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DECK AND CARGO

OPERATIONS
MANUAL
(TANKERS)
Petroleum and Chemical

Front Page
DCOM (Tankers)

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual


Petroleum & Chemical

RECORD OF CHANGES
Revised Section
Cargo Operations General
1. Commercial Instructions and
Voyage Planning

Deck Operations
1. Mooring and Anchoring
Procedures

Deck Operations
2. Safe Access

Deck Operations
4. Lifting Equipment

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

Revision date

Revised part

10.06.2009

Page 6/16 - Issuance of Letter of Protest for


not timely granted Free Pratique

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 3/20 - 1.5 Mooring Operations:
additional guidelines for high-modulus ropes
when ropes are made fast on bitts.
Page 14/20 revised 1.14.3 Ordering
Replacement Ropes and Wires.
Page 17/20 revised 1.14.6.1 Marking the
Correct Brake Tension.
Page 18/20 revised 1.14.6.2 The Storage
of Winch Brake Testing Equipment.
Page 18/20 revised 1.14.7 Winch Brake
Band Lining and Drum Checks.
Page 19/20 revised 1.14.9 Anchor and
Cable Condition Checks.
Page 19/20 - revised 1.14.10 SWL Marking
of Mooring Equipment (additional clarification
for SWL marking).
Page 19/20 revised 1.14.11 Mooring
Equipment File (additional requirements for
the manufacturers type-approval certificate
for the bow stoppers and the certificate
attesting to the strength of the bow stopper,
as fitted).

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 4/4 - revised 2.6.4 Accommodation
Ladder Lifting Wires (requirements for the
accommodation ladder lifting wires renewal).

01.06.2010

Adjusted text and definitions.


Page 1/10 revised 4.2.1
The Marking of
Controls and Switches (requirements for the
marking of controls and switches).
Page 1/10 revised 4.3.1 Inspection and
Maintenance of Lifting Equipment Wires
(additional guidelines for maintenance of
lifting equipment wires).
Page 3/10 revised 4.3.2 Replacement of
Lifting Equipment Wires.
Page 4/10 revised 4.3.3 Installation of
Wire Ropes.
Page 6/10 revised 4.6 Qualified Operators
(exceptional circumstances when the SWL of
lifting equipment may need to be exceeded).

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 8

Deck Operations
9. Working with Tools

01.06.2010

Page 1/5 - revised 9.1 General Precautions.


Page 1/5 - revised 9.3 Portable Power
Operated Tools.

Deck Operations
10. Denzo Tape

01.06.2010

Page 1/1 additional guidelines for


professionally applied denzo tape.

Deck Operations
11. The Handling and Storage of
Chemicals and Pesticides

01.06.2010

Page 1/2 revised 11.1.1 General Provisions


and 11.1.2 Storage of Chemicals.
Page 2/2 revised 11.1.3 Using Chemicals
and 11.1.4 Medical First Aid.

Deck Operations
14. Communications, Electrical
and Radio Equipment

01.06.2010

Page 1/3 additional guidelines for 14.1


General Provisions, 14.2 The Use of Cameras
and 14.3 Torches.

01.06.2010

Adjusted text
Page 1/20 revised 1.1 Introduction.
Page 2/20 revised 1.2 Seaworthiness and
1.3 Speed and Fuel Consumption.
Page 3/20 additional requirements for 1.4
Commercial Operations Requiring Company
Approval and 1.5 Voyage Orders.
Page 5-7/20 additional requirements for
1.8 Notice of Readiness.
Page 7/20 - revised 1.9 Free Pratique.
Page 11/20 added 1.17 Mates Receipts.
Page 11-15/20 - additional requirements for
1.18 Bills of Lading.
Page 18/20 - additional requirements for
1.27 Off-Hire Statements.
Page 19/20 added 1.30 Time Charterers
Supplies of Bunkers or Equipment.

Cargo Operations General


1. Commercial Instructions and
Voyage Planning

Cargo Operations General


2. Cargo Documents and
Diagrams

Cargo Operations General


5. Stability

Cargo Operations General


6. Gas Detection and Personal
Protective Equipment

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

01.06.2010

Page 4/6 revised guidelines for 2.7.1 Oil


Record Book Part 2.
Page 5/6 - revised guidelines for 2.7.2 Cargo
Record Book.

01.06.2010

Page 1/5 - revised guidelines for 5.1


Requirements for Stability Stress and
Bending Moments.
Page 1/5 revised 5.2 The Calculation of
Stability and Stress.
Page 5/5 removed 5.11 Ice Accretion.

01.06.2010

Page 1/9 - 6.1.2 Requirements for the Use of


Analysers added reference to MSA Altair 4.
Page 2/9 added 6.1.3.3 MSA Altair 4.
Page 4/9 added 6.1.6.3 MSA Altair 4.
Page 6/9 revised 6.2 Chemical Indicator
Tubes and Hand Pumps.
Page 8/9 - revised 6.4 Personal Protective
Equipment.

6th February 2012

Page 2 of 8

Page 9/9 deleted 6.5 Filter Masks.


Cargo Operations General
7. Maintenance of the Watch in
Port

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 2/6 amended 7.3 Responsibility of
the Chief Officer.

01.06.2010

Page 1/9 revised 8.1 Environmental


Protection and
Page 1/9 revised 8.2 The MARPOL
Convention.
Page 3/9 amended 8.5.1 General
Provisions.
Page 7/9 amended 8.8.4 Portable Spill
Equipment.
Page 9/9 added 8.12 Overboard Discharges
from Other Spaces.

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 1/6 revised 9.1 Cargo Pump Rooms General Provisions.
Page 1/6 revised 9.2 Monitoring of Cargo
Pump Rooms during Cargo Operations.
Page 4/6 revised 9.9.1 Cargo Pump
Rooms.
Page 4/6 revised 9.9.2 Ballast Pump
Rooms.
Page 5/6 revised 9.10 Pump Room Entry.

Cargo Operations General


12. Control of Smoking

01.06.2010

New Chapter.

Cargo Operations Petroleum


2. Cargo Operation Planning,
Preparation and Management

01.06.2010

Page 7/7 - deleted 2.6.7 Control of Smoking.

Cargo Operations Petroleum


3. Cargo Operations - General
Procedures

01.06.2010

Page 10/13 - added 3.12.4 Reducing the


Ullage Level at the Commencement of
Discharge
Page 10/13 - added 3.12.5 Vessels Fitted
with Deep Well Pumps.

Cargo Operations Petroleum


6. Inert Gas

01.06.2010

Revised Chapter.

01.06.2010

Page 5/7 deleted 8.7.3 Solvent Steaming.


Page 5/7 revised 8.8 Cleaning by
Ventilation.
Page 5/7 revised 8.9 Temperature of Tank
Washing Water.

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 4/15 revised 10.5 Remote Ullaging
System.
Page 8/15 revised 10.10.2 Testing the
Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems.

Cargo Operations General


8. Environmental Protection and
Pollution Prevention

Cargo Operations General


9. Pump Rooms

Cargo Operations Petroleum


8. Tank Cleaning

Cargo Operations Petroleum


10. Cargo and Ballast Handling
and Monitoring Equipment

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

6th February 2012

Page 3 of 8

Page 9/15 added 10.10.6 Annual Cargo


System Vapour Test.
Cargo Operations Petroleum
11. Open Water Ship to Ship
Transfer

Cargo Operations Chemical


3. Cargo Operations - General
Procedures

Cargo Operations Chemical


6. Inert Gas

Cargo Operations Chemical


8. Tank Cleaning

Cargo Operations Chemical


10. Cargo and Ballast Handling
and Monitoring Equipment

Cargo Operations Chemical


11. Specific Chemical Cargo
Information

01.06.2010

Page 1/10 amended 11.1 Authority and


Responsibility.
Page 7/10 additional guidelines for fenders
acceptance in 11.14.4 Fendering.
Page 9/10 revised 11.16 Safe Access.

01.06.2010

Page 9/16 - added 3.12.4 Reducing the


Ullage Level at the Commencement of
Discharge.
Page 10/16 - added 3.12.5 Vessels Fitted
with Deep Well Pumps.

01.06.2010

Revised Chapter.

01.06.2010

Page 6/18 - revised 8.13.3 Solvent


Steaming.
Page 7/18 - revised 8.14.2 Hand Spraying
and Wiping.
Page 9/18 added 8.15.5 Tank Cleaning
Annex II Tanks with Annex I Products.
Page 10/18 - revised 8.17 Tank Cleaning
after Vegetable Oils.

01.06.2010

Adjusted text.
Page 4/17 revised 10.5 Remote Ullaging
System.
Page 8/17 revised 10.10.2 Testing the
Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems.
Page 9/17 added 10.10.6 Annual Cargo
System Vapour Test.

01.06.2010

Page 5/31 revised 11.2 Hexene-1


Page 16/31 - revised 11.6.3 Safety Measures
Page 16/31 - revised 11.6.4 Cargo
Operations.
Page 31/31 - added 11.12.7.7 Tank Cleaning
after Vegetable Oils.

Deck Operations
1. Mooring and Anchoring
Procedures

06.02.2012

Deck Operations
2. Safe Access

06.02.2012

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

Page 10/20 additional guidelines 1.11.3.3


Anchoring
Page 13/20 revised 1.13.1 General
Provisions
Page 20/20 added 1.14.11 Certification,
Marking and Periodical Survey of Bow
Stoppers
Page 20/20 renumbered 1.14.12 Mooring
Equipment File
Page 1/5 additional text 2.1 Responsibility
Page 1/5 added sub-chapter title 2.2.1
General Provisions
Page 2/5 added 2.2.2 Lifebuoys
Page 3/5 additional text 2.5 Access Area

6th February 2012

Page 4 of 8

Equipment
Deck Operations
3. Watertight Integrity and Heavy
Weather Precautions
Deck Operations
6. Operation in Sub-Zero
Conditions
Deck Operations
7. Maintenance and Inspection of
Cargo and Ballast Tanks and Other
Compartments
Deck Operations
8. Walkways and Avoiding Slips
and Falls
Deck Operations
12. Fabric Maintenance

06.02.2012

Page 1/4 additional text

06.02.2012

Page 1/8 revised 6.2.1 Severe Icing and


the Effect on Stability
Page 6/8 revised 6.11.1 Lifeboats

06.02.2012

Page 1/3 additional text 7.1


Implementation of an Inspection Routine

06.02.2012

Page 1/3 added 8.1.2 Resin and Fibre


Glass Gratings
Page 3/3 revised 8.5.3 Bosuns Chairs

06.02.2012

Page 2/2 revised 12.8.1 Filter Masks

Cargo Operations General


1. Commercial Instructions and
Voyage Planning

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations General


2. Cargo Documents and
Diagrams

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations General


4. Static Electricity

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations General


5. Stability

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations General


6. Gas Detection and Personal
Protective Equipment

06.02.2012

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

Page 9/21 revised 1.16.1 Issuing Letters of


Protest
Page 20/21 added 1.31 EU Advance Cargo
Declaration Regime
Page 1/6 additional text 2.2 Material Safety
Data Sheets (MSDS)
Page 6/6 added 2.10 Cargo Tank
Calibration Tables
Page 6/6 added 2.11 Cargo Tank Coating
and Cargo Hose Chemical Resistance Lists
Page 3/7 amended title 4.6.1 Static
Accumulator Oils
Page 4/7 additional text 4.6.1 Static
Accumulator Oils
Page 2/5 added 5.3 Damaged Stability
Page 2-5/5 renumbered 5.4 5.11
Page 1/9 additional text 6.1 Gas Detection
Equipment Analysers
Page 2/9 deleted 6.1.3.2 BW
GasAlertMicroClip
Page 2/9 renumbered and revised text
6.1.3.2 MSA Altair 4
Page 2/9 renumbered and revised 6.1.3.3
Extension Hoses and Aspirators
Page 3/9 deleted 6.1.6.2 BW
GasAlertMicroClip
Page 3/9 renumbered 6.1.6.2 MSA Altair 4
Page 5/9 added sub-chapter title 6.2.1
General Provisions
Page 6/9 added sub-chapter title 6.2.2
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Tubes
Page 6/9 added 6.2.3 Benzene Tubes
Page 7/9 added sub-chapter title and
revised 6.2.4 Stocks of Chemical Tubes
Page 7/9 revised 6.3 Fixed Gas Detection
Systems
Page 8/9 revised 6.4.5 Respiratory
Protection and the Use of Filter Masks
Page 9/9 added 6.4.11 Oxygen

