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Sustainable Cities Infrastructure

and Technologies for Water

A select annotated bibliography on water related

Chapter 1 Water Technology Solutions for Todays Application
Chapter 1.1 Water and Wastewater Treatment
Chapter 1.2 Desalination
Chapter 1.3 Sludge Management
Chapter 2 Managing Water Infrastructure
Chapter 2.1 Water Asset Management
Chapter 2.2 Operations & Maintenance of Water and Wastewater plants
Chapter 2.3 Water Distribution Networks
Chapter 3 Water and Health
Chapter 3.1 Safe Drinking Water Quality and Regulations
Chapter 4 Planning for Sustainable Water Solutions
Chapter 4.1 Cities of the Future & Water Reuse
Chapter 4.2 Sustainable Solutions for Water Resource Management
Chapter 4.3 Water Resource Protection and Climate Change
Chapter 5 Patents
Chapter 5.1 Sample of Recent Patents
Access Information

The demand for clean water is a challenge worldwide. Population growth, along with rapid
urbanisation, changing lifestyles and economic development has led to increasing pressure on
water resources everywhere, and especially in developing countries. Today, more than 1 billion
people do not have access to safe drinking water.
As countries continue to grow and urbanise, the search for cost-effective and sustainable water
solutions becomes more important. In recent years, a full-blown technology race has emerged in
pursuit of more affordable and energy-efficient ways to produce clean drinking water for the
While good infrastructure facilitates accessibility to clean water, it is often the mismanagement and
lack of planning that has resulted in a dwindling supply of clean water worldwide. It is therefore
important for water agencies to focus on the proper planning and management of water resources.
Providing high quality potable water is also becoming a challenge due to increasing pollution and
higher standards of potable water required by World Health Organisation (WHO) and USEPA*. It is
hence imperative that good water safety management plans, and new analytical methods are used
to tackle these concerns.
To ensure good, clean drinking water for Singapore, PUB, the national water agency has adopted
an integrated water management approach to put in place a long-term water supply strategy known
as the Four National Taps, comprising water from local catchments, imported water, reclaimed
water (branded NEWater in Singapore) and desalinated water. By leveraging on technology, PUB
was able to successfully harness NEWater and desalinated water as alternative sources of water.
Further boosting Singapores water supply is the Marina Barrage which was officially opened last
year. With its completion, Singapores 15th reservoir and its first in the city centre is formed,
meeting 10% of Singapores water needs. Besides water supply, the Marina Barrage is also a flood
control mechanism and provides a venue for lifestyle activities. Both the Marina Barrage and the
development of NEWater exemplify how the use of infrastructure and technology are critical in
ensuring a sustainable water supply for cities.
This bibliography introduces resources focusing on the themes of Sustainable Cities: Infrastructure
and Technologies for Water. It covers a spread of resources including books, journal articles (from
databases), web articles, websites and patents. The work represents a current scan of known
available resources and should be taken as an introduction to the topic and is not meant to be an
exhaustive coverage.

* USEPA. Retrieved March 09 2009 from

1.0 Water Technology Solutions for

Todays Application
There is a continuous drive throughout the world to invest in R&D and improve water treatment
processes to find more cost-efficient ways of producing water for both domestic and industrial use.
The use of such treatment processes and technologies need to be efficient without compromising
other resources, such as the depletion of energy in the operation of hi-tech treatment processes.
The paradigm shift in the use of non-conventional water sources have been made possible with
advances in technologies. Not only are new technologies being explored, existing processes and
technologies are also constantly being improved on. In the face of these technological drives,
however, it is important not to lose sight of the importance of more conventional water treatment if
they can do the job at lower operations and environmental cost, particularly for developing
This compilation of resources on the latest water technology solutions includes methods that have
the potential to become green water treatment alternatives while adhering to the required standards
for water quality. The compilation is divided into 3 parts.

Part 1 introduces various drinking water treatment and wastewater treatment technologies,
including advanced membrane technology and applications, membrane bioreactors for
anaerobic treatment of wastewaters, reverse osmosis, coagulation and flocculation,
ultraviolet and chlorine disinfection,

Part 2 introduces desalination technologies, including nanofiltration, solar desalination,

membrane desalination, thermodistillation desalination and reverse osmosis desalination.

Part 3 introduces sludge management and odour control management technologies,

including radiation processing, industrial wastewater treatment, hydrothermal treatment,
vermifiltration, biosolids management, sludge minimisation technologies, and anaerobic

1.1 Water and Wastewater Treatment

Industrial water quality
Eckenfelder, W. W., Ford, D. L. and Englande, A. J.
New York: McGraw-Hill, c2009
R 628.3 ECK
Describes the range of processes involved in industrial water treatment, including ion exchange,
reverse osmosis, and oxidation, and provides guidelines on how to select the most appropriate
process, depending on the nature of the wastewater.
Membrane bioreactors for anaerobic treatment of wastewaters: Phase II
Hall, E. R.
Alexandria, Va.: London: Water Environment Research Foundation; IWA Pub., 2006
R 628.162 HAL
Presents a study of anaerobic membrane bioreactors and membrane filtration under different
Advanced membrane technology and applications
Li, N. N.
Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley, c2008
R 660.28424 ADV
Describes the basic principles and theories of separation and purification by membranes, the
important membrane processes and systems, and major industrial applications. There are 13
chapters dealing with the application of membranes in water and wastewater treatment.
Radiation processing: Environmental applications
International Atomic Energy Agency
Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2007
R 628.162 RAD
This guidebook launched by the International Atomic Energy Agency, provides information on
radiation processing for environmental applications, including wastewater purification and
treatment of sewage sludge.
Industrial wastewater treatment
Ng, W. J.
London: Imperial College Press, c2006
RSING 628.4 NG
Targeted at senior undergraduate and postgraduate environmental engineering students, and
practitioners of the field, this book introduces the practice of industrial wastewater treatment,
including sludge management.
Membrane systems for wastewater treatment
Water Environment Federation
New York: London: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2006
R 628.1622 MEM
Describes the applications of various technologies in the field of wastewater treatment. The three
primary wastewater membrane applications covered are membrane bioreactors, low pressure
membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) for effluent filtration, and nanofiltration/reverse osmosis
for advanced post treatment.

ProQuest central
More, larger membrane bioreactors begin to dot the horizon
Bishop, J.
2006, March
Water Environment & Technology, 18(3), 90-91
Discusses the technology limits of the membrane bioreactor (MBR) and the associated costs
factors of the process, which combines the biological step of the conventional wastewater
treatment process with the secondary clarification step via submersion of fine-pore-membrane
modules in the aeration tank to separate clean water from the sludge.
Ultraviolet and chlorine disinfection of Mycobacterium in wastewater
Bohrerova, Z. and Linden, K. G.
2006, June
Water Environment Research, 78(6), 565-571
Describes a research which studies ultraviolet (UV) and chlorine inactivation on Mycobacterium
terrae (M. terrae), a species of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) previously isolated from a
water distribution network. Results show the presence of NTM aggregates which negatively affect
the disinfection efficacy of both UV and chlorine disinfectants. Filtration of the effluent results in
improved disinfection, suggesting that effluent filtration should precede the disinfection process to
ensure adequate inactivation of Mycobacteria..
Enhanced removal of heavy metals in primary treatment using coagulation and flocculation
Johnson, P. D., Girinathannair, P., Ohlinger, K. N., and Ritchie, S., et al.
2008, May
Water Environment Research, 80(5), 472
Describes a study to determine the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and
zinc from raw wastewater by chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and to attain a total
suspended solids removal goal of 80%.
A modeling study of fouling development in membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment
Liang, S., Song, L., Tao, G., Kekre, K. A. and Seah, H.
2006, August
Water Environment Research, 78(8), 857-863
Describes a research utilising a mathematical model to study membrane fouling in submerged
membrane bioreactor systems for wastewater treatment, in which both reversible and irreversible
fouling were quantified.
Anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Applications and research directions
Liao, B.-Q., Kraemer, J. T. and Bagley, D. M.
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 36(6), 489-530
Summarises the state of the art anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs), determines the types
of wastewaters for which AnMBRs would be best suited, and identifies the research required to
increase implementation.

Ultraviolet disinfection of Fecal Coliform in municipal wastewater: Effects of particle size

Madge, B. A. and Jensen, J. N.
2006, March
Water Environment Research, 78(3), 294-304
Describes a research which shows that the degree to which particles interfere with UV disinfection
efficiency is dependent on particle size. The small size fraction (<5 m) consistently produced a
statistically significant faster disinfection rate than the large fraction (>20 m), with the unfiltered
sample and the medium fraction (particles >5 m, but <20 m) between the two extremes.
Water disinfection enhanced with ultraviolet light
McClean, J.
2008, October
Water & Wastewater International, 23(5), 18-19
Discusses ultraviolet (UV) light use as an effective barrier against Legionella pneumophila, and
highlights successful applications in indoor and outdoor water systems and features.
Influence of source characteristics, chemicals, and flocculation on chemically enhanced
primary treatment
Neupane, D. R., Riffat, R., Murthy, S. N., Peric, M. R. and Wilson, T. E.
2008, April
Water Environment Research, 80(4), 331
Describes a research that investigates various methods and parameters to increase the efficiency of
chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT). The performance of CEPT was evaluated based on
its efficiency in removing non-settleable solids (NSS).

Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and
application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems
Rulkens, W.
2008, December
Frontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering in China, 2(4)
Describes the specific future roles and aims of the various physical/ chemical treatment processes in
the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems. These include
improving the performance of microbiological treatment processes, achieving high quality standards
for effluent reuse, recovering valuable components and energy from wastewater for beneficial reuse,
desalinating brackish water and seawater, and treating concentrated liquid or solid waste residues
produced in a wastewater treatment process.
Sewage treatment by vermifiltration with synchronous treatment of sludge by earthworms: A
Low-cost sustainable technology over conventional systems with potential for
Sinha, R. K., Bharambe, G. and Chaudhari, U.
2008, December
The Environmentalist, 28(4)
Describes a research that uses the earthworms body as a biofilter. Findings show that earthworms
are able to remove 5 days of biological oxygen demand (BOD) by over 90%, chemical oxygen
demand (COD) by 8090%, total dissolved solids (TDS) by 9092%, and total suspended solids
(TSS) by 9095% from wastewater by the general mechanism of ingestion and biodegradation of
organic wastes, heavy metals, and solids from wastewater and also by their absorption through
body walls.
Use of membranes for heavy metal cationic wastewater treatment: Flotation and membrane
Sudilovskiy, P. S., Kagramanov, G. G., Trushin, A. M. and Kolesnikov, V. A.
2007, August
Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 9(3)
Describes a research studying the hydrodynamics of air sparging with the use of microporous
membranes as well as the membrane flotation efficacy for cationic wastewater treatment. The
performance of membrane filtration processes was evaluated. Ways of integrating flotation and
membrane filtration in cationic wastewater treatment practice are also discussed.

Applied Membrane Inc.
(Technical database for the water treatment industry)
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
A very useful website that provides information on membrane fouling solutions.
Bio-Bubble Ltd
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
This is the website of Bio-Bubble Ltd, which does full-scale municipal, commercial, industrial
wastewater, sludge and domestic sewage treatment, using advanced aeration which combines
wastewater and sludge treatment within a single reactor. More information about their products and
technologies applied can be downloaded from the website.
International Water Association
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
This website provides a platform to globally connect water professions around the world. It also
provides very useful articles and information on the latest water technologies, such as membrane
Koch Membrane Systems
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
A corporate website that specialises in membrane technologies used in industrial applications for
water and wastewater treatment. There are also many useful articles and literature papers on the
Lenntech Water Treatment & Air Purification Holding B.V.
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
This corporate website provides theoretical concepts on membrane technology, membrane system
management, and membrane cleaning.
Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF)
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
LeAF is a not-for-profit firm that actively promotes the implementation of sustainable environmental
protection technologies, such as anaerobic treatment in sludge management. The website provides
information on their services (including water treatment courses), publications, and anaerobic
wastewater treatment technology.
Water Technology
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
This website is a procurement and reference resource providing a one-stop-shop for professionals
and decision makers within the water and wastewater industries. It provides a comprehensive
breakdown of water equipment manufacturers, suppliers and services, up-to-date news and press
releases, white papers and detailed information on current industry projects and trends.

1.2 Desalination
Desalination of seawater and brackish water
Lauer, W. C. (Ed.)
Denver, C.O.: American Water Works Association, c2006
R 628.167 DES
Contains articles taken from AWWA conference proceedings and periodicals and includes some
updated materials not previously published. Major topics covered are seawater and brackish
desalination, membrane softening, disposal, costs and delivery.
A novel approach to seawater desalination using dual-staged nanofiltration
Le Gouellec, Y. A., et al.
Denver, Colo.: [London]: AWWA Research Foundation: American Water Works Association; IWA
Pub., c2006
R 628.167 NOV
Describes a new approach of desalting seawater by using a dual-staged nanofiltration (NF2) process
developed by the Long Beach Water Department (LBWD), which is able to desalt seawater by
treating the first-stage permeate through a second stage to produce water with salinity levels that
meet drinking water standards.
Solar desalination for the 21st century: A Review of modern technologies and researches on
desalination coupled to renewable energies: [Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research
Workshop on Solar Desalination for the 21st Century, held in Hammamet, Tunisia, 23-25
February 2006]
Rizzuti, L., Ettouney, H. M. and Cipollina, A.
Dordrecht: Springer, c2007
R 628.167 NAT
Presents the state of the art desalination technologies and contains topics on modelling tools and
optimisation and solar desalination potential and local applications.

Membrane desalination driven by solar energy
Banat, F. and Qiblawey, H.
Solar desalination for the 21st Century, 271
This study reviews the current status of a number of solar thermal and PV (spell out in full)
technologies that are coupled with water membrane desalination processes.
Thermodistillation desalination of seawater with direct heating in the first stage
Evzelman, I. B.
2007, April
Coke and Chemistry, 50(4)
Describes a research that reduces fuel consumption in the desalination of seawater, by the
replacement of steam heating by direct heating in the first stage of desalination. In this way, the heat
liberated during fuel combustion is transferred to the desalination unit without any intermediary,
increasing the thermal efficiency of the process by a factor of 22.5.
Deep desalination of water by evaporation through polymeric membranes
Lazarev, S. I., Gorbachev, A. S., Shaposhnik, V. A. and Stamov, V. M.
2007, May
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 80(5)
Describes a research that studies the transport properties and structural features of known and new
types of polymeric membranes in the desalination of aqueous salt solutions by membrane distillation
and pervaporation. It also studies the possibility of obtaining distilled water in a single stage by
pervaporation from diluted or concentrated aqueous salt solutions, using membranes fabricated from
celluloses of varied origin (wood, cotton, bacterial).
Kinetics of reverse osmosis desalination of aqueous sodium sulfanilate
Lazarev, S. I., Gorbachev, A. S., Shaposhnik, V. A. and Stamov, V. M.
2006, May
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 79(5)
Describes a research studying the kinetics of reverse osmosis desalination of aqueous sodium
sulfanilate on a laboratory pressure filter unit, in relation to the solution concentration, temperature,
and pressure in the inter-membrane channel.
Experimental study of the performance of multi-effect solar thermal water desalination
Mahkamov, K. and Akhatov, J. S.
2008, February
Applied Solar Energy, 44(1)
Describes the development of a pilot project on a multistage solar thermal water desalination system,
and presents the results of the system testing under laboratory conditions. The results show that
the productivity of the developed system is two times higher than that of conventional solar distillers
installed on greenhouses.
Impact of desalination plants brine injection wells on coastal aquifers
Nassar, M. K. K., El-Damak, R. M. and Ghanem, A. H. M.
2008, April
Environmental Geology, 54(3)
Describes a new methodology to assess the environmental impacts of desalination plants
discharging brine into the ground, by using laboratory and computational methods to simulate the
unsteady three-dimensional (3D) phenomena of subsurface brine disposal.

Ashkelon Desalination Plant, Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Plant, Israel
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Describes the plant design and technology used in the Ashkelon seawater reverse osmosis
(SWRO) plant, one of the largest in the world, and which was voted 'Desalination Plant of the Year'
in the 2006 Global Water Awards.
Desalination: A National Perspective
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Describes the current state of desalination technology, the costs involved, and further areas of
research necessary to make desalination a competitive option among water supply alternatives.
Desalination, With A Grain Of Salt: A California Perspective
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Provides a comprehensive overview of the history, benefits, and risks of ocean desalination, and
the barriers that hinder more widespread use of this technology. It also offers a set of
recommendations for water users and planners interested in making desalination a more
significant part of international, national, and local water policy.
Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Describes the Tampa Bay Seawater Desalination Plant, the largest in the United States, and the
desalination process used.
Worlds first full-scale large-diameter SWRO desalination plant
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Describes the new 10,000-m3/day seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plant at
PowerSerayas Pulau Seraya Power Station on Jurong Island, Singapore, which is the first in the
world to use the highly advanced 16-inch (400 mm) large diameter membrane SWRO
technology. The current industry standard is an 8-inch (200 mm) diameter membrane.

1.3 Sludge Management

Sludge minimisation technologies
Prez-Elvira, S. I., Nieto Diez, P. and Fdz-Polanco, F.
2006, November
Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 5(4)
Describes the minimisation techniques for reducing sludge production in biological wastewater
treatment processes, and provides an overview of the main technologies used.
Sewage sludge hydrothermal treatment by microwave irradiation combined with alkali
Qiao, W., Wang, W. Xun, R., Lu, W. and Yin, K.
2008, April
Journal of Materials Science, 43(7)
Describes the effects of microwave treatment on sewage sludge with alkali addition, the
solubilisation of organic matters and the settleability of sludge. This alternative method to treat
sludge was found to provide a fast and effective sludge hydrolysis process.
Sludge reduction by predatory activity of aquatic oligochaetes in wastewater treatment
plants: Science or fiction? A review
Ratsak, C. H. and Verkuijlen, J.
2006, July
Hydrobiologia, 564(1)
Reviews the feasibility for reducing activated sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by
means of aquatic oligochaetes, and also discusses the current techniques used in sludge reduction.
A new, pellet-forming fungal strain: Its Isolation, molecular identification, and performance
for simultaneous sludge-solids reduction, flocculation, and dewatering
Subramanian, S. B., Yan, S., Tyagi, R. D. and Surampalli, R. Y.
2008, September
Water Environment Research, 80(9), 840
Describes a study to isolate a new fungal strain from municipal sludge that could simultaneously
reduce sludge, flocculate, and dewater. The fungal strain was identified, and its role in sludge
degradation and dewatering was established in this research.
Technological options for the management of biosolids
Wang, H.
2008, June
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 15(4)
Provides a review of the technologies used in biosolids management, and recommends further
research in the following areas: achieving a higher degree of public understanding and acceptance
for the beneficial use of biosolids, developing cost-efficient and effective thermal conversions for
direct energy recovery from biosolids, advancing technology for phosphorus recovery, and selecting
or breeding crops for efficient biofuel production.

