you used to hide in the "ook, and !assing over much -that is now unnecessary..
There has come to you from (llah a light and a clear "ook y which (llah guides all
who seek His !leasure to ways of 3salam4 -!eace and safety., leads them out of
darkness, y His Will, to the light, and guides them to a ,ath that is $traight.- (#:1#&
1$)
Islam comprises the complete comprehensive meaning of peace that includes the inner
personal and spiritual peace and the outer social peace. *s the "essenger of *llah +pbuh-
said:
3( true Muslim is the !erson from whom other Muslims feel secured against ause
and attacks from his tongue and hands, and a true immigrant is a !erson who forsakes
what (llah the (lmighty has declared unlawful.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
"oreover, it includes the global vision of general universal peace for all humanity, since
its basic principles include stability, mutual respect, and nonaggression to those who
abide peacefully to just terms, especially those who have the basic understanding of a
revealed religion from *llah as the basis of their civili3ation like the %hristians and $ews.
++ you who elieve ! 1nter into 3as9$ilm4 -the !eace of %slam y sumission to (llah.
com!letely and whole9heartedly, and do not follow the footste!s of the $atan, for he is
indeed an avowed enemy to you.- (!:!'()
)he invitation of *slam, Allahs universal religion, is e+tended to all Allah ,ost -+alted
said in .is ,ajestic /oo0:
+)ay $- Muhammad% .- mankind/ 0erily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of
!llah...- (7:1#()
And .e (12)) said:
+#ruly the religion before !llah is Islam.- +B:6?-
And .e (12)) said:
+!nd Whoever seeks a religion other than Islam, it will never be accepted of him,
and in the &ereafter he will be one of the losers.- +B:0H-
#he Misconception that Islam was spread by Force
!ne misconception, promoted by the enemies of justice who do not read of the historical
sources impartially but rehash old propaganda over and over again, is the false accusation
that Islam was spread by compulsion and coercion. Iarious scriptures from the "ajestic
.ur/an can rebut this vile slander.
Allah ,ost -+alted says in .is ,ajestic /oo0:
+#et there e no com!ulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from 1rror: whoever
rejects Taghoot -$atan, idols, tyrants, etc. and elieves in (llah, has gras!ed the most
trustworthy hand hold that never reaks. (nd (llah is (ll9Hearing, (ll9:nowing.-
+5:5H1-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+%f it had een your #ord;s Will, they all would have elieved, all the !eo!le on earth!
Will you then com!el mankind, against their will, to elieve/- +62:??-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+$ay, The Truth is from your #ord: #et him who will, elieve, and let him who will,
reject and diselieve. We have !re!ared for the wrongdoers a 0ire whose smoke and
flames, like the wall and roof of a tent, will overwhelm them. %f they im!lore for relief
they will e granted water like melted rass that will scald their faces. How dreadful a
drink! (nd how uncomfortale a couch to recline on/- +60:5?-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+"ut if they turn away, your duty is only to !reach the &lear Message.- +61:05-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+Therefore give admonition, for you are indeed one to admonish. "ut you are not one
to manage the affairs.- +00:5655-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+$ay: +ey (llah, and oey the Messenger: ut if you turn away, he is only res!onsile
for the duty !laced on him, as you are likewise res!onsile for the duty !laced on you.
%f you oey him, you shall e on right guidance. The Messenger;s duty is only to
!reach the clear Message.- +5A:HA-
And .e, the ,ost -+alted, says:
+%f one of the !agan idolators ask you for asylum, grant it to him, so that he may hear
the word of (llah, then escort him to where he can e secure. That is ecause they are
men without knowledge.- +?:1-
These and many other verses of the .ur/an and teachings of 7rophetic traditions make it
clear that no coercion or compulsion in religion is allowed: no one is ever to be forced
against his will to convert to Islam. 8aith must be by knowledge and free will and based
upon firm conviction in the heart, followed by the testimony of correct word and good
deed. * mere pronouncement on the lips of the creed of Islam, 1*! I*!&!
I**!**!&2 +There is no god worthy of being worshipped e(cept *llah alone- is not
enough to confirm one as a believer, even though, if said with the kernel of initial faith,
one immediately becomes a "uslim. *s *llah said about the 'edouins who professed
verbally without firm conviction:
+The desert (ras say: <We elieve.= $ay: <6ou do not yet have real 0aith, ut rather
say only: <We have sumitted to (llah -aslamna: we are Muslims.,= since 0aith has not
yet entered your hearts. "ut if you oey (llah and His Messenger, He will not slight
you -the reward. of your deeds: for (llah is Most 0orgiving, Most Merciful.- +A0:6A-
It is known that someone cannot be forced to change what is in the depths of his heart,
and that one may profess with his tongue what he dons not really believe with certainty:
this is not Islam nor Islamic faith. 8or this reason *llah said the following about the one
compelled under torture to renounce his faith in Islam:
+(nyone who utters words of diselief after acce!ting 0aith in (llah 9 e)ce!t under
com!ulsion while his heart remains firm in 0aith 9 such as one who o!ens his reast to
diselief, on them is Wrath from (llah, and there will e a dreadful ,enalty for them.-
+61:621-
@isbelief occurs by opening the heart to disbelieve willingly, and upon this basis, one
speaks evil and commits his criminal acts rebelling against *llah and the revealed
guidance of the "essengers and becomes an apostate after being a "uslim.
*nother accusation related to the above is that Islam was spread by force of arms and
warfare. It is an established fact that any system or government, regardless of its source,
re#uires a protective force to defend it adherents, preserve its values, spread its principles,
ensure a fair application of its law, and enforce the just e(ecution of legal penalties
against criminals and those who rebel against the system. *s reported in the tradition of
the 7rophet +pbuh-:
3Truly, (llah admonishes with the authority of the ruler, more than what He
admonishes with the 2ivine 5evelation of the >ur=an4 (ie more by enforcing the
3unishments justly than the 4od&consciousness from reading scri3ture) +al&indi, Jan3
ul*Kmaal-
Det us take a glimpse of the early days of Islam and its ama3ing spread over the known
world to analy3e the truth of this accusation in the light of documented historical fact.
The "essenger of *llah "uhammad +pbuh- after his commission from *llah to arise and
publici3e the divine message of Islam, remained in the sacred city of "akkah for thirteen
years inviting his people of the .uraish tribe and the visitors of "akkah to Islam. &e
engaged every possible way to inform and convey the message of the .ur/an and the
,unnah, encountering false accusations, slander, persecutions, harassment, boycotts,
threats, attacks, and brutal physical aggression from his people. Those who believed
shared in his sufferings, and since he was not yet commanded by *llah to meet violence
and aggression with armed defense, his followers persevered and suffered the harshest
forms of persecutions withholding their hands and adhering to the precepts of peaceful
missionary activity. "any were tortured and some were martyred for their faith in Islam,
and the accounts of these brave souls bear testimony to the long sufferings his followers
endured in this period of severe testing. The 7rophet soothed the wounds of his
companion *mmar ibn Lasir and his parents who eventually became the first martyrs of
Islam with the words:
3"e !atient, + family of 6aser! ,aradise will e your !ermanent aode4 +*l&akim-
The 7rophet +pbuh- allowed those of his followers that wished to immigrate to ;thiopia
to escape from this oppression and torture. They sought refuge under the tutelage of its
just ruler of the era, the 9ajashi, who eventually accepted Islam. ;ven in these dire
circumstances *llah the "ost )ise and "erciful commanded &is "essenger "uhammad
+pbuh- to be patient, forbearing and tolerant with his people while propagating the
message. There are repeated e(amples of his e(ceeding mercy, graciousness,
magnanimity, and compassion in the face of this continued violence and aggression. The
7rophet and his companions stood firm in their belief and conveyance of the message,
obeying the following command of *llah:
+Therefore !atiently !reserve, as did all the Messengers of infle)ile !ur!ose* and e
in no haste aout the diselievers. +n the 2ay that they see the ,unishment !romised
to them, it will e as if they had not tarried more than an hour in a single day. 6our
duty is ut to !roclaim the Message. None shall e destroyed e)ce!t those who
transgress.- +A1:BH-
*nd still he would pray for their guidance saying: 3+ (llah! /uide my !eo!le, for they
know not!4
The 7rophet +pbuh- continued to propagate the message in "akkah, and to seek out any
tribe that would be able to protect and aid him: he would present himself and his mission
to the visiting individuals and tribes in "akkah and at the times of the great *rab markets
and meeting places. Then it so happened that a group of the people of the city of Lathrib,
+nowadays known as "adinah, %ity of the 7rophet- believed in the "essage of Islam
and gave him their pledge of allegiance to support and defend him in the same way as
they would defend their own wealth, honor, integrity and household, if he were to seek
refuge and immigrate with his band of believers to their hometown. )his coincided with
the 3ersecution in ,a00ah reaching a grave critical stage, and the leaders of the 5uraish
tribe even cons3ired to murder the 6ro3het, may *llah/s peace and blessing be upon him.
The event of immigration was to be the watershed in Islamic history, for in "adinah the
7rophet/s first mos#ue was built, the brotherhood of "uslims e(panded and grew, and the
nascent Islamic state was established and developed under his direct guidance.
9ote that 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- and his followers never shed a drop of blood in
retribution throughout these long years of persecution and oppression in the city of
"akkah since he was not commanded to fight, but rather to be patient and persevere.
%onfrontation and armed hostilities from the "uslim side did not begin until two years
after his immigration from "akkah to "adinah, when the .uraish tribe feared for its
dominance and continued on the path of persecution and obstruction of the message of
Islam, and after all avenues of peaceful propagation were e(hausted.
,ince the town of "adinah was in route of the .uraish tribe/s merchant caravans to
=reater ,yria, the first act of confrontation occurred when *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-
engaged a commercial caravan lead by the .uraishi nobleman *bu ,ufyan. The 7rophet
+pbuh- intended to impose a kind of economic sanction on the tribe of .uriash to allow
him to peacefully propagate his faith to others in the open, and to compensate the
believers for the properties, possessions and wealth which were unjustly confiscated by
the .uraish in "akkah before the immigration. )he caravan escaped the ambush but
after learning about the incident the leaders of .uraish prepared a relatively large and
welle#uipped army to attack the "uslims. %onse#uently the first decisive battle took
place at 'adr, and the smaller and ill e#uipped "uslim force of B6B fighters crushed the
arrogant .uraish army with a humiliating and decisive defeat.
Allah ,ost -+alted and 1u3reme, describes the just rationale for this battle and those to
follow:
+-They are. those who have een e)!elled from their homes unjustly, only ecause they
say <+ur #ord is (llah.= %f (llah did not check one set of !eo!le y means of another,
many monasteries, churches, synagogues, and mos7ues, in which the name of (llah is
commemorated in aundant measure, would surely have een !ulled down. (llah will
certainly aid those who aid His cause. %ndeed (llah is 0ull of $trength, 1)alted in
Might. -They are. those who, if We estalish them in the land, estalish regular !rayer,
give regular charity, enjoin the right and forid the wrong. (nd with (llah rests the
end and decision of all affairs.- +55:A2A6-
*nd *llah, the ;(alted, says:
+(nd why shouldn=t you fight in the cause of (llah, and for those who, eing weak, are
!ersecuted and o!!ressed8 Men, women, and children, whose cry is: <+ur #ord!
5escue us from this town, whose !eo!le are o!!ressors, and raise for us, from
6ourself, a !rotector, and raise for us, from 6ourself, a hel!er!- +A:>H-
*nd *llah, the ;(alted, says:
+Fight in the cause of !llah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits for
!llah loves not transgressors.- +5:6?2-
In all the battles fought and all the victories that *llahCs "essenger and his companions
achieved within the period of twentythree years of the 7rophet/s mission in "akkah and
then in "edinah, only three hundred and seventy five people were killed in this fighting.
In the ninth year of the &ijra +Immigration- known as the Lear of @elegations, the
7rophet +pbuh- met with about a hundred various delegations from tribes over the entire
*rabian 7eninsula to confer and negotiate with the 7rophet +pbuh-. &e met them with
generosity and magnanimity and replied to all their #uestions and concerns about the
Islamic %reed +*#eedah- and Daw +,hari/ah-. The majority of them were suitably
impressed by the call of the 7rophet +pbuh- and they accepted Islam. The "essenger of
*llah +pbuh- also sent letters to the leaders of the surrounding regions calling them to
accept the "essage of *llah as will be mentioned below.
In the 7rophet/s lifetime and soon afterwards, the entire *rabian 7eninsula was for the
first time in its history unified in one just and egalitarian rule of law and divine religion.
The majority of *rabs accepted Islam willfully in droves after hearing the .ur/an, seeing
the e(ample of the 7rophet in his ,unnah +)ay- and his companions, and witnessing the
Islamic system, with only a few holdouts among some $ewish and %hristian pockets,
allowed to remain within the Islamic ,tate on their old faith by contract stipulating
specific rights and obligations and the payment of the 7i8ya ta( in lieu of the state/s
protection and not participating in military service. Indeed this revolutionary change was
a miraculous achievement considering the meager material means by which it took place
and its lasting worldwide effect, and *llah "ost =reat gives success to whom &e will.
The rightlyguided %aliphs, companions and righteous predecessors followed the
e(ample of the 7rophet +pbuh- after his demise, defending the Islamic ,tate from its
enemies, con#uering the surrounding tyrannical empires which threatened their e(istence
and spreading Islam by the 3eal of their faith and missionary activity and with their
e(cellent upright morals and just relations. These individuals were, by no standards, e#ual
in number or war e#uipment, preparations, and professional military skills, to the people
they van#uished, but the vitality of their divine faith and mission and moral superiority of
their characters con#uered the common people/s hearts and minds before there was a
need to van#uish the corrupt tyrannical armies whose oppression of the masses was
unbearable.
!ne of the new converts to Islam in our time, 'asheer *hmad, said in reflection on this
issue: 1-ne of the most pu33ling 4uestions to me, and one of my most serious
concerns prior to accepting Islam and embracing it as a way of life, was that we
5hristians claim that Islam spread by the edge of sword. #herefore, I posed the
following 4uestion to myself" If that claim is true, why, then, do we notice that many
people, in every corner of the world, still adhere to Islam and embrace it, join it, and
accept it as a way of life6 Why do we notice people come to join Islam daily, without
any compulsion or force by anyone62 M7araphrased from @r. Imaddu@een Jhalil:
)hat @o They ,ay about Islam4 p.5?HN
9orman *. @aniel says on the origins of the fabrication of this myth 17 West formed a
more or less invariable canon of beliefs about Islam it decided for itself what Islam
was... #he important thing was it suited the West... it gave 5hristendom self'respect
in dealing with a civili3ation in many ways its superior.2 MIslam and the )est: The
"aking of an Image, p. 5>2N
@e Dacy !CDeary comments on this fallacy: 1&istory makes it clear, however, that the
legend of fanatical Muslims sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the
point of sword upon con4uered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths
that historians have ever repeated.2 MIslam at the %rossroads, Dondon, 6?5B, p. 0N
Dr. Gustav LeBon states in his book 15ivili3ation of the !rabs 8p.9:;<9:=>"
1...force was never a factor in the spread of the Koranic

teachings, and
that the Arabs left those they had subdued free to exercise their
religious beliefs. If it happened that some Christian peoples embraced
Islam and adopted Arabic as their language, it was mainly due to the
various kinds of justice on the part of the Arab victors, with the like
of which the non!oslems were not ac"uainted. It was also due to the
tolerance and leniency of Islam, which was unknown to the other
religions.2 M7araphrased from @r.Imaddu@een Jhalil: )hat @o They ,ay about
Islam4 p.B6AN
He also says: #$the early Caliphs$ were remarkably kind in the way they
treated the peoples of %yria, &gypt, %pain and every other country they
subdued, leaving them to practice their laws and regulations and beliefs
and imposing only a small 'i(ya in return for their protection and
keeping peace among them. In truth, nations have never known merciful
and tolerant con"uerors like the Arabs.)
If Islam did spread as a conse#uence to the wars imposed on the "uslims from those
enemies threatening their survival, and the con#uests of these oppressive and corrupt
regimes that followed conse#uently, is this uni#ue and unknown in history, especially
when compared to other civili3ations4 )hat is truly uni#ue of the Islamic con#uests is
that they are generally liberation from oppression, as in the famous answers that the
companions of the 7rophet +pbuh- gave to the ;mperor of 7ersia when he asked them
what had brought the "uslims to their lands, as mentioned in the history books: 1!llah
has sent us to take whoever wishes from the slavery of mankind to other men, to the
servitude and worship of !llah, from the confines of this world to the e?panse
$which Islam brings to this world and the &ereafter%, and from the injustice of the
ways of life $of the worldly rulers% to the justice of Islam.2 Msee Ibn Jatheer, 'idayah
wa 9ihayahN.
In direct contrast to the many e(amples of massacres, rapes and pillaging, and injustices
in history mentioned in the preface, we do not find comparable accounts in the history of
these early Islamic con#uests.
