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A COMPREHENSIVE

HISTORY OF INDIA.

J

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2011 with funding from

University of Toronto

http://www.archive.org/details/comprehensivehis01beve

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>A^^^'XV--

COMPEEHENSIVE

HISTORY OF INDIA,

CIVIL, MILITARY, AND SOCIAL,

FROM

THE FIRST LANDINa OF THE ENGLISH,

TO THE SUPPRESSION OF THE SEPOY REVOLT;

INCLUDING

an outline of the early history of hindoostan.

By henry BEVERIDGE, Esq,

ADVOCATE.

ILLUSTRATED BY ABOVE FIVE HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS.

VOLUME L

lDi.*^cminamu.8:.<

LONDON:

BLACKIE AND SON, PATERNOSTER BUILDINGS, E.G.;

AND GLASGOW AND EDINBURGH.

GLASGOW:

J

W. G. BLACfeJE^^i^X) CO., ^KT

V o^^o J

LL A FIELD,

io

PREFACE.

India, the most valuable de2)enclency of the British crown, is also one of the most

Even some of its physical features are on a scale of

interesting portions of the globe.

unparalleled grandeui*.

The stupendous mountain chain along its northern frontier

rising gradually from a plain of inexhaustible fertility, has snowy summits which tower

nearly six thousand feet above the loftiest of any other country in either hemisphere

while over the vast expanse of its magnificently diversified surface almost every jiroduct

possessed of economical value grows indigenously, or ha\'ing been introduced is cultivated

with success.

Nor are its moral less remarkable than its physical features.

In its

nigged recesses and jungly forests various tribes, supposed to represent its aboriginal

inhabitants, may still be seen in a state bordering on absolute barbarism.

The great

bulk of the pojiulation, howevei", consists of a I'ace, or rather aggi'egation of races, who,

though far advanced in civilization, at least in the ordinary sense of the term, since they

have for ages lived under regular government, dwelt in large and splendid cities, and

carried most of the arts of common life to high perfection, are yet the dupes and slaves

of a most childish and galling superstition. That the dominant class, to which all othei's

are subservient, shoidd be full of religious zeal, is nothing more than might have been expected, but a new phase of human nature seems to be presented when those occupying

the lower grades of the social scale are seen submitting ^vithout a murmur to be lorded

over, and treated as mere outcasts whose very touch is pollution.

"What makes this

submission the more extraordinary, is that those who exemplify it are by no means

deficient in natural acuteness, and, on the contrary, often give proofs of intellectual

culture. Hindooism, though little better than a tissue of obscene and monstrous fancies,

not only counts its domination by thousands of years, but can boast of having had among

its votai-ies, men who, in the ages in which they lived, extended the boundaries of know-

ledge, and earned some of the abstrusest of the sciences to a height Avhich they had

never i-eached before. This remarkable combination of pure intellect and grovelling

supei-stition, nowhere dis})layed so strikingly and unequiA'Ocally as in India, gives a

peculiar value even to that part of its histoiy which, relating only to its social state, is

necessarily the least fruitful in stirring incidents.

So long as the leading powei-s of Europe made India a kind of common battle-field,

on which they met to contend for s\ipremacy, no one nation could be said to possess any

exclusive or peculiar intei-est in its affairs; but from the moment when Great Britain stood

forth, virtually if not formally recognized as the paramoinit power, the history of both coun-

tries became in a manner identified, and ought therefore to be studied as one gi'eat whole.

The vast space which separates them is a mere circumstance which, if it have any weight

VI

J 'It L FACE.

at nil, rm^^lit ratlicr to increase the int<;rcHtof the BritiHli rca<ler, who is jiot only intifxluced

to new Hceues and new modes of social existence, but follows his countrj'nien st<'p by Kt«'ii,

iind sees tln-m in a now sjthere disjjlayin;;^ the same unrivalled talents, civil and military,

tlie sanu! in(l<jniitabl(r courage and perseverance, the same eidightened, humane, and

generous sjjirit, wiiich have placed Great Britain at the hea<l of nuxleni nations, and

Wliile India

given her tlie largest and mightiest empire that the world has yet beheld.

was placed under a kind of tutelage, and those intrusted with its administration, iiintcad of encouraging, systematically repressed the public curiosity, there was doubtless some

excuse for a feeling of apathy in regard to its affairs ; but now that the anomalous fomi

of government has been abolished, and the Queen, ruling India in her own name without

any adventitious intervention, has called upon her loving subjects to unite with her in

developing its resources, as one of the most effectual means of promoting the general

welfare of all her dominions, how can the call be properly resjx)nded to, unless the actual

circumstances of the country, and the whole course of events by which these have V>een

formedin other words, all the details of its historyare carefully studied ?