6th February 2012

Page 5 of 8

Cargo Operations General


8. Pollution Prevention

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations General


10. Ballast

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


1. Cargo Related Hazards

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


2. Cargo Operation Planning,
Preparation and Management

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


3. Cargo Operations General
Procedures
Cargo Operations Petroleum
4. Cargo Heating and Cooling

06.02.2012
06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


7. Crude Oil Washing

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


8. Tank Cleaning

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Petroleum


9. Sampling and Ullaging

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

06.02.2012

Resuscitator
Page 2/8 revised 8.3.3 Annex V Special
Areas and Annex VI ECA
Page 3/8 deleted 8.4 Incineration of Waste
Page 3/8 added 8.4 Pollution Prevention
from Bilge Eductor Systems in Deck Areas
Page 7/8 revised 8.9 Manifolds
Page 3/6 revised 10.8.1 General Provisions
Page 5/6 revised 10.8.5 Discharge of
Heavy Weather Ballast
Page 1/9 revised 1.1.6 Exposure Limits
Page 3/9 revised 1.4.1 General Precautions
Page 5/9 revised 1.5.4 Procedures for
Handling Cargo Containing H2S
Page 5/9 revised 1.5.5 Vapour Monitoring
Page 6/9 revised 1.6 Mercaptans
Page 7/9 revised 1.8 Nitrogen
Page 1/8 revised 2.2.1 Responsibility
Page 2/8 revised 2.2.2 Cargo Plans
Page 3/8 revised 2.4 Testing of Critical
Equipment Prior to Cargo Operations
Page 3/8 added sub-chapter title 2.5.1
Checking Lines
Page 4/8 added 2.5.2 Inert Gas and
Vapour Lines
Page 5/8 revised 2.6.1 Exchange of
Information Prior to Arrival
Page 6/8 revised 2.6.4 Ullaging and
Sampling Before and After Cargo Operations
Page 7/8 revised 2.6.6 Cargo Tank
Inspections
Page 12/12 added 3.16 Open Water Ship
to Ship Transfer Operations
Page 1/3 revised 4.3 Monitoring Cargo
Temperature
Page 1/4 revised 7.2.1 Washing for Heavy
Weather Ballast
Page 2/4 revised 7.5 Inert Gas and the
Control of Vapour Discharge
Page 2/6 amended title 8.5 Cleaning after
the Carriage of Volatile Annex I Cargoes in
Non-Inert Tanks
Page 5/6 revised 8.8 Cleaning by
Ventilation
Page 1/7
Provisions
Page 2/7
Page 2/7
Carriers
Page 2/7
Page 3/7
Page 3/7
Disposal of

6th February 2012

revised 9.1 Sampling General


added 9.1.3 Sample Containers
renumbered 9.1.4 Crude Oil
revised 9.3.1 Labelling Samples
revised 9.3.2 Sample Lockers
Revised 9.3.3 Retention and
Samples

Page 6 of 8

Cargo Operations Petroleum


10. Cargo and Ballast Handling
and Monitoring Equipment

Cargo Operations Petroleum


11. Open Water Ship to Ship
Transfer
Cargo Operations Petroleum
12. Ship to Ship Bunker Delivery

06.02.2012

06.02.2012

Deleted Chapter

06.02.2012

Deleted Chapter

Cargo Operations Chemical


1. Cargo Related Hazards

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Chemical


2. Cargo Operation Planning,
Preparation and Management

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Chemical


3. Cargo Operations General
Procedures

06.02.2012

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

Page 3/7 revised 9.4.1 General Procedures


Page 5/7 revised 9.5.1.1 During Loading
Page 5/7 revised 9.5.1.2 During
Discharging
Page 6/7 Revised 9.6.1 Number of UTI
Tapes to be Carried
Page 1/15 revised 10.3 Portable
Submersible (Emergency) Cargo Pump
Page 5/15 revised 10.7 Fixed Temperature
Measuring Equipment
Page 5/15 revised 10.8.1 Cargo Tank
Pressure Monitoring System
Page 6/15 revised 10.8.3 Spare Cargo
Tank Pressure Alarm Sensors
Page 6/15 revised 10.9.1 Flange
Connections
Page 8/15 additional text 10.10 Testing of
Cargo Lines, Vapour Lines and Heating Coils
Page 8/15 revised 10.10.1 Cargo and
Ballast Lines
Page 8/15 revised 10.10.2 Testing the
Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems
Page 9/15 added 10.10.4 Testing of
Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces
and Reducers
Page 9/15 revised 10.10.5 Testing of
Ballast Lines and Valves
Page 9/15 renumbered 10.10.5 10.10.9

Page 2/9 revised 1.3 Nitrogen


Page 5/9 revised 1.8.1 Self-Reactivity and
Polymerisation
Page 8/9 revised 1.9 Inhibitor Certificates
Page 8/9 revised 1.10.1 General
Precautions
Page 8/9 deleted 1.11 Hydrogen Sulphide
Page 8/9 added 1.11 Mercaptans
Page 9/9 added 1.14 Personnel Exposure
to Toxic Products
Page 5/9 revised 2.7.1 Exchange of
Information Prior to Arrival
Page 9/9 revised 2.7.6 Safety Issues
during Tank Inspections
Page 9/9 deleted 2.7.7 Control of Smoking
Page 6/16 revised 3.10.2 Pigging
Operations
Page 13/16 amended title Handling
Solidifying, High Viscosity, or Freezing
Cargoes
Page 16/16 added 3.17 Handling High
Density Cargoes

6th February 2012

Page 7 of 8

Cargo Operations Chemical


4. Cargo Heating and Cooling
Cargo Operations Chemical
5. Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas
Freeing
Cargo Operations Chemical
6. Inert Gas

06.02.2012

Page 1/4 revised 4.3 Monitoring Cargo


Temperature

06.02.2012

Page 7/8 revised 5.9.3 Gas Freeing

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Chemical


8. Tank Cleaning

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Chemical


9. Sampling and Ullaging

06.02.2012

Cargo Operations Chemical


10. Cargo and Ballast Handling
and Monitoring Equipment

06.02.2012

Record of Changes
DCO (Tankers) Rev O-2

Revised Chapter Entire policy and


procedure
Page 3/18 revised 8.7 Ventilation
Page 6/18 revised 8.14.1 Local or Spot
Cleaning by Hand
Page 7/18 revised 8.14.2 Hand Spraying
and Wiping
Page 13/18 revised 8.27.1 Cleaning
Additives and Agents
Page 1/7 revised 9.1 Sampling General
Provisions
Page 3/7 revised 9.3.2 Sample Lockers
Page 3/7 revised 9.3.3 Retention and
Disposal of Samples
Page 4/7 revised 9.4.1 Sampling Non-Toxic
Products
Page 5/7 revised 9.4.3 Measuring and
Sampling Inerted Tanks
Page 6/7 revised 9.5.1.1 During Loading
Page 6/7 revised 9.5.1.2 During
Discharging
Page 7/7 revised 9.7.1 Number of UTI
Tapes to be Carried
Page 1/17 revised 10.3 Portable
Submersible (Emergency) Cargo Pump
Page 5/17 revised 10.7 Fixed Temperature
Measuring Equipment
Page 5/17 revised 10.8.1 Cargo Tank
Pressure Monitoring System
Page 6/17 revised 10.9.1 Flange
Connections
Page 8/17 added 10.9.8 Marking of
Manifold Lines
Page 8/17 added text 10.10 Testing of
Cargo Lines and Heating Coils
Page 8/17 revised 10.10.2 Testing the
Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems
Page 9/17 added 10.10.4 Testing of
Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces
and Reducers
Page 9-10/17 renumbered 10.10.510.10.9

6th February 2012

Page 8 of 8

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual Tankers - Short Index


Columbia Shipmanagement Environment Protection Statement
References

Section 1 - Deck Operations


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Mooring and Anchoring Procedures


Safe Access
Watertight Integrity and Heavy Weather Precautions
Lifting Equipment
Adverse Climatic Conditions
Operation in Sub-Zero Conditions
Maintenance and Inspection of Cargo and Ballast Tanks and Other Compartments
Walkways and Avoiding Slips and Falls
Working with Tools
Denzo Tape
The Handling and Storage of Chemicals and Pesticides
Fabric Maintenance
Accommodation Ventilation
Communications, Electrical and Radio Equipment

Section 2 - Cargo Operations


Part A - General
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Commercial Instructions and Voyage Planning


Cargo Documents and Diagrams
Basic Properties of Petroleum and Chemical Products
Static Electricity
Stability
Gas Detection and Personal Protective Equipment
Maintenance of the Watch in Port
Environmental Protection and Pollution Prevention
Pump Rooms
Ballast
Small Craft Alongside
Control of Smoking

Part B - Petroleum
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Cargo Related Hazards


Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management
Cargo Operations - General Procedures
Cargo Heating and Cooling
Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing
Inert Gas
Crude Oil Washing
Tank Cleaning
Sampling and Ullaging
Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment

Part C - Chemical
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Cargo Related Hazards


Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management
Cargo Operations - General Procedures
Cargo Heating and Cooling
Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing
Inert Gas
Chemical Safety Equipment
Tank Cleaning
Sampling and Ullaging
Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment
Specific Chemical Cargo Information

Short Index Petroleum and Chemical


DCO (Tankers) (Rev O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 1

Columbia Shipmanagement Environment Protection Statement


Columbia Shipmanagement is committed to the prevention of pollution in any form and to the
protection of the environment. To that end, Columbia Shipmanagement does not in any
way condone or permit the illegal disposal overboard of pollutants of any kind.
The illegal disposal overboard of oil and other pollutants occurs in two ways; deliberate and
accidental.
Deliberate Disposal Overboard
Where there is a requirement to dispose of any quantity of any potential pollutant which cannot
be disposed of overboard legally, then such a pollutant must be retained on board and if
necessary arrangements made for its disposal to shore reception facilities.
Commercial considerations must under no circumstances take precedence over the legal disposal
of pollutants. If there is any doubt at all about whether disposal overboard is legal then the
advice of the company must be sought before such disposal takes place.
Any seafarer who deliberately and knowingly disposes of any pollutant overboard will find himself
liable to dismissal from the company under the terms of his contract. Seafarers should also be
aware that they may also be subject to any legal action that an administration may decide to
take, with the subsequent possibility of a fine and prison detention.
Accidental Disposal Overboard
We expect our seafarers to make every effort to ensure that whenever the legal discharge
overboard of oil or chemical cargo slops, bilge water, garbage, sewage, dry cargo residues or any
other pollutant source is contemplated, measures are taken to ensure that the equipment to be
used is in perfect working order, that the required procedures are in place, that the vessel is in an
area which permits such discharge and that there is no possibility of illegal pollution occurring.
If there is any doubt that equipment is not operating as it should, or that procedures
are not satisfactorily in place, then the discharge overboard must not take place.
Accidents will still occur, regardless of the procedures put in place to try to prevent them.
However, virtually all accidents could have been avoided if an adequate degree of thought and
preventative measures had been taken in the first place; the target should be to eliminate
accidents.
We also expect all our seafarers to be sufficiently trained and prepared to deal with an incident,
should one occur. It is incumbent upon each seafarer to know what equipment is available for
dealing with pollution, and how to use it.
Monitoring Pollution Prevention Measures
Columbia has in place robust procedures for the prevention of pollution. Part of those procedures
is the maintenance and testing routines for equipment fitted to prevent pollution such as the
engine room Oily Water Separator and the cargo Oil Discharge Monitor. A further example is the
company Garbage Management Procedure.
However, equally important parts of the process are the inspections carried out by the Master,
Safety officer, Chief Officer, Chief Engineer and Second Engineer under their respective areas of
responsibility, and the awareness of the crew as a whole as to what might constitute a pollution
threat.