Thomas %arlyle, in his famous series of lectures, commented on the spread of Islam with
the following words: 1Much has been said of Mahomet@s propagating his Aeligion by
the sword. It is no doubt far nobler what we have to boast of the 5hristian Aeligion,
that it propagated itself peaceably in the way of preaching and conviction. Bet with
all, if we take this for an argument of the truth or falsehood of a religion, there is a
radical mistake in it. #he sword indeed" but where will you get your sword/ Cvery
new opinion, at its starting, is precisely in a minority of one. In one man@s head
alone, there it dwells as yet. -ne man alone of the whole world believes it there is
one man against all men. #hat DheD take a sword, and try to propagate with that,
will do little for him. Bou must first get your sword/ -n the whole, a thing will
propagate itself as it can. We do not find, of the 5hristian Aeligion either, that it
always disdained the sword, when once it had got one. 5harlemagne@s conversion of
the )a?ons was not by preaching. I care little about the sword" I will allow a thing to
struggle for itself in this world, with any sword or tongue or implement it has, or can
lay hold of. We will let it preach, and pamphleteer, and fight, and to the uttermost
bestir itself, and do, beak and claws, whatsoever is in it very sure that it will, in the
long'run, con4uer nothing which does not deserve to be con4uered. What is better
than itself, it cannot put away, but only what is worse. In this great Euel, Fature
herself is umpire, and can do no wrong" the thing which is deepest'rooted in Fature,
what we call DtruestD, that thing and not the other will be found growing at last.2
MO&eroes, &ero )orship, and the &eroic in &istory,/ Decture 5, 8riday, 0th "ay 60A2N
In comparison to the above, let us take some passages from the &oly 'ible and read what
the $ews and %hristians hold as sacred and divine guidance about the conduct of war, and
which has lead them in times of their e(pansions and con#uests.
)e read in the 'ook of @euteronomy:
19GHWhen thou comest nigh unto a city to fight against it, then proclaim peace unto
it.99H!nd it shall be, if it make thee answer of peace, and open unto thee, then it
shall be, that all the people that is found therein shall be tributaries unto thee, and
they shall serve thee.9:H!nd if it will make no peace with thee, but will make war
against thee, then thou shalt besiege it" 9IH!nd when the *-AE thy God hath
delivered it into thine hands, thou shalt smite every male thereof with the edge of the
sword"9JH,ut the women, and the little ones, and the cattle, and all that is in the city,
even all the spoil thereof, shalt thou take unto thyself and thou shalt eat the spoil of
thine enemies, which the *-AE thy God hath given thee.9KH#hus shalt thou do unto
all the cities which are very far off from thee, which are not of the cities of these
nations.9LH,ut of the cities of these people, which the *-AE thy God doth give thee
for an inheritance, thou shalt save alive nothing that breatheth" 9;H,ut thou shalt
utterly destroy them namely, the &ittites, and the !morites, the 5anaanites, and the
+eri33ites, the &ivites, and the Mebusites as the *-AE thy God hath commanded
thee72 M@euteronomy 52: 626>N.
!n the con#uest of the city of $ericho and the fate of the indigenous inhabitants therein
we read: E#he people called and used the trumpets so the wall fell in its place, they
entered the city and murdered all its people, males, females, children, and the old
people, even the cows, goats, and donkeys, using swords.N MLushaC 1P52N
In the towns of "u#eideh and Dabneh, they did the same as in $ericho. MLushaC 62P50N.
* perple(ing passage of the =ospel of "athew on a statement of $esus +*,- reads:
1#hink not that I am come to send peace on earth, I came not to send peace, but a
sword.N M"att. 62:BHB>Q and compare Duke 55:B1N
)hat is this sword4 )ho has the authority to raise it4 This is not clear and is hotly
contested. 7erhaps it will be raised upon his second coming. Gntil %onstantine the early
%hristians were a persecuted minority apparently committed to nonviolence and waiting
for his imminent return, but thereafter, when Trinitarian %hristianity became the official
state religion in the era after %onstantine, the sword was welded by the ,tate, and
%hristian rulers down through history conducted numerous wars and con#uests in the
name of religion. The %hristian principle of obedience to any authority in power is based
upon the purported statement of $esus +*,- to 1render unto 5aesar.2 This was
increasingly e(tended by the %hristian theologians to rationali3e and legitimi3e the right
of divine rule and then, even national and secular rule, on the basis of 7auline doctrine as
enshrined in his decree: 1Cveryone must submit himself to the governing authorities,
for there is no authority e?cept that which God has established. #he authorities that
e?ist have been established by God.2 M+9II- <omans 6B:6N
The statements and facts above will be compared with some of the guidance from *llah/s
'ook, the .ur/an, and the )ay of the 7rophet, the ,unnah, to provide more proofs that
indeed Islam is the religion of peace, despite the fact that some disobedient "uslims have
distorted, by word and deed, the image of Islam, and despite the venomous propaganda,
slander and ridiculous misinformation fabricated and distributed by the enemies of Islam
in their crusades against Islam and the "uslims.
)e do not deny that aberrations and injustices took place occasionally by some of the
"uslims, but the general sweep of historical trends is our evidence, as noted above. *nd
along these lines it may be pertinent to mention a couple more e(amples, since they show
a general pattern. The %hristian con#uerors of $erusalem slaughtered all of its $ewish and
"uslim inhabitants, whereas the recon#uest of $erusalem by ,alahudeen al*yubi stands
as a noteworthy e(ample of magnanimity and generosity. )e also have the contrast of
*ndalus +"uslim ,pain- and *natolia +*sia minor-. The %hristians e(pelled the "uslims
and $ews from ,pain or put them to the sword or forced them to convert to %hristianity
during the infamous In#uisition, the paradigm of the treatment of "uslims under
%hristian rule. In the same era when the "uslims mostly of Turkish stock con#uered
what is now Turkey, they were comparatively much more tolerant, and to this day the seat
of the ;astern !rthodo( %hurch remains in Istanbul +the con#uered %onstantine-. The
noted !rientalist ,ir Thomas *rnold rejects this malicious propaganda about Islam
saying: Rof any organi3ed attempt to force the acceptance of Islam on the non"uslim
population, or of any systematic persecution intended to stamp out the %hristian religion,
we hear nothing. &ad the caliphs chosen to adopt either course of action, they might have
swept away %hristianity as easily as 8erdinand and Isabella drove Islam out of ,pain, or
Douis :II made 7rotestantism penal in 8rance, or the $ews were kept out of ;ngland for
BH2 years. The ;astern %hurches in *sia were entirely cut off from communion with the
rest of %hristendom throughout which no one would have been found to lift a finger on
their behalf, as heretical communions. ,o the very survival of these %hurches to the
present day is a strong proof of the generally tolerant attitude of "uhammadan MsicN
governments towards themE M,ir Thomas ). *rnold: The 7reaching of Islam, a history of
the propagation of the "uslim faith, )estminster *. %onstable F %o., Dondon, 60?1, p.
02N
The unfortunate reality of history is that ;uropean rather than Islamic historical treads
have come to dominate the world, and that the reactions against the incessant religious
wars among the %hristian sects of ;urope created the seedbed for the rise of modern
;uropean secularism, humanism, nationalism, atheism, and godlessness, and we see that
these trends are the roots of the major political and socioeconomic plagues ravishing
mankind to this day.
#he Misconception that Worldly Gains were the !im of
the Islamic 5on4uests
* third and related accusation is that the swift Islamic con#uests, which startled the
known world and by which the "uslim faith was able to spread ;ast and )est, were
primarily only for war booty, worldly pleasures, fame and glory.
Det us present some facts about the biography of the 7rophet +pbuh- and about Islamic
principles from the historical record. The 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- at the beginning of
his mission as the 7rophet and "essenger of *llah was approached by his people in every
possible way and by every possible means to back off and abandon his %all to Islam
besides their other attempts by open persecution and oppression to thwart his mission
mentioned earlier. The 7rophet +pbuh- was asked by the .uraish leaders: If you need
3ossession and dominion over all the Arabian 6eninsula, we ensure this for you *f you
need marriage, we offer you, freely, to marry the most beautiful virgin girl in the Arabian
6eninsula9 )he 6ro3het (3buh) was offered e+cesses of wealth that no one ever dreamed
of in the Arabian 6eninsula, but he denied this offer as well )he Arab leaders 5uraish
made all their offers with the condition that he ceases calling to his religion of *slam and
ceases castigating and e+3osing as foolish their 6agan beliefs in idols and su3erstitions
)he 6ro3het:s (3buh) sim3le, direct and honest re3ly to all their tem3ting and lucrative
deals was full and final rejection ;ne famous narration of the words of the 6ro3het
(3buh) is recorded as follows:
3"y (llah! %f they were ale to !lace the sun in my right hand and the moon in my left
hand in order to !ressure me to aandon the call for this mission, % would not. % will
never surrender, nor acce!t their re7uests, -ut will continue on my mission. until
either this &all -of the religion of %slam. ecomes !redominant and widely acce!ted
and !racticed in the (raian ,eninsula, or my head is removed of my ody.4 <Ibn
&isham, The 'iography of "uhammad +pbuh- vol.6, p.6>2N
*nother fact worthy noting is that the letters that the 7rophet +pbuh- sent to the prominent
kings, governors and rulers of neighboring countries were very clear in allowing them to
keep their positions of leadership, dominations, and possessions if they accepted Islam
and preserved peace and justice.
8or instance, the following famous letter to &eraclius, ;mperor of <oman F 'y3antine
;mpire reads as follows.
1I begin with the name of !llah, the 5ompassionate and Merciful.
From" Muhammad, the slave of !llah and &is +rophet to &eraclius $the ruler at
that time%. +eace be on him, who follows the right path. I invite you to accept the
Message of Islam. If you desire security, accept Islam. If you accept Islam, !llah
shall reward you doubly and if you refuse to do so, the responsibility for the
transgression of the entire nation shall be yours. M*llah the *lmighty saysN:
+$ay: + ,eo!le of the "ook! &ome to common terms as etween us and you: that we
worshi! none ut (llah* that we associate no !artners with Him* that we erect not,
from among ourselves, #ords and !atrons other than (llah. %f then they turn ack,
say: "ear witness that we are Muslims -who sumit to (llah;s Will..- +B:1A- +'ukhari
F "uslim-
The companion *nas +<*- reported that:
3(llah;s Messenger -!uh. was never a!!roached to give a reward to a !erson who
acce!ted %slam, ut condoned it. +nce, a man came and asked for something if he
acce!ted %slam. The ,ro!het -!uh. offered him -from the %slamic treasury. a herd of
shee! that was gra?ing in a valley etween two mountains -at Madinah.. (s such, the
man who received the reward went ack to his !eo!le and told them, + My !eo!le!
(cce!t %slam, as Muhammad -!uh. gives such rewards that the reci!ient will never
fear !overty. @(ll the !eo!le related to this man acce!ted %slam and joined the
MuslimsA. (nas -5(. continued in his re!ort saying: <( man would acce!t %slam only
for materialistic gains, ut as soon as he would feel the sweetness of %slam, the faith
would ecome dearer to the heart of such !erson, more than the entire world and its
!ossessions.=4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
DetCs also e(amine the amount of wealth that the 7rophet +pbuh- left behind as inheritance
after his death. *mr bin al&arith +<*- reported:
3The ,ro!het -!uh. u!on his death left no dirham or dinar -denominations of
money., slave, maid or anything else, other than his white mule, his wea!on, and a
!iece of land which he had declared as a charity for Muslims.4 +"uslim-
In fact the 7rophetCs personal armor was bonded to a $ew as a pawn against a
measurement of barley for his familyCs food at the time of his death. &ow could any
sensible person, then, accuse a man like the 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- of being
infatuated with materialistic gains and possessions, ephemeral status and glory4
;mperors, nationalistic leaders, their generals and warriors seek after glory, land and
booty, but the facts above prove that the aim of the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- was to
spread the religion of Islam to mankind by peaceful means for their benefit, and leave
them alone in earning their livelihood and fulfill their material needs as they please
within the boundaries of Islam.
The companions of the 7rophet +pbuh- and the followers in truth, show by e(ample of
their righteous, upright and ascetic way of life, that they were not after worldly
possessions and the fleeting pleasures of this life.
@uring the 'attle of Ghud, the 7rophet +pbuh- commented: 3/et u! to gain ,aradise
which is as s!acious as all the heavens and earth !ut together!4 * man named !mair
bin al&emam +<*- heard the 7rophetCs +pbuh- statement. *s such, this man raised the
#uestion to *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-: 3; 6ro3het of Allah= >id you say the reward is
6aradise, which is as wide as the heavens and earth 3ut together= )he 6ro3het (3buh)
answered 3ositively )he ?om3anion said: :/a0hin, /a0hin=:<1@ )he 6ro3het (3buh)
as0ed the man: 3What urged you to say what you said84 )he man re3lied: A; 6ro3het of
Allah= )he only ho3e * entertain is to be one of the dwellers of this 6aradise= )he
6ro3het (3buh) said: 3$urely, you are one of the dwellers of this ,aradise.4 B3on
hearing such a word from the 6ro3het (3buh), the man got few dates out of his bag to eat
before the fight began /ut, the man threw the dates in the air and uttered, /y Allah= *f *
lived to finish eating these dates it would be a very long life= .e rushed to fight the
enemies of *slam with all his might until he was 0illed9 +"uslim-
,haddad bin al&adi +<*- reported that a 'edouin came to *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- and
e(pressed interest in Islam. The 'edouin soon embraced Islam. The 'edouin e(pressed
his interest to *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- to immigrate with him to "adinah. *s such,
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- asked "uslims to take care of the 'edouin, Mwhich they didN.
The "uslims fought a battle against the pagans and as a result, they won some war booty.
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- distributed the booty among his %ompanions. The 'edouin was
given a share of the booty due to his participation in the fight. The 'edouin asked, C)hat
is this for4C *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- stated, O#his is a share of the booty for your
participation in the fight.C
The 'edouin uttered, CI did not give you my pledge of allegiance for worldly gains. In
fact, I followed you and embraced Islam hoping that an arrow of the enemy would hit my
throat, then I would die, then I would be rewarded with 7aradise.C *llahCs "essenger
+pbuh- commented on the statement of the 'edouin, OIf you are truthful with !llah,
surely !llah would fulfill your desire.O Dater on, a battle was fought, the 'edouin was
found dead with an arrow in his throat. &e was carried forward and brought before the
7rophet +pbuh-. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- in#uired, CIsnCt he the same 'edouin4C The
people answered affirmatively. The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said,
O0erily this man was truthful with !llah. #herefore, !llah Most C?alted is #ruthful
with him.O
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- gave his cloak to be used as a shroud for the martyred 'edouin.
The funeral was brought forward and they offered a funeral prayer for his soul, using the
following supplication for the soul of the martyr:
3+ (llah! This is 6our slave, who immigrated for 6our cause. He was killed as a
martyr. % am a witness for that.4 +9isaaCe-
The incident is a testimony for this man and his likes who refused to accept his entitled
share of the war booty seeking complete sincerity in his desire for the reward from *llah
alone.
Gmar bin *lJhattab +<*- the famous rightlyguided %aliph and %ompanion of the
7rophet +pbuh- whose con#uests reached into vast areas in the known world including the
<oman and 7ersian empires, heard his stomach growl due to lack of proper diet. Gpon
hearing the growl of his own stomach, Gmar +<*- e(claimed, ; ,y dear stomach, growl
or be still= /y Allah= Cou would not get 3ro3erly filled until all ,uslims have enough to
eat (and enjoy a 3ro3er diet)9 +'aiha#i in al,unan, ?PA5N
The booty and spoils of warfare the early "uslims gained by their con#uests were
sufficient to let them lead a prosperous and gracious life, but the real motive behind the
con#uests was to call other peoples to the )ord of *llah and the religion of Islam, proven
by the fact that the con#uered peoples were given the freedom of choice to accept Islam
as a religion and way of life, and if they did, they would be entitled to all the rights of the
other "uslims. This e#ualitarian and universal approach was unknown in the world at
that time built upon racial and national empires where some were privileged nobles and
the rest were secondclass citi3ens at best and more probably servants, slaves and feudal
serfs. If the con#uered people rejected Islam, and remained upon the religion but they did
not declare war against the "uslims, they were re#uired to pay the 7i8yah +&ead Ta(- a
symbolic amount of ta( in e(change for the protection of their lives, properties and
wealth guaranteed and secured by the Islamic state. *dditionally, payers of the head ta(
would enjoy all public facilities offered and maintained by the Islamic state and were not
re#uired to pay any additional ta(es whereas "uslims, on the other hand, were re#uired
to pay the Sakah +obligatory charity on accumulated wealth, the sum of two and half
percent of their annually accumulated funds or a specified amount of agricultural and
husbandry produce-. Sakah is often much more than what the amount of the head ta( is
annually. If the non"uslims in a con#uered land refuse to accept either option, and
choose to remain belligerent, war would be waged against them in order to deliver the
"essage of Islam to the people in general. The essential reason for waging a war against
other non"uslims is the fact that, some inhabitants of such nonIslamic countries may,
embrace Islam, have they known its principles and mission. 8or this essential and noble
objective, *llah Jnows best, Islam imposes on "uslims to wage wars in order to deliver
the "essage of *llah to the non"uslims.
