You are on page 1of 3

1.

DiabetesInsipidusisunrelatedtobloodsugarlevels,butanindifferenceofADHtothe
kidneys,causingadeficitofADH.Thiscouldcomefromtheneurohypophysis,orcanbe
causedtemporarilybyaheadinjuryorsurgery.Neurohypophysisisnephrogenic,
becausetherenaltubulesareunresponsivetoADH,wherethetemporaryconditioncould
beduetogenetics,drugs,orelectrolyteimbalances.Itmanifestsaspolyuriawithdiluted
urineandthirst,whichoftencausesseveredehydration.

2.

Diabeticketoacidosis(DKA)iscausedbynotenoughinsulin,whichelevatesblood
glucoselevels,takingplaceoverafewdaysandresultsfromanincreaseinthebodies
demandforinsulin.Manifestationsincludethirst,drymouth,metabolicacidosis,
electrolyteimbalance,dryskin,rapidandweakpulse,oliguria,acetonebreath,andKuss
maulsrespiration.

Hyperosmolarhyperglycemicnonketoticcoma(HHS)mayoccurwhentheclientisaged,fighting
andinfection,orhastoomuchcarbohydrates.Itssymptomsincludehyperglycemiaand
dehydration,ifsevereenoughitcancauseneurologicdeficits,weakness,speechissues,and
abnormalreflexes.
Hypoglycemia,orinsulinshock,iscausedbytoomuchinsulinintheblood,whichremoves
glucose.Itcanhappenafterexercise,dosageerrors,vomiting,ornoteating.Thenervous
systemisquicklyaffectedduetoneuronsareunabletousefatsorproteinsforenergy.It
manifestsaspoorconcentration,slurredspeech,staggering,tachycardia,pallor,anxiety,and
tremors.Thiscanleadtounconsciousness,seizures,anddeath.Tocombatthis,sweetand
sugaryfoodsareimmediatelyingestedtotryandraisetheamountofglucosewithinthebody.

3.
HHS

DKA

Hypoglycemia

polyphagia

Kussmaulsrespirations

centralnervoussystem
shutdown

glucosuria

vomiting

acidosis

polyuria

ketonuria

dehydration

polydipsia

acetonebreath

weakness

lowserumpH

4.

Childrenmostoftenhavetype1diabetes,thusareatahigherriskforhypoglycemiaand
ketoacidosis.Duetotheirage,theyoftenneedremindersorparentalsupervisionoftheir
bloodglucoselevelsandpossiblyassistancewithinsulin.Teenagersalsohavehighly
variablestresslevelsandareoftennotmatureenoughtomonitorwhattheyeatdespite
theirconquestforresponsibility.Theyhavepsychologicalrisks,especiallywitheating
disorders,andhavedifficultieswiththeideaofprevention,becausetheyprefertoreactto
situationsratherthanpreventthem.

5.

Threetests(fastingglucoselevel,glucosetolerance,andglycosylatedhemoglobin)are
usedtoscreenfordiabetesafastingbloodglucoselevelofover126mg/dLmultiple
timesconfirmsadiagnosisofdiabetes.Theyglycosylatedhemoglobintestisusedto
monitorlongtermcontrolofbloodsugars.

6.

Treatmenthas3componentsofcontroldietandexercise,oralmedication,andinsulin
replacement.Maintenanceofone[sbloodsugarsminimizesthecomplicationsof
diabetes,andthustakespriority.

Dietrevolvesaroundmaintainingahealthybodyweightandcontrolofbloodglucose.Complex
carbswithlowglycemicindexesarebest,withhighfiberandlesslipids.
Exercisecanincreasetheuptakeofglucosewithrequiringmoreinsulin,andhelpswithweight
control,stressrelief,andaidsthecardiovascularsystem.Diabeticsshouldbewaryof
hypoglycemiaoccurringduringandafterexercise.
Oralmedicationsincludeantidiabeticagents,oralhypoglycemicdrugshelpwithtype2diabetes,
thesestimulatebetacellswithinthepancreas.
Insulinreplacementisperformedbysubcutaneouslyinjectinginsulin,sincethedigestivetract
destroysinsulin,andoralrouteisnotpossible.Therearemultipletypesofinsulins,eachuseful
forthepersonsagenda.Injectionsitesmustberotatedtoreduceskindamage.Theytypeand
amountofinsulininjectedisalsoaffectedifthediabetichasaninfectionorisvomiting.
7.

Vascularproblemsincludemicroandmacroangiopathy,withconcernswithneuropathy,
infections,andcataracts.Microangiopathyistheblockageofcapillariesduetothe
membranethickeningandhardening,whichcausestissuenecrosisandfailureto
function.Thiscancauseblindnessandchronicrenalfailure.Macroangiopathyaffects
largerarterieswhichcancauseheartattacks,strokes,andperipheralvasculardisease.

Obstructionsinthelegsresultsinslowhealingandfootulcers,andcanimpairmobility.
Decreasedbloodflowincreasestheirriskforinfectionsandgangrene,andcanendwith
anamputationofthefootorleg.Neuropathyincludesimpairedsensation,numbness,
tingling,whichiscausedbyischemiaandchangedmetabolism.Bladderincontinence,
impotence,anddiarrheamayalsooccur.Woundhealingisslow,leavingahigherchance
forinfections.Diabeticsarealsomoresusceptibletotuberculosis,periodontaldisease,
dentalcaries,andUTIs.Fungalinfectionsfrequentlyappearinbodyfolds.Abnormal
glucosemetabolismdegeneratesthelensoftheeye,whichaccumulatessorbitoland
waterunderthelens.Thisreducesitstransparency,whichcanleadtoblindness,butcan
beremoved.

Citation

VanMeter,K.(2014).EndocrineSystemDisorders.InGOULD'SPathophysiologyfortheHealth
Pofessions.St.Loius,Missouri:Elsevier.