The Protection of the Environment


DCO (Tankers)

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 2

Every seafarer is expected and obliged to immediately inform his superior if he feels that there is
a possibility of pollution of any type occurring from any source. Further, should any seafarer
observe such pollution and is not satisfied that adequate action is being taken on board to deal
with it then we also consider that the seafarer is expected and obliged to immediately inform the
company directly.
The Master, in his role as the person in command, should regularly inspect all parts of the vessel,
including the engine room, with particular emphasis on safety and pollution prevention. Masters
should recognise that, with respect to the prevention of pollution, not only are they protecting the
companys interests but also their own.
The results of pollution always have an impact on wildlife, human amenities or the environment
to some degree. The commercial penalties for pollution infringements are also often very severe.
They result in protracted and expensive court cases, always incur publicity, invariably result in a
significant loss of reputation for the company involved, and often incur significant financial and
commercial penalties which are not covered by any form of insurance. And all for no reason
invariably the pollution was unnecessary and could easily have been avoided.
Columbia, of course, views the matter of pollution with a great deal of concern. Marine and
Technical Superintendents have been instructed to carefully review all aspects of pollution
prevention when they visit vessels. But that is just a small part of the whole issue - the plain fact
is that the company relies heavily on the professionalism, awareness and training of its seafarers.
For its part, the company undertakes to provide whatever training and guidance is necessary in
support of its seafarers.
Everybody must understand that they have a role to play and that they must accept their part of
the responsibility, from the discharge of engine room bilge water or the decanting of cargo slops
to the control of packaging blowing overboard whilst taking stores and oil sheens on the surface
of deck water.

The Protection of the Environment


DCO (Tankers)

1st January 2009

Page 2 of 2

REFERENCES
The instructions and guidance in this Deck and Cargo Operations Manual (Tankers) has been
compiled with reference to the following publications.
Deck Officers are expected to be conversant with these publications at least to the extent that
they are familiar with the content of each and where to find further information on a particular
procedure, should they need it.

Mooring Procedures

Mooring Equipment Guidelines


Effective Mooring
Recommendations for Ships Fittings for Use with Tugs
Recommendations for Equipment Employed in the Bow Mooring of Conventional Tankers at SPMs

General Tanker
SOLAS, as amended, including the FSS and LSA Codes
MARPOL, as amended
ISGOTT
Guidance Manual for Tanker Structures
STS Guide (Petroleum)
USCG CFR 33 Parts 1 199 and CFR 46 Parts 1 40

Petroleum Tanker
Recommendations for Oil Tanker Manifolds and Associated Equipment
Clean Seas Guide for Oil Tankers
Prevention of Oil Spillages through Cargo pump Room Sea Valves
IMO Inert Gas Systems
IMO Crude Oil Washing Systems

Chemical Carrier
IBC Code
IMDG Code
Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals)
Miracle Tank Cleaning Guide
USCG CHRIS Code
USCG Chemical Compatibility Chart and Addenda

References Petroleum and Chemical


DCO (Tankers)

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual (Tankers)


Section 1: Deck Operations Section Index
1.

Mooring and Anchoring Procedures

2.

Safe Access

1.1
Responsibility
1.2
Planning Mooring Operations
1.3
Responsibility for Mooring Operations and Safety Precautions
1.4
Personnel Protection
1.4.1
Mooring Rope Snap-Back
1.5
Mooring Operations
1.6
Direction of Spooling of Ropes on Powered Drums
1.7
Responsibility of the Officer of the Watch in Port
1.8
Stoppers
1.9
Breaking Free from the Berth
1.10 Mooring at SBMs
1.10.1
General Provisions
1.10.2
Focsle Watchkeeping Arrangements
1.10.3
Equipment to be Available
1.11 Anchoring Equipment and Anchoring
1.11.1
Basic Principles
1.11.2
Anchoring Equipment
1.11.2.1
Windlass
1.11.2.2
Chain Clearing Bars
1.11.2.3
Anchors
1.11.2.4
Anchor Cable
1.11.2.5
Anchor Cable Bitter End
1.11.2.6
Bow Stopper
1.11.2.7
Spurling Pipes
1.11.2.8
Hawse Pipes
1.11.3
Anchoring Procedures
1.11.3.1
Nature of the Bottom
1.11.3.2
Amount of Cable to Use
1.11.3.3
Anchoring
1.11.3.4
Recovering the Anchor
1.11.3.5
Emergency Anchoring
1.11.3.6
Manoeuvring Whilst at Anchor
1.12 Working with Tugs
1.12.1
General Principles
1.12.2
Emergency Use of Tugs
1.12.3
Safe Handling of Tug Lines
1.13 Emergency Fire Wires
1.13.1
General Provisions
1.13.2
Making Fast Emergency Fire Wires
1.13.3
Minimum Breaking Load, Length and Construction
1.13.4
Maintenance
1.14 Maintenance and Testing of Mooring Equipment
1.14.1
Responsibility
1.14.2
Storage, Maintenance and Care of Mooring Lines
1.14.3
Ordering Replacement Ropes and Wires
1.14.3.1
Mooring Ropes
1.14.3.2
Mooring Wires
1.14.3.3
Mooring Wire Tails
1.14.4
Spare Mooring Wires, Ropes and Tails
1.14.5
Disposal of Condemned Ropes
1.14.6
Winch Brake Testing
1.14.6.1
Marking the Correct Brake Tension
1.14.6.2
The Storage of Winch Brake Testing Equipment
1.14.7
Winch Brake Band Lining and Drum Checks
1.14.8
Pedestal Rollers, Roller Fairleads and Chocks
1.14.9
Anchor and Cable Condition Checks
1.14.10 SWL Marking of Mooring Equipment
1.14.11 Certification, Marking and Periodical Survey of Bow Stoppers
1.14.12 Mooring Equipment File
2.1
Responsibility
2.2
Provision of Safe Access
2.2.1
General Provisions

Index Deck Operations Section


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 4

2.2.2
Lifebuoys
2.3
Marking of Gangways and Accommodation Ladders
2.4
Safety Nets
2.5
Access Area Equipment
2.6
Maintenance of Gangways and Accommodation Ladders
2.6.1
Gangway Inspection
2.6.2
Gangway Safety Net Inspection
2.6.3
Accommodation Ladder Inspection
2.6.4
Accommodation Ladder Lifting Wires
2.6.5
Accommodation Ladder Lifting Winches
2.7
Signs and Notices
2.7.1
Tankers
2.8
Control of Access

3.

Watertight Integrity and Heavy Weather Precautions


3.1
Securing the Vessel for Sea
3.2
Ingress of Water in Heavy Weather
3.3
Heavy Weather Precautions
3.4
Bilges and the Sounding of Compartments
3.5
Vents and Sounding Pipes
3.5.1
Marking of Vents and Sounding Pipes
3.5.2
Maintenance of Vents and Sounding Pipes
3.6
Hatches and Watertight Doors
3.6.1
Maintenance of Hatches and Watertight Doors
3.7
Ventilators
3.7.1
Maintenance of Ventilators

4.

Lifting Equipment

5.

Adverse Climatic Conditions

6.

Operation in Sub-Zero Conditions

4.1
Description of Lifting Equipment
4.2
Marking of Lifting Equipment
4.2.1
The Marking of Controls and Switches
4.3
Maintenance of Lifting Equipment
4.3.1
Inspection and Maintenance of Lifting Equipment Wires
4.3.2
Replacement of Lifting Equipment Wires
4.3.3
Installation of Wire Ropes
4.3.4
Storing Spare Crane Wires
4.3.5
Limit Switches
4.4
Testing of Lifting Equipment
4.5
Thorough Examination
4.6
Qualified Operators
4.7
Lifting Operations
4.8
Checks Prior to Use
4.8.1
General Provisions
4.8.2
ECF1 Lifting Equipment Pre-Operation Check
4.9
Crane and Derrick Hooks
4.10 Use of Slings
4.11 Use of Chain Blocks
4.12 Control of Loose Gear
4.13 Bulldog Grips
4.13.1
General Provisions
4.13.2
The Fitting of Bulldog Grips
4.13.3
Table of the Number of Grips to be Used

5.1
5.2

General Provisions
Adverse Weather
5.2.1
Integrity of the Mooring System
5.2.2
Cold Weather
5.2.3
Significant Tidal Ranges
5.2.4
Tidal Surges
5.2.5
Hot, Calm Conditions
5.2.6
Electrical Storms
5.2.7
Tank Cleaning in Heavy Weather

6.1
Cold Weather Precautions
6.2
Deck and Superstructure Icing
6.2.1
Severe Icing and the Effect on Stability
6.2.2
Removal of Ice
6.3
Crew Protection

Index Deck Operations Section


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 2 of 4

6.4
Accommodation and Internal Spaces
6.5
Navigation Bridge
6.6
Fire, Foam and Deck Lines
6.7
Holds and Other Spaces
6.8
Deck Equipment
6.8.1
Cargo Equipment
6.8.2
Mooring Equipment
6.8.3
Anchors
6.9
Hydraulic Machinery Rooms
6.10 Cold Weather Precautions with Ballast
6.11 Safety Equipment
6.11.1
Lifeboats
6.11.2
Emergency Generator
6.11.3
Emergency Diesel Driven Fire Pump
6.11.4
CO2 Rooms, Foam Rooms and Other Fire-Fighting Spaces
6.12 Engine Room
6.12.1
Sea Inlets

7.

Maintenance and Inspection of Cargo and Ballast Tanks and Other Compartments

8.

Walkways and Avoiding Slips and Falls

9.

Working with Tools

7.1
Implementation of an Inspection Routine
7.2
What to Check for During Inspections
7.2.1
Coating
7.2.2
Structure
7.2.3
Corrosion
7.2.4
Coating Maintenance
7.2.5
Sediment
7.2.6
Anodes
7.2.7
Bilge Pumping and Sounding Arrangements
7.2.8
Enclosed Space Entry

8.1
Walkways
8.1.1
Openings in Walkways
8.1.2
Resin and Fibreglass Gratings
8.2
Ladders and Companionways
8.3
Mooring Areas
8.4
Manifold Areas
8.5
Working Aloft Safety Equipment
8.5.1
Safety Harnesses
8.5.2
Working Life Vests
8.5.3
Bosuns Chairs
8.5.4
Stages
8.5.5
Gantlines

9.1
General Precautions
9.2
Hand Tools
9.3
Portable Power Operated Tools
9.3.1
General Provisions
9.3.2
Air-Driven Equipment
9.3.3
Compressed Gas Cylinders
9.3.4
Use of Machinery
9.3.5
Working Areas
9.3.6
Personal Protective Equipment when using Tools and Machinery
9.3.7
Abrasive Wheels
9.3.8
Use of Electrical Equipment on Tankers

10. Denzo Tape


11. The Handling and Storage of Chemicals and Pesticides
11.1 Chemicals
11.1.1
General Provisions
11.1.2
Storage of Chemicals
11.1.3
Using Chemicals
11.1.4
Medical First Aid
11.2 Pesticides and Fumigants
11.2.1
Pesticides
11.2.2
Fumigants

Index Deck Operations Section


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 3 of 4

12. Fabric Maintenance

12.1 General Procedures


12.2 Responsibility
12.3 Stores and Other Storage Areas
12.4 Type of Coating
12.5 Application of Coatings
12.6 Protection of Coatings
12.7 Management of Paint and Paint Lockers
12.7.1
Paint Lockers
12.8 Personnel Protection when Painting and Scaling
12.8.1
Filter Masks

13. Accommodation Ventilation


14. Communications, Electrical and Radio Equipment
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.10
14.11
14.12

General Provisions
The Use of Cameras
Torches
Radio Equipment
Satellite Communications Equipment
HF and MF Radio Equipment
VHF and UHF Radio Equipment
Portable VHF and UHF Radios
Radars
Automatic Identification System (AIS)
Telephones and Pagers
Communication with the Terminal

Index Deck Operations Section


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 4 of 4

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual (Tankers)


Section 2: Cargo Operations Section Index
Part A: Cargo Operations - General
1.