!ne of the greatest generals of Islam, namely, Jhalid bin al)aleed +<*-Q the most
famous and successful general of the early "uslims, e(pired while he owned only a
horse, a sword, and a servant. )here could any one find a trace of materialistic life in the
inheritance of such a great "uslim general and warrior4
The books of the Islamic history are replete with numerous narratives of men of this high
caliber that confirm that worldly gains were not the objective of the early "uslims,
rather, they hoped for the reward from *llah the "ost =enerous and 'ountiful for their
sincerity in calling to Islam, the divine religion of guidance from *llah. *s was revealed
and promised by the 7rophet +pbuh- like when he said:
3%f a single soul, male or female, is guided through you to %slam, it is etter for you
than the choice red camels -of the world, i.e. the most !ri?ed !ossessions of the
(ras..4 +"uslim F others-
There are many reliable accounts of early "uslims willingly giving up their entire wealth
and life savings as charity upon their conversion to Islam. The early members of the
.uraish tribe were noteworthy in this regard. !thers were deprived of their wealth
because their families boycotted them in anger for their embracement of Islam. !thers
had all their possessions confiscated upon immigration to "edina. !thers were e(tremely
involved in the work of Islamic propagation and gave their time and wealth to this
activity. To site one e(ample, in the major and decisive battle of 9ahawand, a companion
of the 7rophet +pbuh- named an9uCman bin "u#rin al "o3ani +<*- offered the
following supplication, ! *llahT &onor and =lorify Lour @ivine religion, and make
those victorious who believe in Lou. C! *llahT Det me be the first to be martyred in the
battle. ! *llahT =rant my eyes the true pleasure to see the best con#uest that grants honor
and dignity to Islam. ! peopleT 7ut faith in *llah, &e will certainly shower you with &is
"ercy. @o you see any materialistic greed and desire for personal glory in this
supplication4 The main objective is surely to seek the 7leasure of *llah and the sincere
wish to call others to accept Islam for their own benefit.
The <uler of ;gypt, the "u#aw#is, sent his messenger to the "uslim =eneral, *mr bin
al*as +<*- who con#uered ;gypt. The "uslim =eneral was holding the 'abylon
fortress in siege. The ;gyptian <uler asked his spy to report on what they observed. They
all had a consensus on their observation. They said, )e have noticed that they prefer
death over life. They prefer to be modest and humble, rather than proud and arrogant. )e
have noticed that they have no interest among them in worldly gains and possessions.
They sit on the floor, and their leader sits like one of them. 9o one could differentiate
between the leader and the led, the master and the slave. They are almost alike,
irrespective of their ranks.
These and many more e(amples show that accumulation of the spoils of war and self
aggrandi3ement were not the objectives of early "uslims, rather the 3eal of the mission
of Islam to guide mankind propelled them from their native homeland to the surrounding
areas, carrying with them the universal message of Islam.
Must War #heory and +ractice in Islam
Islam, as we e(plained earlier, is a divine religion of submission to *llah and &is
revealed guidance for man, which seeks peace and teaches mercy. *lthough Islam calls
for peaceful interactions with all peoples of all countries, engagement in war may become
necessary at times as a final remedy. *llah has limited the application of the times to go
to war to five situations. It is not called war but $ihad according to Islamic terminology,
meaning to strive and e(ert one/s utmost effort to the cause of *llah. The essential
difference between war and $ihad is that the objective of $ihad is to defend the "uslims
and allow their right to deliver the Islamic invitation to Islam, and to spread the universal
message of the @ivine )ord of *llah, "ost ;(alted and *lmighty. *s for war, it may be
for defense against aggression, a legitimate reason within certain conditions, but in broad
and general historical terms it most often is waged as an aggression and for unjust
personal and national vendettasQ for imperial, colonial and corporate e(pansion and
hegemonyQ for the control, e(ploitation, plunder and theft of material and human
resourcesQ or for mere fame, glory and arrogance. Islam does not condone any of the war
objectives and above purposes and considers them all illegitimate and worthy of just
retribution. There are only five legitimate reasons for $ihad, as follows:
6. @efense against attack upon life, property, wealth and honor of the "uslim nation and
national borders. This is based on the verse revealed in the =lorious .urCan:
+0ight in the cause of (llah those who fight you, ut do not transgress limits* for (llah
does not love the transgressors.- +5:6?2-
This is also based on the tradition of the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- who said:
1Whoever is killed while attempting to protect his belongings is a martyr whoever
is killed while attempting to protect himself is a martyr whoever is killed while
attempting to protect his religion is a martyr and whoever is killed while
attempting to protect his family is a martyr.2 +Tirmidhi, *bu @aUood, 9isaa/I F Ibn
"ajah-
5. @efense against oppression or those assisting in the oppression of the weak and
defenseless. $ihad in this type has a clear obligatory humanitarian objective. *llah, "ost
"ajestic, states in &is =lorious .ur/an:
+(nd why shouldn=t you fight in the cause of (llah, and for those who, eing weak, are
!ersecuted and o!!ressed8 Men, women, and children, whose cry is: <+ur #ord!
5escue us from this town, whose !eo!le are o!!ressors, and raise for us, from
6ourself, a !rotector, and raise for us, from 6ourself, a hel!er!- +A:>H-
This command to resist aggression and persecution is also based on the verse revealed in
the =lorious .ur/an:
+Those who elieved, immigrated, and fought for the 0aith, with their !ro!erty and
their !ersons, in the cause of (llah, as well as those who gave them asylum and aid,
these are all friends and !rotectors, one of another. (s to those who elieved, ut did
not immigrate -in the cause of (llah.* you do not owe them the duty of !rotection until
they come into e)ile* ut if they seek your aid in religion, it is your duty to hel! them,
e)ce!t against a !eo!le with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance. (nd
rememer that (llah sees all that you do.- +0:>5-
B. In retaliation to the breach and violation of solemnly concluded covenants, pacts and
treaties. This is based on the verse revealed in the =lorious .ur/an that states:
+"ut if they violate their oaths after their covenant, and taunt you for your 0aith, fight
the chiefs of diselief: for their oaths are nothing to them: that they will henceforth e
restrained. Will you not fight !eo!le who violated their oaths, !lotted to e)!el the
Messenger, and took the aggressive y eing the first to assault you8 2o you fear
them8 Nay! %t is (llah Whom you should more justly fear, if you truly elieve!- +?:65
6B-
A. @isciplinary actions against those "uslims who aggress and start hostilities without
any just cause, and continue obstinately on the path of aggression as *llah the *lmighty
states:
+%f two !arties among the "elievers fall into a 7uarrel, make !eace etween them: ut
if one of the !arties transgresses eyond ounds against the other, then fight against
the one that transgresses until it com!lies with the &ommand of (llah. %f it com!lies,
make !eace etween them with justice, and e just and fair: for (llah loves those who
are just and fair.- +A?:?-
This type of jihad proves that the purpose of jihad is always for law and justice since it is
waged even against "uslim criminals.
H. 8or the spread of religion of Islam when peaceful means are impossible. This type is
only in the last resort after a series of peaceful contacts proves to the "uslim ruler that
peaceful means have become impossible. The first step is an invitation to allow the
peaceful preaching of Islam, following the practice +sunnah- of the 7rophet +pbuh- when,
as mentioned above, he had sent letters to the surrounding rulers inviting them to Islam.
If the ruler refused this invitation, he and his people are offered the option of becoming
dhimmees, that is, people of the protected non"uslim community governed by its own
religious laws but obliged to abide by the general Islamic laws to maintain law, order and
security, and to pay the 7i8ya ta( in lieu of performing military service. !nly when the
non"uslims refused these conditions were their grounds for the commencement of open
battle for the fact that they oppose the peaceful propagation of Islam. The "uslims are
re#uired to wage $ihad against those who not only reject Islam/s universal message for
mankind that *llah alone is worthy of worship and 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- is &is
"essenger but also stop or curtail the spread of this universal message and its
propagation by peaceful means. Islam is the universal faith and religion of *llah, the
%reator *nd Dord V,ustainer of mankind, and therefore is not for any specific people but
for all men who should be able to learn about Islam and have the chance to submit to
*llah willfully: acceptance of Islam and conversion is not the mission or objective that
"uslims seek because guidance is only in the &ands of *llah, "ost )ise and ,ublime.
*ll people must have a chance to hear about the goodness, justice, brotherhood, love,
e#uality and peace and all that Islam teaches. The 'enevolent and *lmighty Dord of "an
states in &is =lorious .ur/an:
+(nd fight them until there is no more tem!tation, strife or o!!ression, and there
!revails justice and faith in (llah altogether and everywhere. "ut if they cease, verily,
(llah sees all that they do.- +0:B?-
If at any time the enemies of Islam and the "uslims cease their hostilities and
aggressions and sue for or accept just terms of peace, "uslims are obliged to stop the
state of war, start negotiations, and it becomes unlawful for them to pursue any course of
warfare against them. *llah, the )ise and !mniscient, said:
+1)ce!t those who join a grou! etween whom and you there is a treaty -of !eace., or
those who a!!roach you with hearts restraining them from fighting you as well as
fighting their own !eo!le. %f (llah had willed, He could have given them !ower over
you, and they would have fought you: therefore if they withdraw from you and do not
fight you ut instead send you guarantees of !eace, then (llah has o!ened no way for
you -to continue the war against them..- +A:?2-
The causes of legitimate warfare are thus identified above, and other verses in this
conte(t are as follows:
*llah, the =reat, said:
+#hey ask you concerning fighting in the )acred Months. )ay" .Fighting therein is a
great $transgression% but a greater $transgression% in the sight of !llah is to prevent
mankind from following the Way of !llah, to disbelieve in &im, to prevent access to
the &oly Mos4ue $in Makkah%, and to drive out its inhabitants and fitnah
$temptation, worship of idols, and civil strife% is worse than killing.- +5:56>-
*llah, the =reat, says:
+!nd fight them until there is no more fitnah $disbelief and worshipping others
besides !llah% and $all and every kind of% worship is for !llah. ,ut if they cease, let
there be no transgression e?cept against the tyrants.- +5:6?B-
*llah, the ;(alted, says:
+#hose who believe fight in the Way of !llah, and those who disbelieve fight in the
Way of Taghoot $)atan, idols, tyrants%. )o fight you against the followers of )atan"
Indeed the plot of )atan is feeble.- +A:>1-
*ll other types of wars, as mentioned above, resulting in destruction and great loss of life
and property, are banned and declared unlawful and aggression in Islam. )ars waged to
arrogantly demonstrate force and supposed superiority, as with those rationali3ed as pre
emptive strikes, are also prohibited in Islam. *s *llah, the ;(alted, says:
+(nd e not like those who started from their homes in arrogance and insolence and to
e seen of men, and to hinder men from the !ath of (llah: for indeed (llah
encom!asses around all that they do.- +0:A>-
*lthough Islam permits fighting for the necessary reasons mentioned above, it lays down
strict rules and regulations for the conduct of warfare on both the leaders and the soldiers,
the mujahideen, and directs all to observe the noble Islamic manners and ethics even in
this most difficult of times. The "uslim fighters are permitted to target and kill only
those who fight against them or assist and support other fighters in the battlefield. *s for
the elderly people, minors, women, sick, wounded, or those who isolate and seclude
themselves in worship by belief in nonviolence, all these categories of people who are
noncombatants are not to be targeted, killed, molested or even bothered in any manner
by "uslim fighters. It is prohibited to kill an enemy soldier fighting against "uslims
wounded and fallen on a battlefield as well. Islam bans mutilation of the bodies and
cadavers of all killed enemies. 8urthermore, Islam bans the killing of the enemiesC
animals, and the destruction of their agriculture and dwellings and infrastructure, e(cept
in certain circumstances necessary for the immediate battle. *dditionally, Islam prohibits
intentional pollution of the water sources of the enemies and their wells. Islam considers
all the aforementioned items as acts leading to the disruption of the society and
unnecessary hardship on the common people.
$ihad in Islam is a means to allow the peaceful spread of the )ord of *llah and the
message of Islam. *s *llah states in &is =lorious .ur/an, the intention of this life for a
"uslim is to seek the life of the &ereafter through good deeds:
+"ut seek with that which (llah has estowed u!on you, the Home of the Hereafter,
and do not forget your due !ortion in this World. 2o good as (llah has een good to
you, and do not seek occasions for mischief in the land. %ndeed (llah does not love
those who do mischief.- +50:>>-
8rom among the many teachings and guidance from *llahCs "essenger (3buh) to the
mujahideen, are the following:
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- stated that there is only one legitimate intention for jihad,
when he said:
3He who strives and fights in order to make the Word of (llah the Most $u!reme is the
one who strives and fights for the cause of (llah.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
)hen a woman was found killed in one of these battles, the "essenger of *llah (3buh)
mentioned that this one was not fighting and forbade the killing of women and children.
+"uslim-
&e also gave the following instructions:
3"egin your fight with the Name of (llah against those who declare the state of
diselief in (llah. 0ight against them, ut do not reach your contracts or covenants.
2o not mutilate the odies of the fighters killed. 2o not kill a newly orn ay.4
(,uslim)
*nd he said:
1Go forward in the name of God. Eo not kill an elderly person, or a child, or a
woman, and do not transgress.2 +"alik F *bu @awood-
The eminent companion, *bu 'akr as,iddee# +<*- the first "uslim %aliph of the
Islamic ,tate, gave the following advice to the "uslim army he deputed saying: 1Wait
before you leave. I would like to give you the following advices" Eo not betray or act
treacherously Eo not steal from the war booty before its proper and lawful
distribution Eo not breach your pledges and covenants with your enemies Eo not
mutilate the bodies of the killed fighters Eo not kill a little, minor child, a woman,
or an elderly man Eo not cut or burn a palm tree 8or any other tree for any reason>
Eo not cut a fruit'bearing tree Eo not slaughter a sheep, a cow or a camel, e?cept
for your food Bou may come across people who seclude themselves for the worship
of God, leave them alone. Eo not bother them or cause any disruption to their lives.
M<eported by atTabari, Iol.B, p.551, and othersN
,imilarly, "uslims must declare war prior to the beginning of the fight. This is because
"uslims are neither betrayers, nor dishonest fighters. Islam imposes some of the best of
war ethics and morals onto the "uslim fighters. Islam re#uires full adherence to justice
and no oppression to the fighting enemies.
Gmar bin *bdul*3i3, may *llah have mercy on him, one of the early Gmayyad "uslim
%aliphs, was approached by a delegation of fighters of the city of ,amar#and who
complained about the "uslim leader, .utaibah, who had taken them by a surprise attack.
The %aliph sent a letter to the governor of the concerned area commanding him to assign
a judge to investigate this matter, and if the judge deemed that "uslims should get out of
the city and leave it for any breach of trust, they must comply with the judgment. The
governor of ,amar#and assigned a judge named $omaiC bin &ader al'aji who passed his
verdict that "uslims should leave the city which they had con#uered. The "uslim army
commander must first declare war openly and with a proper proclamation, prior to
invading the land and launching their attack upon the people of ,amar#and, give them a
chance to prepare themselves for the fight and to know the reasons for the attack. The
people of ,amar#and seeing the just dealing of the "uslims, decided against restarting
hostilities and accepted the terms of Islamic rule. M,ee: E8utuhal'uldanE %ountries of
the %on#uests, by 'alathuri, p.A50N
*s with reference to captives and prisoners, always a sensitive and divisive subject
between warring parties, Islam strictly forbids intimidation, torture, mutilation, or
starving them to death. Indeed, feeding them is a virtue, the reward of which is with *llah
as he says:
+(nd they feed, for the love of (llah, the indigent, the or!han, and the ca!tive,
-$aying.: We feed you for the sake of (llah alone, and we do not desire from you
reward nor thanks.- +>1:0?-
The Islamic leader reserves the full freedom to release the prisoners of war free without
ransom, set terms for their ransom, or release them in e(change for the release of "uslim
prisoners of war. This is based on the verse revealed in the =lorious .ur/an:
+Therefore, when you meet the diselievers -in warfare., smite at their necks. (t length,
when you have thoroughly sudued them, ind a firm ond -on them if ca!tured alive..
Thereafter -you may dis!ose of them. either y your generosity or through ransom 99
until the war lays down its urdens -y !eace treaty.. Thus -you are commanded., ut
if it had een (llah;s Will, He could certainly have e)acted retriution from them
-Himself.* ut -He lets you fight. in order to test you, some y means of the others.
