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Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

235

Capacitor Bank Designing for Power Factor Improvement

Ashish Chandra

1

, Taru Agarwal

2

1

Deputy Manager, Birla Industries, India

2

Assistant Professor, ACTS, India

AbstractVarious inductive loads used in all industries

deals with the problem of power factor improvement.

Capacitor bank connected in shunt helps in maintaining the

power factor closer to unity. They improve the electrical

supply quality and increase the efficiency of the system.

Also the line losses are also reduced. Shunt capacitor banks

are less costly and can be installed anywhere. This paper

deals with shunt capacitor bank designing for power factor

improvement considering overvoltages for substation

installation.

Keywords Capacitor Bank, Overvoltage Consideration,

Power Factor, Reactive Power

I. INTRODUCTION

Most ac electric machines draw apparent power in

terms of kilovoltamperes (KVA) which is in excess of the

useful power, measured in kilowatts (KW), required by

the machine. The ratio of these quantities (KW/KVA) is

called the power factor cos and is dependent on the

type of machine in use.

A large proportion of the electric machinery used in

industry has an inherently low pf, which means that the

supply authorities have to generate much more current

than is theoretically required. In addition, the transformers

and cables have to carry this high current. When the

overall pf of a generating stations load is low, the system

is inefficient and the cost of electricity corresponding

high[2]. To overcome this, and at the same time ensure

that the generators and cables are not loaded with the

wattless current, the supply authorities often impulse

penalties for low pf [3][4].

Some of the machinery or equipment with low pf are

listed below:

1. Induction motors of all types

2. Power thyristor installations

3. Welding machines

4. Electric arc and induction furnaces

5. Choke coils and induction furnaces

6. Neon signs and fluorescent lighting

The method employed to improve the pf involves

introducing reactive (kVAr) into the system in phase

opposition to the wattless or reactive current.

Standard practice is to connect power capacitors in the

power system at appropriate places to compensate the

inductive nature of the load.

II. POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

The apparent power (KVA) in a.c. circuit can be

resolved into two components, the in-phase component

which supplies the useful power (KW), and the wattless

component (kVAr) which does no useful work. The

phasor sum of the two is the KVA drawn from the supply.

The cosine of the phase angle between the KVA and

the KW represents the power factor of the load. This is

shown by the phasor diagram in Fig. 1(a).

To improve the power factor, equipment drawing kVAr

of approximately the same magnitude as the load kVAr,

but in phase opposition (leading), is connected in parallel

with the load. The resultant KVA is now smaller and the

new power factor (cos

2

) is increased (Figs. 1(a) and

(b)). Cos

2

is controlled by the magnitude of the kVAr

added. Thus any desired power factor can be obtained by

varying the leading kVAr. A typical arrangement of shunt

capacitor connected in parallel with a load is shown in

Fig. 2.

Fig. 1(a) Phasor Diagram of a plant operation at lagging power

factor

Fig. 1(b) Power factor correction by adding leading kVAR

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

236

Fig. 2 Capacitor connected in parallel with load

Advantages of Power Factor Improvement

The benefits that can be achieved by applying the

correct power factor correction are:

a) Reduction of power consumption due to

improved energy efficiency. Reduced power

consumption means less greenhouse gas

emissions and fossil fuel depletion by power

stations.

b) Reduction of electricity bills

c) Extra kVA available from the existing supply

d) Reduction of I

2

R losses in transformers and

distribution equipment

e) Reduction of voltage drops in long cables.

f) Reduced electrical burden on cables and

electrical components.

III. CAPACITOR BANK

Capacitor bank is an assembly of number of capacitors

which are used to contribute kVAr in the electrical system

and finally improve the power factor. Shunt capacitors

bank are arrangements of series/paralleled connected

units.

a) Grounded Wye - Connected Banks

Grounded wye capacitor banks are composed series

and parallel-connected capacitor units per phase and

provide a low impedance path to ground. Fig. 3 shows

typical bank arrangements.

Advantages of the grounded capacitor banks include:

Its low-impedance path to ground provides inherent

self-protection for lightning surge currents and give

some protection from surge voltages. Banks can be

operated without surge arresters taking advantage of

the capability of the capacitors to absorb the surge.

Offer a low impedance path for high frequency

currents and so they can be used as filters in systems

with high harmonic content. However, caution shall

be taken to avoid resonance between the SCB and

the system.

Some drawbacks for grounded wye SCB are:

Circulation of inrush currents and harmonics may

cause misoperations and/or over operation on

protective relays and fuses.

Phase series reactors are required to reduce voltage

appearing on the CT secondary due to the effect of

high frequency, high amplitude currents.

When a capacitor bank becomes too large, making the

parallel energy of a series group too great (above 4650

kVAr) for the capacitor units or fuses, the bank may be

split into two wye sections.