A subject so impoi'tant and so attractive as that of India could not faU to engage

the pens of many writers, and accordingly a number of works relating to it has appeared,

some of them by distinguished men, who bore no unimportant part in many of the traas-

actions which tliey iian'ate.

To all these works, however, there is one serious objection,

which, without impugning their merits, goes to prove that so far from exhausting the

subject, they have left imijortant blanks, which depiive them of the character of comj)lete

histories.

Some of them are jjrofessedly confined to particular jjeriods or pailicular

provinces ; while others of a more general description either omit pai't of the earlier

history, or after bringing it down as far as was practicable at the time, stop short at the

very period when it becomes at once most interesting and most instructive. The present

work, which differs from them in plan, and is also intended to be of a more popular

character, was undertaken in the belief that if written after due research, in a pei'spicu-

ous style, and with strict impartiality, it might supply a want which had long been felt,

and to which recent events had given much additional ui-gency. It is, as its name implies,

a Comprehensive History of IncUa, beginning with its eai'liest period, and continued,

without the known omission of any transaction of importance, to the present time. In composing it, the author has not trusted to previous compilations, but derived his

matei'ials as much as possible from original and official sources. How far he has succeeded,

it remains for his readers to decide.

The only part of the work on which he ventures

to anticipate the judgment of the public is that of the maps, plans, and numerous illustra-

tions, which, independently of their merit as embeUishments, bring all the leading topics of

the historyits campaigns, its battle-fields, its cities, and other localities, and even its

most celebrated personagesimmediately before the eye, in a manner which not only does

much credit to those employed upon them, but must gi-eatly facilitate the inteUigent

perusal of the history itself.

CONTENTS.

Introduction,

VOL. L

BOOK I.

CHAPTER I.

PAGE

1

Ancient IndiaThe pre-historic period Native sources of informationOther accounts Invasion of India by Sesostris, Semiramis, Darius Hystaspes, Alexander the

GreatSubsequent state

of India,

CHAPTER II.

.

.

.

15

Medieval IndiaArab conquestsFirst appearance of Mahometans in India Conquest

of Scinde by Mahomed CasiraExpulsion of the ArabsHouse of Ghuznee

SebektegiuSultan Mahmood,

.

39

CHAPTER III.

Medieval India continued- The Slave Kings— Eibuk or Kutb-u-dinAltamsh— Sultana

 

ReziaMogul irruptions into India Gheias-u-diu BiilbunHouse of Khilji

Jelal-u-din Proceedings in the Deccan— House of ToghlakHouse of Lodi, .

.

62

 

CHAPTER IV.

Invasion of Tiraour or TamerlaueBattle of DelhiSack of DelhiKhizr Khan,

 

Timour's deputyIndependent kingdoms established on the ruins of the Delhi

monarchy Proceedings of Khizr KhanHis deathMoobarik, his son and

successorSyud Mahomed—Syud Ala-u-dinAfghan Lody dynastyBheilole

Lody Sikundur Lody Ibrahim LodyExtinction of the Lody Afghan dynasty,

and renewal of that of the Moguls in the person of Baber,

94

CHAPTER V.

Mogul dynastyLife and reign of BaberHoomayoon— His expulsion and return

State of India at his death,

Reign of Akber

CHAPTER VL

CHAPTER VIL

Modern India— Changes in the mode of intercourse with the EastMonopolies

establisheil by the Venetians, the Genoese, and other Italian republics— Doubling of the Cape of Good HopePortuguese progress in India

105

121

U4

Mil

(JONTENTS.

CirAl'TER VIII.

Portuguese progress in the EastThe viceroyrthips of Fntucisco Ahneida and Alfonuo

Alljiiquenine,

CHAPTER IX,

Att'iiipts to reach India by other routes than tliat of the CapeTheir fiiilure Vjy the

iini tli-\v( sL and north-eastThe south-west passage practicable, but circuitous

Superiority of tlie passage by the Cape generally recognizedFirst voyages of the

English and Dutch by that route,

CHAPTER X.

1

S

lOO

Association of merchant adventurers for a voyage to the EastTheir proceedings

Their memorialThe first English East India charter,

BOOK II.

CHAPTER I.

The first voyages of the CompanyLocalities selectedOpposition from the Dutch and

the Portuguese First English factory on the continent of IndiaSir Thomas Roe's

embassy to the court of the Great MogulState of that courtEstablishment of a

trade with Persia,

CHAPTER II.

224

238

Progress of the Company's tradeProceedings in the Persian GulfNew joint stock

Arrangement with the DutchThe council of defenceThe massacre of Amboyna,

CHAPTER III.

