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Marine Accidents Issue:



The Factors Of Shipping Accidents At Nigeria

Nurul Afiqah binti A. Manja. (212809)

Muhammad Nurhamzah bin Bakri .(212810)

Harikrishnan pillai a/l Chandran (212876)

Muhammad Firdaus bin Lasnang. (213350)

Zuraini binti Aziz.(213408)


Abstract

This paper focuses on the human, environemnt cause and prevention and management on
shipping accident in Nigeria. An accident most focus about shipping accident. Although, the
technological development and legislative for control and at the safety at sea. In this discussion
identifies the human and enviroment factors as the weakness link in maritime safety system.
Firstly, in the literature review evaluate the safety measures by human error the term of related
with quantity, quality and assessibility boat operation and organization or staff. Then, the
marine shipping accidents also be cause by the enviroment such as weather. Shipping
accidentare many and complex. Reduced ship maneverability in connection with large scale is
another contributing of factor in shipping accidents case. In the finding this paper got it the
natural condition, techinial failure, route condition, shipping factor and cargo factor related in
the influence of the shippping accidents in waterways. The type of shipping accidents usually
related with collision, breaking up, grounding, standing breakdown of the ship underway, and
fire or explosion accidents.

Regarding of the marine accidents issue the prevention and management existence as the
improvement to prevention of the maritime transport method. The risks of shipping is high so the
important ways with increase the safety standart.

This paper conclude that, marine accident included the ship is on maritime safety to must
considerable water tarnsportation activties to coressponding the goverment attention about
regulation. It is therefore recommendation the government country should intervene by the safety
measure put in place by operaors and institutional in areas and accesses the level of
infrastructure inquantity, quality, and accessibility to boat users the level of infrastures. It is
because the shipping marine can give impacts on marine environment and security in operation
managements.
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1.0 Introduction

Regarding marine safety 1998 defines of the
marine accident is involving a vessel
operation navigable water which the loss of
life or injury to any person on board the
vessel.
The marine accident resulted in the
maritime industry efforts to improve the ship
system, ship constructuion reability and
onboard operation to aiming reduce of
marine accident. This topic trying to
descripe the new technologies are not
esstial for the safety at the sea. From the
finding the human factor and enviroment
factor is the major issue element cause of
the marine accident.
Firstly the human error factor as the
common cause of ship accidents is identified
and all the factor with related to human error
at sea. This aspect is related eith different of
human behavior are treated which the
pattern of the behaviour, which can be
recognized and quite unique to bring the risk
model. Then the environment factors also
contributed the shipping accident in the
waterways. It is because the condition or
wheather influnce the shipping movement.
So this cause can be challenges for shipping
to fighth whith the natural condition.
Although the development have the power
to control and handling the navigation of
ships.
As, the prevention improvement the
this study decided that culture management
can enchance crew team cohesion, upgrade
communication level and improve the
quality of the working enviroment, the
safety at workplace.
The marine accident this study also
considered the dangerous situation of sea
based on human factor and used a web base
simulator to develop applications in
navigation and ship handling area with
different grades of difficulty and risk.
Analytical Human factros analysis and
classification system is a mechanism for
identifying latent human error in shipping
accidents.
In Nigeria waters to ensure safety of
shipping marine there is lack of enforcement
on the part of executing agenies. It is
similiarlly distrurbing when the cause of
ship capsizing in the country are reaptedly
common requiring little government
intervention to avart the but without
necessary official concentred effort to
reverse the ugly trend of loss of enormous
resources. Although, the government has
provided provided the policy framework of
safety still failure to handling shipping
accident.
However, in the woldwide of the
policy to prevetion marine shipping
accidents and protection of seamen and the
other marine employyees the Nigerian
Merchant Shipping Act have the role
important to controlled and handling
accidents in waterways. It was recomenden
amongst others that the need for and
enforced coast guard agency should be on
ground to check mate operataion along the
Nigeria coastal environment and penalties
be place on defauliers of coastal
environmental regulation.
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2.0 Literature review

This study for literature review discused
about the shipping accidents that text our
resource by someone text written to
consider the critical poits of currents
knowledge including the finnding as the
theoretical and methodology contribution to
a particular topic.

A.B Alexopoulos and etc in
University of the Aegean Greece (July,
2001) classified that 60% accident occurred
within port limit and 20% is coastline. Also
involved the port infrastructure and
facilities, another accident is cause of fire on
board. But the most important cause of
accident is human error with 25%, followed
by weather condition 16%. Other than that,
have lacked relevant information and other
cause is combination of human error and
weather conditions.

Bob-Manuel (2002), observe that
human error was a main factor of shipping
accident or capsizing. He also state the
another factor is overloading the freight.
Egbuh (2006), also state that the accident
can reduce when minimize the period of
exposurelike the number of trips of boat per
day, wave data, detailed study about wave
pattern, and developing ways to encounter
dangerous wave.