Commercial Instructions and Voyage Planning

2.

Cargo Documents and Diagrams

1.1
Introduction
1.2
Seaworthiness
1.3
Speed and Fuel Consumption
1.4
Commercial Operations Requiring Company Approval
1.5
Voyage Orders
1.6
Voyage Planning
1.7
Cargo Loadable
1.8
Notice of Readiness
1.8.1
Tendering Notice of Readiness
1.8.2
Tendering Notice of Readiness at Multiple Ports
1.8.3
Tendering Notice of Readiness after a USCG TVEL Inspection
1.9
Free Pratique
1.10
Ullage Reports
1.11
Temperature Calculation
1.12
Water Dips
1.13
Gross Standard Volume
1.14
Statement of Facts
1.15
Deadfreight Statement
1.16
Letters of Protest
1.16.1
Issuing Letters of Protest
1.16.2
Letters of Protest Issued Against the Vessel
1.17
Mates Receipts
1.18
Bills of Lading
1.18.1
General Provisions
1.18.2
Loading Port
1.18.3
Inaccurate, Incomplete or Incorrect Bills of Lading
1.18.4
Cargo Discrepancies
1.18.5
Cargo Non-Conformance
1.18.6
Original Bill of Lading Carried on Board
1.18.7
Discharging Port
1.19
Cargo Pumping Performance
1.19.1
Maintaining Discharge Pressure
1.19.2
Hourly Pumping Log
1.20
Crude Oil Washing and Stripping
1.21
Cargo Manifests
1.22
Early Departure Procedures (EDP)
1.23
Certificates of Origin, Quality and Quantity
1.23.1
Certificate of Origin
1.23.2
Certificate of Quality
1.23.3
Certificate of Quantity
1.24
Tank Inspection and ROB - OBQ Certificates
1.24.1
Tank Inspection (Dry Tank) Certificates
1.24.2
ROB - OBQ Certificates
1.25
Signing Documents
1.26
Freeboard and Load Line Zones
1.27
Off-Hire Statements
1.28
Documentation Requirements when Trading to U.S. Ports
1.28.1
Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC)
1.28.2
Unique Bill Of Lading Identifier (UBLI)
1.29
Weather Routeing
1.30
Time Charterers Supplies of Bunkers or Equipment
1.30.1
Maintaining an Inventory
1.31
EU Advance Cargo Declaration Regime

2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.3
2.3.1
2.4
2.5

Recording of Cargo Operations


Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Product Hazard Chart
Maximum Loading Rates
Information on Loading Rates
Cargo Pump Performance Information
Cargo Pumping Performance Log

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part A - General


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 4

2.6
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11

Diagrams of Cargo, Venting and Inert Gas Systems


Oil and Cargo Record Books
Oil Record Book Part 2
Cargo Record Book
Terminal Satisfaction Reports
Vapour Lock Certification
Cargo Tank calibration Tables
Cargo Tank Coating and Cargo Hose Chemical Resistance Lists

3.

Basic Properties of Petroleum and Chemical Products

4.

Static Electricity

3.1
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.4
3.5
3.5.1
3.5.2

Density of Hydrocarbon Gases


Vapour Pressure
Non-Volatile Petroleum
Volatile Petroleum
Flammability
General
Flammability Classification of Petroleum
Flammable Limits
Effect of Inert Gas on Flammability
Flashpoint
Persistent and Non-Persistent Oil
Persistent Oil
Non Persistent Oils

4.1
Electrostatic Charge Generation
4.2
Bonding
4.3
Portable Tank Washing Machines and Hoses
4.4
Vapour Locks and UTI Tapes
4.5
Synthetic Ropes
4.6
Precautions with Static Accumulator Cargoes in Non-Inerted Tanks
4.6.1
Static Accumulator Oils and Chemicals
4.6.2
Precautions against Electrostatic Discharge
4.6.3
Initial Filling of a Cargo Tank
4.6.4
Spread Loading Static Precautions
4.7
Sample Bottles, Cages and Lines, Sounding Rods and Lines
4.8
Re-Circulated Wash Water and Water Mists
4.9
Steaming of Cargo Tanks
4.10
Free Fall of Liquid
4.11
Maximum Flow Rates
4.11.1
Flow Rates in Loading Lines

5.

Stability

6.

Gas Detection and Personal Protective Equipment

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11

Requirements for Stability, Stress and Bending Moments


The Calculation of Stability and Stress
Damaged Stability
The Calculation of Damaged Stability
Cargo Loading Computers Provided with Damaged Stability
Cargo Loading Computers not Provided with Damaged Stability
Comparisons during Cargo Operations
Revisions to the Original Cargo Plan
Slack Tanks
Loss of Stability
Loading Computers
Free Surface Effect
Sloshing
Maximum Density Restrictions

6.1
Gas Detection Equipment - Analysers
6.1.1
Responsibility for Gas Analysers
6.1.2
Requirements for the Use of Analysers
6.1.3
Equipment
6.1.3.1 Draeger X-AM 7000
6.1.3.2 MSA Altair 4
6.1.3.3 Extension Hoses and Aspirators
6.1.4
Identification of Analysers
6.1.5
Operation of Analysers
6.1.6
Span (Calibration) Gas
6.1.6.1 Draeger X-AM 7000

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part A - General


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 2 of 4

6.1.6.2 MSA Altair 4


6.1.7
Calibration Gas Cylinders
6.1.8
Analyser Calibration and Testing
6.1.9
Draeger Six Monthly Inspections by a Qualified Person
6.1.10
The Measurement of Hydrogen Sulphide
6.1.11
Cross-Sensitivity
6.1.12
Sampling Lines
6.1.13
Other Analysers
6.2
Chemical Indicator Tubes and Hand Pumps
6.2.1
General Provisions
6.2.2
Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Tubes
6.2.3
Benzene Tubes
6.2.4
Stocks of Chemical Tubes
6.3
Fixed Gas Detection Systems
6.4
Personal Protective Equipment
6.4.1
General Provisions
6.4.2
Safety Helmets
6.4.3
Hearing Protection
6.4.4
Face and Eye Protection
6.4.5
Respiratory Protection and the Use of Filter Masks
6.4.6
Hand Protection
6.4.7
Foot Protection
6.4.8
Body Protection
6.4.9
High Visibility Jackets
6.4.10
Handling Chemicals
6.4.11
Oxygen Resuscitator

7.

Maintenance of the Watch in Port

8.

Environmental Protection and Pollution Prevention

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.4.1
7.4.2
7.5
7.6

Responsibility
Supervision and Control of Cargo Operations
Responsibility of the Chief Officer
Responsibility of the Cargo Watch Officers
Taking over the Cargo Watch
Performing the Cargo Watch
Training of Deck Officers
Familiarity with Emergency Procedures

8.1
Environmental Protection
8.2
The MARPOL Convention
8.3
MARPOL Special Areas
8.3.1
Annex I Petroleum Special Areas
8.3.2
Annex II Chemical Special Area
8.3.3
Annex V Special Areas and Annex VI ECA
8.4
Pollution Prevention from Bilge Eductor Systems in Deck Areas
8.4.1
Sealing of Overboard Valves
8.4.2
Notices to be Posted
8.4.3
Marking of Bilge Systems, and Operating Instructions
8.5
Disposal of Annex I Cargo Slops and Oily Water
8.5.1
General Provisions
8.6
Disposal of Annex II Products Contaminated with Annex I Products
8.6.1
Use of the ODME
8.7
Use and Testing of the Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment
8.7.1
Failure of the ODME
8.7.2
Use of a Manual Alternative
8.8
Pollution Prevention during Port Operations
8.8.1
Scuppers
8.8.2
Management of Water on Deck
8.8.3
Spill and Oily Water Containment
8.8.4
Portable Spill Equipment
8.9
Manifolds
8.10
Dump Valves
8.11
Cargo Leakage into a Segregated Ballast Tank
8.11.1
Immediate Action
8.12
Overboard Discharges from Other Spaces
8.12.1
Sealing of Overboard Valves
8.12.2
Notices to be Posted
8.12.3
Marking of Bilge Systems and Operating Instructions

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part A - General


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 3 of 4

9.

Pump Rooms

9.1
Cargo Pump Rooms - General Provisions
9.2
Monitoring of Cargo Pump Rooms during Cargo Operations
9.3
Sea Lines in Cargo Pump Rooms
9.3.1
Cargo System Sea Valves
9.3.2
The Operation of Cargo System Sea Valves
9.3.3
Testing of Cargo System Sea Valves
9.4
Routine Maintenance and Housekeeping
9.5
Bilge Pumping Arrangements
9.5.1
Bilge Level Alarm
9.6
Electrical Equipment
9.7
Escape Harnesses
9.8
Escape Routes
9.9
Ventilation
9.9.1
Cargo Pump Rooms
9.9.2
Ballast Pump Rooms
9.10
Pump Room Entry
9.10.1
General Provisions for Pump Room Entry
9.10.2
Cargo Pump Room Entry

10. Ballast
10.1
Ballast Water Management and Exchange
10.2
Testing Ballast Valves
10.3
Loading Ballast into Non-Inerted Tanks
10.4
Segregated Ballast
10.4.1
Discharge of Segregated Ballast
10.5
Discharge of Clean Ballast
10.6
Discharge of Dirty Ballast
10.7
Ballasting Tanks Adjacent to Solidifying Cargoes
10.8
Heavy Weather Ballast
10.8.1
General Provisions
10.8.2
Specific Requirements for Crude Oil Carriers
10.8.3
Specific Requirements for Product Tankers and Chemical Carriers
10.8.4
General Considerations for All Vessels
10.8.5
Discharge of Heavy Weather Ballast
10.8.6
Ship-Specific Heavy Weather Ballast Procedure

11. Small Craft Alongside


11.1
11.2

General Provisions
Cargo Transfer to Small Barges

12. Control of Smoking


12.1
12.2

General Provisions
Control of Smoking in Port

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part A - General


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 4 of 4

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual (Tankers)


Section 2: Cargo Operations Section Index
Part B: Cargo Operations - Petroleum
1.

Cargo Related Hazards

2.

Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management

3.