Sludge Treatment, Reuse And Disposal
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Describes the nature of sludge and the treatment options available, such as stabilisation, thickening,
dewatering, drying and incineration.
Sludge Water Treatment: DEWA
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
This is the website of DEWACO LTD, one of the leading players in sludge treatment, both in
municipal and industrial water and wastewater applications. The website provides information on
their products and technologies related to sludge water treatment, such as sludge thickening &
dewatering. and Water & Wastes Digest magazine: Water and Wastewater Treatment
Retrieved on Mar 3, 2009
Provides information on the topic of water waste management, including articles on sludge
management which are searchable from their website.

2.0 Managing Water Infrastructure

Sustainable water management is a key environmental challenge of the 21st century. Developing
countries have huge water supply and sanitation challenges to meet, whereas developed countries
struggle to keep their water spending constant to maintain the existing service level.
A recent OECD study* shows that Japan and Korea may have to increase their water spending by
more than 40% to maintain existing levels of service. The United States Environmental Protection
Agency estimates that annual investment of USD 23 billion will be needed over the next 20 years to
maintain water infrastructure at current service levels given stricter standards. In the face of such
challenges, it is fundamental to have good water management practices.
Asset management is a form of systematic integration of advanced and sustainable management
techniques, which has been introduced as a management paradigm with a primary focus on the
long-term life cycle of the asset. The use of asset management in conjunction with reliable water
distribution networks and water and wastewater plants with efficient treatment processes would
make it possible to create a turning point for water sustainability.
This chapter on managing water infrastructure will highlight resources that cover the topics of water
asset management, operations and maintenance of water and wastewater plants, and water
distribution networks.

* Organisation for economic co-operation and development (OECD). Retrieved February 17, 2009 from,3343,en_2649_37465_36146415_1_1_1_1,00.html

2.1 Water Asset Management

Water-works: The Architecture and engineering of the New York City water supply
Kevin, B. (Ed).
New York: Monacelli Press Inc, c2006
R 628.1097471 WAT
This book is the culmination of an archival rescue mission that took place from 1994 to 2003. The
goal was to create a permanent, fully functioning archive dedicated to the care and preservation of
New York Citys essential water supply records.
Adaptive and integrated water management: Coping with complexity and uncertainty
Pahl-Wostl, C., Kabat, P. and Mltgen, J.
Berlin; New York: Springer, c2008
R 333.912 INT
This book provides contributions by leading scientists, and water makers at the 2007 international
conference on adaptive and integrative water management. Chapter topics range from adaptive steps
towards groundwater protection, to regional water management regimes, managing flood risks,
improvement of water use and conceptual considerations.
Taming the anarchy: Groundwater governance in South Asia
Tushaar, S.
Washington, D.C: Colombo, Sri Lanka: Resources for the future, c2009
R 333.9130954 SHA
This title investigates the forces behind the transformation of South Asian irrigation and considers its
social, economic, and ecological impacts.

Asset management streamlines water district operations
Blackman, M.
2007, April
Waterworld, 12
This newsletter highlights the benefits of using a centralised automated asset management system
that is designed to help water distribution agencies and departments optimise their assets and
Implementation of pressure and leakage management strategies on the Gold Coast, Australia:
Case Study
Girard, M. and Stewart, R.A.
2007, May/June
Journal of water resources planning and management, 133(3)
This paper quantifies the benefits derived from a pressure and leakage management (PLM) strategy
in a trial area located on the Gold Coast. The results support claims that PLM can reduce water
consumption and the frequency of infrastructure failures.
Development of rehabilitation plans for water mains replacement considering risk and costbenefit assessment
Giustolisi, O., et al.
2006, September
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, 23(3), 175
The article introduces a processing step by which pipes are prioritised for rehabilitation. Using the
model and management theory proposed, it has significantly reduced the economic and social costs
of pipe bursts in the water distribution networks (WDN).

Evaluation of biological stability and corrosion potential in drinking water distribution
systems: A Case study
Chien, C. C., et al.
2008, May
Environment Monitoring Assessment
This paper highlights the water distribution system of Cheng-Ching Lake water treatment plant. It
evaluates the fate and transport of organic based indicators in the selected distribution system,
correlates the organic indicators to major water quality parameters, and illustrates asset
management issues caused by corrosion in water pipes systems.
Development of a moisture-content system for monitoring leaks in VVER pipelines
Gonor, V. K., et al.
2007, November
Atomic Energy, 103(5), 858
This paper shows the technical decisions adopted in developing a moisture-content system for
monitoring leaks in the pipeline.

American Society of Civil Engineers Water infrastructure security enhancement (WISE)
Retrieved on February 10, 2009
The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), American Water Works Association (AWWA), and
Water Environment Federation (WEF) teamed up in 2003 to produce guidance documents for the
physical security of water and wastewater utilities under the Water Infrastructure Security
Enhancements (WISE) project.
AWWA Research foundation Asset Management Research
Retrieved on February 10, 2009
AWWA Research Foundation (AwwaRF) has established the Asset Management Research Needs
Roadmap project for the water and wastewater industry. The project identifies the industrys most
pressing research needs in relation to asset management and defines a set of comprehensive,
cohesive and prioritised research initiatives.
Retrieved on February 10, 2009
CH2MHILL is a global leader in full service engineering, consulting, construction, and operations.
This webpage provides a list of useful updates on water asset management.
USEPA Sustainable infrastructure for water and wastewater
Retrieved on February 10, 2009
A website provided by The United States Environmental Protection Agency, dedicated to promoting
sustainable practices in water management.

2.2 Operations & Maintenance of Water and

Wastewater Plants
Pumping station design
Garr, M. J., et al.
Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, c2006
R 628.29 PUM
This book written by water consultants provides expert information on water pumping station design,
operation and maintenance.
Radiation processing: Environmental applications
International Atomic Energy Agency
Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2007
R 628.162 RAD
This publication provides information relevant to radiation processing for environmental applications.
Chapters 3 and 4 are of particular interest to this water publication, as it discusses issues pertaining
to radiation processing and operations of wastewater and sewage sludge.
Membrane bioreactors: Operation and results of a MBR wastewater treatment plant
Van Bentem, A. G. N., et al.
London: IWA Publishing, c2007
R 628.3 MEM
This book highlights a municipal wastewater demonstration plant that shows the technical feasibility
of scaling up.

Singapore plans two more reuse plants, increasing its reliance on reclaimed water
Landers, J.
2008, August
Civil Engineering, 33-35
This paper highlights Singapores growing reliance on reclaimed water, as it embarks on building two
more reuse plants.
Wastewater treatment in Brazil: Institutional framework, recent initiatives and actual plant
Oliveira, S. M. A. C.
International Journal of Technology Management and Sustainable Development, 5(3), 241
The paper discusses an innovative program which aims to encourage public and private companies
to implement new treatment plants and to improve the performance of existing wastewater treatment
Cost and land functions for wastewater treatment projects: Typical simple linear regression
versus fuzzy linear regression
Papadopoulos, B., et al.
2007, June
Journal of environmental engineering, 133(6), 581
This paper analyses cost data pertinent to the municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWTP) in
Greece. Data have been collected with onsite visits, such as the land size necessary for a MWTP, the
construction costs, and the operations and maintenance cost of existing wastewater treatment
Permeate flux optimisation of a pilot microfiltration plant for cost-effectiveness of water
reclamation reuse
Xie, R. J., et al.
2006, July
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 41, 1171
This paper discusses the results of permeate flux optimisation of a pilot microfiltration plant that helps
reduce the cost of water reclamation reuse.
Case study: Design and operation of sustainable urban infiltration ponds treating storm runoff
Zheng, J., et al.
2006, March
Journal of urban planning and development, 132:1(36)
This case study assesses the constraints associated with the planning, design and operation of
wetlands ponds as well as the influence of aquatic plants on infiltration rates and water treatment

State water corporation total asset management plan
Barrie, R., et al.
2006, July
WCEAM, 121, 1
This paper contains the organisational background, asset management framework, and benefits of a
total asset management plan for a state water corporation in Australia.
Life cycle assessment of water from the pumping station to the wastewater treatment plant
Lassaux, S., et al.
2007, March
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 12(2), 118-126
This paper discusses the environmental impact of using one cubic metre of water in the Walloon
region.. The processes analysed are, water catchment, water treatment, water supply, sewer system,
collective and individual wastewater treatment plant, waste sludge treatment, and water discharge.