Those who are slain in the way of (llah, He will never let their deeds e lost.- +A>:A-
*s for the defeated non"uslim residents of the con#uered countries, the people of the
'ook like the %hristians and $ews, were treated with respect, and their integrity, dignity
and honor was maintained, their wealth and properties secured from aggression and
unjust confiscation. They and their women were never molested or unduly humiliated in
any manner, way or means. The homes and dwellings for their families were left
unharmed. In summary they were dealt with fairly and justly. Their originally divine faith
was honored and dignified, and if they chose to remain upon it they were responsible to
respect and obey the Islamic tenants and religion, and maintain obedience to the public
good, security and rule of e#uitable law. This is based on many verses and teachings,
including what *llah said as follows:
+-They are. those who, if We estalish them in the land, estalish regular !rayer and
give regular charity, enjoin the right and forid wrong: with (llah rests the end -and
decision. of -all. affairs.- +55:A6-
!ne of the best evidences reflecting these teachings is the e(ample set by Gmar bin al
Jhattab +<*- the second "uslim %aliph of the Islamic ,tate, and the con#ueror of the
<oman and 7ersian empires, to the inhabitants of $erusalem *elia upon entering it as
victorious. Tabari reported that he wrote to them as follows:
NI begin with the Fame of !llah, the Most 5ompassionate and Most Gracious. #his
is the covenant of security granted by the slave of !llah, OPmar the 5ommander of
the Faithful, to the people of !elia. &e, hereby, guarantees the security of their
persons and property, their churches and crosses, the little and the great and all
adherents of the 5hristian religion. It is prohibited that their churches be inhibited
or demolished or diminished as regards with the church itself or its domain. For
may their crosses be impaired or any of their properties in any manner. #hey should
not be coerced to abandon their faith and none of them may be harmed. Fo Mews are
permitted to live with them in !elia. Ppon the people of !elia falls the obligation to
pay the ji?ya, as is the case with the people of MadaOin, as well as evict from their
midst the ,y3antine. Whoever of these who leaves !elia will be granted security of
person and property until he reaches his destination. Whoever decides to stay in
!elia will also be granted the same, and share with the people of !elia in their rights
and pay ji3ya. #he same applies to the people of !elia as well as to any other person.
#hose who would like to march with the ,y3antines may go and those who would
like to return to their people will not be bound to pay anything until they reap their
harvest. !llah attests to the content of this treaty, and so do &is +rophet, his
successors and the believers. #his is witnessed by (halid Ibn !l'Walid, O!mr Ibn
!l'O!as, !bdur'Aahman Ibn !l'O!wf and MuOawiyah Ibn !bi )ufyan. C?ecuted in
the year 9K &ijri.N
,urely, there is nothing comparable in recorded history of mankind. )e believe that this
is the best form of nobility, justice and tolerance from the con#uerorCs side towards the
van#uished. "ost con#uerors strip the defeated people from all rights, freedoms and
honor, including the right to a decent life, subjugating them to labor as slaves or second
class citi3ens and serve the con#uerors/ interests. Gmar bin alJhattab +<*- could have
easily dictated harsh terms and conditions against the defeated %hristians and $ews at the
time, but followed the lead of the 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- in his generosity and
magnanimity when he con#uered "akkah after years of dealing with their treacherous
warfare of the "edinan period and the bitter persecution of the "akkan period of his
mission. This justice aimed at the noble goal of propagating the word of *llah and not
gaining personal or national advantage. These e(amples, among others, illustrate the
justice, tolerance, and beauty of Islam, the divinely revealed religion of *llah for
universal and just peace. The laws of *llah, the *lmighty, must apply to all people
without any e(ception or favoritism.
9on"uslims living under the Islamic rule are obligated to pay the 7i8yah +Chead ta(C-
which is a minimal, symbolic amount imposed on the non"uslim residents who
willingly choose to maintain their previous faith and life under the government of the
Islamic ,tate. The basis of this is found in the verse of *llah:
+Fight against those who do not believe in !llah, nor in the *ast Eay, nor forbid that
which has been forbidden by !llah and &is Messenger, nor acknowledge the religion
of truth, from among the people of the )cripture, until they pay the ji?ya with willing
submission and feel themselves subdued.- +?:5?-
This ta( is of three types as calculated by the currency of the time:
W The head ta( of the rich and the affluent people. This is estimated as fortyeight dirhams
of silver taken from each individual annually.
W The head ta( of the middleclass individuals such as merchants, businessmen, and
farmers. This is estimated as twentyfour dirhams of silver taken from each individual
annually.
W The head ta( taken from the laborers and craftsmen who are in business. This is
estimated as twelve dirhams of silver taken from each individual annually.
The 7i8ya ta( is imposed on the non"uslims living in the Islamic ,tate as a sign of
submission to the Islamic ,tate, as a symbolic payment for the guarantee that their honor,
integrity, wealth and life will be protected by the Islamic government against e(ternal
enemies and internal violations, and because they are e(empted from serving in the
military. This protection includes all rights and obligations as specified and agreed upon
contractually. In comparison "uslims have additional duties, including the obligation to
serve in the military when re#uired, and to pay the Sakah +obligatory alms- and other
forms of sada#ah +charity-.
Jhalid bin al)aleed +<*- one of the most renowned "uslim war generals, in one of his
contractual pledges to the non"uslims living in the Islamic ,tate said: 1I have given
you my pledge of trust to accept your head ta? and in return, to protect you against
all possible odds $that we protect ourselves against%. If we succeed in offering you
the protection we would take the head ta?. If not, then you would not have to pay it
until we can provide you such protection.2 +'alathuriCs history-
D. Ieccia Iaglieri, in her book entitled @efending Islam says: 15on4uered people by
Islamic governments were given full freedom to maintain and preserve their faith
and traditions provided that individuals who elect this option and do not accept
Islam as a way of life, would pay a fair head ta? to the Islamic government. &ead
ta? was less than what Muslims pay to their government. Fon Muslims, residing
under Islamic ruled state, paid such ta? in e?change for the general blanket
protection offered by the Islamic government e?tended for its own people.2
!ne must remember that the three types of the ji8ya ta( calculated above were for the
earning members whereas other classes of the non"uslims namely the poor, needy,
minors, women, the monks, priests, or rabbis, the permanently disabled, and the blind
were e(empted entirely from the payment of this head ta(, and their protection, needs and
general welfare was undertaken free of cost by the Islamic Treasury.
8or e(ample, Gmar bin alJhattab +<*- was sitting once when an old $ew passed by
asking people to give him charity. Gmar +<*- asked about the welfare of the individual
and was informed that the man was living as a non"uslim under the rule of the Islamic
state and protection, paying head ta(. Gmar +<*- declared: 1We have not been fair to
you/ We have imposed head ta? on you and charged you such ta? when you were
young and able, and now we are not providing you with the proper social care and
welfare $when you are old and disabled%.2
*s a result, Gmar took the man to his own home, fed him and offered him proper
clothing. *nd thereafter he commanded the "uslim Treasurer: CDook into the case of this
man, and those of similar situation, and give them a sufficient income from the Islamic
Treasury, along with their families. *llah, the *lmighty, stated in &is .ur/an
+(lms are for the !oor and destitute* the needy* those em!loyed to administer the
-funds.* those whose hearts have een -recently. reconciled -to the truth.* those in
ondage* and in det* in the cause of (llah* and for the wayfarer: -thus it is. ordained
y (llah, and (llah is full of knowledge and wisdom.- +?:12-
The poor are the "uslims. The needy are the 7eople of the 'ook. M*bu Lousef, al
Jharaj, p.651N
In Jhalid bin al)aleed/s pledge +<*- to the non"uslims of al&eerah, in Ira#, the
following was written: 1!ny non'Muslim living under the protection of the Islamic
state who grows old and becomes unable to work, or becomes a terminal patient, or
becomes broke and bankrupt in such a manner that he would be entitled for charity
by his own peopleOs faith, will no longer be re4uired to pay the head ta?. )uch
individuals will be provided for their essential needs from the Islamic #reasury,
along with their families2 M*bu Lousef, *lJharaj, p.6AAN
Dis Dictenstadter, a =erman scholar, in her book titled, Islam and the "odern *geE,
states: 1#he option given to the people of +ersia and Aome or the West, during the
time of the spread of Islam, was not to be killed by the sword or accept Islam. In
fact, the option was either to accept Islam as a way of life, or else to pay the head ta?
$in e?change for protection%. #his is a praiseworthy plan which was applied later on
in Cngland during the rein of Queen Cli3abeth.2 MIslam and "odern *ge, p. 1>. ,ee
also, *hmad ,halabi, %omparative <eligious ,tudies, vol. B, p.6>AN
9on"uslims living under the rule of the Islamic state are fully entitled for full protection
and respect for their rights. *llah the *lmighty states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+It may be that God will grant love and friendship between you and those whom you
hold as enemies. For God has power over all things !nd God is Most Forgiving,
Most Merciful. God forbids you not, with regard to those who do not fight you for
your Faith nor drive you out of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with
them" for God loves those who are just. God only forbids you, with regard to those
who fight you for your Faith, and drive you out of your homes, and support others
in driving you out, from turning to them for friendship and protection. #hose who
turn to them $in these circumstances% do wrong.- +12:>?-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
N#he one who wrongs a covenanter or impairs his right or overworks him or
forcibly takes something from him, I will be his prosecutor on the Eay of Ae4uital.N
+*bu @awood F 9asa/ee-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
N#he one who kills a covenanter will never smell the scent of heaven and its scent is
found at the distance of forty years.2 +'ukhari-
In summery we #uote from )ill @urant about this much maligned ji8ya, who #uotes from
the !rientalist )elldiorant: The people of dhimma: %hristians, Saradishts, $ews and
,abiCaQ enjoyed a degree of tolerance during the Pmayyad rule which can never be
assimilated to 5hristian countries nowadays. They were free to practice their rituals.
They maintained their churches and synagogues and the only obligation was that they
should wear a special color and pay ta( for every person pro rata his income. This sum
ranged between two and four dinars. This ta( was e(clusively levied on non"uslims
who can go to war. &owever priests, women, children, slaves, elderly men, the
disabled, the blind and the destitute were e?empted from the ta?. >himmis were
e(empted from military service in return. They were also e(empted from 3akat which is
5.HX of the annual income and the government was bound to protect them. M&istory of
%ivili3ation, vol.65, p6B6N
Islamic +rinciples Cnjoin Mercy and 5ondemn !ggression
The @ivine religion of Islam is a religion of peace, mercy, tolerance, kindness and
benevolence. It stands upright against all brutality, wanton violence, and viciousness in
order to promote and protect justice and peace. *llah, the "ost 'enevolent urged all
"uslims to follow the pattern of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- as follows:
+%t is !art of the Mercy of (llah that you deal gently with them. Were you severe or
harsh9hearted, they would have roken away from aout you. $o !ass over their faults,
and ask for (llah;s forgiveness for them* and consult them in the affairs. Then, when
you have taken a decision, !ut your trust in (llah. 0or (llah loves those who !ut their
trust in Him.- +B:6H?-
*llah the )ise and ,ublime characteri3es the mission of "uhammad +pbuh- as a mercy
to all, when &e said "ost ;(alted:
+We have not sent you but as a Mercy for all creation.- +56:620-
The teachings of Islam call all "uslims to show mercy and kindness to every innocent
and poor person. The 7rophet of *llah +pbuh- said:
3The merciful and kind !eo!le will receive the Mercy of the Merciful #ord, (llah, the
(lmighty. "e merciful to !eo!le on earth, and (llah, the (lmighty, Who is in Heaven,
will grant you His Mercy.4 +Tirmidthi-
In another version he said:
3(llah, the (lmighty, would e Merciful to the merciful !eo!le. "e merciful to those on
earth, and the +ne in Heaven would e Merciful to you.4 +Tirmidthi F *bu @awood-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3"eing kind to others is good in every matter, and if kindness is removed -from the
hearts of !eo!le. the situation ecomes ad and worst4 +"uslim-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said: N&e who is deprived of forbearance and
gentleness is, in fact, deprived of all good.N +"uslim-
The 7rophet +pbuh- said:
NWhenever forbearance is added to something, it adorns it and whenever it is
withdrawn from something, it leaves it defective.N +"uslim-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said to *shaj *bdul.ais +<*-:
NBou possess two 4ualities that !llah loves" clemency and tolerance.N +"uslim-
8urthermore, Islam re#uires that mercy and kind treatment be meted out to all people,
even to the enemies of the "uslims captured during the jihad, as in the command of the
7rophet of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- when he said: 3"e kind and merciful to the
ca!tives4 Msee *l"uCjammalJabeer, The =rand @ictionary of &adith. 55PB?BN.
If the 7rophet +pbuh- commanded this command to "uslims concerning the hostile
enemies who are fighting against them, then the treatment towards the peaceful people
would naturally be even better. 9ever is any life to be taken unjustly. *s *llah said:
+For take life, 'which !llah has made sacred', e?cept for just cause. !nd, if anyone is
slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority $to demand >isas or to forgive%"
but let him not e?ceed bounds in the matter of taking life for he is helped $by the
law%.- +6>:BB-
"ore on this topic will be presented below, but here let us note that Islamic mercy and
kindness, not to mention the prohibition of taking life unjustly, is not limited to human
beings but includes animals and all living creatures as well.
The 7rophet of *llah +pbuh- noticed someone shooting a little bird for fun and then
leaving it to die for no reason, whereupon he said:
3This little ird would su!!licate its case efore (llah the (lmighty on the 2ay of
5e7uital, saying <+ My #ord! This man killed me for no reason to enefit y my death
-like hunting for food which is allowed..=4 +*hmed F 9asa/ee-
The companion *bdullah ibn Gmar +<*- is reported to have passed by a group of young
men from the tribe of .uraish who had captured a bird and set it up as a shooting target.
&e said: C)ho placed this bird as a shooting target4 "ay *llahCs %urse descend on the
person who did thisT The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3(llah the (lmighty curses the !erson who ca!tures and sets any living creature as a
shooting target4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- commanded "uslims to show kindness in every action, even
when slaughtering an animal, by the words:
3(llah, the (lmighty, !rescries !erfection in every action. %f you kill, e !erfect in
your killing. %f you slaughter an animal for meat, !erfect your act of slaughtering.
$har!en your knife and e good, kind, and merciful to the animal you are aout to
slaughter. /ive the slaughtered animal the est comfort you can while eing
slaughtered.4 +"uslim-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3While a man was on a tri! in the wilderness he ecame e)tremely thirsty. He searched
for water and found a well and managed to go to the ottom of the well to get to the
water. $ince he had nothing to reach the ottom from the to! where the water was he
suffered a great deal to reach down ut eventually managed to 7uench his thirst and
came out of the well. '!on reaching the surface he found a dog with his tongue
stretched out from severe thirst. The man thought to himself: <This dog is certainly
suffering the same hardshi! % suffered from his severe thirst.= Therefore the man went
down the well again, holding one of his shoes y his teeth, filled the shoe with water
and rought it ack u! to the thirsty dog. The dog drank and went away. (llah, the
(lmighty, a!!reciated the action of this man and forgave his !revious sins.4
;ne of the audience, who heard the statement of the 6ro3het (3buh) enDuired, ;
,essenger of Allah= 2ould we be rewarded for being 0ind and merciful to animalsE
Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) asserted:
3Truly there is a lessed reward for eing kind and merciful to every living creature
that has a moist liver.4 +'ukhari-
%onversely a woman deserved the penalty and the wrath of *llah, the *lmighty, and was
to become one of the dwellers of the 8ire of &ell, as a result of her cruelty to a cat.
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- is reported to have said:
3( certain woman would ecome a dweller of the 0ire of Hell as a result of cruel
treatment of a cat. $he tied the cat u! and did not offer it food nor let it hunt for it from
the to! from the to! s own food in the surroundings4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
The list of the 7rophetCs +pbuh- commands to "uslims to be kind, merciful, and
kindhearted even to animals is endless. )e only cited above few e(amples. ,ome other
e(amples are as under:
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said while passing by a donkey that had been tattooed on its
face:
3May (llah;s &urse descend on the !erson who !laced this tattoo on the face of the
donkey.4 +"uslim-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- is reported to have said while passing by a camel that appeared
e(tremely thin from hunger:
3"e mindful and honor the &ommandments of (llah concerning these animals, which
can;t e)!ress their needs y s!eech. 5ide them while you kee! them in good sha!e, and
slaughter and eat them while you kee! them in good sha!e.4 +*bu @aUood-
If such was the mercy and kindness to animals and living creatures, what about the
human being, who is given preference, honor and respect over all other creatures of
*llah/s creation4 The !mniscient and *lmighty *llah honored man above all others, and
enumerated &is bounties to mankind:
+We have honored the sons of (dam and !rovided them with trans!ort on land and sea,
given them for sustenance things good and !ure, and conferred on them s!ecial favors,
making them to e aove a greater !art of +ur &reation.- +6>:>2-
Indeed by obedience to *llah and the guidance revealed to &is "essengers, man is
honored, but by disobedience he falls into disgrace and dishonors himself by shameful
and obno(ious deeds.
Islamic General +rinciples 5hampion 5omprehensive +eace
8or peace to be true and comprehensive it must encompass all spheres of human activity
fulfilling the needs of life in a balanced and just manner. Islamic laws and teachings
include the following principles, legal precepts and guidance presented as e(amples
only all which aim at promoting such a universal and just peace.