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5
1.1.6
1.1.7
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.6
1.5.7
1.5.8
1.6
1.7
1.7.1
1.7.2
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13

2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6

Toxicity
Ingestion
Skin Contact
Inhalation
Other Effects
Risk Assessment
Exposure Limits
Effects of Petroleum Gas
Threshold Limit Value
Hydrocarbon Vapours
Benzene
General Precautions
Monitoring Atmosphere Quality
Occupational Exposure Limits
Sampling and Gauging
Hydrogen Sulphide
Sources of Hydrogen Sulphide
Expected Concentrations
Exposure Limits
Procedures for Handling Cargo Containing H2S
Vapour Monitoring
Personal Protective Equipment when Handling H2S
Corrosion
General Nuisances
Mercaptans
Inert gas
The Toxic Constituents of Inert Gas
Oxygen Deficiency
Nitrogen
Nitrogen Oxide
Sulphur Dioxide
Carbon Monoxide
Residual Fuel Oil
Oxygen Depleting Substances

Over-Riding of Switch and Key-Operated Alarms


Cargo Planning
Responsibility
Cargo Plans
Chief Officers Standing Orders
Testing of Critical Equipment Prior to Cargo Operations
Checking the Setting of Cargo and Vapour Lines
Checking Lines
Inert Gas and Vapour Lines
Clearing Lines after a Tank Overfill
Interface with the Terminal
Exchange of Information Prior to Arrival
Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal
Completion of the Ship to Shore Safety Check List
Ullaging and Sampling Before and After Cargo Operations
Cargo Surveys
Cargo Tank Inspections

Cargo Operations General Procedures


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5

Agreement with the Terminal to Commence Transfer


Periodic Checks
Closed Operations
Cargo Segregation
Two Valve Segregation
One Valve Segregation
Prevention of the Accidental Operation of Cargo System Valves
Line Draining

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part B - Petroleum


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 5

3.5.1
General Procedures
3.5.2
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Terminal
3.5.3
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Ship
3.6
Atmosphere Checks of Cargo and other Areas during Cargo Operations
3.7
Checks after Completion of Cargo Operations
3.8
Cargo Pump Cofferdam Purging
3.8.1
General
3.8.2
Purging Cofferdams
3.8.3
Evaluation of the Purging Result
3.8.4
Hydraulic Oil Leakage
3.8.5
Blocked Cofferdam
3.9
Pressure Surges
3.10
Pigging
3.10.1
Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal
3.10.2
Pigging Operations
3.11
Loading
3.11.1
Loading Rates
3.11.2
Commencing of Loading
3.11.3
Maximum Cargo Tank Loading Volume
3.11.4
Loading Through Pump Room Lines
3.11.5
Rate of Rise of Liquid in Cargo Tanks
3.11.6
Loading Over the Top (Loading Overall)
3.11.7
Topping Off
3.12
Discharging
3.12.1
Discharge Pressure at the Manifold
3.12.2
Operation of Pumps and Valves
3.12.3
Commencement of Discharge
3.12.4
Reducing the Ullage Level at the Commencement of Discharge
3.12.5
Vessels Fitted with Deep Well Pumps
3.12.6
Fluctuations in Discharge Rate
3.12.7
Stripping and Draining of Cargo Tanks into another Tank
3.12.8
Line Displacement with Water
3.13
Stern Loading and Discharge
3.13.1
Establishing a Gas-Hazardous Area
3.13.2
Cargo Operations through a Stern Line
3.14
Use of Chemical Additives
3.14.1
General
3.14.2
Procedure for Dosing
3.15
Over the Tide Cargo Operations
3.15.1
General
3.16
Open Water Ship to Ship Transfer Operations

4.

Cargo Heating and Cooling

5.

Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing

4.1
Cargo Heating - General
4.2
Segregation of Heated Cargoes
4.3
Monitoring Cargo Temperature
4.4
Heating Fuel and Crude Oil Slops
4.5
Draining Heated Cargoes
4.6
Steam Heated Systems
4.7
Other Cargo Heating Systems
4.8
Cargo Cooling
4.8.1
Methods of Cargo Cooling
4.8.1.1
Water Spraying
4.8.1.2
Use of Heating Coils
4.8.1.3
Adjacent Ballast and Cargo Tanks

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.7
5.7.1
5.8

Venting Capacity
Primary and Secondary Venting Systems
Operation and Maintenance of the Venting System
Prevention of Tank Over-Pressurisation and Under-Pressurisation
Pressure/Vacuum Valves
Cargo Tank High and Low Pressure Alarms
The Setting of High Pressure Alarms
The Setting of Low Pressure Alarms
Action to be Taken if a High or Low Pressure Alarm is Activated
Frequent Activation of High or Low Pressure Alarms
Vapour Recovery
Vapour Return Manifolds
Minimising Hazards from Vented Gas

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part B - Petroleum


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 2 of 5

5.8.1
Atmosphere Checks of Non-Cargo Spaces
5.8.2
Management of Cargo Tank Pressure on Loaded Passages
5.9
Gas Freeing
5.9.1
General Provisions
5.9.2
Purging and Gas Freeing Multiple Tanks
5.9.3
Gas Freeing
5.9.4
Gas Freeing in Port
5.9.5
Removal of H2S in Cargo Tanks in Crude Carriers
5.9.6
Fixed Gas Freeing and Air Drying Equipment
5.9.7
Portable Fans

6.

Inert Gas

Columbia Inert Gas Policy MARPOL Annex I Cargoes

6.1
General
6.2
Inert Gas Manual
6.3
Inert Gas System Operation
6.3.1
Calibration of the Oxygen Analyser and Comparison of Readouts
6.4
Management of Inert Gas Main Cargo Tank Valves
6.5
Maintaining Inert Gas Quality
6.6
Failure of the Inert Gas System
6.7
Inert Gas Low Pressure Alarm
6.8
Management of Inert Gas on the Loaded Passage
6.9
Management of Inert Gas on the Ballast Passage
6.10
Specific Flue Gas System Equipment
6.10.1
Management of the Inert Gas Main Vent Valve
6.10.2
Deck Water Seal and Associated Non-Return Valve
6.10.3
Pressure/Vacuum Breaker
6.11
Inerting a Contaminated Ballast Tank
6.11.1
Development of a Procedure
6.11.2
General Provisions
6.11.3
Gas Outlet Pipe
6.11.4
Ballast Tank Inerting Equipment
6.11.5
Ballast Tank Vents
6.12
Additional Precautions for Inerting with Nitrogen
6.12.1
Labelling of Cargo Tanks Filled with Nitrogen

7.

Crude Oil Washing


7.1
7.2
7.2.1
7.2.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.8.1
7.9
7.10

8.

General Provisions
Minimum COW Requirements for Heavy Weather Ballast and Sludge Control
Washing for Heavy Weather Ballast
Washing for Sludge Control
Crude Oil Washing Manual
Qualifications of Personnel
Inert Gas and the Control of Vapour Discharge
Precautions against Electrostatic Generation
Tank Washing Machines and Lines
Crude Oil Washing Planning
Top and Middle Tank Washing
Dipping after Crude Oil Washing
Tank Cleaning Heaters

Tank Cleaning
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.5.1
8.5.2
8.5.3
8.6
8.7
8.7.1
8.7.2
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11

General Provisions
Cleaning Methods
Planning
Cleaning after the Carriage of Annex I Cargoes in Inerted Tanks
Cleaning after the Carriage of Volatile Annex I Cargoes in Non-Inert Tanks
Before Washing
During Washing
Control of Ignition Sources during Washing
Washing in an Over-Rich or Undefined Atmosphere
Steaming of Cargo Tanks
Methods of Steaming
Monitoring of the Atmosphere
Ventilation
Temperature of Tank Washing Water
Removal of Sludge, Scale and Sediment
Tank Mopping

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part B - Petroleum


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 3 of 5

8.12 Cleaning of Contaminated Segregated Ballast


8.12.1
Planning Cleaning of a Contaminated Segregated Ballast Tank
8.12.2
Vessels Fitted with an Inert Gas System
8.12.3
Vessels Not Fitted with an Inert Gas System

9.

Sampling and Ullaging

9.1
Sampling - General Provisions
9.1.1
Responsibility
9.1.2
General Procedures
9.1.3
Sample Containers
9.1.4
Crude Oil Carriers
9.2
Failure of First Foot Samples
9.3
Storage and Disposal of Cargo Samples
9.3.1
Labelling Samples
9.3.2
Sample Lockers
9.3.3
Retention and Disposal of Samples
9.4
Control of the Release of Vapour during Gauging and Sampling
9.4.1
General Procedures
9.4.2
Measuring and Sampling Inerted Tanks
9.4.3
Measuring and Sampling Non-Inerted Tanks
9.5
Ullaging
9.5.1
Failure of the Fixed Tank Level Gauging System
9.5.1.1
During Loading
9.5.1.2
During Discharging
9.6
Vapour Locks and UTI Tapes
9.6.1
Number of UTI Tapes to be Carried
9.6.2
General Provisions
9.6.3
Calibration of UTI Tapes
9.6.4
Use and Maintenance of UTI Tapes
9.7
Interface Detector

10. Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment

10.1
Emergency Stops
10.2
Records of Equipment Tests and Checks
10.3
Portable Submersible (Emergency) Cargo Pump
10.4
Cargo and Ballast Pump Operation
10.4.1
Starting and Stopping Pumps
10.4.2
Emergency Stopping of Pumps
10.4.3
Overloading Pumps
10.4.4
Cargo Pump Under Loading
10.4.5
Pump Characteristic Diagrams
10.4.6
Balancing Discharging Using More Than One Pump
10.4.7
Electrically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
10.4.8
Hydraulically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
10.5
Remote Ullaging System
10.6
High Level and Overfill Alarms
10.7
Fixed Temperature Measuring Equipment
10.8
Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System and Alarms
10.8.1
Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System
10.8.2
Cargo Tank High Pressure Alarms
10.8.3
Spare Cargo Tank Pressure Alarm Sensors
10.9
Manifolds
10.9.1
Flange Connections
10.9.2
Blanks
10.9.3
Removal of Blank Flanges
10.9.4
Reducers
10.9.5
Manifold Savealls
10.9.6
Pressure Gauge Cocks and Drains
10.9.7
Gaskets
10.10
Testing of Cargo Lines, Vapour Lines and Heating Coils
10.10.1 Cargo and Ballast Lines
10.10.2 Testing the Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems
10.10.3 Testing of Bottom Cargo Lines
10.10.4 Testing of Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces and Reducers
10.10.5 Testing of Ballast Lines and Valves
10.10.6 Vapour Lines
10.10.7 Annual Cargo System Vapour Test
10.10.7.1
Vessels Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System
10.10.7.2
Vessels Not Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System
10.10.8 Mast Riser

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part B - Petroleum


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 4 of 5

10.10.9 Heating Coils


10.11
Emergency Hydraulic Valve Hand Pump
10.12
Portable Cargo Hoses
10.12.1 General
10.12.2 Number of Cargo Hoses to be Carried
10.12.3 Marking
10.12.4 Inspection Prior to Each Use
10.12.5 Annual Inspection
10.12.6 Pressure Testing
10.12.7 Electrical Insulation when Using Hose Strings
10.12.8 Extended Storage
10.12.9 Hose Handling, Lifting and Suspending
10.13
Vapour Hoses
10.14
Pressure/Vacuum Valves
10.15
Inert Gas System
10.16
Tank Cleaning Equipment
10.16.1 Fixed Tank Cleaning Machines
10.16.2 Portable Tank Cleaning Machines and Hoses
10.16.3 Tank Cleaning Pump and Heat Exchanger
10.17
Other Portable Equipment
10.18
International Ship to Shore Connection

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part B - Petroleum


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 5 of 5

Deck and Cargo Operations Manual (Tankers)


Section 2: Cargo Operations Section Index
Part C: Cargo Operations - Chemical
1.

Cargo Related Hazards

2.

Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management

1.1
Hazard Awareness
1.2
Exposure Limits
1.2.1
Threshold Limit Value
1.2.2
Monitoring Atmosphere Quality
1.3
Nitrogen
1.4
Carbon Monoxide
1.5
Oxygen Depleting Substances
1.6
Toxicity
1.6.1
Ingestion
1.6.2
Skin Contact
1.6.3
Inhalation
1.6.4
Other Effects
1.7
Corrosive Substances
1.7.1
General Precautions
1.7.2
Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide)
1.7.3
Acids
1.7.4
Basic or Alkaline Substances
1.8
Reactivity
1.8.1
Self-Reactivity and Polymerisation
1.8.2
Decomposition
1.8.3
Reactivity with Water
1.8.4
Reactivity with Air
1.8.5
Reactivity with Other Products
1.8.6
Reactivity with Other Materials
1.9
Inhibitor Certificates
1.10
Benzene
1.10.1
General Precautions
1.10.2
Occupational Exposure Limits
1.11
Mercaptans
1.12
Inert Gas
1.12.1
The Toxic Constituents of Inert Gas
1.13
Carcinogenic Products
1.14
Personnel Exposure to Toxic Products
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.3.1
2.3.2
2.3.3
2.3.4
2.3.5
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.7.1
2.7.2
2.7.3
2.7.4
2.7.5
2.7.6

3.