Asia Water Technology Ltd
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
Asia Water Technology Ltd is a Singapore company that carries out businesses related to water
purification treatment, wastewater treatment, automated control systems and other projects.
EUWA Water Treatment Plants
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
EUWA water treatment plants are used around the world with a guarantee of stable and good
quality water supply. . A Singapore subsidiary was open in 1965 to offer water treatment solutions in
Asia. Its website provides a useful list of product descriptions, explaining the concepts and
principles behind each application.
GE Water & Process Technologies
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
GE Water and Process technologies, a unit of GE infrastructure, is a leading global supplier and
operator of water treatment, wastewater treatment and process systems solutions. This website
provides a constant update of some of the current solutions and technologies available on plant
operations and maintenance.
International Water Association: Design, operations and maintenance of drinking water
treatment plants
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
The Specialist Group at IWA on Design, Operation and Maintenance of Drinking Water Treatment
Plants is a forum for the exchange of theoretical, practical and operational experiences for those
involved in the design and operation of drinking water treatment plants.
Keppel Seghers
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
Keppel Seghers is a leading provider of comprehensive environmental solutions ranging from
consultancy, design and engineering, technology and construction to operations and maintenance
of facilities. The website covers interesting publications and past examples of water and wastewater
treatment. A useful list of water solutions is also provided.

2.3 Water Distribution Networks

Hydrometry: A Comprehensive introduction to the measurement of flow
Boiten, W.
Boca Raton: CRC Press, c2008
R 627.042 BOI
This book provides a thorough introduction to the science of hydrometry. Dealing with both
traditional techniques and innovative new methods and instruments in line with the latest ISO
standards, this book addresses the main themes of hydrometry: the measurement of water levels
and bed levels, the amount of discharge and flow of sediment transport. It also discusses the use of
flow measurement structures, hydrological networks and the organisation of river surveys.
Process piping design handbook: The Fundamentals of piping design
Smith, P.
Houston, Texas: Gulf Pub, c2007
R 621.8672 SMI
This handbook covers the broad spectrum of information relevant for piping engineers, such as
piping codes, standards and specifications, piping components, and includes examples covering
project developments and construction.

Solution for water distribution systems under pressure-deficient conditions
Ang, W. K., et al.
2006, May/Jun
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 132(3), 175
The paper suggests a proposed model which progressively introduces a set of artificial reservoirs
into the network to initiate nodal flows. The results show that the behaviour of a water distribution
system under pressure-deficient conditions is complex and nonintuitive.
Improve control of pressure reducing valves in water distribution networks
Prescott, S. L., et al.
2008, January
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 134(1), 56
The paper presents work done on the influence of modulating control valves on the behaviour in a
water pipe network. Results from modelling studies shows the interactions between pressure
reducing valves in response to changes to pressure variations.
Water quality failures in distribution networks risk analysis using fuzzy logic and evidential
Sadiq, R., et al.
Risk Analysis, 27(5), 1381
The evaluation on the risk of water quality failures in a distribution network is investigated in this
paper. Five general pathways through which a water quality failure can occur in the network are
also identified.
Optimal cost design of water distribution networks using harmony search
Zong, W. G.
2006, April
Engineering Optimization, 38(3), 259
This study presents a cost minimisation model for the design of water distribution networks. The
model uses a recently developed harmony search optimisation algorithm to find better design
solutions for pipe diameters in a water distribution network.

ProQuest central
How not to calibrate a hydraulic network model
Hirrel, T. D.
2008, August
American Water Works Association, Journal, 100(8), 70
This article challenges the notion that hydraulic network models should be calibrated by input
parameters such as roughness and demand so that the model results and field data match.
Comparative study of three types of controllers for water distribution networks
Kumar, M. P., et al.
2009, January
American Water Works Association. Journal, 101(1), 74
The paper discusses proportional derivative (PD) and proportional integral derivative (PID)
controllers in terms of water distribution networks. Controller performance is evaluated for
sequential supply to multiple reservoirs for level and flow control.
Using aggregation/skeletonization networks models for water quality simulations in
epidemiologic studies
Perelman, L., et al.
2008, June
American Water Works Association Journal, 100(6), 122
In this study, a network aggregation methodology based on both hydraulic and water quality
aggregation of an all-pipes network was applied to a complex all-pipes network.

An integrated model to evaluate losses in water distribution systems
Tabesh, M., et al.
2008, June
Water Resource Management, 23, 477-492
Using the capabilities of the model proposed, the network map and attribute data are linked and
factors affecting network leakage are identified. Illustrated by a real case study, the results show
that the suggested model has overcome the shortcomings of the existing methodologies by
accounting for water leakage in the distribution networks.
Conjunction management of large-scale pressurized water distribution and groundwater
systems in semi-arid area with parallel genetic algorithm
Tsai, F. T-C., et al.
2007, May
Water Resource Management
This study develops a production well management model for the conjunctive management of water
resources in semi-arid areas. The management model integrates a large-scale pressurised water
distribution system and a three dimensional groundwater model under an optimisation framework.

BOSS International
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
BOSS international is a leading software provider for water distribution. A live demonstration on
water quality modelling and analysis is also available on its website. .
C.R. Hutchison & Co PTY. LTD. (CRH)
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
CRH was established in 1970 and provides surveying services. They have completed numerous
projects related to sewer reticulation systems, water supply and pipelines.
Free patents online: Non-destructive testing of pipes
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
This patent on non-destructive testing of pipes (USPTO number: 7475596) is available online.
VEOLIA Water Network Services (VWNS)
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
VWNS is a world leading construction specialist in water distribution networks and wastewater
collection systems. A useful list of case studies on water network solutions can also be found on its
Water Integrity Network (WIN)
Retrieved on February 11, 2009
WIN was formed to support anti-corruption activities in the water sector worldwide by forging
coalitions that can take action in ways that individuals or single organisations cannot. The
complexity of multiple geographical and institutional levels typical of water sub-sectors makes such
coalitions essential.

3.0 Water and Health

Water quality plays an essential role towards human growth and civilisation. In the second half of
the 20th century, rapid population growth and increasing urbanisation resulted in a three-fold
increase in global clean water demand. Human activities and wastes threaten the stability of the
quality of water supplies; and polluted water sources have been linked to the spread of water-borne
diseases and chemical poisoning. It is of utmost importance to protect water sources from
contamination, so that we can extract clean raw water to be treated for the drinking water supply.
As globalisation and industrialisation takes place, there is a need to set worldwide standards and
regulations for clean water.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) is one such organisation that addresses the above need. It
produces international norms on water quality and human health in the form of guidelines that are
used as the basis for regulation and standard setting in countries worldwide. The main aims of such
regulations are to ensure that water is protected within respective countries and to minimise the
threat to human health and society.
This chapter on water and health will highlight resources on drinking water guidelines and

3.1 Safe Drinking Water Quality and

Water quality control handbook
Alley, R.
Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
R 628.168 ALL
This book explores design innovations, equipment selection, treatment processes and new
regulations for achieving peak performance in all kinds of wastewater treatment facilities. Chapter 4
touches on water quality, Chapter 5 on water quality management and Chapter 6 on water pollution
Our waters: Joining hands across borders: First assessment of transboundary rivers, lakes
and groundwaters
Economic Commission for Europe
New York: United Nations, 2007
R 333.910095 OUR
This is the first ever in-depth report produced on transboundary rivers, lakes and groundwaters in
the UNECE (should be spelled out in full) region.
Fluoride in drinking water
Fawell, J. K., et al.
London: IWA Pub: WHO, c2006
R 628.166 FLU
The primary focus of this book is on the prevention of adverse health effects from excessive levels
of fluoride in drinking water. Chapter 4 contains the WHO water quality guidelines and standards
that are applicable to local conditions.
Hydrodynamics and water quality: Modelling rivers, lakes, and estuaries
Ji, Z.
Hoboken, N. J.: Wiley-Interscience, c2008
R 627 JI
This book provides the principles, basic processes, mathematical descriptions, and practical
applications of modelling surface waters. It discusses hydrodynamics, sediment processes, toxic
fate and transport, and water quality. It also shows the progress made in mathematical models for
water distribution. Chapter 5 covers water quality and eutrophication.
Drinking water: Principles and practices
Moel, P., van Dijk, J. and Verberk, J.
Singapore; Hackensack, N. J.: World Scientific, c2006
R 363.61 MOE
This book gives an overview of all the major aspects of modern drinking water systems from a
Western European context. There is an addendum on water quality legislation in the Netherlands.

