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# PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections

Professor Ouyang
1
Midterm Exam Review 3 (Ch.22, Ch.23, Ch.37, Ch.38 & Ch.39)
Note: Ch.37.3- 37.5 are not required in this exam.

Chapter 22:

(1) Interference:
In general, the superposition of two or more waves into a single wave is called
interference.
Interference depends on the phase difference !" between two waves:
(a) constructive interference: ! "
#
! " m
r
2 2
0
= \$ +
\$
= \$
(b) destructive interference: ! "
#
! " )
2
1
( 2 2
0
+ = \$ +
\$
= \$ m
r

*!r is the path length difference of the two waves and !"
0
is any phase difference
between the sources.
*For identical sources (in phase, !"
0
=0)
Interference is maximum constructive if the path-length difference ! m r = "
Interference is perfect destructive if the path-length difference !
"
#
\$
%
&
'
+ = (
2
1
m r
(2) Double-slit interference:
angles of bright fringes: ,... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , sin = = m
d
m
m
!
"
angles of dark fringes: ,... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2
1
sin =
!
"
#
\$
%
&
+ = m
d
m
m
'
(
under small-angle approximation ( ) tan sin ! ! ! " " :
positions of bright fringes: ... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 , = = m
d
L
m y
m
!

positions of dark fringes: ... 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 ,
2
1
'
=
!
"
#
\$
%
&
+ = m
d
L
m y
m
'

fringe spacing:
d
L
y
!
= "
intensity of double-slit pattern:
I = 4I
1
cos
2
!dsin"
#
!
"
#
\$
%
&
' 4I
1
cos
2
!d
#L
y
!
"
#
\$
%
&

* you should remember typical interference pattern in double-slit experiment

(3) Diffraction grating (multiple slits): diffraction grating consists of a large number of equally
spaced, identical slits. Very bright and narrow fringes are located at angles and positions:
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , sin = =
!
m m d
bright m
" #
,... 2 , 1 , 0 , tan = =
!
m L y
bright m m
"
* typically small angle approximation can not be applied for diffraction grating calculations, i.e.,
the bright interference fringes are NOT equally spaced along the screen.
PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
2
*you should remember typical interference patterns of diffraction grating
(4) Diffraction: diffraction is the deviation of light from a straight-line path when the light passes
through an aperture or around an obstacle.
single-slit diffraction:
,... 3 , 2 , 1 , sin = =
!
m
a
m
dark m
"
#
,... 3 , 2 , 1 , tan = =
!
m L y
dark m m
"
bright central maximum of width: ( ) ion approximat angle small
a
L
w ! =
" 2

*you should remember typical diffraction pattern in single-slit experiment

circular-aperture diffraction:

D
L
w
D
L
y
D
! ! !
"
44 . 2
;
22 . 1
;
22 . 1
1 1
= = =
for an aperture of any shape, a smaller opening causes a more rapid spreading of the
wave behind the opening.

(5) Interference due to amplitude division: an interferometer divides a wave, lets the two waves
travel different paths, then recombines them. Interference is constructive if one wave travels an
integer number of wavelengths more or less than the other wave. The difference can be due to an
actual path-length difference or to a different index of refraction.
Michelson interferometer
*you need to know how to calculate optical path length difference due to either actual
path-length difference or different index of refraction.

(6) Interference can occur not only for light wave but also for quantum particles with wave-
particle duality. As a result, all conclusions of wave optics in this chapter can be applied to
quantum particles.

PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
3
Chapter 23:

In the formulas below, angles are always measured relative to normal!!

(1) Law of reflection: angle of incidence equals angle of reflection,
r i
! ! =
(2) Index of refraction:
v
c
n = , where v is the speed of light in medium.
*you need to know wavelength dependence of n, which can lead to color dispersion.

(3) Snells law:
2 2 1 1
sin sin ! ! n n =
(4) Critical angle for total internal reflection:
1
2
sin
n
n
c
= ! (for n
1
>n
2
)
*you need to know the definition of total internal reflection

(5) For spherical mirrors and for thin lens (thickness of lens, t=0):

f q p
1 1 1
= +

p
q
h
h
M ! = "
'

Spherical mirrors:
2
R
f = , where R is the radius of curvature
Thin lenses: ( )
!
!
"
#
\$
\$
%
&
' ' =
2 1
1 1
1
1
R R
n
f

* for single refractive surface:

R
n n
q
n
p
n
1 2 2 1
!
= +
* you need to know the differences between real and virtual images
* you need to know qualitatively the image properties formed by different optical components
including mirrors (concave and convex mirrors) and lens (biconvex and biconcave lens).
*you need to know sign conventions for spherical mirrors, for refractive surface and for
thin lenses in order to apply mirror and lens equations correctly !!

(6) Ray tracing diagram: you need to know how to draw ray tracing diagrams (three principal
rays) for spherical mirrors (convex and concave mirrors) and thin lenses (converging and
diverging lenses) to determine image properties.

PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
4
Chapter 37 & 38:

(1) Photon model:
Light consists of discrete, massless units called photon.
A photon travels in vacuum at the speed of light, 3.00 ! 10
8
m/s.
Each photon has energy: E
photon
= hf , where f is the frequency of light and h Plancks
constant of 6.63 ! 10
-34
Js.
The superposition of a sufficiently large number of photons has the characteristics of a
classical wave properties.
The number of photons determines the light intensity.

(2) Matter waves:
de Broglie wavelength (#) of a quantum particle possessing mass m and speed v:
! !
h
p
=
h
mv

the interference and diffraction phenomena of quantum particles (single slit, double slit
and multiple-slits)
*our analysis of slits interference and diffraction in Ch.22 can be applied to matter
wave with de Broglie wavelength.
*wave properties of quantum particles start manifesting when large amount of quantum
particles are collected.

!
peak
T = cons tant = 2.898!10
"3
mK
*you need to know definition of blackbody radiation and related experimental
phenomena.

(4) Photoelectric effect:
K
max
= hf ! E
0

V
stop
=
h
e
f ! f
0
( )

hf
0
= E
0

where E
0
is the work function of metal, f
0
is the threshold frequency, V
stop
is the stopping
potential and K
max
is the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons
Einsteins model of light and explanation of photoelectric effect.
*you need to know basic experimental phenomena/conclusions of photoelectric effect
(for example, how current changes with incident light intensity, frequency, applied
potential, work function and etc.) and calculations of work function E
0
, K
max
, and V
stop
.

(5) Bohrs model of atoms (and hydrogen-like ions):
An atom consists of negative electrons orbiting a very small concentrated positive
nucleus;
Atoms can exist only in certain discrete and stationary states. These states can be
defined by quantum number with well-defined, discrete energy E
n
.
PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
5
An atom can only jump from one stationary state to another by emitting or absorbing a
photon with frequency f =
E
f
! E
i
h

An allowed state is determined by a condition imposed on the electrons orbital angular
momentum: the allowed orbits are those for which the electrons orbital angular
momentum about the nucleus is quantized and equal to quantum number of ! =
h
2!
:
L
n
= mvr = n!

for a stationary state with quantum number n:
r
n
= n
2
4!"
0
!
2
me
2
= n
2
a
B
(a
B
=
4!"
0
!
2
me
2

E
n
= !
1
n
2
1
4!"
0
e
2
2a
B
"
#
\$
%
&
'
= !
E
1
n
2
(E
1
=
1
4!"
0
e
2
2a
B
=13.6eV, called ionization energy)

!
n!m
=
c
f
=
8"#
0
hca
B
e
2
"
#
\$
%
&
'
1
m
2
(
1
n
2
"
#
\$
%
&
'
(!
n!m
is wavelength of photon emitted in a n !m quantum jump)

for a Hydrogen-like ions:

r
n
=
n
2
a
B
Z
v
n
= Z
v
1
n
E
n
= !
13.60Z
2
n
2
(eV)

Atomic absorption and emission spectra:
* Because electrons always occupy allowed lowest energy state (called ground
state) under thermal equilibrium conditions, atomic absorption only occurs due to
quantum transitions from ground state to higher energy level states.
* Atomic emission however can occur from high energy state to any lower energy
states (not necessary the ground state), therefore typically total number of emission peaks
in emission spectroscopy is larger than that of absorption spectroscopy.

PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
6
(6) One-dimensional quantum confinement of a quantum particle (particle-in-a-box):
concept of quantized energy and standing wave model of a one-dimensional box.
for a quantum particle confined inside a one-dimensional box with length L:
!
n
=
2L
n

v
n
= n
h
2Lm
!
"
#
\$
%
&

E
n
=
1
2
mv
n
2
=
h
2
8mL
2
n
2

(n =1, 2, 3...)
when a particle is confined, it sets up a de Broglie standing wave. The fact that standing
waves have only certain allowed wavelengths leads to the conclusion that a confined
particle has only certain allowed energies. That is, energy is quantized.
*you should how to determine standing wave pattern and related quantum number n.
PHYS270 Spring 2014: 02 Sections
Professor Ouyang
7
Chapter 39:

(1) Wave function \$ and Probability density P:
wave function \$(x) is a continuous, wave like (i.e., oscillatory) function
the probability that a particle will be found in the narrow interval %x at position x is:
( ) x x x at x in ob ! " !
2
) ( Pr =

2
) (x ! is the probability density P(x)
for the probability interpretation of \$(x) to make sense, the wave function must satisfy
the normalized condition:
1 ) ( ) (
2
! !
"
" #
"
" #
= \$ = dx x dx x P
the probability of finding a quantum particle within an extended interval (x
L
"x"x
R
) is:
( )
!
" = # #
R
L
x
x
R L
dx x x x x ob
2
) ( Pr
*if the probability is known, the expected number of N(x
L
"x"x
R
) quantum particles
within interval is: ( ) ( )
R L tot R L
x x x ob N x x x N ! ! = ! ! Pr
! " " # x as x 0 ) (
\$(x)=0 in a region where it is physically impossible for the particle to be

(2) Wave packet model of quantum particles: need to understand physical meaning of !x, !t

(3) Heisenberg uncertainty principle:

!x !p
x
"
h
2

!E!t "
h
2