The Nigerian Association of Master
Mariners (NAMM) in 2009 identify that
poor pilotage service, lack of adequate
lighting system at port, failure to sound
signal, inappropriate speed of the ship, light
and shape off. Another cause is poor
selection and maintenance of course,
insufficient attention to weather, insufficient
maintenance, inspection or handling fuel oil.

In addition, the United State Coast
Guard (USCG,2005) state the number one
cause of accident is caused by improper
loading or overloading the freight. USCG
statistic shows that 61% of accident were
caused by improper vessel operation, 21%
cause by alcohol, 14% turbulent water, and
12% improper vessel loading.


3.0 Methodology

The methodology is the specific method
amd ways may derived to interpret and solve
the differents problem and issue within the
scope of particular. From the study this issue
the data collection taken by secoundry data
such as journal, newspapers, internet web
site, and books. Study carried out is use
method qualitative analysis. To know more
information the issue and preventation of the
shipping accidents issue at Nigeria.

There are several method was taken
to make this paper. The accident data were
collected from different sources such as the
daily newspapers, reports of Department of
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Shipping (DOS). This paper administers got
the information from the rsecondry resource
to know about data collection by owners,
boat drivers, boat users, boat builders, boat
engine mechanics, local government
officials, maritime workers union, the
marine police, traditional regulators and
staff of federal government agencies for
maritime affairs. The reference from
journals was blended by personel
observations on marine infrastructure and
on-the-spot assessment of the quantum of
maritime activities. The accident are analyze
according to different variables such as
vehicle type, time distribution, spatial
distribution, weather conditions, nature of
casualties and others.


4.0 Implementation

Though marine accidents are universally
known to be responsible for bringing
international conventions into place, the
Directorate General of Shipping (DGS),
Government of India, also finds these as
useful inputs for improving management
systems, enhance quality and for making
efficient quality management system to be
effective. In this regard the new Director
General of DGS, GautamChatterjee pointed
out that case studies on maritime accidents
could turn out to be useful if it is
participative and bring about a more realistic
approach to ship operations.

It is possible to improve the quantity
and quality of available data on marine
casualties. However, this will require a
concerted international effort. The focus of
marine casualty investigations must be
changed to emphasize data that is useful for
analyzing casualties for the purpose of
preventing recurrences. The role of human
factors is essential to this analysis.

The maritime accident will decrease
are by improvement of maritime traffic
environments. Firstly, improve of the traffic
safety facilities. In order to improve the
security and operational efficiency of
maritime traffic, improvement is being
implemented for beacons that correspond to
changes in the maritime traffic environment
such as improving the maintenance of ports
and ocean routes, and accelerating ship
traffic. As of the end of 2009, 5 393 beacon
groups are being managed. In 2009, the
improvement and strengthening of traffic
control or information provision system and
prevention of maritime accidents in
congested water areas that applied new
information technology for starting AIS
(Automatic Identification System) in the
Kanmon Passege advancement and
augmentation of existing beacons in Tokyo
Bay, and installation of 610 LED (light-
emitting diode) light sources were
implemented.

Secondly, focus on maritime safety
dissemination by spreading of the principle
of prevention. In order to prevent maritime
accidents, it is important to raise the
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awareness of maritime accident prevention
in maritime participators, marine leisure
lovers, and each citizen. Therefore,
compliance with maritime laws and
enforcement of safe operation have been
instructed through opportunities such as
maritime accident prevention seminars and
guidance visits to ships. Also, newsletters
were issued with explanation of the
summary and analysis results of accidents
investigation reports that were publicized by
the Japan Transport Safety Board, and were
widely distributed to maritime participators.
With regard to cases of sinking of
recreational fishing vessels, and in relation
to the opinions stated to the Director
General of the Fisheries Agency, Ministry of
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
regarding the enhancing and strengthening
of training sessions that target recreational
fishing vessel operators, a newsletter has
been issued that features accident cases of
recreational fishing vessels and ferryboats,
and should contribute to the materials used
in the same training sessions.

Thirdly, ensuring safe operation of
boats and ships by strengthening of
operational duty inspections. The
inspections were targeting passenger ships
and cargo ships, audits are carried out based
on the Maritime Transportation Law and
Coastal Shipping Law, and efforts have been
made to improve auditing methods and
enhance the system. Next, implementation
of the transport safety management system.
Based on the Transport Safety
Management System introduced in October
2006, a safety management system was
established by the operators which was
taken action by management executives to
on-the-site workers as a whole. The country
carried out the evaluation for transport
safety management to 1137 companies by
the December 2009 to confirm the status of
implementation.
Besides that, they were augmentation
of safety measures for small vessels by
promotion of safety measures for pleasure
boats. Through guidance visits to ships and
maritime accident prevention seminars, the
Japan Coast Guard has implemented
detailed guidance and edification catering to
the proper procurement of weather and
hydrographic information as well as the
compliance of leisure to maritime laws, all
corresponding with leisure purposes. The
National Police Agency has focused on
water areas with heavy maritime traffic
outside ports, seaside resorts frequented by
many swimming visitors, and water areas
with active marine leisure sports. In addition
to carrying out safety guidance with police
boats, efforts have been made to ensure
water safety through patrols with the
collaboration of police aircrafts, cooperation
and collaboration with local and relative
organizations, and by improving the marine
leisure environment, instructing safety
measures for marine leisure providers, and
holding activities for marine leisure users to
raise awareness of safety.