Advances in water quality & management

Rao, S. M., et al. (Eds).
Singapore: Research Publishing Services, c2008
R 628.1 ADV
The book is presented in four sections: section 1 deals with ground and surface water quality;
section 2 deals with sanitation and wastewater treatment; section 3 deals with water management;
and section 4 provides summary recommendations on issues, R&D challenges, institutional and
societal gaps in sustainable water quality management.
Statistical framework for recreational water quality criteria and monitoring
Wymer, L. (Ed.)
Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, c2007
R 628.161015195 STA
This book offers a practical guide to the statistical methods used for assessing health effects and for
monitoring and modelling water quality. Chapters 1, 2 and 10 cover water quality standards and

Effect of water source pollution on the water quality of Shanghai water supply system
Bai, X., et al.
2006, July
Journal of Environmental Science & Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental
Engineering, 41(7), 1271-1280
The paper describes the quality of water sources in Shanghai, China and its water supply system.
The effect of purification by traditional water treatment process and the effluent biological stability
were evaluated by measuring quality parameters in the water supply system. The data shows that
the main pollutants in the water source of Huangpu River were organics and ammonia.
Estimating water quality pollution impacts based on economic loss models in urbanization
process in Xian, China
He, H., et al.
2007, September
Journal of Urban Planning & Development, 133(3), 151-160
This study investigates water quality pollution impacts on urbanisation by analysing temporal and
spatial characteristics of different water quality parameters, and by simulating economic losses from
water quality pollution in Xian, China from 1996 to 2003.
Water quality index: A Fuzzy river-pollution decision support expert system
Nasiri, F., Maqsood, I., et al.
2007, March
Journal of Water Resources Planning & Management, 133(2), 95-105
In this study, the authors propose a fuzzy multiple-attribute decision support expert system to
compute the water quality index (WQI) and provide an outline for the prioritisation of alternative
plans based on the amount of improvements in WQI.
Comparison of Different Biological Indices for the Assessment of River Quality: Application
to the Upper River Moselle (France)
Thibaut, G., Tixier, G., et al.
2006, October
Hydrobiologia, Vol. 570 Issue 1, p159-164, 6p
The aim of this study is to assess the water quality of the upper Moselle river in France by using
biological indices. A biological monitoring combining both macroinvertebrates and macrophytes was

Analysis of groundwater quality using water quality index and conventional graphical
methods: The Volta region, Ghana
Banoeng-Yakubo, B., et al.
2009, 13 February
Environmental Earth Sciences (Vol/ issue/ pg nos?)
Conventional graphical and statistical methods were used with water quality indices to characterise
the hydrochemistry of groundwater from the northern part of the Volta region of Ghana.
Desorption of arsenic from drinking water distribution system solids
Copeland, R. C.
2006, May
Environment Monitoring Assessment, 127, May 2006, 523
This paper discusses the impact of pH and orthophosphate on the chemical release of arsenic from
nine drinking water distribution systems solids.
Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index
De Rosemond, S., Duro, D. and Dub, M.
2008, 22 August
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Vol/ issue/ pg nos?)The Canadian Council of Ministers
for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of
complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data
against numeric water quality guidelines and/ or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that
represents overall water quality.
Integration of metrological principles and performance evaluation in a proficiency testing
scheme in support of the Council Directive 98/83/EC
Drolc, A. and Cotman, M.
2009, 21 February
Accreditation and Quality Assurance: Journal for Quality, Comparability and Reliability in Chemical
Measurement (Vol/ issue/ pg nos?)
Proficiency testing is a means of external quality assessment of laboratories performance. It was
designed specifically to support the Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC).
Development and sensitivity analysis of a global drinking water quality index
Rickwood, C. and Carr, G.
2008, 12 September
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
The UNEP GEMS/Water Programme is responsible for the development of water quality indicators
and it maintains the only global database of water quality for inland waters (GEMStat). A composite
index was developed to assess source water quality across a range of inland water types, both
globally, and temporally.

Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI)
Retrieved on March 13, 2009
The Drinking Water Inspectorate (DWI) regulates public water supplies in England and Wales. DWI
is responsible for assessing the quality of drinking water, taking appropriate enforcement actions
when standards are not met.
Surface Water Quality Regulation In EECCA Countries: Directions for Reform
Retrieved on February 25, 2009
The paper presents a brief overview of the main features of the existing Eastern Europe, Caucasus
and Central Asia (EECCA) systems of surface water quality standards. It describes the key
conceptual directions for reform based on OECD and EECCA country experience, and summarises
the main issues discussed at the expert meeting.
United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
Retrieved on March 13, 2009
The UNECE provides a set of water protocols to protect human health The Protocol is the first
international agreement of its kind adopted specifically to attain an adequate supply of safe drinking
water and adequate sanitation for everyone.
United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)
Retrieved on March 13, 2009
This website provides detailed information on the kinds of substances allowed in drinking water, as
well as the different kinds of regulatory infrastructure that control drinking water standards.
Water Quality for Ecosystem and Human Health
Retrieved on February 25, 2009
The United Nations GEMS/ Water Programme provides scientifically-sound data and information on
the state and trends of global inland water quality required as a basis for the sustainable
management of the world's freshwater to support global environmental assessments and decisionmaking processes.
WHO Guidelines for drinking-water quality
Retrieved on February 25, 2009
The first and second editions of the Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality were used by developing
and developed countries worldwide as the basis for regulation and standard setting to ensure the
safety of drinking water. The third edition of the Guidelines has been comprehensively updated to
take account of developments in risk assessment and risk management since the second edition.

4.0 Planning for Sustainable Water

One of the most pressing concerns of governments around the world in the 21st century is ensuring
access to freshwater supplies. With increased urbanisation, demographic changes and increasing
domestic consumption patterns, many developed and developing countries are on the brink of a
water crisis, particularly in vast continents of Africa and Asia.
Global climate changes has exacerbated the situation and placed tremendous pressures on the
environment and in particular, on precious water resources. Besides building up the nations water
and sewerage infrastructure, enforcing laws and regulations to protect against the degradation of
water sources and developing and implementing various technologies to treat and clean
wastewater, proper water management practices have often been cited as the key to ameliorating
the water shortage exigency.
The collective cooperation of international, national and local authorities and the consultation and
engagement of the private sector and the community are also essential for a successful and
sustainable water governance structure. Finally, policies need to be flexible and adaptive to meet
future uncertainties that can threaten the world's water resources.
This section of the bibliography on Planning for Sustainable Water Solutions highlights books and
digital resources on different aspects of strategies and policies to ensure a continuous and
adequate supply of good, clean and freshwater to meet the needs of the community.

Part 1 introduces various ways of ensuring the efficient and prudent usage of water, through
water conservation campaigns, water recycling programmes and improving water resource
Part 2 introduces sustainable solutions for water resource management, such as stormwater
and watershed management; and
Part 3 introduces water source protection strategies in response to climate changes.

4.1 Cities of the Future & Water Reuse

Eau Canada: The Future of Canada's water
Bakker, K.
Vancouver: UBC Press, c2007
R 333.9100971 EAU
This book presents perspectives from a panel of water and environmental experts on the threats
confronting Canadas supply of freshwater. It examines the current governance of Canadas water
resources, in terms of its jurisdictional fragmentation, cultural heritage, business decisions, legal
framework and water politics. The contributors have also proposed several solutions to better
manage Canadas water resources, such as conservation-led management strategies, a revamped
water policy and a more efficient water pricing strata.
Water: The Looming crisis in India
Binayak, R.
Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, c2008
R 333.9100954 RAY
The author presents a grave scenario of India facing a severe shortage of freshwater and gives a
critique of Indias national water policy, with its unsustainable supply-side solution. He advocates
that the five South Asian countries sharing common sources of freshwater from the Himalayan
Rivers should work together to develop cooperative water policies to ensure that their socioeconomic growth and development are not impeded.
The world water crisis: The Failures of resource management
Brichieri-Colombi, S.
London: I. B. Tauris, 2009
R 333.91 BRI
With over 50% of the worlds surface covered with water, the author posits that the global water
crisis is due to the poor management by water resource planners. He proposes a new paradigm
Water In the National Economy (WINE), which addresses factors impacting societys demands for
water, such as policies to reduce population, encourage urbanisation and produce food by
alternative methods.
China's water warriors: Citizen action and policy change
Mertha, A. C.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2008
R 333.9100951 MER
Mertha examines the hydropower politics in China, which has been subject of ugly political tussles
and widespread protests. The scrutiny of the policy processes and agents involved in the control
and management of water, from national bureaucracies, local governments, NGOs, policy
entrepreneurs, activist groups and the media, reveals the increasing democratisation and political
pluralism in China. Three cases of public oppositions to dams in the Sichuan and Yunnan provinces
are also highlighted.