Fig. 3 Grounded wye shunt capacitor banks

b) Ungrounded Wye - Connected Banks

Typical bank arrangements of ungrounded Wye SCB

are shown in Fig. 4. Ungrounded wye banks do not permit

zero sequence currents, third harmonic currents, or large

capacitor discharge currents during system ground faults

to flow. (Phase-to-phase faults may still occur and will

result in large discharge currents). Other advantage is that

overvoltages appearing at the CT secondaries are not as

high as in the case of grounded banks. However, the

neutral should be insulated for full line voltage because it

is momentarily at phase potential when the bank is

switched or when one capacitor unit fails in a bank

configured with a single group of units. For banks above

15 kV this may be expensive.

(i) Multiple Units in Series Phase to NeutralSingle Wye

Capacitor units with external fuses, internal fuses, or no

fuses (fuseless or unfused design) can be used to make up

the bank. For unbalance protection schemes that are

sensitive to system voltage unbalance, either the

unbalance protection time delay shall be set long enough

for the line protections to clears the system ground faults

or the capacitor bank may be allowed to trip off for a

system good fault.

(ii) Multiple Units in Series Phase to NeutralDouble

Wye--When a capacitor bank becomes too large for the

maximum 4650 kVAr per group the bank may be split

into two wye sections. When the two neutrals are

ungrounded, the bank has some of the characteristics of

the ungrounded single-wye bank. These two neutrals may

be tied together through a current transformer or a voltage

transformer. As for any ungrounded wye bank, the neutral

instrument transformers should be insulated from ground

for full line-to-ground voltage, as should the phase

terminals.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

237

Fig. 4 Ungrounded wye shunt capacitor banks

IV. DESIGNING OF CAPACITOR BANK

The meaning of designing of capacitor bank is to

calculate the requirement of reactive power in the power

system to maintain the unity power factor.

During the designing of capacitor bank the following

points taken care for the better utilization of capacitor

bank in the power system:

(i) Consideration of over-voltage as per IS

13925 (part I) 1998.

(ii) Overvoltage consideration due to series

reactor

(iii) Consideration of fault level of the power

system for which the capacitor banks are to

be designed.

The schematic and general arrangement of capacitor

bank is shown in Fig. 5 and 6 respectively.

Fig. 5 Schematic Arrangement of Capacitor Bank

Fig. 6 General Arrangement of Capacitor Bank

This paper covers the designing of capacitor banks

considering overvoltage as per IS and also due to series

reactor. The discussion continues with the example of

Process Industry.

DESIGNING OF 498kVAR 7.2 kV CAPACITOR BANK

(Consideration of over-voltage as per IS 13925 (part I)

1998)

Step 1: Calculation of Capacitor kVAr For PF

Correction

The relation for calculating required kVAr for

improving power factor from initial value to desired value

is as:

Required kVAr = KW [(tan cos

1

(Initial power factor

tan cos

1

(Final power factor)]

Where:

(a) Initial power factor is the existing power factor of

the electrical system.

(b) Final power factor is the desired power factor of

the electrical system.

(c) KW (killowatt) is the total load on the electrical

system for which power factor has to be improved.

Let us take an example of Process Industry. The data is

given is:

Motor rating = 11 KW, Normal voltage = 6.6 KV

Over voltage = 10%, Initial Power factor of motor =

0.83

Desired power factor = 0.96

Now,

Required kVAr = 1100 [(tan cos

1

0.83 tan cos

1

0.96)]

Required kVAr = 418 kVAr at 6.6 KV

Step 2: Over Voltage Consideration

As per IS 13925, HV capacitors can take only rated

voltage continuously. Also, capacitor design shall

accommodate 10% over voltage for a period of 12 hours

in a day, For example, 11 KV system, if voltage variation

is 10%, capacitors shall be rated (111.1 = 12.1 KV). This

will ensure proper performance from capacitors.

When reactors are used in series with capacitors, it

gives voltage rise at capacitor terminals. For example, a

6% reactor will increase capacitor voltage by approx 6%.

Therefore capacitor rated voltage be corrected by raising

the rated voltage further to that extent.

Now, the required kVAr to improve power factor from

0.83 to 0.96 is 418 kVAr at 6.6 kV. Thus, considering

10% over voltage in the electrical system, the capacitor is

rated (6.6 X 1.1 = 7.2 kV) for proper performance.

Step 3: Sizing Calculations

In sizing calculations, we calculate the required kVAr

at the 10% over voltage.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

238

We have calculated that 418 kVAr is required at 6.6

KV now we will calculate that how much kVAr is

required at 7.2 KV to improve power factor from 0.83 to

0.96. As we know that,

Or

Once we get the value of X

C

, we can calculate required

reactive power (kVAr) at 7.2 KV.

Now it is clear that 498 kVAr at 7.2 KV (418 kVAr at

6.6 KV) is required to improve power factor from 0.83 to

0.96.