Over-Riding of Switch and Key-Operated Alarms


Procedure for Handling New Chemicals
Cargo Planning
Responsibility
Cargo Plans
Chemical Cargo Data Sheet
Documents to be Referenced
Vessels with Off-Set Centre Bulkheads
Chief Officers Standing Orders
Testing of Critical Equipment Prior to Cargo Operations
Checking the Setting of Cargo and Vapour Lines
Interface with the Terminal
Exchange of Information Prior to Arrival
Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal
Completion of the Ship to Shore Safety Check List
Ullaging and Sampling Before and After Cargo Operations
Cargo Surveys
Safety Issues during Tank Inspections

Cargo Operations General Procedures


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.4.1
3.4.2
3.4.3
3.5

Agreement with the Terminal to Commence Transfer


Periodic Checks
Closed Operations
Cargo Segregation
Segregation of Cargoes
Seut Valves
Prevention of the Accidental Operation of Cargo System Valves
Line Draining

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 1 of 8

3.5.1
General Procedures
3.5.2
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Terminal
3.5.3
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Ship
3.6
Atmosphere Checks of Cargo and other Areas during Cargo Operations
3.7
Checks after Completion of Cargo Operations
3.8
Cargo Pump Cofferdam Purging
3.8.1
General
3.8.2
Purging Cofferdams
3.8.3
Evaluation of the Purging Result
3.8.4
Hydraulic Oil Leakage
3.8.5
Blocked Cofferdam
3.9
Pressure Surges
3.10
Pigging
3.10.1
Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal
3.10.2
Pigging Operations
3.11
Loading
3.11.1
Loading Rates
3.11.2
Commencing Loading
3.11.3
Maximum Cargo Tank Loading Volume
3.11.4
Rate of Rise of Liquid in Cargo Tanks
3.11.5
Loading Over the Top (Loading Overall)
3.11.6
Topping Off
3.12
Discharging
3.12.1
Discharge Pressure at the Manifold
3.12.2
Operation of Pumps and Valves
3.12.3
Commencement of Discharge
3.12.4
Reducing the Ullage Level at the Commencement of Discharge
3.12.5
Vessels Fitted with Deep Well Pumps
3.12.6
Fluctuations in Discharge Rate
3.12.7
Stripping and Draining of Cargo Tanks into another Tank
3.12.8
Stripping and Draining of Cargo Tanks
3.13
Stern Loading and Discharge
3.13.1
Establishing a Gas-Hazardous Area
3.13.2
Cargo Operations through a Stern Line
3.14
Use of Chemical Additives
3.14.1
General
3.14.2
Procedure for Dosing
3.14.3
Dosing a Toxic Cargo
3.15
Over the Tide Cargo Operations
3.15.1
General
3.16
Handling Solidifying, High Viscosity, or Freezing Cargoes
3.16.1
General Provisions
3.16.2
Briefing of Personnel Involved in the Cargo Operation
3.16.3
Pre-Cargo Operational Readiness
3.16.4
Loading
3.16.5
Line Blowing
3.16.6
Line Draining
3.16.7
Final Cargo Measurements
3.16.8
Transit
3.16.9
Discharging Meeting
3.16.10 Discharging
3.16.11 Opening the Hatches of Full Tanks Containing Solidifying Cargoes
3.16.12 Unblocking a Frozen Cargo Line
3.16.13 Unblocking a Frozen Vapour Line
3.16.14 Tank Cleaning after the Carriage of Solidifying or Freezing Cargoes
3.17
Handling High Density Cargoes

4.

Cargo Heating and Cooling


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.9.1
4.9.2

Cargo Heating - General


Segregation of Heated Cargoes
Monitoring Cargo Temperature
Draining Heated Cargoes
Steam Heating Systems
Other Cargo Heating Systems
Heating Medium
Heat Sensitive Cargoes
The Use of External Heating
Prior to Loading
During the Voyage

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 2 of 8

4.9.3
Discharging
4.10
Cargo Cooling
4.10.1
Methods of Cargo Cooling
4.10.1.1
Water Spraying
4.10.1.2
Use of Heating Coils
4.10.1.3
Adjacent Ballast and Cargo Tanks

5.

Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing

6.

Inert Gas

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.6.3
5.6.4
5.7
5.7.1
5.8
5.8.1
5.9
5.9.1
5.9.2
5.9.3
5.9.4
5.9.5
5.9.6
5.10

Venting Capacity
Primary and Secondary Venting Systems
Operation and Maintenance of the Venting System
Prevention of Tank Over-Pressurisation and Under-Pressurisation
Pressure/Vacuum Valves
Cargo Tank High and Low Pressure Alarms
The Setting of High Pressure Alarms
The Setting of Low Pressure Alarms
Action to be Taken if a High or Low Pressure Alarm is Activated
Frequent Activation of High or Low Pressure Alarms
Vapour Recovery
Vapour Return Manifolds
Minimising Hazards from Vented Gas
Atmosphere Checks of Non-Cargo Spaces
Gas Freeing
General Provisions
Purging and Gas Freeing Multiple Tanks
Gas Freeing
Gas Freeing in Port
Fixed Gas Freeing and Air Drying Equipment
Portable Fans
Pressure/Vacuum Valve Settings Dual-Code Products

Columbia Inert Gas Policy MARPOL Annex II Cargoes

6.1
Environmental Control of Cargo Spaces
6.1.1
Types of Control
6.1.2
Replacing Cargo Tank Atmospheres
6.1.2.1
Dilution
6.1.2.2
Displacement
6.2
General Provisions for all Systems
6.2.1
Inert Gas Manual
6.2.2
Calibration of the Oxygen Analyser and Comparison of Readouts
6.2.3
Maintaining Inert Gas Quality
6.2.4
Management of Inert Gas on the Loaded Passage
6.2.5
Management of Inert Gas on the Ballast Passage
6.2.6
Failure of the Inert Gas System
6.2.7
Inert Gas Low Pressure Alarm
6.3
Nitrogen used for Inerting, Padding and Drying
6.3.1
Safety Precautions
6.3.2
Inerting
6.3.3
Padding
6.3.3.1
General Provisions
6.3.3.2
Padding a Tank Containing Cargo
6.3.3.3
Additional Precautions for Padding a Tank Containing Viscous Cargo
6.3.4
Drying
6.3.5
Purging
6.3.6
Labelling of Cargo Tanks Filled with Nitrogen
6.3.7
Oxygen Measuring Equipment
6.3.8
Use of Nitrogen with Inhibited Cargoes
6.3.9
Supply of Nitrogen from the Shore
6.3.10
Quality of Nitrogen
6.3.11
Records
6.4
Flue Gas Systems
6.4.1
System Operation
6.4.2
Management of Inert Gas Main Cargo Tank Valves
6.4.3
Management of the Inert Gas Main Vent Valve
6.4.4
Deck Water Seal and Associated Non-Return Valve
6.4.5
Pressure/Vacuum Breaker
6.5
Inerting a Contaminated Ballast Tank
6.5.1
Development of a Procedure

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 3 of 8

6.5.2
6.5.3
6.5.4
6.5.5

General Provisions
Gas Outlet Pipe
Ballast Tank Inerting Equipment
Ballast Tank Vents

7.

Chemical Safety Equipment

8.

Tank Cleaning

7.1
Chemical Safety Equipment
7.1.1
Chemical Protective Equipment Chemicals including Corrosive Products
7.1.2
Chemical Safety Equipment Toxic Products
7.1.2.1
Types of Chemical Suits
7.1.2.2
Penetration Time
7.1.2.3
Inspection Routines
7.1.2.4
Cleaning of Chemical Suits
7.1.2.5
Safety Considerations using Chemical Suits
7.1.2.6
Retirement of Chemical Suits
7.1.2.7
Breathing Apparatus for Chemical Suits
7.2
Showers and Eye-Washes
7.3
Chemical Contact or Poisoning
7.3.1
Medical First Aid Guide
7.3.2
Initial Emergency Response
7.3.3
Medicines, Antidotes and Equipment
7.3.3.1
Administering Antidotes

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

Chemical Carrier Tank Cleaning Procedures


General Provisions
Cleaning Methods
Planning
Temperature of Tank Washing Water
Cleaning after the Carriage of Flammable Annex II Cargoes in an Undefined Atmosphere
(Non-Inerted Tanks)
8.6.1
Before Washing
8.6.2
Control of Ignition Sources during Washing
8.7
Ventilation
8.8
Water White Standard
8.9
Extra Cleaning
8.10
Determining the Correct Cleaning Medium
8.11
Cleaning and Opening Up of Cargo Handling Equipment
8.12
Solubility in Water
8.13
Steaming of Cargo Tanks
8.13.1
Methods of Steaming
8.13.2
Monitoring of the Atmosphere
8.13.3
Solvent Steaming
8.14
Tank Mopping and Hand Cleaning
8.14.1
Local or Spot Cleaning by Hand
8.14.2
Hand Spraying and Wiping
8.14.3
Removal of Sludge, Scale and Sediment
8.15
Prewash Procedures
8.15.1
Mandatory Pre-Wash
8.15.2
Prewash Procedures for Solidifying and Non-Solidifying Substances without Recycling
8.15.3
Prewash Procedures with Recycling of the Washing Medium
8.15.4
Minimum Quantity of Water to be Used in a Prewash
8.15.5
Tank Cleaning Annex II Tanks with Annex I Products
8.16
Tank Cleaning Reactive Products
8.16.1
Self Reaction
8.16.2
Reaction with Water
8.16.3
Reaction with Oxygen
8.17
Tank Cleaning after Vegetable Oils
8.17.1
Drying Capability of Vegetable Oils
8.17.1.1
Non-Drying Oils
8.17.1.2
Semi-Drying Oils
8.17.1.3
Drying Oils
8.18
Cleaning from Solidifying and High Melting Point Substances
8.18.1
Avoiding a Prewash
8.19
Cleaning from High Viscosity Substances
8.20
Cleaning from Inhibited Cargoes
8.21
Cleaning from Smell-Producing Cargoes
8.22
Cleaning from Sulphuric Acid
8.23
Cleaning from Propylene Oxide
8.24
Management of Slop Tanks

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


DCO (Tankers) (Rev. O-2)

6th February 2012

Page 4 of 8

8.25
Disposal of Annex II Tank Washings
8.25.1
General Provisions
8.25.2
Category X Products
8.25.3
Category Y and Z Products
8.25.4
Category OS Products
8.26
Discharge of Ballast from Clean Cargo Tanks after Chemical Products
8.27
Use of Cleaning Additives and Agents in Tank Cleaning Wash Water
8.27.1
Cleaning Additives and Agents
8.27.2
Recording the Use of Cleaning Agents and Additives in the Cargo Record Book
8.28
Monitoring the Tank Atmosphere during Washing
8.29
Wall-Wash Testing
8.29.1
General Procedures
8.29.2
Wall-Wash Test Precautions and Some Causes of Failure
8.29.3
Wall-Wash Test Methods
8.29.3.1
Chloride Test
8.29.3.2
Hydrocarbon Test (Water Miscibility Test)
8.29.3.3
Permanganate Time Test (PTT)
8.29.3.4
Specialised Equipment
8.29.3.5
Typical Recommended Tests
8.30
Cleaning of Contaminated Segregated Ballast Spaces
8.30.1
Planning Cleaning of a Contaminated Segregated Ballast Tank
8.30.2
Vessels Fitted with an Inert Gas System
8.30.3
Vessels Not Fitted with an Inert Gas System

9.