ProQuest central
Drought relief in South East, Queensland, Australia, provided by membrane-reclaimed water
Freeman, S., et al.
2008, February
American Water Works Association Journal, 100(2), 40
This article describes a multi-pronged approach that Queensland has adopted to tackle water
shortages due to drought and increased usage. These initiatives include: using membrane-based
advanced water treatment plants to reclaim water from the municipal wastewater treatment plant;
launching emergency water projects and organising public outreach programmes.
Role of water-saving devices in reducing urban water consumption in the mega-city of
Tehran, case study: A Residential complex
Gholamreza N. B., et al.
2008, April
Journal of Environmental Health, 70(8), 44
This article reports on the outcomes from a case study done on a residential complex in Tehran, to
investigate the effects of installing subcounters, single handle faucets and reducers on household
water consumption. Results showed a total reduction in water consumption of about 20 percent.
The role of water conservation in drought planning
Knutson, C. L.
2008, September/October
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 63(5), 154A
This article focuses on the role that behavioral and technological water conservation measures play
in increasing resilience to drought and responding to drought crisis, in the context of the US.
Knutson advocates a risk over a crisis management approach to reduce impacts on the community
and economy. He also highlights new water conservation strategies such as installing rainwater
harvesting systems in Arizona homes, the development of an aquifer storage and recovery system
in North Carolina and dryland farming in Nebraska.
Water in the 21st century: Defining the elements of global crisis and potential solutions
Lall, U., et al.
2008, Spring
Journal of International Affairs, 61(2), 1
This article identifies the three types of crisis that together make up the global water crisis faced by
countries around the world today: 1. crisis of access to safe drinking water, 2. crisis of pollution, and
3. crisis of scarcity. One of the main causes of water scarcity, the most pressing concern, is
agricultural water use and finding solutions to improve the situation, such as making changes to the
agricultural supply-chain and using innovative technologies to reclaim water require a synergy
among local, national and international authorities.
Water reuse and conservation in the CPI
Schultz, T.
2008, September
Chemical Engineering, 115(9), 44
This article examines water reuse in the chemical process industries, with examples from the
petroleum refining and petrochemical sectors. Some examples of water resue include stripped sour
water, coke-drum cutting water and using water from steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD).
Some of the challenges faced by these industries in reusing wastewater include the cost of
wastewater treatment and the lack of adequate technology to remove substances that adversely
impact the membrane systems.

The Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management (CIWEM)
Retrieved on February 19, 2009
CIWEM supports the government and other organisations in promoting and creating awareness of
sustainable water and environmental management practices. A wealth of information is provided on
this website, such as the implementation of the water framework directive in Europe, an overview of
water reuse, an introduction to catchment management in England and Wales, reed bed
wastewater treatment and recommendations for a sustainable water future.
Florida Department of Environmental Protection - Florida's Reuse Program
Retrieved on February 19, 2009
Describes the key features of Floridas reuse programme and provides a downloadable link to its
Reuse Strategy Report, which lists 16 strategies aimed to encourage Florida residents to use
reclaimed water. The Florida Department of Environmental Protection and various agencies have
also come together to issue a Statement of Support for Water Reuse, reflecting their commitments
to promote water reuse in Florida.
Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources Water Conservation
Retrieved on February 19, 2009
This website describes the water conservation initiatives implemented to reduce domestic
consumption of water in Singapore. These programmes include the 10-litre challenge, Efficient
Homes programme, Water Volunteer Groups programme, a labelling scheme for water-efficient
appliances, and promoting the use of dual-flush low-capacity flushing cisterns.
Water Recycling and Reuse: The Environmental Benefits
Retrieved on February 19, 2009
Provides an introduction to water recycling and details the environmental benefits of using recycled
water such as reducing and preventing pollution to water bodies and creating and enhancing
wetlands. It also provides links to water quality standards and information on water sustainable
WateReuse Association (WRA)
Retrieved on February 19, 2009
WRA is a non-profit organisation that promotes the efficient use of water resources through
education, sound science, and technology. Besides quick facts and glossaries on water reuse and
desalination, links to guidelines, technical reports, local and international resources, associations,
foundations and institutes are provided. It also provides access to The National Database of Water
Reuse Facilities in U.S. that allows searches by Utilities, Facilities, Treatment Technologies, and
End Use.

4.2 Sustainable Solutions for Water Resource

Health impact assessment for sustainable water management
Fewtrell, L. and Kay, D.
London: IWA Pub., c2008
R 333.91 HEA
The focus of this book is applying health impact assessment (HIA) to gauge the strengths and
shortcomings of water management approaches in different countries. Case studies are drawn from
developed and developing countries, such as rainwater harvesting in UK, the hydroelectric project in
Laos and the irrigation project in Zimbabwe. In each study, the risk assessments and health impacts
such as infection and contamination levels are detailed.
Design for water: Rainwater harvesting, stormwater catchment, and alternate water reuse
Heather, K-L.
Gabriola, B. C.: New Society Publishers, c2007
R 631.7 KIN
This book provides updates on alternate water reuse. There are also numerous case studies
outlining the process of water collection from landscape, residential, commercial, industrial, school,
park, and municipal systems.
Strategic planning for water
Howes, H.
London; New York: Taylor & Francis, 2008
R 333.9100941 HOW
Howes describes how sustainable water management practices can be incorporated into Londons
planning system and proposes a Water Framework Directive that provides implementation and
funding guidelines for city planners, water companies and the Environment Agency. He also
discusses the impact that the water environment can have on the quality of life of city dwellers and
the importance of balancing between economic pursuits and community wellbeing.

Making the most of scarcity: Accountability for better water management results in the
Middle East and North Africa
Washington, D. C.: World Bank, 2007
R 363.610956 MAK
This report highlights the water scarcity challenges in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
region. The problem is exacerbated by climate changes, which have lead to rising temperatures,
floods and desertification. Region-wide water reform is crucial to alleviate water shortages and hold
off economic and social instability but these have been forestalled by the scarcity of physical
resources, accountability and organisational scarcity. The report proposes that engaging non-water
policy makers and improving external accountability in the water sector are strategies that can help
MENA countries meet water demands in the 21st century.
Integrated evaluation for sustainable river basin governance
Videira, N., et al.
London, UK: IWA, 2007
R 333.911 INT
Divided into three main sections, part 1 of this report describes the problems of past evaluation
practices in five European Union states and proposes an integrated evaluation process of river
basin governance under the Water Framework Directive. Part 2 shows how the principles and tools
for Integrated Deliberative Decision Processes (IDDP) are put in practice, with experimental case
studies from Greece, Portugal and Spain. Part 3 proposes ways to tackle future challenges of
integrative evaluation.

Water resources sustainability

Mays, L. W.
New York: Alexandria, Va.: McGraw-Hill; WEF Press, c2007
R 363.61 WAT
This book provides an extensive coverage of the critical issues surrounding water resource
sustainability. May extrapolates water management practices from ancient civilisations and
compares them with current approaches in the American Southwest. Other chapters discuss the
impact of climate changes on water sustainability, models for managing sustainable groundwater,
water resource sustainability in South Korea, water supply security pre- and post 9/11, community
management of rural water systems in Ghana and the privatisation of water utilities in Europe.
Adaptive and integrated water management: Coping with complexity and uncertainty
Pahl-Wostl, C., Kabat, P. and Mltgen, J.
Berlin; New York: Springer, c2008
R 333.912 INT
Targeted at industry professionals, scientists and policy makers, this book is a select compilation of
papers for the 2007 international Conference on Adaptive and Integrative Water Management. The
papers focus on how water management policies have to change and adapt to manage for
example, flood risks, improve water usage and protect groundwater as a result of global climate
changes. It includes case studies such as the impact of climate change on river runoff in Central
Asian river basins, management of wastewater and storm water drainage in Kolkata and the
governance of water resources in the Mekong region.
Managing water resources: Policies, institutions, and technologies
Reddy, V. R., and Dev, S. M.
New Delhi: Oxford University Press, c2006
R 333.910954 MAN
This is a transcript of selected papers presented at a two-day national seminar on water organised
by the Centre of Economics and Social Studies in collaboration with the Indian Council for Social
Science Research.
Clean, green and blue: Singapore's journey towards environmental and water sustainability
Tan, Y. S., Lee, T. J. and Tan, K.
Singapore: ISEAS Pub., 2009
RSING 363.70095957 TAN
This book documents Singapores success in managing its environmental resources, achieving
clean air quality, adequate water supply and effective wastewater management. The joint
corporation between multi-national agencies, the private sector and the community have enabled
Singapore to achieve environmental sustainability while being ranked 6th among the worlds best
economies in terms of GDP per capita.

Integrated water resource management and water sharing
Davis, M. D.
2007, September
Journal of Water Resources Planning & Management, 133(5), 427-445
This article provides a broad overview of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which
can assume various institutional forms and is best implemented at national, regional, river basin,
and/ or sub-basin levels. Case studies highlighting Californias water management governance and
Frances river basin management are also highlighted.
Tourism destination water management strategies: An Eco-efficiency modelling approach
Kelly, J. and Williams, P.
Leisure/ Loisir: Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 31(2), 427-452
This article identifies the key features of water management in tourist destinations and proposes a
forecasting model for assessing the relative eco-efficiency of various strategies. This model is
applied to the mountain resort destination in Whistler, British Columbia as a practical application
case study.
Community governance for sustainability: Exploring benefits of Community water schemes?
Marquardt, M. and Russell, S.
2007, August
Local Environment, 12(4), 437-445
The authors examine two solutions to New Zealands water scarcity problem: local operation water
storage and water sharing schemes. Studies show that these two schemes have had positive
economical, social and environmental effects, such as increase in job opportunities, higher water
security, added economic value to the region, a less interrupted irrigation season and a mechanism
put in place to ensure that the river stays above minimum flow level.
Politics, plurality and problemsheds: A Strategic approach for reform of agricultural water
resources management
Mollinga, P. P., Meinzen-Dick, R. S. and Merrey, D. J.
2007, November
Development Policy Review, 25(6), 699-719
This paper begins with a critique of the planning and implementation of the irrigation infrastructure
over the past three decades, which has failed to take into account the political complexities of the
reform process. The authors propose a three-step strategic action and identify three operational
aspects critical to the success of institutional and policy reform: 1. Modesty and realism about
feasible options; 2. Out-of-the-sector policy entrepreneurship for better co-ordination, and 3.
Reflective practitioners.
Challenges and realities of water management of megacities: The Case of Mexico City
metropolitan area
Tortajada, C.
2008, Spring/Summer
Journal of International Affairs, 61(2), 147-166
This article addresses the challenges of managing water resources in huge urban metropolis cities
and focuses on the 22m inhabited Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ZMCM), which is facing a water
crisis. Causes of water shortage problems in ZMCM include damages to water supply and sewerage
infrastructure and degradation of groundwater supply. Comparisons are made against other
megacities such as Dhaka, So Paulo and Bangkok. The author concludes that the solution to
ZMCMs predicament is to improve its water governance.