Truce with the PortugueseEstablishment of a rival companySettlement wdth the DutchState of the Company under Cromwell,

CHAPTER IV.

258

267

Reign of Shah Jehan— His deposition by AurungzebeRise and progi-ess ot the

MahrattasReign of Aurungzebe,

CHAPTER V.

251

Resumption of the history of the East India CompanyNew general charter by Charles II.Constitutional question raised by the Company's proceedingsGrant of the

island of Bombay,

CHAPTER VI.

309

Administration and progress of BombayDifficulties— State of the other settlements of

the Company,

.

324

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII.

IX

PACE

Marked change in the Company's policy ou the accession of James II.Hostile

preparationsWar with the MogulDisastrous results,

CHAPTER VIII.

New crown chartersHostile feeling of tlie House of CoramonsWholesale bribery and scandalous disclosures— Rival Company established by act of parliament,

i

,

BOOK III.

CHAPTER I.

340

351

Actual position of the United Company Political state of IndiaThe immediate

successors of AurungzebeTlie Mahrattas and other native states Tlie invasion

of Nadir Shah,

CHAPTER II.

382

The ])rogress of the French in India— War between France and EnglandNaval and

military operationsThe capture of Madras,

CHAPTER III.

Proceedings of the French at MadrasAn attempt of the nabob upon it repulsedThe

terms of capitulation shamefully violatedUnsuccessful attempts of the French

upon Fort St. DavidProceedings of the English fleet under Admiral Boscawen

Siege of PondicherryThe peace of Aix-la-Chapelle,

CHAPTER IV.

407

418

The CarnaticIts political stateTransactions in Tanjore Early career of Clive

Siege of Trichinopoly,

CHAPTER V.

42'.)

Intrigues of Mahomed AliVacillating conduct of the Madras governmentSiege of

TrichinopolyCapture of Arcot,

CHAPTER VI.

453

Continuation of the Siege of TrichinopolyArrival of Major Lawrence with a rein- forcementMahomed All's toriuous proceedingsDiscontent of his allies

Attempts of the French to recover their lost groundClive sails for England

Successes of Major LawrenceNew intrigues of Dupleix,

CHAPTER VI

471

Proceedings of Salabut Jung and BussyGreat accession of territory to the French

Attempts at negotiationDupleix superseded returns to France New arrange-

mentsArrival of a British fleet— Return of CliveDestruction of pirates at

Gheriah,

Vol. 1.

I,

oOl

CONTENTS.

CirAPTEK VIM.

State of Honi^'.il -Ailmiiiiatnitiou ul J.-illit-r Kliau, Sliujah-u-din Khau, Serferaz Rlrtii, ;iiiJ All Verdy Kliau,

CITAPTER IX.

PAMK

.OK;

Stiijijah Dowlah, N.bob of Bengal His early careerFirst acts of his government—

rival claimantHis expedition against PiirneahHis suHpicion and hatred of the East India CompanyThe factory of Cossimhazar seized and plundered Calcutta

besieged and takenThe horrors of the Black Hole,

CHAPTER X.

'/.iO

Deliberations at MadrasArmament sails for BengalRecapture of CalcuttaNaval

and military operationsTreaty of peace with the nabobCapture of the French

factory at ChaudernagoreRecommencement of IiostilitiesConspiracy to depose

the nabobThe battle of Plassey,

CHAPTER XI.

547

Position of affairs in the Caruatic Desultory warfareArrival of a French squadron

Lally, commander-in-chief of French forcesNaval actionSiege and capture of

Fort St. DavidSiege of TaujoreSiege of MadrasFrench reversesForde in

the Northern Circars —Battle of WaudiwashSiege and capture of Pondicherry

Destruction of Fz-ench interests in the Deccan,

CHAPTER XIT.

594

Meer Jaffier nabob, and Clive governor of BengalAttempt upon it by the Mogul'-s

sonHostilities with the Dutch— Departure of Clive— His successors, Holwell and

VansittartMeer Jaffier deposed, and Meer Cossim appointed nabob^leer Cossim

deposed, and Meer Jaffier reinstatedNugum-ud-Dowlah titular nabob Clive's

second governmentDewannee of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa granted to the

Company,

645

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

VOLUME L

FRONTISPIECE.—Openinq up of direct European Trade with IndiaYasco de Gama and the zamorin fo

Calicut.

EXGRAVED TITLE.-The Rock cut Temple of Kylas, at Ellora.

Sketch Mai' of India to illustrate the Uistory from the Earliest Period to the Battle of Pla.ssey.