Sampling and Ullaging

9.1
Sampling - General Provisions
9.1.1
Responsibility
9.1.2
General Procedures
9.2
Failure of First Foot Samples
9.3
Storage and Disposal of Cargo Samples
9.3.1
Labelling Samples
9.3.2
Sample Lockers
9.3.3
Retention and Disposal of Samples
9.4
Control of the Release of Vapour during Gauging and Sampling
9.4.1
Sampling Non-Toxic Products
9.4.2
Sampling Toxic Products
9.4.3
Measuring and Sampling Inerted Tanks
9.4.4
Measuring and Sampling Non-Inerted Tanks
9.5
Ullaging
9.5.1
Failure of the Fixed Tank Level Gauging System
9.5.1.1
During Loading
9.5.1.2
During Discharging
9.6
Measuring and Sampling Toxic Cargoes
9.7
Vapour Locks and UTI Tapes
9.7.1
Number of UTI Tapes to be Carried
9.7.2
General Provisions
9.7.3
Calibration of UTI Tapes
9.7.4
Use and Maintenance of UTI Tapes

10. Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment

10.1
Emergency Stops
10.2
Records of Equipment Tests and Checks
10.3
Portable Submersible (Emergency) Cargo Pump
10.4
Cargo and Ballast Pump Operation
10.4.1
Starting and Stopping Pumps
10.4.2
Emergency Stopping of Pumps
10.4.3
Overloading Pumps
10.4.4
Cargo Pump Under Loading
10.4.5
Pump Characteristic Diagrams
10.4.6
Balancing Discharging Using More Than One Pump
10.4.7
Electrically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
10.4.8
Hydraulically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
10.5
Remote Ullaging System
10.6
High Level and Overfill Alarms
10.7
Fixed Temperature Measuring Equipment
10.8
Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System and Alarms
10.8.1
Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System
10.8.2
Cargo Tank High Pressure Alarms
10.8.3
Spare Cargo Tank Pressure Alarm Sensors
10.9
Manifolds

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


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10.9.1
Flange Connections
10.9.2
Blanks
10.9.3
Removal of Blank Flanges
10.9.4
Reducers
10.9.5
Manifold Savealls
10.9.6
Pressure Gauge Cocks and Drains
10.9.7
Gaskets
10.9.8
Marking of Manifolds
10.10
Testing of Cargo Lines and Heating Coils
10.10.1 Cargo and Ballast Lines
10.10.2 Testing the Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems
10.10.3 Testing of Bottom Cargo Lines
10.10.4 Testing of Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces and Reducers
10.10.5 Testing of Ballast Lines and Valves
10.10.6 Vapour Lines
10.10.7 Annual Cargo System Vapour Test
10.10.7.1
Vessels Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System
10.10.7.1
Vessels Not Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System
10.10.8 Mast Riser
10.10.9 Heating Coils
10.11
Emergency Hydraulic Valve Hand Pump
10.12
Portable Cargo Hoses
10.12.1 General
10.12.2 Number of Cargo Hoses to be Carried
10.12.3 Marking
10.12.4 Inspection Prior to Each Use
10.12.5 Annual Inspection
10.12.6 Pressure Testing
10.12.7 Electrical Insulation when Using Hose Strings
10.12.8 Extended Storage
10.12.9 Hose Handling, Lifting and Suspending
10.13
Vapour Hoses
10.14
Pressure/Vacuum Valves
10.15
Inert Gas System
10.16
Tank Cleaning Equipment
10.16.1 Fixed Tank Cleaning Machines
10.16.2 Portable Tank Cleaning Machines and Hoses
10.16.3 Tank Cleaning Pump and Heat Exchanger
10.17
Other Portable Equipment
10.17.1 Storage of Hoses for Portable Equipment
10.18
International Ship to Shore Connection
10.19
Passivation and Pickling of Stainless Steel Cargo Tanks
10.19.1 Stainless Steel Cargo Tanks
10.19.2 General Provisions
10.19.3 Passivity Check of Stainless Steel Cargo Tanks
10.19.3.1
Palladium Chloride Test
10.19.4 Passivation
10.19.5 Pickling

11. Specific Chemical Cargo Information

11.1
Hexa Methylene Diamine (HMD)
11.1.1
General Description
11.1.2
Product Characteristics
11.1.3
Safety Measures
11.1.4
Cargo Operations
11.1.4.1
Preparations for Loading HMD
11.1.4.2
Demineralised Water Wash (Seal Sands)
11.1.4.3
Purging
11.1.4.4
Sampling
11.1.4.5
Loading
11.1.4.6
Completion of Loading
11.1.5
Measures during the Voyage
11.1.5.1
Provision of Nitrogen during the Voyage
11.1.6
Sampling at Haifa
11.1.7
Discharging
11.1.8
Reporting
11.2
Hexene-1
11.2.1
General Description
11.2.2
Product Characteristics

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


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11.2.3
Safety Measures
11.2.4
Cargo Operations
11.2.4.1
Preparations for Loading Hexene-1
11.2.4.2
Purging Prior to Loading
11.2.4.3
Sampling
11.2.4.4
Loading
11.2.4.5
Completion of Loading
11.2.5
Measures during the Voyage
11.2.6
Discharging
11.2.7
Reporting
11.3
Octene
11.3.1
General Description
11.3.2
Product Characteristics
11.3.3
Safety Measures
11.3.4
Cargo Operations
11.3.4.1
Preparations for Loading Octene
11.3.4.2
Purging
11.3.4.3
Sampling
11.3.4.4
Loading
11.3.4.5
Completion of Loading
11.3.5
Measures during the Voyage
11.3.5.1
Supplying Nitrogen during the Voyage
11.3.6
Discharging
11.3.7
Reporting
11.4
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
11.4.1
General Description
11.4.2
Product Characteristics
11.4.3
Safety Measures
11.4.4
Cargo Operations
11.4.4.1
Preparations for Loading MEK
11.4.4.2
Loading
11.5
Methyl Ethyl Glycol (MEG)
11.5.1
General Description
11.5.2
Product Characteristics
11.5.3
Cleaning/Nanocolour Test
11.5.4
Cargo Operations
11.5.4.1
Preparations for Loading MEG
11.5.4.2
Purging
11.5.4.3
Loading
11.5.4.4
Completion of Loading
11.5.5
Measuring during the Voyage
11.5.5.1
Supplying Nitrogen during the Voyage
11.5.6
Discharging
11.5.7
Reporting
11.6
Phenol
11.6.1
General Description
11.6.2
Product Characteristics
11.6.3
Safety Measures
11.6.4
Cargo Operations
11.6.4.1
Preparations for Loading Phenol
11.6.4.2
Sampling
11.6.4.3
Loading
11.6.4.4
Completion of Loading
11.6.5
Measures during the Voyage
11.6.5.1
Heating during the Voyage
11.6.6
Pre-Arrival
11.6.7
Discharging
11.6.8
Reporting
11.7
Acrylonitrile (AN)
11.8.1
General Description
11.7.2
Product Characteristics
11.7.3
Safety Measures
11.7.4
Cargo Operations
11.7.4.1
Preparations for Loading Acrylonitrile
11.7.4.2
Sampling
11.7.4.3
Loading
11.7.4.4
Nitrogen Blanketing Upon Completion of Loading
11.7.4.5
Completion of Loading
11.7.5
Measures during the Voyage

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


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11.7.6
Discharging
11.7.7
Reporting
11.8
Styrene
11.8.1
General Description
11.8.2
Product Characteristics
11.8.3
Safety Measures
11.8.4
Cargo Operations
11.8.4.1
Preparations for Loading Styrene
11.8.4.2
Nitrogen Blanketing
11.8.4.3
Sampling
11.8.4.4
Loading
11.8.5
Measures during the Voyage
11.8.6
Discharging
11.8.7
Reporting
11.9
Slack Wax
11.9.1
General Description
11.9.2
Product Characteristics
11.9.3
Loading
11.9.4
During Transit
11.9.5
Discharging
11.9.6
Cleaning
11.9.4.1
Pre-Cleaning after Discharging
11.9.4.2
Multi Discharge Berths in a Port
11.9.4.3
Final Cleaning
11.9.4.4
Cleaning a Tank Polluted by Steam Produced by using Hard Water
11.9.7
Reporting
11.10
Acids
11.10.1 Nitric Acid
11.10.2 Sulphuric Acid
11.10.3 Chlorosulphonic, Dichloroproprionic and Hydrochloric Acids, and Oleum
11.10.4 Acetic Acid and Acetic Anhydride
11.11
Palm Stearin
11.11.1 General Description
11.11.2 Product Characteristics
11.11.3 Free Fatty Acid Content
11.11.4 Temperature Limitations
11.11.5 Avoiding Cargo Solidification in Cargo Lines
11.11.6 Cargo Operations
11.11.6.1
Preparations for Loading Palm Stearin
11.11.6.2
Sampling
11.11.6.3
Loading
11.11.7 Measures during the Voyage
11.11.8 Discharging
11.11.9 Reporting
11.12
Handling Vegetable Oils
11.12.1 FOSFA
11.12.2 Transportation and Handling of Vegetable Oil
11.12.3 Humidity and Moisture
11.12.4 Ventilation
11.12.5 Cargo Tank Entry
11.12.6 Self-Heating and Spontaneous Combustion
11.12.7 Vegetable Oil Cargo Handling
11.12.7.1
Stripping Line Isolation
11.12.7.2
Testing Heating Coils
11.12.7.3
Effect of Free Fatty Acids on Tank Coatings
11.12.7.4
Precautions during Discharge
11.12.7.5
Putrefaction
11.12.7.6
Tank Sweeping (Squeezing or Puddling)
11.12.7.7
Tank Cleaning after Vegetable Oils
11.12.8 Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Biodiesel)

Index Cargo Operations Section: Part C - Chemical


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DECK and CARGO


OPERATIONS
MANUAL

Deck Operations

Deck Operations Section


DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

1.

Mooring and Anchoring Procedures

1.1

Responsibility

Mooring operations have a higher potential accident risk than most other shipboard activities,
and it is therefore important that all seafarers involved in mooring operations appreciate the
risks and make every effort to reduce them.
Those in charge of mooring operations must recognise that proper management of mooring
operations is essential for the safety of the ship, the crew, the terminal and the environment.
The Master should recognise that the movement of the vessel approaching and alongside a
berth can significantly affect the deployment and recovery of moorings and such movements
should be limited to the absolute minimum until it is determined that the mooring parties have
matters under their full control.

1.2

Planning Mooring Operations

The Master shall ensure that the mooring operation is planned well in advance of berthing, and
that the personnel in charge of mooring on the focsle and poop fully understand what will be
required.
The procedure for mooring the vessel should be agreed between the Master and the pilot, or
berthing master. The discussion must at least include:
The plan for approaching the berth, including turning locations, environmental limits
and maximum speeds;
The rate and direction of the tide at the anticipated time of berthing;
Whether an anchor will be required. If so, the point at which it will be let go, and how
many shackles will be paid out;
The number of tugs to be used, at what point they will be made fast, where they will be
made fast, when they will be let go, what further function they will provide including
pushing, and when they will be released;
The selection of moorings, taking into account the company requirements below;
The sequence of deployment of the mooring lines;
The limitations of the fendering system and of the maximum displacement, approach
velocity and angle of approach, for which the berth and the fendering system have been
designed;
Details of any berthing aids, such as Doppler radar or laser equipment;
Any particular feature of the berth, including nearby shallow water areas.
Unless the terminal has different requirements and no extreme forces are present or expected,
Columbia considers that for smaller vessels three headlines, three sternlines, and two breast
lines and two springs each end should normally be deployed unless the berth is very secure.
For Afromaxes, Suezmaxes and VLCCs four head and four stern lines should be used.
The Master shall ensure that:
The breast lines are oriented as perpendicular to the vessel as possible;
Springs are as far as possible in a fore and aft direction, parallel to the hull;
All mooring lines are arranged as symmetrically as possible about the amidships point;
Mixed moorings are avoided, and ropes to the same shore bollard are of the same
construction, size and breaking strength.