Bureau of Watershed Management
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
The Bureau is responsible for planning and managing Pennsylvania's water resources. It carries this
out by enforcing legislation to limit human activities that pollute water resources, implementing
erosion and sediment control to protect the states drinking and water sources, and educating the
community about watershed management.
The Stormwater Manager's Resource Center
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This is a one-stop information hub on all aspects pertaining to stormwater and urban watershed
management, targeted at industry practitioners and policy makers. Besides downloadable fact
sheets on topics such as land planning, stream restoration and conservation, research articles, a
customisable manual, model ordinances, assessment methods and programme resources are also
Water Resource Management in the Petroleum Industry
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This report provides an insight to water resource management in the petroleum industry, which has
adopted two key practice guidelines: Operating Responsibly and Building Capacity. Examples of
good practices at various petroleum companies are also highlighted.
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This follows from a previous WETLANDS project, which provided guidelines for the successful
integrated management of wetlands in Europe. WETLANDS II aims to improve the operative
management of wetlands through these activities: 1. Participatory planning and management; 2.
Certification of products and services; 3. Sustainable development in wetlands; 4. Communication
and awareness raising; 5. Environmental monitoring, and 6. Training for Wetlands Managers.
World Bank Water Resources Management
Retrieved on March 3, 2009,,contentMDK:21630583~m
The World Bank website provides an overview of water resources management and identifies the
challenges and obstacles that affect the provision of water. Water management projects in Lesotho,
Mexico and Tunisia are featured, as well as water strategies implemented in countries such as
Brazil, Pakistan and Ethiopia. Information resources are also provided for basin management,
groundwater, droughts and floods and water quality measurements. Current statistics such as total
water productivity and water pollution by industry are also available on a global scale.

4.3 Water Resource Protection and Climate Change

Water policy for sustainable development
Feldman, D. L.
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007
R 333.91150973 FEL
Feldman identifies three main critical factors impacting water disputes today: economic growth
versus environmental protection; climate change and meteorological uncertainty; and control and
ownership of water. He analyses successful river basin and watershed initiatives to illustrate how
improvements to water management can be made in different countries, through adaptive
management, environmental and natural resource policy innovations together with an organisational
setting that allows mistakes to be made, lessons to be learnt from them and learning points to be
applied to future challenges.
Water: The Final resource: How the Politics of water will impact on the world
Houston, W. and Griffiths, R.
Petersfield: Harriman House, 2008
R 333.91 HOU
The authors begin by examining how climatic changes and shifting weather patterns in the last 500
years have impacted rainfalls and water levels around the world. They then put forward various
scenarios that these impacts have on food supply, migration patterns and water conflicts in the
politically volatile Middle East and water deficient countries in Asia. They propose how technological
innovations can relieve water scarcity and suggest how water can be a profitable investment
commodity in the future.
Climate variability and water resources degradation in Kenya: Improving water resources
development and management
Mogaka, H., et al.
Washington, D. C.: World Bank, 2006
R 333.910096762 CLI
This report paints a gloomy picture of Kenyas water resources development and management and
describes the physical and economic impacts of its rainfall variability and water resources
degradation in the light of the El Nino-La Nina phenomenon (1997-2000), which has caused floods
and destroyed crop and livestock. Recommendations from the report include: building political
commitment, increasing water storage capacity, improving water management through
decentralization, greater transparency and increased community participation, and increasing the
knowledge base for management.
The solution to global warming and climate change: Water storage economies for all
Ong, Y. K.
Singapore: Ong Yew Khoon, 2008
RSING 628.13 ONG
Ong proposes a secured underground water storage system (System) that can help improve the
efficiency of water management and storage, to complement other natural and man-made water
storage sources such as lakes, dams, reservoirs, wells and aquifers. He describes how this System
can help to achieve water security and reap positive economic returns through the charging of fees
for water storage and using water as a commodity for international trading. He includes revenuegenerating proposals for how Singapore and other countries around the world can benefit with the
development of this System.

ProQuest central
Warming up to water markets
Adler, J. H.
2008, Winter
Regulation, 31(4), 14-17
To combat the pressures placed on water resources by climate changes, Adler suggests that water
marketing and water pricing can improve the management of water supplies and provide greater
assurance against climate-induced uncertainties. Making property rights to water transferable
ensures a more efficient allocation of resources and encourages cost effective conservation
measures, while market pricing of water will encourage more efficient usage.
Flood protection: Netherlands makes way for rising waters
Brown, J. L.
2008, June
Civil Engineering, 78(6), 19-21
This article describes how The Netherlands are now accommodating flood waters in The Meuse
River, the Rhine River, and the Rhines major distributaries in a plan approved by the Dutch
parliament in 2006, called, Room for the River. The plan aims to increase the capacity of the
Rhine and its branches to safely accommodate flows of up to 16,000 m/s by 2015 and is designed
to improve the environmental quality of the river basin. The manifold benefits include lowering water
levels and cost savings of between EUR$10m EUR$50m.
Impact of climate change on transboundary water sharing
Draper, S. E. and Kundell, J. E.
2007, September
Journal of Water Resources Planning & Management 133(5), 405-415
This article discusses the risks imposed by climate change to transboundary water sharing
agreements. Depending on the geographical region where the source water is located, sharing
water agreements may be at higher risk and may need to be significantly adapted or replaced.
Particularly vulnerable areas are highlighted in Africa, Asia, Australia and New Zealand, Europe,
Latin America and North America.
Climate change and water resources: The Challenges ahead
Miller, K. A.
2008, Spring/Summer
Journal of International Affairs, 61(2), 35-50
Miller outlines the current known impacts of climate change on global water resources, such as
increase in greenhouse gas concentrations leading to the simultaneous increase in rainfall and
droughts and impacting water availability and quality. He also discusses the implications of climate
change for water governance adaptations and policy negotiations.
The forgotten infrastructure: Safeguarding freshwater ecosystems
Postel, S.
2008, Spring/Summer
Journal of International Affairs, 61(2), 75-90
Postel notes that water management policies have often neglected to take into account the health of
freshwater ecosystems. She cites various places in Australia, the European Union, South Africa and
the Great Lakes that are establishing policies to reduce human activities that have adverse effect on
these ecosystems, in an effort to protect and preserve the ecological infrastructure.

Center for Watershed Protection
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This website provides abundant information on watershed management, stormwater management
and wetlands protection, with resources to aid industry practitioners to plan, implement and analyse
various strategies to maintain and restore water resources. It also provides free downloads of
publications such as The Practice of Watershed Protection articles, local site planning roundtable
documents and a 11-parts manual set that provides guidelines on urban watershed restoration.
Climate Change - Health and Environmental Effects - Coastal Zones and Sea Level Rise
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This website provides information on the impact of climate change to coastal zones, resulting in rise
in sea levels and increase in land loss, storms and flooding. It also provides links to reports such as
the Pew Center Report: Coastal and Marine Ecosystems & Global Climate Change: Potential
Effects on U.S. Resources and Climate Change studies commissioned under the U.S. Climate
Change Science Program.
Climate Change and Freshwater
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This website offers an overview of how climate change affects freshwater ecosystems in Europe
generally and in particular, focuses on these areas: presently used assessment systems; indicators
to detect the effects of climate change on European aquatic ecosystems; and types of aquatic
species impacted upon. Case studies are also provided for each major freshwater ecosystem.
International Rivers Dams, Rivers and People Reports
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
International Rivers aims to protect rivers and promote sustainable natural resource management
through collaborations with a global network of communities, NGOs and activist groups. Its 2008
report offers a harsh appraisal of the Kyoto-created Clean Development Mechanism programme
and proposes an alternative Greenhouse Development Rights framework. It also provides an
analytical review of the current state of rivers and dams on a global level and advocates policies
and practices to ensure that basic needs for water and energy are met, while protecting and
preserving the earths natural resources.
UK Rainwater Harvesting Association (UK-RHA)
Retrieved on March 3, 2009
This association facilitates organisations in the rainwater harvesting industry by providing
information on standards, updates on legislation and news on technological innovations. The FAQ
section provides useful facts presented in an easily digestible format, while the Resources for
Manufacturers section provides information on the Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme that
encourages businesses to invest in water saving technologies. Several publications are also
available for download free, such as the Code for Sustainable Homes, an introductory guide to
rainwater harvesting systems and their installation and various industry fact sheets.