Map to illustrate the Waks in Coromandel, 1744-178I). Map to illustrate the Wars ix Mysore, 1707-1799.

Map of the Valley of the Ganges, from Caixjutta to Benabes, including the Provinces of noal,

Bbhar, iio.

Map of Malwah, includino Holkar's and Scindia'.s Dominions.

Map of the Maur.vtta Country and Adjacent Territories.

 

PAOE

PAOB

Map of the

Jummoodeep,

2

Distant View of Cabool,

 

.

.

.

.121

Map of India according to Ptolemy,

 

.

.

3

Sheikh Selini's Tomb at Futtipoor Sikra,

 

.

131

Interior of the Cave of Klephanta, .

.

.17

liuins of Goor, the old capital of Bengal, .

.

133

E.xterior of Great Chaitya Cave, Salsotle, .

 

.

18

Attock, from west bank of the Ganges,

.

.135

Exterior of the Chaitya Cave, Adjiiuta,

 

.

.

18

Yoosoofzye, Armed Afghan

136

Interior of the Bisma Kiirm, Ellora,

 

.

.

19

Huins of the Castle

of Sehwan

(Sciiule),

.

.

136

Ancient Indian Zodiac, .

.

.

.

.19

Mausoleum of Emperor Akber at Secnnilra,

.

140

lUiius of Tyre,

 

24

Akber's Tombstone at Secuudra,

.

.

,

140

rian of Soor, the Ancient Tyre,

 

25

Palace of Akber, Futtipoor Sikra,

.

.

.

142

Head of Alexander the Great,

from

a Silver

'Ihe Chalees Sitoon, Allahabad,

.

.

.

143

Tetradrachina of Lysiinaciius,

 

27

Constantinople, end of Seventeenth Century, .

.

.

147

Silver Coin of Eucratidcs V.,

 

3-1

Portrait of Christopher Columbus, .

149

General View of the Kuins of Palmyra,

 

.

.

38

Vievv of the Cape of Good Hope,

.

.

.

.

152

Ruins at Canouge,

 

47

Portrait of Vasco de Gama,

.

.

.153

Gates of the Temple at Somnautli,

 

50

General View of Calicut, A. D. 1574,

 

.

.

156

.Mahmood's Pillars, Ghnznee, Gold and Silver Coins of Sultan Mahmood,

.

.

.

.51

52

Ship of Spain, Fifteenth Century,

.

An Almadia (Native Boat), circa 1598, .

.

.

.161

162

E.xlerior of Sultan Mahmood's Tomb, Oliuzncc, 52

General View of Cananore, A. D. 1574,

.

 

.168

Interior of Sultan Mahmood's Tomb, Ghuznec,

 

53

Portrait of Alfonso de Albuquerque,

 

.

.

172

Ajmeer,

from near the Gogra Pass,

 

59

General View of Lisbon, a.d. 1574,

.

.

174

Kutb Miliar, Delhi,

 

C3

Bird's-eye View of Alexandria, A.I). 1574,

 

.

175

Silver Coin of Gheughis Khan,

 

.

.

.03

Thecity of Ormuz, in the Persian Gulf, a.d. 1574, 178

Interior of the Tomb of Sultan Altamsh, Delhi,

65

Group of Ancient Indian Armour, .

,

71

Khilji Chieftain and Woman (Afghanistan;,

.

 

7-5

Silver Coin of Ala-u-din,

80

Ruins of the Palace of Hana Bheum, Chittoor, .

82

Mausoleum of Khosrow, near Allahabad, .

.

86

Copper Coiu of Mahomed Bin Toghlak, .

.

89

The Snowy Range of the Himalayas, from Marma, 89

Part of the Serai, Toghlakabad,

A Brahmin,

102

93

Usbeks of Khoondooz, and a Khojah of Usbek, . 107

110

113

View of Kandahar,

Tomb of the Emperor Baber, near Cabool,

.

White Marble Mosque at the Tomb of Emperor

Baber, Cabool

11:^

Chunarghur, near Benares,

Bihistee, or Water Carrier of Bengal,

t-heer Shah's Mausoleum at Sasseram, near Benares 1 1

114

.115

.

General View of Aden, A.D. 1574, .

.

.185

General

View of Din, A.D. 1574,

.

.

.

190

Portrait of Sebastian Cabut, .

.

.

.190

General View of Greenwich in 1662,

.

.

201

Portrait

of Ferdinand Magellan,

.

.

.

206

Portrait of Sir Francis Drake,

 

.

.

.

208

Drake's Astrolabe, now in Greenwich Hospital,

 

208

Jewel presented to Drake by Queen Elizabeth, in possession of Sir T. T. Elliott Fulke Drake,

Bait

 

209

Portrait of Thomas Cavendish,

 

.