'R Aespect for the human life
Islam values all human life, and for its protection imposes the death penalty M5isaasN for
premeditated and intentional murder of an innocent soul. *ccidental and unintentional
killing has a different penalty, which is called >iyyah +bloodmoney-, defined as a pre
determined sum of money, given to the heirs of the person killed, as a compensation
money. This bloodmoney is by no means an e#ual for the loss of the person killed, but it
is rather a financial compensation for the harm they suffer as a result of the loss of their
loved one. *tonement +0affarah- is to be performed by the killer by emancipation of a
slave, or observing a continuous fast for two consecutive months to e(piate the sin of his
mistake. If the murderer cannot observe this fast for a legitimate reason, he is obliged to
feed si(ty poor people a reasonably sufficient meal. This atonement is an act of worship
by which the sinner seeks pardon and forgiveness from *llah "ost "erciful for his
unintentional sin of killing a human soul. *ll this is done to demonstrate the sacredness of
human life. Islam prescribes the severe penalty for killing a human soul intentionally
since if a potential killer reali3es that he or she will be killed in retaliation and penalty for
the crime, perhaps they will think twice before committing murder. If the penalty were
anything less than strict retribution, the criminals would continue boldly in their crimes.
The same applies to all capital and corporal punishments, called .udood +castigatory
punishments- in Islam.
%apital punishments in Islam are efficient and effective just penalties and successful
deterrents for a very essential and noble reason to preserve and maintain security of the
human life, as *llah, the "ost wise and *lmighty states in &is =lorious .ur/an:
+%n >isaas -#aw of 17uality in 5etriution. there is #ife for you, + men of
understanding, that you may restrain yourselves -from transgression..- +5:6>?-
*nd *llah "ost 'eneficent said:
+-n that account" We ordained for the 5hildren of Israel that if any one slew a
person ' unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land it would be as
if he slew the whole people" and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the
life of the whole people. #hen although there came to them -ur prophets with clear
signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit e?cesses in the land. -
+H:B5-
8urthermore, the hardened unrepentant criminal is threatened with the everlasting penalty
in the &ellfire, a permanent abode of humiliation and endless torture, under the )rath of
*llah, the *lmighty, in the &ereafter. *llah, the )ise and *lmighty states:
+%f a man kills a "eliever intentionally, his recom!ense is Hell, to aide therein
-forever., and the wrath and the curse of (llah are u!on him, and a dreadful !enalty is
!re!ared for him.- +A:?B-
*bu 'akrah +<*- narrated: I heard *llah/s "essenger +pbuh- saying:
1When two Muslims fight $meet% each other with their swords, both the murderer as
well as the murdered will go to &ell'fire.2 I said: ! *llah/s "essengerT It is all right
for the murderer, but what about the murdered one4 *llah/s "essenger replied: 1&e
surely had the intention to kill his companion.@2 +'ukhari-
!f course if one sincerely repents then *llah/s "ercy and 8orgiveness encompasses all
sinners.
'R C4uality of human status
*ll humans are innately e#ual and this applies to both male and female alike. )hen
*llah, the *lmighty, created the first human, *dam +*,- our great grandfather and the
father of entire humanity he also created our grandmother ;ve. Thus humanity is
essentially one family and of one race from this honorable couple. &umans became
distinguished thereafter by their belief and obedience or their disbelief and disobedience.
*llah, the *lmighty, states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+- Mankind! 5evere your /uardian9#ord, who created you from a single ,erson and
created its mate, and from the two of them scattered countless men and women* fear
(llah, through Whom you demand your mutual rights, and reverence the woms -that
ore you., for (llah is ever watchful over you.- +A:6-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3(ll !eo!le are the children of (dam and (dam is created from the dust.4 +*hmed-
,ince dust is of different colors and traits, man also developed into different colors and
traits.
The 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh- said:
1!llah has relieved you from the burden of ignorance with its pride in the fathers
and the ancestors. Bou are all from !dam, and !dam is from dust. #here is no
difference between an !rab and a non'!rab, or between a black man and a red man
e?cept in piety.2 +*bu @awood-
*ll humans initially believed in the common faith of Islamic monotheism as revealed to
*dam, and spoke the same common language. *s *llah the *lmighty states in &is
"agnificent .ur/an:
+Mankind was ut one 'mmah -nation and community. ut differed -later.. Had it not
een for a -definite. Word that went forth efore from your #ord, their differences
would have een settled etween them.- +62:6?-
%onse#uently man began to differ and the reasons for their differences include:
multiplication of their numbersQ emigrations to various areas of the earthQ divergence of
colors and other features of the human subgroups developing through time by
environmental stimulus etcQ development of local languages and dialects and many other
factors.
,ince Islam regards each human being, regardless of race, color, language, creed, faith,
religion, or home country on an e#ual footing with other human beings in the trait of
humanity, all human beings are e#ual before the Daws of *llah, the *lmighty:
++ mankind! We created you from a single -!air. of a male and a female, and made
you into nations and tries, that ye may know each other -not that ye may des!ise each
other.. Berily the most honored of you in the sight of (llah is -he who is. the most
righteous of you. (nd (llah has full :nowledge and is well9ac7uainted -with all
things..- +A?:6B-
*nd in the traditions we read that *ishah, *llah be pleased with her, reported: The
.uraish were much worried about the case of a "akh3umiyah woman who had
committed theft and wondered who should intercede for her with "essenger of *llah
+pbuh-. ,ome said Gsamah bin Said +<*- was his beloved and thus he may dare do so.
,o Gsamah +<*- spoke to him about that matter, and the 7rophet +pbuh- said to him,
1!re you interceding when one of the penal codes ordained by !llah has been
violated62 Then he got up and addressed the people saying: 1#he people before you
were ruined because when a noble person amongst them committed theft, they
would leave him, but if a weak person amongst them committed theft, they would
e?ecute the legal punishment on him. ,y !llah, were Fatimah, the daughter of
Muhammad, to commit the theft, I would have cut off her hand.O2 +'ukhari F
"uslim-
*ll human beings are also e#ual in terms of basic freedom and responsibilities. Gmar bin
alJhattab +<*- made an elo#uent statement on this fact some fourteen centuries ago
when he declared to a sinning "uslim who arrogantly had wronged a non"uslim:
&ave you enslaved some people though their own mothers gave birth to them free4
Therefore, every human being, in the sight of Islam, is entitled to the following types of
freedom, mentioned in brief e(amples as follows:
' Freedom of thought and opinion. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- commanded the "uslims,
to declare the truth, e(press honest opinion, and refrain from intimidating others as he is
reported to have said:
3( !erson who knows the truth and does not declare it, is a mute devil4 +Tirmidhi-
' Freedom of access to benefit from the wealth, minerals, and natural resources of
the earth. The *lmighty *llah states:
+%t is He Who has made the earth manageale for you, so traverse through its tracts
and enjoy of the $ustenance which He furnishes. -6ou will return. unto Him for the
5esurrection.- +1>:6H-
' Freedom of access to lawful income and ownership. Islam encourages all to work in
beneficial trades and have a free access to lawful income. 8or instance in inheritance
*llah, the *lmighty, states:
+0rom what is left y !arents and those nearest related, there is a share for men and a
share for women, whether the !ro!erty e small or large, a determinate share.- +A:>-
' Freedom of learning and teaching. Islam advocates the freedom of learning for
every member in the society. The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3$eeking knowledge is an oligatory duty u!on every Muslim4 +'aiha#i-
In fact, Islam classifies the act of monopoli3ing essential, useful and Islamic knowledge,
concealing it from others, and not sharing it with them, an unforgivable act that renders
the doer to be the recipient of the )rath of *llah, the *lmighty, and &is 7enalty. *llahCs
"essenger +pbuh- is reported to have said:
3( knowledgeale !erson who is asked to share his knowledge with others ut refuses
to do so and hides his information would have a harness of fire !ut on him on the 2ay
of 5e7uital4 +*bu @awood F Tirmidthi-
' Freedom of access to entitlement for leadership position in the society, if he
possesses the necessary 4ualifications. *bility and efficiency are the main criteria
re#uired for holding leadership position in the Islamic society, as opposed to color and
race, for instance. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- is reported to have said:
3%f a !erson is assigned the charge of the Muslim affairs, then a!!oints a !erson on
favoritism irres!ective of his 7ualifications, he would deserve the Wrath and &urse of
(llah. (llah, the (lmighty, would not acce!t any of his actions and such a !erson
would e in the Hellfire4 +&akim-
"any more freedoms are guaranteed in the Islamic system, only some are mentioned
above by way of e(amples.
8reedom is often a misused word, since real freedom cannot be achieved if man is a slave
to his base desires or a servant of the desires of others and seeks to fulfill them by any
immoral and unlawful means. The man is allured to this false freedom by the enticement
of the ,atan, the avowed enemy of all mankind, who in his jealous rage, hates the human
race and has given his committed oath to *llah to wait with his troops in ambush to strike
with their arsenal of weapons whenever and wherever possible. *llah, the *lmighty said:
++ &hildren of (dam! #et not $atan seduce you in the same manner as he made your
!arents to e e)!elled from the ,aradise, stri!!ing them of their garments to e)!ose
their shame. %ndeed he and his trie watch you from a !osition where you cannot see
them -to entra! you.. %ndeed, We have made the 1vil +nes friends only to those who
diselieve.- +>:5>-
'R #he inviolability of the religion of !llah for all humans
*s the universal and eternal religion of *llah for all men, Islam aims at eliminating all
aspects of tribalism, nationalism, racism and party spirit leading to conflict. Islam is the
religion of *llah that was taught to all men in its essentials of monotheism even though
particulars of the law and guidance may vary according to man/s circumstances. The
same basic message was given from 7rophet +*,- *dam until the final "essenger
"uhammad +pbuh-.
*llah, the *lmighty, states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+-(llah. has estalished for you the same religion that He has enjoined on Noah 9
-similar to. that which We have sent y ins!iration to you 9 and that which We enjoined
on (raham, Moses, and Cesus: namely, that you should remain steadfast in 5eligion,
and make no divisions therein. The -way. to which you call them is severe on those
who worshi! other than (llah. %ndeed (llah chooses to Himself those whom He
!leases, and guides to Himself those who turn -to Him..- +A5:6B-
*llah, the *lmighty, also states:
+We have sent revelation to you as We sent it to Noah and the Messengers after him:
We sent revelation to (raham, %sma;il, %saac, Caco, and the Tries, to Cesus, Co,
Conah, (aron, and $olomon, and to 2avid We gave the ,salms. +f some Messengers
We have already told you the story and of others We have not, and to Moses (llah
s!oke directly. The Messengers gave good news as well as warning, so that mankind 9
after the coming of the Messengers 9 should have no !lea against (llah: for (llah is
1)alted in ,ower, Wise.- +A:61B61H-
*nd *llah the ,ublime says:
+That was the argument and reasoning aout 's which We gave to (raham -to use.
against his !eo!le: We raise whom We will, degree after degree: for thy #ord is full of
wisdom and knowledge. We gave him %saac and Caco: all We guided: and efore him
We guided Noah, and among his !rogeny, 2avid, $olomon, Co, Cose!h, Moses and
(aron: thus do We reward those who do good: (nd Dachariah and Cohn, and Cesus
and 1lias: all are in the ranks of the 5ighteous.- +1:0B1-
The Dord sustainer of "an, *llah, the !mniscient and *lmighty, sent them all with the
same call:
++ my !eo!le! Worshi! (llah! 6ou have no other god ut Him.- +66:H2, 16, 0AR-
*llah, the *lmighty also says:
+$ay: We elieve in (llah, and the revelation given to us, and to (raham, %shma;il,
%saac, Caco, and the Tries, and that given to Moses and Cesus, and that given to all
the ,ro!hets from their #ord: we make no difference etween one and another of
them: and we sumit to (llah -in %slam..- +5:6B1-
*s such, each and every "uslim is obligated by faith and creed: to believe in all the
7rophets and "essengersQ to believe in the @ivine 'ooks and ,criptures revealed and
sent down to themQ to respect and honor every @ivine Daw revealed by *llah, the
*lmighty, to any previous peopleQ to believe in the brotherhood of the previous followers
of the 'ook who welcomed the "ission of "uhammad +pbuh-. The "essage of Islam
which was brought by "uhammad +pbuh- is the 8inal @ivine "essage to mankind, as
*llah said:
+Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, ut -he is. the Messenger of (llah,
and the #ast of the ,ro!hets: and (llah has full knowledge of all things.- +BB:A2-
Thus the final @ivine "essage of Islam as revealed to the 7rophet "uhammad +pbuh-
abrogates all previous messages. *brogation by no means is a denial of the previous
messages but that they are no longer in effect: henceforth only Islam is the religion
acceptable to *llah, the ,upreme Dord, as the "ost )ise and !mnipotent said:
+%f anyone desires a religion other than %slam -sumission to (llah., never will it e
acce!ted of him* and in the Hereafter he will e in the ranks of those who have lost .-
+B:0H-
Islam urges the followers of previous @ivine "essages to believe in the "essage of
Islam, as revealed upon "uhammad +pbuh- as *llah, the *lmighty, said:
+$o if they elieve as ye elieve, they are indeed on the right !ath* ut if they turn ack,
it is they who are in schism* ut (llah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the
(ll9Hearing, the (ll9:nowing.- +5:6B>-
*nd *llah, "ost =reat and "ajestic said:
+Those who deny (llah and His Messengers, and who wish to se!arate (llah from His
Messengers, saying: <We elieve in some ut reject others=, (nd who wish to take a
course midway: They are in truth diselievers* and We have !re!ared for diselievers a
humiliating ,unishment.- +A:6H26H6-
*ll forms of disbelief are categorically castigated by *llah:
+(s for those who divide their religion and reak u! into sects, you should have no !art
in them in the least: their affair is with (llah: He will in the end tell them the truth of
all that they did. He that does good shall have -the reward. ten times as much to his
credit: he that does evil shall only e recom!ensed according to his evil: no wrong
shall e done unto -any of. them. $ay: EBerily, my #ord hath guided me to a Way that
is straight, a religion of right, the ,ath -trod. y (raham, the true in faith, and he
-certainly. did not associate other gods with (llah. $ay: Truly, my !rayer and my
service of sacrifice, my life and my death, are -all. for (llah, the #ord and $ustainer of
the Worlds* He has no !artner: this am % commanded, and % am the first of those who
sumit to (llah -in %slam..- +1:6H?61B-
Islam also urges its followers to respect the feelings of those who differ with them in
religion and condemns offensive language against those who differ with "uslims in faith
as *llah commands:
+2o not revile those whom they call u!on esides (llah, lest they revile (llah in their
ignorance out of s!ite. Thus have We made alluring to each !eo!le its own doings. %n
the end will they return to their #ord, and we shall then tell them the truth of all that
they did.- +1:620-
Islam, therefore, commands "uslims to attract the non"uslims towards their 8aith with
the beauty of its precepts, by the guidance of comely e(amples and behavior, as opposed
to the =uidance that only *llah bestows on whom &e will. The *lmighty and "ost
"ajestic said in the .ur/an:
+$ay, The Truth is from your #ord: #et him who will, elieve and let him who will,
reject and diselieve: for the wrong9doers We have !re!ared a 0ire whose -smoke and
flames., are like the wall and roof of a tent, will hem them in: if they im!lore relief
they will e granted water like melted rass, that will scald their faces: How dreadful
the drink! How uncomfortale a couch to recline on!- +60:5?-
Islam enunciates justice and dispenses it even to its 9onbelievers. *llah, the *lmighty,
states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+Now then, for that -reason. call -them to the 0aith., and stand steadfast as you art
commanded, nor follow their vain desires* ut say: <% elieve in the "ook which (llah
has sent down* and % am commanded to judge justly etween you. (llah is our #ord
and your #ord: for us -is the res!onsiility for. our deeds, and for you -is the
res!onsiility for. your deeds, there is no contention etween you and us -in this..
(llah will ring us together, and to Him is -our. final goal.- +A5:6H-
Islam gave man the full freedom of choice in terms of faith. They may accept or reject
any faith or belief. Islam gave the freedom to the 7eople of the 'ook and previous
,criptures to maintain their faith and practices. Islam forbids the dismantling of the
churches and synagogues. Islam prohibits the breaking and destruction of the cross of the
%hristians. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- is reported to have said concerning the people of the
previous ,criptures:
3#eave them alone in terms of faith4 +Tabari-
Islam gave the people of the previous ,criptures the rights as their law dictates, and to
eat, drink and wear what their religion permits them to do. Islam also entitles the people
of the previous ,criptures to practice the practices of their religion insofar as marriage,
marital relationship, divorce and other relations are concerned.