In addition to investigating measures
that primarily impact human reliability,
measures to improve equipment reliability
should also be similarly examined. Once
sufficient information has been developed
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on the impact of prospective measures on
equipment and human reliability, their
overall impact on the risk of collision and
grounding should be established. These risk
analyses can be accomplished by forming
event trees using the previously developed
fault trees and reliability information. This
will also be an interactive process to
determine the overall impact of various
measures, implemented to varying degrees.

5.0 Finding

Shipping accident is a term generally used
for any accident results in financial loss,
either in life and/or property or both. (Akten,
1982)
The reasons for shipping accidents
are many and complex. Increased sizes of
ships to achieve economies in transport costs
are one of the primary reasons. Bigger size
brings corresponding increases in cargo and
passenger capacity hence when an accident
or a casualty occurs, the risk of life and
property immediately becomes higher.
Reduced ship maneuverability in connection
with larger scale, which ultimately is a
function of increased risk, is another
contributing factor in marine accidents.
(Chapman and Akten, 1998)
There may be several causes for
shipping accidents. In broad terms these are
natural conditions, technical failures, route
conditions, ship-related factors,human or
personal errors and cargo related factors.
Natural conditions could be natural
phenomena such as current, tide and
tidal stream, severe wind, reduced
visibility (fog, heavy snow and rain),
storm seas, darkness etc. affecting
the ship or those controlling her.
Technical failures are shortcomings
within the ship, such as corrosion,
steering failure, engine failure, or
hull failure arising from defective
materials or construction, or by the
shore-based installations, such as
aids to navigation.
Route conditions may include
navigational error like over reliance
on inaccurate nautical charts, charts
of suspect reliability or based upon
old surveys, narrow channels with
abrupt and angular windings,
allowing for very limited
maneuverability and exposed to
dense marine traffic, such as the
Lokoja, Nigeria, anchorage
contiguous to traffic separation
lanes, confined marine areas with
insufficient sea-room as well as
navigational hazards such as shoals,
reefs, wrecks etc.
Ship-related factors could be the
weakness of a ship, associated with
her larger size, hence less
maneuvering capability and stability
or draught constraints.
Human errors may include, inter
alia, a lack of adequate knowledge
and experience, technical inability,
bad look-out, not paying proper
attention to procedures and rules,
carelessness in commanding a ship,
misinterpretations of radar
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information, fatigue and lack of
alertness, overworking, tiredness,
insufficient rest periods, etc.
Cargo-related factors mostly
include dangerous goods and heavy
cargoes; i.e. their hazardous
characteristics (oils, chemicals,
nuclear substances), the place/
compartment they are stowed
onboard ships (on deck or under
deck), and degree of diligence that
such cargoes need (grain, timber), all
of which are related to ships
seaworthiness.

Any accident may have more than
one cause. Nevertheless, statistical analyses
on the basis of the main causal trends
explicitly reveal that human errors, though
declining marginally, continue to be the
major cause for all shipping accidents -
being almost 80 percent. In other words,
the acts or omissions of human beings play
some part in virtually every accident,
including failures, like structural or
equipment ones, which may be the
immediate cause. (ISF and ICS, 1996)

6.0 Conclusion

From of of the shipping accidents in the
Nigeria are generally caused by human and
environment factors which the marine
accidents in the sea, on the coast and along
the inland waterways. Also the main of
technological is the importance items to help
and supported the marine safety. In case, the
Northern Nigeria are generally caused by
the overloading, overcrowding, wreks along
the water channels, night salling without
adequate light, absence of river marks and
lack enforcement of safety regulations by
goverments agencies. So, the government
responsible to implementation of the
enforcement of Cabotage Act should not be
limited to the activities on coastal waters.
It is to measure the crewmen to
control and handling the poor maintenance
of the ship, engine and equipment
malfuction and harsh weather condition for
navigation of sea or waterways.Then to the
reduce the marine accidents the role of
policy also important as the legislative or
guideline. The goverment agency
responsible for maritime safety and
administration in the country. It is also
responsible for the implementation of the
provision of Cabotage Policy. Which the
policy responsible to protection of the small
company ships. The prevention and the
managemant of shipping accidents very
important delivery of international trade
connection.
Then, this study can conclude most
of the reason that responsible for the current
shipping accident in Nigeria has been
revealed. The impacts of these accidents on
Nigerian coastal environment, national
economy,national image and live and
property were also highlighted. The various
of findings also revealed that majority of the
marien accident in Nigeria are widely
caused due to hman error and evironment
even though the current of emergency
response in Nigeria is relatively low.
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