.

.

209

Cape Comorin, from uear Calead, .

.

.

217

Portuguese Residents at Bantam, circ. A.D. 1600 219

Bird's-eye View of Bantam, circ. a.d. 1600,

.

213

Governor of Bantam and Attendants, eir. a.d. 1600 221

Portrait of George, third Earl of Cumberland, . Manchc of Calicut (Native Boat), .

General View of Woolwich in 1602,

.

.

.

.

232

237

239

Xll

LIST (>V JLMJSTRATIONS.

(Jfiicral View of Amboyiia

Tlic I'owii and Volcano of Tematc, in 1005,

 

.

Java Junk, circa 1000,

M cell a, from the Nortli,

.

.

View of Pointdc-Galle,

.

.

.

Tomb of tlic Krnpcror Jchangir at Laliore,

 

.

Anns of East India Company, circ. lCOO-50,

 

Castle of AinboyiKi,

.

.

.

.

General View of iMasulipatam,

 

.

.

.

Seal used by Sir William Courteen's Association,

Gateway to tlie Fort of Agra,

.

.

.

Huins of Old Delhi

Interior of the Tiije Mahal at Agra,

.

.

242

2415

240

.251

.253

2.07

250

201

200

209

282

284

28y

Tomb of Emperor Shah Jehan in the Taje Mahal, 290 Sevajce, Founder of the Mahratta Empire, on

Itock und Temple of Tricbioopo^j,

Pagoda at Conjcverarii, . A I'olyger coinpletely Armed,

Gateway of Pagoda at Scringham, . View of Aurungabad,

,

View of the Fort of ( hiiij;lcput,

.

.

.Map of the Environs of Trichiooiwly, riie Gnat Pagoda, Tanjore,

The Fort of Dowjelabad,

.

.

A Grab— a Vessel of Bombay,

Mackerey, or Ballot k Cart of Bengal,

The Jumma Musjid at Cuttack,

.

 

.

45'j

 

.

.

402

.

,

472

 

4*9

.

.

 

481

.

.

485

.

.

489

 

500

 

.

.503

.

,510

.

.5)8

 

.

.

523

Najar Nultoo Sing's Mh'jot at Dacca, on the Ganges,

Ruins of the Rajah's Palace, Rajmahal, on the

531

Horseback, with Attendants,

 

.

.

.

294

Ganges

535

Wagnuck, or Tiger's Claws,

 

295

538

 

.

Tower of Victory, Chittoor,

.

 

300

.Map of the Territorj- of Calcutta, A.D. 1757, View of F'ort William, Calcutta, a.d. 1754,

.

543

 

.

 

,

Tombs of the Kings, Golconda,

.

.

.

304

Monument to those who perished in the Black

Aurungzebe's Burial-place at Rozah,

 

.

.

308

Hole, Calcutta,

 

545

View of the Island of St. Helena,

.

,

.310

Portrait of Admiral Watson,

54S

Map of Bombay and the Adjacent Coast,

 

.

314

Ghaut at Mocrshedabad, on the Ganges,

.

.

574

General View of Surat,

.

.

.

.317

Ghaut

at Cutwah, on the Ganges,

.

.

.

576

The English Fort, Bombay, circa 1672, .

.

 

.

325

Portrait of Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote,

577

Bird's-eye View of Trincomalee, General View of Canton,

.

327

335

Gateway at Rajmahal, on the Ganges,

The Fort of Monghir, on the Gauges,

.

.

.

587

.589

Fort of Eaje Ghur, Gingee,

338

Portrait of Thomas Arthur, Co.rite de Lally,

.

596

Patna, on the Ganges,

343

Plan of Fort St. Dadd, near Cuddalore, .

.

598

Street of the Fountains, Bejapoor, .

 

.

.

347

View of Mount St. Thome, near Madras,

.

606

The Old Eait India House, circa a.d. 1650,

,

352

View of the Black Town, Madras, .

.

.

607

Portrait of Thomas Osborne, first Duke of Leeds, 364

View of Gombroon, or Bender- Abbaz, a.d. 1676 379

Peer Musjid, and Hill near the Dolphins, Viza-

gapatam, .

.

.

.

.

.

.611

Portrait of Sidney, first Earl of (iodolphin,

.

 

.

380

Garool.uh, a Boat of the Persian Gulf,

.

381

Rajpoots on i'oot and on Horseback,

 

.

.

380

Mahrattas on Horseback,

 

390

JhalledarPalanquin used by Rajahs,

.

 

.

393

View of Boorhanpoor, in the Deccan,

 

.

.