To demonstrate a practical e(ample, Gmar bin alJhattab +<*- the second %aliph,
applied such provisions when he came to the <esurrection %hurch in $erusalem, and the
time for "uslimsC prayer entered. Gmar +<*- left the %hurch, went outside, and offered
the prayer outside the %hurch, and informed the priest of the church, &ad I offered my
prayer inside the %hurch, some "uslims could have claimed in the future that The
%hurch is a place where !mar offered his prayer and taken that as an e(cuse to destroy
the %hurch, and erect a "os#ue, in its place. M<eported from the &istory of Imam Ibn
$areer atTabariN
,imilarly, Gmar +<*- offered a pledge of trust as follows, This is a pledge of security
offered by Gmar bin alJhattabQ the Deader of the 'elievers, to the inhabitants of Ilea, in
terms of 7eace. Gmar gives them his pledge to have security and peace with their lives,
wealth, churches, crosses and all their denominations. Their churches are not to be
occupied, destroyed, reduced in si3e, nor to limit the %hristian owned properties
surrounding the churches. The crosses are not to be tampered with. The wealth of the
%hristians should not be encroached upon or possessed unlawfully, and that %hristians
will not be forced or compelled against their own will Mi.e. to accept IslamN. M<eported
from the &istory of Imam Ibn $areer atTabariN
'R Cncouragement of fruitful cooperation between Muslims and the +eople of the
,ook $Mews and 5hristians%
%ooperation is based on mutual interest and respect, and oriented to serve the best
interests of the human society at large. *llah, the )ise the *lmighty states as a general
rule:
+(id one another in righteousness and !iety, and do not aid one another in sin and
rancor: and fear (llah, for indeed (llah is strict in !unishment.- +H:5-
Islam e(horts upon its followers to have a meaningful and sincere dialogue with those
who differ with their religion, as *llah, "ost )ise orders:
+(nd do not dis!ute with the ,eo!le of the "ook, e)ce!t with means etter, unless it e
with those of them who inflict wrong and injury* and say: <We elieve in the 5evelation
which has come down to us and in that which came down to you* our /od and your
/od is +ne* and it is to Him that we sumit -in %slam..- +5?:A1-
In fact, the approach that Islam pursued to call people of other 8aiths is a constructive
and objective dialogue that brings people together to the )ord of *llah, the *lmighty,
and to &is @ivine "essage and Teachings, as *llah said:
+$ay: + ,eo!le of the "ook! &ome to common terms of agreement etween us and
you: that we worshi! none ut (llah* that we associate no !artners with Him* that we
erect not, from among ourselves, #ords and !atrons other than (llah. %f then they turn
ack, say: <"ear witness that we sumit to (llah -in %slam..- +B:1A-
'R )incerity and purity in advising others
*ll of the "essengers of *llah gave sincere advice to their peoples, and sincere advice
and purity of intentions are the distinguishing features of Islam. The 7rophet +pbuh- said,
as narrated by *bu &urairah +<*-:
3(llah;s Messenger -!uh. once in7uired, ;Who, amongst you, would carry the
following words of wisdom, act u!on them, and teach them to others who would also
act u!on them8; (u Hurairah -5(. answered !ositively. '!on that (llah;s Messenger
-!uh. held the hand of (u Hurairah -5(. and counted five items, as follows: F.
(void all that is declared y (llah !rohiited, thus you ecome the est worshi!!er of
(llah, the (lmighty* G. (cce!t what had een !redestined for you y (llah, thus you
would e the richest man* H. "e good to your neighor, thus you would e
characteri?ed as a "eliever* I. #ike for others what you like for yourself, thus you
would e characteri?ed as a Muslim* J. #essen your laughter, since too much laughter
would cause the heart to die.4 +Tirmidthi-
Islam calls upon all "uslims to tender a meaningful, and sincere free advice to all people.
This point is based on a statement of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-:
3%slam is the religion of advice. The !eo!le in7uired, <+ ,ro!het of (llah! To whom
should advice e offered8 (llah;s Messenger -!uh. said: To (llah, to His "ook, to His
,ro!het, to the leaders of the Muslims, and to the general ody of Muslims4 +"uslim-
In e(planation of this tradition, we can say: * pure advice to *llah, the *lmighty is to
worship &im *lone, wholeheartedlyQ to reject and discard any rival set up to *llah, in
idolatryQ to commemorate the remembrance of *llah, the *lmighty, by &is 'eautiful
*ttributes and 'lessed 9amesQ to accept fully that *llah alone is in charge of all the
affairs of all creaturesQ to believe that whatever *llah, the *lmighty, wills, would happen
and whatever &e does not, would never take placeQ and to follow the %ommandments of
*llah, and cease all actions that &e forbade. * pure advice about *llahCs 'ook is to firmly
believe in the @ivine ,cripture to &is "essenger, "uhammad +pbuh-Q to accept all the
laws therein. * pure advice about *llahCs 7rophet is to obey what he enjoined, shun away
from what he refrained, believe his statements, love and respect him, and respond to his
call, practices and instructions, and propagate them amongst people. * pure advice about
"uslimsC leadership is to obey the leaders as long as they do not call for, or impose any
rules that disobey the commands of *llah and &is 7rophet +pbuh-Q to assist them by
guiding them to all the good pointsQ not to be rebel and fight against them so long as they
apply Islam and its rules throughout their government agenciesQ and to offer them mature
and most pure advice kindly and gently. * pure advice for general "uslims is to guide
them to the best in both their religious and worldly affairsQ to assist them achieve their
goalsQ to prevent any inconvenience against themQ and to like for them what one likes for
himself, and to hate to cause them any harm as one would hate to cause harm to his own
soul.
'R Cnjoining the good and forbidding the evil
"uslims are commanded to pursue every appropriate means that lead to enjoining good
and forbidding evil, based on oneCs ability, knowledge, and position of authority, in order
to secure peace, tran#uility and stability in the society and community and counter
against oppression, corruption and the spread of the EDaw of the $ungle.E
*llah, the )ise the *lmighty states:
+(id one another in righteousness and !iety, and do not aid one another in sin and
rancor: and fear (llah, for indeed (llah is strict in !unishment.- +H:5-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said,
3Whoever sees evil should correct it y his hand* if he cannot then let him correct it y
his tongue* if one is not ca!ale of that then at least one should disa!!rove of it in his
heart.4 +"uslim-
The "essenger +pbuh- made a simile about those who do wrong and harm others by their
sins:
3The e)am!le of those who oserve the oundaries of (llah and those who do not is
like a grou! of !eo!le who traveled in a shi!. The sailors of the shi! decided to s!lit the
riders* so a !ortion of them rode on the u!!er deck while the other !ortion rode the
lower deck. When the !eo!le of the lower deck wanted to get water from the river, they
had to go to the u!!er deck and ask them. The occu!ants of the lower deck of the shi!
decided to drill a hole in the wall of their !ortion of the shi!. %f the !eo!le of the u!!er
deck !ermitted them to e)ecute their !lan they would all sink and drown in the water.
"ut if the !eo!le of the u!!er deck refused to let them drill a hole and restricted them
they would all e saved.4+'ukhari-
*llah the !mnipotent and !mniscient informs us that &is )rath descended upon
previous nations as a result of their negligence to enjoin good and forbid evil:
+Nor did they forid one another the ine7uities which they used to commit: evil indeed
were the deeds which they did.- +H:>?-
'R Islamic forms of worship encourage brotherhood and egalitarian values
*ll forms of worship in Islam are egalitarian in nature and promote brotherhood and
peace. The shahadah +testimony of faith-, salat, +prayer- 3akat +alms and charity-, saum
+fasting-, hajj +pilgrimage-, amr bil&maroof wa nahi Aanil&mun0ar +commanding the
good and prohibiting the evil-, jihad +e(ertion and struggle- are obligatory e#ually upon
all those "uslims who are able to fulfill the re#uirements according to their abilities. To
become a "uslim the simple rite is to declare the testimony of faith: *! I*!&!
I**!**!& MP&!MM!E'PA'A!)P*P**!& +there is no god worthy of being
worshipped e(cept *llah and "uhammad is the messenger of *llah-. In congregational
prayer "uslims stand ne(t to each other in rows without any class or other distinctions
between them. Sakah promotes generosity and social cohesiveness between the richer
and the poorer segment of the society. 8asting promotes reali3ation of the basic needs of
all humans, and control of these most basic physical desires. &ajj is the grand e#uali3er
since all clothe themselves in simple white cloth and perform the same rituals in
remembrance of the 7rophet *braham +*,- and glorification of the sacred precincts of
"akkah. %ommanding the good and prohibiting the evil and $ihad is by definition for
the promotion and preservation of all that is good, wholesome and decent and combating
of that which is all evil and morally corrupt.
'R Fecessity of all to seek beneficial knowledge
*llah, the ;(alted, says:
+%s one who worshi!s devoutly during the hours of the night !rostrating himself or
standing -in adoration., who takes heed of the Hereafter, and who !laces his ho!e in
the Mercy of his #ord, -like one who does not.8 $ay: (re those e7ual, those who know
and those who do not know8 %t is those who are endured with understanding that
receive admonition.- +B?:?-
Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) said: F$eeking knowledge is oligatory for every Muslim.4
(Tirmidhi, Ibn "ajah, F 'aiha#i-
'R Cnvironment protection and preservation
Islam commands "uslims to protect and preserve the environment and warns against
wanton destruction and pollution.
The general rule is as *llah says:
+2o not commit mischief on the earth after it has een set in order, and call on Him
-(llah in !rayer. with fear and longing: for the Mercy of (llah is always near to those
who do good.- +>:H1-
*lso, *llah, the *lmighty, states:
+There is the ty!e of man whose s!eech aout this world;s life may da??le you, and he
calls (llah to witness aout what is in his heart* yet he is the most contentious of
enemies. When he turns his ack, his aim is to s!read mischief everywhere through the
earth and destroy cro!s and cattle. "ut (llah does not love mischief.- +5:52HH-
The most precious natural resources such as clean, pure water, air and fertile land are
protected for the general good and utility. 8or instance, the 7rophet +pbuh- commanded
for water conservation and preservation by asking the "uslims not to waste water during
washing and ablution even when one utili3ing running river water, and he forbade
washing of the parts of the body while making ablutions, more than three times saying:
NWhoever increases on that $more than three% does injustice and wrong.N +9asa/ee-
*nd *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- forbade 3eo3le to urinate in stagnant water +"uslim-
Islam also forbids people to place any e(crement, refuge, or garbage in the middle of the
public passages, or in the choice shady places which people use for rest and recreation.
'R )ocial Welfare including support of orphans, the needy and destitute
*llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+/ive full measure when you measure, and weigh with a scale alance that is straight*
that is the most fitting and the most advantageous in the final determination.- +6>:BH-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3The or!han;s s!onsor and % are in ,aradise like these -and he held his two fingers,
the inde) and the middle fingers, together, indicating how close they are..4 +Tirmidthi-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3"y (llah! +ne would not ecome a "eliever until he likes for his rother what he
likes for his own self4 +"uslim-
'R +rinciples of Cndowment
;ndowments in Islam are of two types:
+rivate Cndowment: This type is dedicated to the progeny of the person who offers such
endowment. This type has a stipulation, however, that the funds of the endowment would
be given to the public interest charitable work upon the death of the last person of the
progeny of the donor.
+ublic and General Cndowment: This type is dedicated to charitable works, such as:
building hospitals, schools, roads, public libraries, mos#ues, community centers,
orphanages, elderly homes and other beneficial projects of general public interest for the
community and the society at large.
Islamic Morals +romote 5omprehensive +eace
The entire code of Islamic ethics seeks to promote and maintain peace, security and
happiness in the society at large. This code enjoins brotherhood and all beneficial things
that promote peace and forbids all types of actions that instigate evil and implant hatred
and rancor in the hearts and minds of people. *ccordingly if the members of the society
apply the Islamic code of ethics, they would enjoy the peace, security, tran#uility and
happiness for which they naturally strive and yearn. *ll values of the Islamic morality
produce a better person and an upright human being with noble traits of character
admired universally: truthfulness, fairness, courage, generosity, patience, perseverance,
kindness, and courteousness.
The essential criterion of the Islamic morality is to eradicate all the harmful and
obno(ious actions, attitudes and behaviors which displease *llah the *lmighty, %reator
and Dord,ustainer of mankind, and are therefore declared unlawful. If a "uslim
practices any of the forbidden acts he would e(pose himself to either punishment in this
world by the specified punishments of the Islamic law, or the )rath of *llah, the
!mnipotent and Irresistible in the &ereafter,
*s the modern *rab poet *mir ash,hu/araU ash,hauki declared in verse, e(plaining that
nations of people are naught but their morals and characters.
%f the morals of the nation ceaseKthe nation ceases!4
Islam Cnjoins ,elievers to -bserve the Following Moral -bligations and
Aecommendations to +romote +eace
'R Islam enjoins truth
*llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+- you who believe/ Fear God and be with those who are truthful.- +?:66?-
*llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+!nd he who brings the #ruth and he who confirms and supports it ' such are the
men who are god fearing.- +B?:BB-
'R Islam enjoins justice
*llah, the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+(llah commands justice, the doing of good, and generosity to kith and kin, and He
forids all shameful deeds, injustice and reellion: He instructs you, that you may
receive admonition.- +61:?2-
$ustice and fairness are commanded and re#uired in all situations, when one is happy and
satisfied, and when one is upset and unsatisfied, with "uslims and with non"uslims
alike. *llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
++ you who elieve! $tand out firmly for (llah as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not
the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and de!art from justice. "e just:
that is ne)t to ,iety: and fear (llah. 0or (llah is well9aware with all that you do.- +H:0-
*nd &e, the ;(alted, says: +- you who believe/ )tand out for justice, as witnesses to
!llah, and even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it
be against rich or poor7-+A:6BA-
'R Islam enjoins altruism
7hilanthropy and benevolence are the results of sincere altruism, and the companions of
the 7rophet +pbuh- were especially noteworthy of this trait, offering their help and
assistance to others solely for the 7leasure of *llah.
*llah the ;(alted and *lmighty says:
+!nd do good. #ruly !llah loves those who do good.- +5:6?H-
*llah, the ;(alted, said:
+"ut those who, efore them, had homes -in Medina. and had ado!ted the 0aith, show
their affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their
hearts for things given to the -latter., ut give them !reference over themselves, even
though !overty was their -own lot.. (nd those saved from the covetousness of their own
souls* they are the ones that achieve !ros!erity.- +H?:?-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
12o favors for those who deserve to have them done for them and also for those who
do not deserve to have them done for them. %f the doer did the favor for those who
deserve it, it is fine and good, and if not, the doer himself is one of those who are
worthy for favors4 ()irmidthi)
'R Islam enjoins brotherhood
*llah, the ;(alted, says:
+0erily the believers are but brothers7- +A?:62-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
1Eo not envy one another do not inflate prices by overbidding against one another
do not hate one another do not harbor malice against one another and do not enter
into commercial transaction when others have entered into that $transaction% but
be you, - slaves of !llah, as brothers. ! Muslim is the brother of another Muslim
he neither oppresses him nor does he look down upon him, nor does he humiliate
him. +iety is here, $and he pointed to his chest three times%. It is enough evil for a
Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. !ll things of a Muslim are
inviolable for his brother'in'faith" his blood, his property and his honor.2 +"uslim-
'R Islam enjoins the maintenance of righteous company
"uslims are advised to gain good company and avoid bad company. The 7rophet of
*llah +pbuh- said:
3The e)am!le of good and evil com!anions is like that of a !erson who is carrying
musk and the lacksmith who is lowing the fire of his furnace. The carrier of musk
would either give you some of it or you may uy some from him or at least you would
receive the smell of !erfume from him. (s for the lacksmith who is lowing fire, you
may either urn your clothes, e distured with the s!arks of his fire, or the least you
would receive is ad odor coming from him and his !lace of work4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
'R Islam enjoins reconciliation and !eace making
Geconciliation is enjoined at all times and especially when there is a serious rift in
relationship that may lead to increased conflict.
*llah the *lmighty and ;(alted said:
+#he ,elievers are but brothers so make peace and reconciliation between your two
$contending% brothers and fear God, that you may receive Mercy.- +A?:62-
*llah, the *lmighty and ;(alted, says:
+%n most of their secret talks there is no good* ut if one e)horts to a deed of charity or
justice or reconciliation etween men, -then secrecy is !ermissile.: to him who does
this, seeking the good ,leasure of (llah, We shall soon give a reward of the highest
value.- +A:66A-
'R Islam enjoins maintaining a good character and morals.
=ood morals and virtues are essential for a better society. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3(mongst the est "elievers are the !ersons with the est of morals and characteristics
and those who are most kind to their families.4 ()irmidthi)
And he (3buh) said:
3% was sent only to !erfect the good conduct4 and in another re3ort 3to !erfect the
nole of conduct.4 ("alik, *hmad F al'a33ar-
'R Islam enjoins generosity.
=enerosity brings people closer to each other and enables the generous to gain the love
and affection of others. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3(llah, the (lmighty, loves two traits* to e good to others and to e generous to them.