DESIGNING OF 1326kVAR 38kV CAPACITOR BANK

(Consideration of over-voltage as per IS 13925 (part I)

1998 and due to series reactor)

Given load data: 3.6 MVA, normal voltage 33 kV,

Over voltage +/ 10%, initial pf of Plant at full load 0.91,

desired pf 0.99.

Load kW = kVA PF = 3600 0.91 = 3394

Capacitive requirement is given by,

Required kVAr = KW [(tan cos

1

(Initial power factor

tan cos

1

(Final power factor)]

= 3394 (tan cos

1

(0.91) tan cos

1

(0.99))

= 1062.73 kVAr or 1063 kVAr at 33 kV

Calculations for sizing of 1026 kVAr, 33 kV Capacitor

Bank, when derated at 38 kV (considering 10% over

voltage and 6% over voltage due to series reactor i.e. total

16% over voltage) and Series Reactor are as follows:

Capacitor impedance X

C

in ohms at 33 kV = 33

33/1.063 = 1024.45 ohms

Including 6% SR impedance in Ohms = 1024.45/0.94 =

1089.85

Output of capacitor at 38 kV in MVar = 38

38/1089.85 = 1.326 MVar or 1326 kVAr

Capacitor Sizing for 1326 kVAr, 38 kV Bank

Reactance of 1326 kVAr, 738 kV Bank XC

1

=

(38)

2

/1.326 MVar = 1088.98 Ohms

Since it is to be provided with 6% overvoltage due to

series reactor on the line side, hence

X

C

= 1088.98 0.94 = 1023.65 Ohms

kVAr at 33 kV = [(33)

2

1000]/1089 = 1063 kVAr

Hence 1326 kVAr, 38 kV bank shall give the output of

1063 kVAr at 33 kV.

Reactance of 1326 kVAr, 38 kV Bank XC

1

=

(38)

2

/1.326 MVar

= 1088.98 Ohms

Reactor Impedance X

L

= 0.06 X

C

= 0.06 1088.98 =

65.33 Ohms

Reactor Rating = [3 I

2

XL]/1000 where I =

kVAr/1.732 38 kV = 1326/1.732 38 = 20.146 Amps

Therefore, Reactor kVAr Rating = 3 (20.146)

2

65.33/1000 = 79.54 kVAr

Inrush Current Calculation

For worst switching condition for Capacitor Bank

rating of 1326 kVAr, 38 kV,

Therefore,

V. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS

Improvement of power factor makes the utility

companies get rid from the power losses while the

consumers are free from low power factor penalty

charges.

By installing suitably sized power capacitors into the

circuit the Power Factor is improved and the value

becomes nearer to 0.9 to 0.95, thus, capacitor banks used

for power factor correction reduce losses and increases the

efficiency of the power system and also increases

stability[6]. By using this APFC system the efficiency of

the system is highly increased.

REFERENCES

[1] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Power_factor_correction

[2] Jones, L. D.; Blackwell, D. (1983) Energy Saver Power Factor

Controller for Synchronous Motors, IEEE Transactions on Power

Apparatus and Systems, Volume: 5, Issue: 5, Pages: 1391-1394.

[3] Keith Harker (1998). Power System Commissioning and

Maintenance practice. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers.

[4] Stephen, J. C. (1999). Electric Machinery and Power System

Fundamentals. 3rd.ed. United State of America: McGraw-Hill

Companies, Inc.

[5] Jos Arrillaga, Neville R. Watson (2003). Power System

Harmonics 2nd.ed. Chichester: John Wiley.

[6] Ramasamy Natarajan (2005). Power System Capacitors. Boca

Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis.

[7] T.J.E.MILLER, 1982. Reactive Power Control in Electric

Systems 1982 by Jihn Wiley & Sons Inc.

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering

Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459, ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal, Volume 4, Issue 8, August 2014)

239

[8] R.K.Mukhopashyay and T.Choudhury, S.P. Choudhury, Samiran

Choudhuri, F.I.E, Power System for the year 2000 and beyond.

Reactive Power Compensation in Industrial Power Distribution

System

[9] A.S pabla, Electric Power Distribution (Fourth edition) Tata

McGraw-Hill Pubkishing Company Limited.

[10] Williiam D. Stevenson, Jr, Elements of Power System Analysis

(Third ediion) 1955,1962,1975 by Mc Graw-Hill, Inc.

[11] Bernhardt G.A.SKROTZKI,. Electric Transmission &

Distribution. 1954 Jersey Central Power and Light Cmpany.

[12] Glen Ballou, "Electrical Engineering HandBook. 1999.

[13] Ed LL.Grisby Boca Ratton,. Electrical Power Engineering. 2001

[14] R.S.ARORA. Handbook of Electrical Engineering. 2004.

(Fourth edition), New Dehli.

[15] A.Johnson, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference

Book. Oxford & IBH publishing Company.

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