5.0 Patents
Patents are the official records of inventions registered with national authorities or bodies
responsible for protecting intellectual property. There are various such agencies around the world,
such as the World Intellectual Property Office (or more commonly referred to as WIPO1), the
European Patent Office (EPO2) and the United States Patent Office (USPTO3).
It is always useful to be kept updated on the state of the art of technological developments in any
industry. For the water industry, it may help parties with vested interest to be able to find out if
solutions have been proffered or are available in the market before they embark on their own
research and developmental efforts.
The section here highlights some recent patents that may be of interest to people working within the
water industry. It is not meant to be a comprehensive analysis or review of the current situation but
as a sample and overview of resources available that are available for open-access. The USPTO is
featured mostly as it is the main resource to-date that offers full-text access without limitations, other
IP bodies generally have limited access to all their documents.

WIPO as of 11 Mar 09, WIPOs Patentscope searches 1,545,277

international patents.

EPO as of 11 Mar 09, EPOs esp@cenet service offers patent searches in multiple
European languages, and claims to have a search coverage of approximately 60 million patents worldwide
with a timeframe from 1998 to 2008.

USPTO as of 11 Mar 09, USPTOs PATFT offers full-text access to patents registered
with the USPTO. The search engine is able to search the full-text of patents registered since 1976, whilst
patents registered prior to 1790 can be accessed via the USPTO numbers.

5.1 Samples of Recent Patents

Water and Wastewater Treatment, Desalination and Sludge Management
Bader, Mansour S. (2006, May 8). U. S. Patent No. 7,501,065.
Methods for treating agricultural drainage water and the like
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Several zero-discharge processing methods are proposed that tackle the selective removal of
sulphate scale-prone species and toxic species; produce usable water that meets quality standards
for irrigation; and recover sodium sulphate and sodium chloride as valuable by-products from
agricultural drainage water.
Dart, Frederick James and Richmond, John Owen. (2004, June 28). U. S. Patent No. 7,497,953.
Water treatment apparatus and method
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The inventors claim to have created an automatic, self-regulating water treatment method that can
be used in water circulating towers. A water-conditioning unit is devised to prevent the adherence
of scale deposits due to evaporation and to prevent the formation of bio-fouling nutrients on the
flooded surfaces of the tower and flow circuits. Trace levels of iodine are introduced to enhance the
disinfection of nutrient-deprived surfaces and combat chance pathogen contaminations. Zinc ions
at trace levels are proposed to combat iodine-resistant strains of algae and bacteria.
Knighton, David R. and Fiegel, Vance D. (2005, April 14). U. S. Patent No. 7,497,947
Devices for water treatment
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The inventors propose the use of Sphagnum moss contained within a device to treat water.

Plantikow, Ulrich. (2003, April 4). U. S. Patent No. 7,494,573.

Evaporator tube for a sea water desalination system
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
An evaporator tube design is proposed to extract usable water from sea water that has both sea
water and acid resistance characteristics for an intermittent desalination system like wind energypowered systems.
Tepper, Frederick and Kaledin, Leonid A. (2007, March 1). U. S. Patent No. 7,390,343.
Drinking water filtration device
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A fibrous structure consisting of a mixture of nano alumina fibers and second fibers arranged in a
matrix to create asymmetric pores is proposed. The inventors claim that with this structure, there is
more efficient removal of soluble contaminants like halogens from a fluid stream and an improved
ability to retain turbidity, bacteria and viruses.
Cassassuce, Florence Valerie; Arce, Itzcoatl Bareno and Zamudio, Oscar Rodriquez. (2006, May
5). U. S. Patent No. 7,361,904.
UV water purification system
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A UV water purifier that can be run on a 12-volt battery or solar powered battery is proposed and
the inventors claim an ability to remove substantially all viruses, bacteria and mould spores from
untreated water in a short time of exposure to UV radiation.
Kotsaridou, Maria; Vogelpohl, Alfons and Hamouda, Hasan. (2002, November 15). U. S. Patent No.
Method for biological treatment of water by adding macromolecular carbohydrates
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A biological treatment method for sludge water is proposed using macromolecular carbohydrates
with vitamins and other additives to achieve a reduction in residues.
Land, Glenn E. (2004, September 28). U. S. Patent No. 7,217,343.
Point of use water purification method and apparatus
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The inventor proposes a compact and energy efficient device that can boil filtered water and
channel the steam via condensation in to a separate storage container for ready use. The proposed
system is equipped with sensors to maintain water levels in both the boiler and storage containers.

Water Management, Operations and Distribution

Frank, Bernard. (2006, September 21). U. S. Patent No. 7,497,957.
System, method and apparatus for end-to-end control of water quality
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A method is described that covers the treating and delivery of water to consumers at the point of
delivery with filtering, purifying and the monitoring and reporting of quality over a network.
Taylor, Thomas M. and Goslin, David. (2004, May 28). U. S. Patent No. 7,497,228.
Freeze and backflow protection for a subterranean water flushing system
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A freeze and backflow protection design is proposed for subterranean water flushing systems that
includes freeze-protection assembly, a detachable coupling system, a de-chlorination system, and a
backflow prevention system.
Dussich, I. and George Victor Anthony. (2006, March 21). U. S. Patent No. 7,485,218.
Storm water filtration system
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A storm water filtering system is proposed that includes a plurality of filter assemblies mounted
within corresponding ones that are targeted at matching the outflow rate of a catch basin so as to
maximize the effective filtering rate of the filter assemblies.
Kent, Greg B. (2007, October 30). U. S. Patent No. 7,470,362.
In line wetland water treatment system and method
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
This patent proposes a storm water management system and process that incorporates a wetland
water treatment system allowing for multi-level and multi-stage flow control. Both aerobic and
anaerobic processes are used when water is flowed through the wetlands chamber for filtration and
Wu, Zheng Yi; Walski, Thomas M.; Gurrieri, Robert A.; Herrin, Gregg A. and Mankowski, Robert F.
(2002, January 17). U. S. Paten No. 7,457,735.
Method and system for automatic water distribution model calibration
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A model calibration technique is proposed that allows an engineer to collect sample data that can
represent the overall water distribution system conditions. Further modelling can be tested by
setting up simulated trials involving changes in parameter settings within the whole system by
comparing the calculated evaluations to actual observed data.

Drinking Water Quality

Merrick, William F.; Zesking, Julie E.; Krebs, Melissa D. and Davis, Christina E. (2006, May 4). U. S.
Patent No. 7,470,898.
Monitoring drinking water quality using differential mobility spectrometry
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The pyrolysis-differential mobility spectrometric method is proposed for the continuous monitoring of
drinking water supply. The inventors claim that this method improved detection sensitivity and
selectivity of contaminations.
Joyce, Patrick C.; Lynch, Toni L. and Rinker, Edward B. (2006, July 27). U. S. Patent No.
Water contaminant indicators
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A device is proposed that has the ability to display a visual change, for example, by colours, to
indicate the presence of contaminants for both gravity-driven and pressure-driven systems.

Water reuse and Sustainability

Nomura, Hiroyuki. (2004, August 5). U. S. Patent No. 7,493,784.
Washing machine with water treatment unit
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The inventor claims that a cartridge type water treatment unit that can be mounted in a washing
machine is able to clear metal ions in water by the process of energisation using an electrode.
Markham, Gary W.; Kirkpatrick, Harmon L.; Guercio, Rick; Mast, Douglas E.; Gustas, Jr. and
Stanley, C. (2006, November 1). U. S. Patent No. 7,491,336.
Process for treating industrial water with activated media
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
This patent describes the use of activated media (pellets of porous ceramic materials) in vertical
stacks or horizontal chains to treat effluent water that can absorb or oxidize organic and inorganic
impurities, resulting in an effluent water stream that is suitable for recycling or for direct discharge to
the sea.
Luke, Donald A. and Astley, Vaughn V. (2007, April 17). U. S. Patent No. 7,491,333.
Industrial waste water treatment process
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
The patent describes a treatment process involving flocculation, sedimentation and pH precipitation
of impurities in wastewater. The inventors claim that this process enables water reuse in an
operating phosphoric acid facility or the release of the treated water directly to the environment, in
compliance with the Federal Clean Water Act.
Schmidt, Ernst; Sferrazza, Alois F. and Williams, Michael E. (2005, January 6). U. S. Patent No.
Integrated electro-pressure membrane deionisation system
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
This patent describes an integrated treatment system utilising electro-dialysis and pressure-driven
membranes to deionise and decontaminate liquids to a quality suitable for industrial or municipal
use or reuse. The system includes the steps of pre-flitering, nano-filtration or reverse osmosis,
followed by electrodialysis.
Olivier, Laurent. (2004, October 4). U. S. Patent No. 7,481,935.
Waste water treatment process
Washington, DC: U. S. Patent and Trademark Office.
A method to improve the treatment of wastewater and solid waste is described with the addition of
catholytes and anolytes. The inventor claims that anolytes are useful as a disinfectant against
bacteria, viruses and algae, while the catholytes are described as useful for flocculation,
coagulation, washing and extraction of heavy metals.

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