$imilarly, (llah, the (lmighty, hates two traits* to e mean to others and to e miser to
!eo!le. @+n the other hand,A %f (llah, the (lmighty, favors a !erson, He would em!loy
him to assist others achieve their goals and fulfill their needs. 4 (/u0hari H ,uslim)
The criterion of generosity in Islam is mentioned in the verse of the =lorious .ur/an:
+2o not tie your hand to your neck -like a niggard., nor stretch it forth to its utmost
reach -eing e)travagant. so that you ecome lameworthy and destitute.- +6>:5?-
The criterion is set to restrict people from e(ceeding limits. *llah, the *lmighty said:
+(nd render to the kindred their due rights, as to those in need and want, and to the
wayfarer: ut do not s7uander your wealth in the manner of a s!endthrift. Berily
s!endthrifts are rothers of the 1vil +nes* and the 1vil +ne is 'ngrateful to his #ord.-
+6>:51>-
'R Islam enjoins on Muslims to hide mistakes and omissions of others
The 7rophet of *llah +pbuh- said:
3Whosoever alleviates a "eliever;s hardshi! of this world, (llah, the (lmighty, would
alleviate his hardshi! and difficulty of the 2ay of 5e7uital. Whosoever eases the terms
on @a financiallyA stranded !erson, (llah, the (lmighty, would ease his difficulties in
oth this world and the Hereafter. Whosoever hides the defects of a Muslim in this
world, (llah, the (lmighty, would hide the defects of that !erson oth in this world and
in the Hereafter. (llah, the (lmighty, would continue to assist a slave so long as such a
!erson is e)tending his hel! and assistance to his Muslim rethren.4 +"uslim-
'R Islam enjoins upon patience.
7eople are encouraged to be patient in order to perform their religious and mundane
duties and to avoid all evils. *llah, the *lmighty, states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+Now await in !atience the &ommand of thy #ord: for verily you are in +ur eyes: and
celerate the !raises of thy #ord while you stand forth.- +H5:A0-
Islam also urges and encourages "uslims to be patient on what they have been
predestined for such as fear, poverty, hunger, lack of resources, terminal illness, etc. *llah
the *lmighty and ;(alted said:
+"e sure that We shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods
or lives, or the fruits -of your toil., ut give glad tidings to those who !atiently
!ersevere. Who say, when afflicted with calamity: <To (llah we elong, and to Him is
our return.= They are those on whom -descend. lessings from their #ord, and Mercy,
and they are the ones that receive guidance.- +5:6HH>-
*llah the *lmighty and ;(alted illustrates the reward of the patient people as follows in
the =lorious .ur/an:
+$ay: + My slaves who elieve! 0ear your #ord. /ood is -the reward. for those who do
good in this world. $!acious is (llah;s earth! Those who !atiently !ersevere will truly
receive a reward without measure!- +B:62-
7art of mercy and forgiveness is to control the temper and forgive others even though one
is capable of taking revenge, which strengthens the relationships and ties amongst people
and creates a better atmosphere within the society. *llah promises a great reward for
controlling oneCs temper. *llah, the *lmighty, states in the =lorious .ur/an:
+"e 7uick in the race for forgiveness from your #ord, and for a /arden whose width is
that -of the whole. of the heavens and of the earth, !re!ared for the righteous. Those
who s!end -for (llah=s sake., whether in !ros!erity, or in adversity* who restrain anger
and !ardon* for (llah loves those who do good.- +B:6BBA-
*lso, *llah, the *lmighty, commands "uslims to practice righteousness at all times and
in all circumstances and not to return evil when mistreated with evil acts. *llah the
*lmighty and ;(alted said:
+/oodness and 1vil are not e7ual. 5e!el 1vil with that which is etter* then it will e
that the one etween whom and you there was hatred will ecome as if he were your
friend and intimate!- +A6:BA-
The above e(amples are mere glimpses of what Islam commands "uslims to comply
with in their personal and public lives for the 7leasure of *llah. The 'ook of *llah, the
.ur/an, and the ,unnah of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- provide additional commands and
details related to these and other high and noble morals.
C?amples of !cts +rohibited in Islam
Islam has denounced and condemned vehemently the following acts and strictly
prohibited their practice in the path of promoting peace and security in the society, and
eradicating or curtailing wrath, hatred, rancor, greed, and resentment which are the root
causes of conflicts and violence.
'R +olytheist and Idolatry
7olytheist and idolatry inevitably cause conflict as clans, tribes and peoples compete and
vie for recognition, status, dominance and tribute for their idols and associated ideologies
and mythologies. If all people worshipped *llah the one and only =od then the greatest
root of violence would be eradicated. *llah the "ost "ajestic said:
+!nd ask those of -ur messengers whom we sent before you, OEid we make other
deities to be worshipped besides !llah6- +AB:AH-
*llah the "ost =lorious said:
+!nd We did not send a messenger before you, e?cept that We revealed to him that
there is no god worthy of worship e?cept Me, so worship Me.- +56:5H-
*llah the "ost *lmighty and "ajestic said:
+!nd verily, We have sent among every community a Messenger $proclaiming%"
NWorship !llah $alone%, and avoid taghoot $)atan, idols, tyrants%.- +61:B1-
*llah, the ;(alted, said:
+#hose who believe fight in the way of !llah, and those who disbelieve fight in the
way of taghoot $)atan, idols, tyrants%. )o fight against the followers of )atan" Indeed
the plot of )atan is feeble.- +A:>1-
'R )orcery and magic of all types.
This prohibition is based on the numerous evidences like the saying of *llah:
+,ut neither of these two $angels $Haroot and Maroot% taught anyone $sorcery% till
they had said $warning them%" .Indeed, we are a trial, so do not disbelieve.- +5:625-
*nd in the hadith of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-:
3(void the seven destructive sins. 6eo3le inDuired: ; 6ro3het of Allah= A2hat are these
destructive sinsE .e said: 3They are: associating others in the worshi! of (llah*
sorcery and magic of all ty!es* killing an innocent soul without any legitimate reason*
dealing with interest and usury* eating u! and ausing the or!han;s funds* fleeing
from the attlefield* falsely accusing innocent female elievers with fornication,
adultery, or moral corru!tion.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
'R !ggression and oppression.
*llah +pbuh- said:
+The lame is only against those who o!!ress men with wrongdoing and insolently
transgress eyond ounds through the land, defying right and justice* for such !eo!le
there will e a grievous !enalty.- +A5:A5-
*llah, the *lmighty and ;(alted stated
+$ay: The things that my #ord hath indeed foridden are: shameful deeds, whether
o!en or secret* sins and tres!asses against truth or justice* assigning of !artners to
(llah for which He hath given no authority* and saying things aout (llah of which
you have no knowledge.- +>:BB-
*llah, the *lmighty also said:
+%f one amongst the !agans !olytheists ask you for asylum, grant it to him so that he
may hear the Word of (llah* and then escort him to where he can e secure. That is
ecause they are men without knowledge.- +?:1-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
N,eware of injustice, for oppression will be darkness on the Eay of Aesurrection
and beware of stinginess because it doomed those who were before you. It incited
them to shed blood and treat the unlawful as lawful.N +"uslim-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3(llah ins!ired me: "e humle so as no one o!!resses another and no one rags with
!ride over another.4 +"uslim-
*llah/s "essenger +pbuh- said:
1!llah, the C?alted and Glorious, said" .My slaves, I have made oppression unlawful
for Me and unlawful for you, so do not commit oppression against one another...@2
+"uslim-
Islam urges to support both the oppressed and the oppressor by stopping the source of
oppression.
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3$u!!ort and come to the aid of your rother whether he is o!!ressed or, he is the
o!!ressor.4
A man who heard this inDuired, * can understand su33orting my brother if he is
o33ressed, but what about if he is the o33ressorE Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) asserted,
3$u!!ort him y sto!!ing him from his o!!ression: that is the way to su!!ort -in truth.
the o!!ressor4 +'ukhari-
*ll lawful members of the society, regardless of creed or faith are entitled to full
protection of their rights to life, property and wealth. 8or instance the "essenger of *llah
+pbuh- said:
3He who kills -unlawfully. a non9Muslim residing under %slamic rule, would not smell
the fragrance of ,aradise. The fragrance of ,aradise can e smelled at a distance of
forty years.4 +'ukhari-
'R Pnkind treatment towards parents, children and kindred.
This is based on the verse revealed:
+6our #ord has decreed that you worshi! none ut Him, and that you e kind to
!arents. (nd if one or oth of them attain old age in thy life, say not to them a word of
contem!t, nor re!el them, ut address them in terms of honor. (nd, out of kindness,
lower to them the wing of humility, and say: My #ord! "estow on them thy Mercy just
as they cherished me in childhood.- +6>:5B5A-
Islam teaches benevolence towards all kindred. This is based on the verse revealed in the
=lorious .ur/an,
+Then, is it to e e)!ected of you, if you were !ut in authority, that you will do
mischief, in the land, and reak your ties with kith and kin8 $uch are the men whom
(llah has cursed for He has made them deaf and has linded their sight.- +A>:55B-
This is also based on the tradition of the 7rophet of *llah +pbuh-:
3( !erson reaking family ties will not enter ,aradise4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
'reaking ties with family and the kindred implies many things: absence of mutual
e(change of visitsQ carelessness towards the needy relativesQ and indifference to e(tend
financial and social assistance to the destitute family members.
Islam appreciates the charity from the rich to the destitute. * charitable donation from a
rich family member to a needy family member carries a double reward since it is both
charity, on the one hand, and a type of reestablishment of bonds between family
members. If a person is poor and is unable to e(tend financial support to relatives, *llah
rewards even his visit, care and affection since they are a type of charity and are good
deeds. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
31stalish a good relationshi! with your family memers and immediate relatives,
even y greeting them and asking aout their affairs and health.4 +'a33ar F Tabrani-
'R !dultery, fornication, slander etc
It is a known fact that much conflict, fighting and murder takes place due to love
triangles wherein people fight over their legal or illegal se(ual partners. Islam has cut all
the pathways to illegal se(ual relations to preserve the chastity and purity of the people of
the society, and to prevent conflict, illegitimate children and abortion.
*llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+Nor come nigh to adultery: for it is a shameful -deed. and an evil way, o!ening the
road -to many other evils..- +6>:B5-
*nd &e said:
+Those who slander chaste women, indiscreet ut elieving, are cursed in this life and
in the Hereafter: for them is a grievous ,enalty.- +5A:5B-
*nd *llah the ;(alted and *lmighty said:
+Those who love -to see. aominale acts roadcasted among the "elievers, will have a
grievous ,enalty in this life and in the Hereafter: (llah knows, and you do not know.-
+5A:6?-
The 7rophet of *llah +pbuh- convinced a young man of the illegality of illicit se(ual
relations in the following conversation:
* young man came to the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- and asked: O! "essenger of *llah,
permit me +with special license- to commit fornication +and adultery-./ The people started
to rebuke him harshly but the 7rophet sat close to him and asked: .Would you like it for
your mother6@ &e replied O9o, by *llah, may *llah make me a sacrifice for youT/ The
"essenger of *llah +pbuh- said: .!nd thus the people do not like it for their mothers.@
&e said: .Would you like it for your daughter6@ O9o/ he replied. The "essenger of
*llah +pbuh- said: .!nd thus the people do not like it for their daughters.@ &e said:
.Would you like it for your paternal aunt6@ O9o/ he replied. The "essenger of *llah
+pbuh- said: .!nd thus the people do not like it for their paternal aunts.@ &e said:
.Would you like it for your maternal aunt6@ O9o/ he replied. The "essenger of *llah
+pbuh- said: .!nd thus the people do not like it for their maternal aunts.@ Then the
7rophet +pbuh- put his hand on the youth and said: .- !llah forgiver his sin and purify
his heart and make him chaste $fortify his abstinence from se?ual sins%.2 M<eported
by Imam *hmad from the tradition narrated by *bu Gmamah.N
&ere we find an e(ample of the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- patiently convincing this man
by analogies about the injustice of double standards: since no one wants his ownself to be
e(ploited and abused, then how should he allow himself to e(ploit others. The golden
rule, as it is called, is e(pressed in the famous tradition of the "essenger +pbuh-: 1Fone
of you believes until he loves for his brother that which he loves for himself.2
+'ukhari F "uslim-
'R Into?icants and Gambling
*s it is well known, into(icated individuals are more likely to commit violent crimes than
sober individuals. =ambling is also the cause of much conflict. *llah the *lmighty states:
++ you who elieve! %nto)icants, gamling, and divination y arrows, are an
aomination of $atan;s handiwork: avoid all such -aominations. that you may
!ros!er. )atanOs plan is but to e?cite enmity and hatred between you, with
into?icants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of God, and from
prayer" will you not then abstain6- +H:?2?6-
'R )tealing, robbery, unlawful ac4uisition of property and wealth
,uch acts are bound to create hatred and resentment, and provoke conflicts in the society,
leading to insecurity and chaos.
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3Whoever takes a right of a Muslim, (llah, the (lmighty, would cause him to dwell in
the 0ire of Hell on the 2ay of Cudgment and restrict him from entering ,aradise. ;ne
of the ?om3anions (GA) who was 3resent at the time inDuired, :; 6ro3het of Allah= 2hat
if the item that a 3erson ta0es was negligibleE Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) said: 31ven if
the item is as insignificant as a wooden tooth rush -from an (rak tree ranches.4
(,uslim)
'R Monopoly and hording
The 7rophet +pbuh- said:
3+nly a sinner mono!oli?es -the food and other items of !ulic need.4 +"uslim-
'R Misuse of the wealth and the assets of an orphan.
!rphans are weak and incapable of managing their funds. *n orphan/s guardian is
responsible to manage wisely the finance and the affairs of his guarded orphan to the best
of his abilities. *llah warns saying:
+Those who unjustly eat u! the !ro!erty of or!hans, eat u! a fire into their own odies:
they will soon e enduring a la?ing fire.- +A:62-
'R !buse of authority
* "uslim ruler or any person in a position of authority must be just and honest with his
people and must not do wrong to them or betray them in any way. *s *llah said:
+Think not that (llah is heedless of the deeds of those who do wrong. He only gives
them res!ite against a 2ay when the eyes will stare in horror.- +6A:A5AB-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3%f (llah entrusted a !erson with an authority ut the !erson entrusted did not offer
his est !ossile advice to his constituents, such !erson would not e allowed to enter
,aradise4 +'ukhari-
'R #orture
The companion &esham ibn &akim ibn &i3am +<*- once passed by a group of people in
the Devant who were punished by being kept in the sun. &e said: )hat/s wrong with
these people4 They said: They are imprisoned because they did not pay the ji8ya. &esham
+<*- said: EI witness that I have heard the "essenger of *llah +pbuh- saying:
N!llah tortures those who torture people in this lifetime.N
&e said: E*nd their ruler OGmair Ibn ,a
/
d at the time was in 7alestine, so he went to him
and informed him who in turn passed his orders so they were discharged.E +"uslim-
'R False testimonies and oaths
8alse testimonies are major sins. In fact, if a person intentionally insists on false
testimonies on a regular basis, he would be considered out of the realm of Islam. *llah
the *lmighty, states:
+Those who do not witness falsehood, and, if they !ass y futility, !ass y it with
honorale -avoidance..- +5H:>5-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3$hould % inform you aout the most heinous sins8 )he ?om3anions said yes Allah:s
,essenger (3buh) said: -The most heinous sins are. to associate others in worshi!!ing
(llah, and to e ad and disoedient to your !arents. Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) was
leaning on the floor, then he sat straight and said: 3Kand to give a false statement and
to give a false testimony.4 Allah:s ,essenger 0e3t re3eating the last statement until the
?om3anions wished that he would Duit re3eating it9 +'ukhari-
This type of oath is intentional and oriented to secure some unlawful gains. This oath is
called ghamoos +immersing- since it immerses the oath taker in the 8ire of &ell. *llah,
the *lmighty states:
+(s for those who sell the faith they owe to (llah and their own sacredly !ledged word
for a small !rice, they shall have no !ortion in the Hereafter. (llah will not s!eak to
them or look at them on the 2ay of 5e7uital, nor will He cleanse them -of sins.: they
shall have a grievous ,enalty.- +B:>>-
This is also based on the tradition of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-:
3Whosoever takes the right of another Muslim y his right hand -i.e. y the false oath.
would e entitled for the 0ire of Hell and would e de!rived the entry of ,aradise.4 A
man raised a Duestion as to even if the thing that he ta0es from his ,uslim brother:s
rights is negligibleE Allah:s ,essenger (3buh) said: 1ven if the right of the Muslim
rother was a tooth rush -from the ranch of the (rak tree.4 +"uslim-
'R ,etrayal and breach of trust in contracts.
Islam enjoins upon "uslims to be truthful. Islam commands to fulfill promises and warns
against breaking promises and dishonoring contracts. Islam stresses on fulfilling all trusts
to the right people and warns against denying even an insignificant amount entrusted to a
person as a trust. *llah the *lmighty states:
++ you who elieve! "etray not the trust of (llah and the Messenger, nor
misa!!ro!riate knowingly things entrusted to you.- +0:5>-
Islam declares keeping secrets as one of the acts of trust. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3%f a !erson said something to another !erson, then turned away, such a statement
ecomes a trust to the listener4 +Tirmidthi F *bu @awood-
,imilarly, Islam categori3ed seeking a consultation, as a trust as well. *llahCs "essenger
+pbuh- said:
3( consulted !erson is entrusted -i.e. with whatever he hears from the !erson seeking
his consultation and honest o!inion and advice.4 +Tirmidthi F *bu @awood-
Islam promotes trustworthiness. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3There is no faith for a !erson who is untrustworthy. There is no religion for a !erson
who reaches his !ledge of allegiance.4 +*hmed F 'aiha#i-
The 7rophet +pbuh- said:
3%f a !erson !ossesses four traits, he would e categori?ed as a full hy!ocrite. (nd if
one !ossesses any one trait of the four, he would !ossess a trait of hy!ocrisy until he
leaves it aside: to lie whenever he s!eaks* to reak the !romise* to etray the trust* to
reach a covenant.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
*ccording to another narration reported by "uslim:
3( !erson would e categori?ed as such even if he maintains his daily !rayers,
oserves the fast of 5amadan, and claims that he is a Muslim.4
'R )lander and backbiting
'ackbiting is to mention things about people that they hate to be known even though
such facts are true. This kind of act jeopardi3es the honor and dignity of the person
attacked, breeds hatred and disdain among people, which may lead to violence. ,lander
includes publishing false news and libel.
*llah the *lmighty states:
+Woe to every -kind of. scandal9monger and ackiter.- +62A:6-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
32o you know what is ackiting8 )he ?om3anions 3resent at the time said, Allah and
.is ,essenger 0now best= Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh- said: F%t is to mention something
ehind the ack of a !erson, which he des!ises for others to know aout him.4 ;ne of
the com3anions inDuired, ; 6ro3het of Allah= 2hat if the 3oint raised behind his bac0
truly e+ists in him, would this still be categori8ed as an act of bac0bitingE Allah:s
,essenger +pbuh- re3lied: 3"ackiting is to mention a vice that e)ists in him whereas
if he doesn=t have such a vice, then it is slandering4 +"uslim-
'R Fame'calling and mocking others
*llah said in the =lorious .ur/an:
++ you who elieve! #et not some men among you mock others: it may e that the
-latter. are etter than the -former.: nor let some women mock others: it may e that
the -latter. are etter than the -former.: nor defame nor e sarcastic to each other, nor
call each other y offensive nicknames: evil indeed is a name connoting wickedness
after one has elieved: and those who do not desist are -indeed. doing wrong.- +A?:66-
'R &atred, contempt and resentment against others.
,uch vices provoke to act in revenge in many possible ways. *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-
was asked:
; 6ro3het of Allah= 2ho is the best ty3e of manE Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh- said:
31very warm hearted !erson, and every true !erson.4 )he ?om3anions who were
3resent raised a Duestion to Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh- saying, ; 6ro3het of Allah= 2e
0now the true 3erson, but what about the warm&hearted 3ersonE Allah:s ,essenger
+pbuh- said: 3He is the !ious, !ure !erson, the sinless one, with no o!!ression or
transgression on the rights of others, a !erson who !ossesses no hatred or envy in his
heart for others4 +Tirmidthi-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- illustrated the results of envy as follows:
31nvy and jealousy eat u! the good deeds as the fire eats u! the wood4 +*bu @awood-
'R )ocial boycott $unless under strict conditions%
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
32o not oycott one another, do not turn your acks on each other, do not hate one
another, do not envy one another: all of you should e -true. slave9servants of (llah
like rethrens. ( Muslim is not allowed to oycott his Muslim rethren for more than
three -days.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
*nd in another version of the narration:
3( Muslim is not !ermitted to oycott his Muslim rother for a !eriod e)ceeding three
nights, u!on meeting one another, each one swerving to a different direction and
shunning each other. The est of the two is the one who initiates the greeting to the
other.4
'R 5ursing and abusive language
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3,eo!le who curse would not e !ermitted to e witnesses or interceders on the 2ay of
Cudgment4 +"uslim-
Islam prohibits even cursing enemies and encourages a "uslim to pray for the guidance
of such people to the <ight and ,traight 7ath. This is based on *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-
who was once asked: F; 6ro3het of Allah= 1houldnt you 3ray against 3agans and idol
worshi33ersE .e said:
3% am only commissioned as a mercy -for mankind. and % was not commissioned to
curse others4 +"uslim-
'R )tinginess and miserliness
Islam considers wealth as a trust that *llah entrusted to man for a specific period of his
lifetime to be used wisely and spent in accordance with *llah/s commands: for living
e(penses and essential needs, for charity and for righteous deeds. The "essenger of *llah
+pbuh- said:
3( treacherous, stingy and miserly !erson who rags time and again aout his
donation and assistance to other needy and !oor individuals, would never enter
,aradise4 ()irmidthi)
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- is also reported to have warned about disastrous conse#uences
of a society where miserliness becomes a common practice, saying:
3"eware of o!!ression. +!!ression is darkness on the 2ay of Cudgment. "eware of
greed and miserliness, as it destroyed !eo!le efore you. /reed and miserliness
com!elled !eo!le -efore you. to shed the lood of their own !eo!le and !ushed them
to make lawful what was unlawful and foridden.4 +"uslim-
'R C?travagance and lavish spending.
*llah has commanded a "uslim to abstain from being lavish.
+Cat and drink, but waste not by e?cess 0erily &e loves not the e?cessive.- +>:B6-
*llah the *lmighty states:
+(nd render to the kindred their due rights, and -also. to those in want, and to the
wayfarer: and do not s7uander -your wealth. in the manner of a s!endthrift. Berily,
s!endthrifts are rothers of the devils* and the $atan is ungrateful to his #ord
-Himself..- +6>:515>-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3(llah, the (lmighty, !rohiits you from eing disoedient to your mothers, from
declining to give the !oor and needy for the cause of (llah, from asking !eo!le charity
if you do not truly need it, and from urying girls alive. (llah also dislikes for you to e
rumor mongering, to often ask !eo!le to give you, and to waste funds foolishly.4
+'ukhari F "uslim-
'R C?aggeration and e?tremism
*llah, the *lmighty states:
+(llah intends every facility for you* He does not want to !ut you to difficulties. -He
wants you. to com!lete the !rescried !eriod, and to glorify Him in that He has guided
you* that !erha!s you will e grateful.- +5:60H-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3+ffer glad tidings and do not chase !eo!le away. 1ase the life of !eo!le and do not
make it difficult and unearale for them.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
1,eware of going beyond the bounds of the religion. #he people before you were
destroyed by going to e?tremes in the religion.2 +9isaaUe, Ibn "aajah, Ibn Jhu3aimah
F al&aakim-
'R !rrogance and false pride.
*llah, the *lmighty said:
+!nd do not puff your cheek $in pride% at men, nor walk in insolence through the
earth for God does not love an arrogant boaster. !nd be moderate in thy pace, and
lower thy voice for the harshest of sounds without doubt is the braying of the ass. -
+B6:606?-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3( !erson, whose heart contains an atom weight of arrogance, would not enter
,aradise.4 !ne of the %ompanions who was present at the time, asked *llahCs "essenger
+pbuh-: F; 6ro3het of Allah= ;ne of us li0es to wear good clothes and good shoes <so is
that arroganceE@ Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh- said: 3(rrogance is to deny the truth and to
have contempt towards others4 +"uslim-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- also said:
3(llah would not look on the 2ay of Cudgment at the one who drags his clothes in
arrogance.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
'R !ll unjust acts leading to disputes, 4uarrels and feuds among people.
*llah the *lmighty states:
+(nd hold fast, all together, y the 5o!e which (llah -stretches out for you., and e not
divided among yourselves. (nd rememer with gratitude (llah;s favor on you, for you
were enemies and He joined your hearts in love so that y His /race you ecame
rethren. (nd you were on the rink of the ,it of 0ire, and He saved you from it. Thus
(llah makes His $igns clear to you that you may e guided.- +B:62B-
,imilarly, Islam bans all forms of suspicion and evil thoughts about others. *llah, the
*lmighty and "ajestic states:
++ you who elieve! (void sus!icion as much as you can, for sus!icion in some cases
is a sin: and s!y not on each other, nor s!eak ill of each other ehind their acks.
Would any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead rother8 Nay, ut you would ahor it.
(nd fear (llah: for (llah is +ft 5eturning, Most Merciful.- +A?:65-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3(void sus!icion as sus!icion -leads to. the most untruthful s!eech one could ever
make.4 +'ukhari-
'R Misrepresentation of facts and false reporting
*llah the *lmighty, said:
++ you who elieve! %f a wicked !erson comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth
of it lest you harm !eo!le unwittingly and afterwards ecome full of re!entance for
what you have done.- +A?:1-
'R Fits of Aage, #emper tantrums, and use of offensive and abusive language.
Thus a "uslim is ordered to always control anger. *llah the *lmighty and "ajestic
states:
3Those who avoid the greater crimes and shameful deeds and even when they are
angry, they forgive.4 (%!:"7)
The "essenger of *llah said +pbuh-:
N#he strong man is not the one who wrestles, but the strong man is in fact the one
who controls himself in a fit of rage.N +'ukhari F "uslim-
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3( "eliever is not a !erson who attacks the integrity of others, curses others, uses foul
language and e un!leasant in his s!eech with others.4 +Tirmidthi-
*bu &urairah +<*- reported:
* man asked the 7rophet +pbuh- to give him advice and he said: NEo not get angry.N
The man repeated that several times and he replied +every time-: NEo not get angry.N
+'ukhari-
'R Glee and malicious joy over the sufferings of others.
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
32o not demonstrate any ha!!iness u!on seeing your rother=s tragedy. (llah would
e Merciful to the latter and afflict you with such !rolems.4 +Tirmidthi-
'R Pndue interference with things that do not concern
*llahCs "essenger +pbuh- said:
3+ne of the signs of eing a good Muslim is to leave that which does not concern
him.4 +Tirmidthi-
'R Pnjust ruling and sentences
Daws are derived from the .ur/an and ,unnah and thus there are no legislators e(cept
*llah in Islam. Therefore a judge is entrusted with interpreting the law and applying it
justly in all individual cases, and if he becomes unjust in his verdicts, he is betraying the
sacred trust. The )ise and ,ublime states,
Kand whosoever does not judge y what (llah hath revealed, then indeed, they are
the diselievers.4 +H:AA-
This is also based on the &adith of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh-:
3The judges are three, two of which are the dwellers of the Hellfire and one is in
,aradise. ( judge who knows the truth and judges accordingly would e dwelling in
,aradise. ( judge who knows the truth ut !ur!osely deviates from it would e
dwelling in the Hellfire. The judge who !asses his sentence without !ossessing
a!!ro!riate knowledge would e dwelling in the Hellfire.4 !ne of the %ompanions, who
was present at the time raised the following #uestion, 32hat is the sin of the judge who
was not truly aware of the truth and reality of the caseE Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh-
commented, His sin is that he should not function as a judge until he is
knowledgeale.4 +&akim-
'R )pying on others
Islam bans spying on others by all means as mentioned by *llah:
++ you who elieve! (void sus!icion as much as you can for sus!icion in some cases is
a sin, and s!y not on each other, nor s!eak ill of each other ehind their acks. Would
any of you like to eat the flesh of his dead rother8 Nay, ut you would ahor it. (nd
fear (llah: for (llah is +ft 5eturning, Most Merciful.- +A?:65-
Allah:s ,essenger +pbuh- said:
3( !erson who listens in onto the conversation of others who hate him to listen in
would have molten lead !oured into his ears on the 2ay of 5e7uital.4 +'ukhari-
'R )preading the mistakes of others, and slandering
* tattletale breaks up amiable relationships between people and breeds animosity, and
creates a situation of chaos in the society. *llah, the *lmighty states
+Heed not the ty!e of des!icale man, ready with oaths, a slanderer, going aout with
calumnies.- +10:6266-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said,
3( slanderer would not e allowed to enter ,aradise.4 +'ukhari F "uslim-
!ne of the sure results of slander is the spread of rumors, hatred and anger among
members of the community. *s such, this may lead to murders or a disorder in the
community. Islam neither accepts nor condones such situation.
'R C?ploitation of others, especially the easily victimi3ed like the destitute or elderly.
Islam aims to establishing a wellintegrated society with solid fraternal bonds. *llah the
*lmighty and "ajestic said:
+Worshi! (llah, and join not any !artners with Him* and do good to !arents, kinsfolk,
or!hans, those in need, neighors who are near and neighors who are strangers, the
&om!anion y your side, the way9farer -ye meet. and what your right hands !ossess:
for (llah does not love the arrogant, the vainglorious.- +A:B1-
'R Inconveniences to others, especially neighbors
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
3"y (llah! ( !erson would not ecome a @fullA "eliever! "y (llah! ( !erson would not
ecome a @fullA "eliever! The &om!anions asked, ;+ ,ro!het of (llah! Who is this
!erson8; (llah;s Messenger -pbuh. commented, He is the one with whom a !erson
whose neighor is neither safe nor secure against @all of hisA harms and evils.4
+'ukhari F "uslim-
5onclusion
Islam builds a foundation for friendly relationships between men on the principles of
public and mutual interests of all the parties concerned. 9ever is there to be any
compulsion or force for the acceptance of Islam. Islam wishes well for all regardless of
color, creed, geographic location and nationality. Its laws and principles promote
universal modes of righteousness, benevolence and justice. "uslims are commanded to
love for the cause of *llah and hate for the cause of *llah, and never for any other special
interests, worldly desires or whims. !ne does not love or hate the person per say, but
loves the good and hates the evil shown by the behavior of that person. *llah the
*lmighty states:
+Hold to forgiveness* command what is right* ut turn away from the ignorant.-
+>:6??-
Islam brings people from the darkness of ignorance and injustice, to the true light of
guidance and justice. *llah the )ise and ,ublime states:
+(llah is the ,rotector and (lly of those who have faith: He leads them from the de!ths
of darkness into the light. The diselievers are the !atrons and allies of the taghoot
-$atan, idols, tyrants.: from light they lead them into the de!ths of darkness. They will
e &om!anions of the 0ire to dwell therein -forever..- +5:5H>-
Islam educates all "uslims to be peaceful, forgiving, patient and caring. Islam seeks all
means to establish social justice in the society and protect the rights of all citi3ens of the
Islamic state and encompasses them all in its welfare system. Islam e(horts upon
"uslims to be good to others without e(pecting a favor rather seeking the reward from
*llah, their Dord "ost 'ountiful. Islam educates "uslims to respect and honor the divine
instructions and laws so that every member in the society feels secure, safe and peaceful,
e(cept those who, by their criminal activities, deserve to be punished with justice for
transgression. Islam educates "uslims to be selfless and to like for others as they wish
for themselves so that the entire society benefits: the old are to be kind to the young and
minorQ the young are to be merciful, respectful and helpful to the oldQ the rich to be
generous to the poorQ all should seek to aid the needy. Islam aims for the ideal society
wherein the statement of *llahCs "essenger +pbuh- would be fulfilled:
3The e)am!le of the elievers in their love and affection to one another is like that of
the organs of one ody. %f one organ aches, the rest of the ody ecomes feverish, and
is affected
)e hope that this booklet helps as a guide for the seekers of the truth. )e all know that
death is the final destiny of every living being, the crucial #uestion is: what happens after
death4 "uslims like all believers in scriptures believe in the <esurrection after death
wherein all will meet just rewards or punishments in an eternal life, either in the bliss of
=ardens of 7aradise or the bla3ing fires of &ell. *s for those who sincerely accept Islam
as a way of life, they surely took the safe path that leads to happiness and the bliss after
death. *s for those who commit evil acts in this world against innocent people and
without any just basis, they would be punished and penali3ed for what they have
committed against innocent people. &owever, if one commits any act of disobedience
against the %ommandments of *llah, the *lmightyQ it is totally up to the )ill and "ercy
of *llah. If &e )ishes to torture the evildoer by &is justice, there is no one to intercede
on his behalf unless *llah permits. *nd if *llah wishes to pardon such an evildoer, &e
would do so out of &is "ercy and =enerosity.
*s for those who turn away from Islam, or turn their backs to it and die as non "uslims,
we do believe that such people would stay in the 8ire of &ell eternally.
Therefore, we urge every sensible, thoughtful and respective human being to seek true
salvation for his soul by correct actions and based on the "ercy of *llah, "ost "erciful.
)e encourage every person to seek the <ight and ,traight 7ath that leads to 7aradiseQ that
is the 7ath of *llahQ the 7ath of IslamQ the total submission to *llah. This is the 7ath that
leads to happiness for eternity. *llah the *lmighty says of those enemies who spread
false propaganda against Islam:
+Their intention is to e)tinguish (llah;s #ight y their mouths: ut (llah will com!lete
-the revelation of. His #ight, even though the diselievers may detest -it..- +16:0-
The "essenger of *llah +pbuh- said:
1,y the -ne in Whose &and the soul of Muhammad is/ Fo member of this nation
$to be called%, no Mew or 5hristian who hears of me and does not believe in what I
was sent with, but he will be of the people of the Fire.2 +"uslim-
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6 This is a statement said when one is ama3ed, happy, or wants to praise something.
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