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1.3

Responsibility for Mooring Operations and Safety Precautions

The Master should ensure that there are sufficient personnel in each mooring party to safely
carry out the operation, and that a person has been designated to be in overall charge. This
person should normally be an Officer, but in exceptional circumstances a senior deck rating
may take charge provided he is competent to undertake the role.
The Officer or senior rating in charge of the mooring area is responsible for ensuring that the
equipment is in good order, that all personnel are familiar with their duties, and that he
understands the procedure which is going to be followed.
He should be aware of the mooring arrangement agreed between the Master and the pilot or
berthing master. Ideally he should have been involved in the discussions on the bridge.
However, the agreed plan may have to be amended once alongside in case of unforeseen
circumstances.
Before mooring operations commence, the person in charge must:
Visually check that all mooring equipment is in good order;
Visually check that all mooring lines are in good condition, and that they are correctly
spooled on drums see below;
Ensure that mooring lines are flaked out in such a way as to minimise tripping hazards;
Ensure that mooring areas are clear;
Ensure that spare mooring ropes are available;
Visually check that brake linings and pins appear in good condition;
Visually check that winch foundations and connections to the deck are sound;
Ensure that anchors cleared and ready for immediate use;
Report any oil leaks from hydraulic winches (even though insignificant) immediately;
Ensure that decks within the working area have an adequate non-slip surface if not
report the fact.

1.4

Personnel Protection

It is the responsibility of the Officer or senior rating in charge of a mooring operation to ensure
that all personnel are suitably dressed and are wearing the correct safety equipment. This
includes:
Overalls, with long sleeves;
Safety helmet;
Safety footwear;
Safety goggles if using anchors;
Working gloves.
1.4.1
Mooring Rope Snap-Back
Synthetic lines, when under load, store significant amounts of energy which, when suddenly
released when a line parts, can cause the rope to snap-back with considerable force. Synthetic
lines part without any warning. Wires, if there is sufficient length deployed, can also snapback with considerable force, although they more often than not give warning of being about
to part.
All personnel working in mooring areas should be aware of the dangers of snap-back and
should take every precaution as far as is possible to avoid standing in such a position that
should a rope part they might be in the snap-back area. Examples of snap-back areas are
contained in the publication Effective Mooring.

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There

1.5

are several obvious points to consider to avoid being in a snap-back area:


If it is necessary to work or pass near a line under tension, do so as quickly as possible;
Do not stand behind or close to a line under tension;
Watch for the tension on a line increasing, such as if the vessel is moving and
increasing the tension on the line.

Mooring Operations

Careful thought must be given to the deployment of moorings, even though the operation has
been planned. It is possible that the plan will have to be revised during the mooring
operation. The responsible person must ensure that the resultant mooring layout is both
effective and safe, and that the original plan is followed as far as is possible.
The following must be taken into consideration when deploying moorings:
Ropes should not be led around sharp angles;
Leads should be as direct as possible between the winch or bitts, and the ships side
fairlead;
Angles of more than 900 should not be used on roller leads and under no circumstances
must ropes be turned right round roller leads;
When ropes are made fast on bitts, a full round turn should be made around the leading
post, followed by figure-of-eighting with at least five layers. However, when highmodulus ropes are used two turns should be taken around the leading post;
Ropes should not cross one another and be touching - this will induce increased wear;
Care must be taken to avoid a rope chafing on a projection;
Under no circumstances must ropes be made fast on warping drums;
Where there is a lack of bitts and it is necessary to put two ropes on the same bitts,
they should be layered one on top of the other. However, the two ropes should not
lead to the same shore service, because if it becomes necessary to remove the top rope
to adjust the lower, then the mooring system may be compromised if both lead in the
same direction and both have to be let go;
Where split drum winches are fitted, there must be no more than one layer on the
tension drum;
Care must be taken when heaving ropes on single drum winches that turns do not dig
into the lower layers. This can make adjusting moorings extremely difficult. If a rope
starts to dig in, it must be slacked and the heaving process carried out again. Ropes
should be evenly layered on such drums;
As far as is possible, ropes to the same service should be of the same length, to provide
equal elasticity;
Mixed moorings must not be sent to the same shore service i.e. synthetic ropes and
wires must not be mixed, and ropes to the same shore bollard should be of the same
construction, size and breaking strength;
As far as possible, winch brakes should only be secured up to the brake tension that the
last brake test determined should be 60% of the mooring line breaking load. If the
brake is over tightened then there is the possibility that the rope will part before the
winch renders. This can lead to sequential failure of the mooring system.
The person in charge of mooring operations should, as far as is possible, monitor the work of
the mooring team and ensure that safety is satisfactorily addressed. He should try to maintain
an overall view and should try not to become actively involved in a specific part of the
operation.

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In addressing safety, the following must be considered:


Personnel should stand in protected positions, and not in the bight of ropes. This
includes bights formed when ropes are passed around rollers and leads;
Immediate action must be taken if ropes appear to be coming under significant strain,
with subsequent risk of parting;
When using a warping drum for heaving a rope, there are only sufficient turns to
maintain the pull. The rope should be able to be surged on the drum by releasing the
pull. The person holding the rope should be able to let go if it suddenly surges of its
own accord. If necessary he should be backed by another crewmember to remove the
slack rope.
Heaving lines should end in a monkeys fist, made solely of the same rope.
weights must be used which could injure if they strike somebody.

1.6

No additional

Direction of Spooling of Ropes on Powered Drums

Where ropes are on powered drums, whether split drum or single drum, there can be a
significant loss of brake holding capacity if a rope is spooled in the wrong direction. Most
winch brake bands have two parts, a fixed part and a floating part. The fixed part is that
which is connected directly to the winch foundation. The rope should be spooled in such a way
that when under tension it is pulling against the fixed part of the brake.
Some vessels may be fitted with a design of brake where both parts are effectively floating, in
which case the decision as to whether the rope is spooled one way or the other is one which is
determined by the lead of the rope off the drum.

1.7

Responsibility of the Officer of the Watch in Port

The Officer of the Watch must ensure that:


Mooring lines are checked at least hourly to confirm that they remain taut. When
tending moorings which have became slack or too taut, an overall view of the mooring
system should be taken so that the tightening or slackening of individual lines does not
allow the vessel to move or place undue loads on other lines. The vessel should
maintain contact with the fenders, and moorings should not be slackened if the vessel is
lying off the fenders;
Remedial action is taken to minimise or eliminate damage to moorings where required,
including the prevention of chafing. Ropes may chafe by rubbing against each other,
against an obstruction, or against the ropes of another vessel, and may part. The use
of protection such as canvas or small rope wound around the mooring rope is only
marginally effective in preventing chafing and usually the most effective course of
action is to change the lead.
Where the vessel is at a berth which is affected by passing vessels, the Officer of the Watch
should ensure that the deck watch maintains a constant watch for the passing of large vessels
or other vessels which might pass too close or at too high a speed. If such a vessel is
observed then the deck watch must inform the Officer of the Watch well before the other
vessel passes.

1.8

Stoppers

When stoppering off moorings:


Synthetic fibre rope should be used for stoppers on synthetic fibre mooring ropes;

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The West Country method of fitting a stopper two ropes one over the top of the
other and round the mooring rope should be used. This method of using a stopper
prevents it jamming;
If a stopper is jammed, it must be released during the mooring operation. It must not
be left on the mooring rope;
Chain stoppers should be used on wires. Chain stoppers must not be used on synthetic
ropes.

When using a carpenters stopper on a wire, it should have the same breaking load as the wire
on which it is being used.
External factors, such as extreme weather conditions, tidal surges, or other traffic passing too
close or too quickly can result in the significant movement of a vessel moored alongside and
cause damage to either the vessel, the berth, or both, the slacking or parting of mooring lines,
and in extreme cases the parting of all mooring lines resulting in the vessel breaking out from
the berth.

1.9

Breaking Free from the Berth

An important part of the duties of the Officers of the Watch and the rating on duty on deck is
to attend to the moorings and to monitor and react to any conditions which might affect the
safe mooring such as the tide, tidal surges, weather and passing traffic.
Pre-knowledge and anticipation are important tools. The Master should ensure that, prior to
berthing, the expected weather conditions are not forecast to deteriorate to such an extent
that berthing might be deemed unsafe. The Officers of the Watch should, during their watches
throughout the port stay, monitor the weather forecasts for the same reason. If a significant
deterioration is forecast then the Master must be informed.
Some river berths are subject to very strong tides. Occasionally the tide is deflected by the
river bank which results in a tendency to push the vessel off the berth. At such ports the
moorings require very careful monitoring, particularly around the time of spring tides.
The Master should discuss with the inbound pilot the possibility of any tidal surges, the time
they are anticipated to occur, and the height. If tidal surges are expected then the deck crew
must be on station well before the predicted time, mooring machinery must be running and
the main engine started and ready for immediate use. If the Master considers it necessary
then tug assistance should be obtained for the period of the surge.
The monitoring of passing traffic is more difficult and more often than not the first indication of
a vessel which is about to pass too close or at too high a speed is the sudden surging of your
own vessel. It is also extremely difficult to anticipate beforehand the effects that a passing
vessel might have on your own vessel, certainly in sufficient time to request a reduction in its
speed or an increase in its passing distance. A watch rating on deck however, even though
primarily engaged on cargo or security duties, will often be able to see a large vessel
approaching, determine its approximate speed, and should therefore be able to warn the
Officers of the Watch. Ratings should be instructed to keep a constant look out for such
situations within the constraints of their other duties.
Deck Officers and ratings should be aware that mooring winch brakes are theoretically
designed to render before parting the rope. Should this happen if there is a surge then this
will inevitably result in slack moorings which must be tended to immediately. Under such
circumstances Deck Officers and ratings must be prepared to sound the general alarm to
obtain immediate assistance to prevent the vessel breaking free.

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Deck Officers must record in the Deck Log Book that the weather conditions and traffic
situation have been monitored during their watch. The information available will vary from
port to port, and may even be unavailable in many, but nevertheless the facts should be
recorded - No traffic information available is just as valid a comment as any other.
Vessels moored in ice, particularly moving ice, face particular problems with moorings and a
very careful watch has to be maintained at all times whilst moored alongside. The danger of
breaking free is a distinct possibility in moving ice, but the results of such an occurrence and
the immediate danger to the vessel are generally less severe in the short term.
The International Code of Signals flags "RY" should be displayed by all ships susceptible to
breaking away from a berth. The display of this signal should be recorded in the Deck Log
Book.

1.10

Mooring at SBMs

1.10.1 General Provisions


Mooring at SBMs is normally supervised by a pilot stationed on the bow, and he should be
accompanied by a responsible Officer who is in radio contact with the bridge. However, the
overall responsibility for the operation remains with the Master.
Many SPM terminal operators require a direct, or nearly direct, lead from the bow fairlead
through the bow stopper and either directly to a winch storage drum or round a single pedestal
fairlead at a shallow angle to a winch storage drum. Where one or more pedestal roller lead is
involved in picking up the mooring arrangement care must be taken to ensure that excessive
loads do not develop on the roller leads. Continuous effective communication between the
forecastle and bridge is essential during the mooring operation.
When mooring at SPMs, the following should be discussed prior to mooring:
Any equipment that the ship needs to provide to assist in mooring, such as
messengers;
The type of mooring that will be used;
The diameter of the chafe chain links used in the mooring;
The weight of each of the moorings which will have to be lifted on board;
Length and size of any messenger lines which have to be used to pick up the moorings;
Minimum dimensions of the bow chock or lead required;
The direction and speed of the approach.
Before the vessel commences her approach to the buoy, a messenger line should be prepared
on the forecastle running through the bow fairlead. The messenger should be between 25 mm
40 mm in diameter and approximately 90 metres long and it should pass through the chain
stopper before going to a winch.
When close to the SBM, a messenger line will be lowered to a mooring boat where it will be
connected to the pick-up rope. The pick-up rope should then be heaved in until the chafe
chain passes through the fairlead and reaches the required position. Once the chafe chain is in
position it should immediately be secured on the stopper.
Care should be taken when winching in the pick-up rope to ensure there is always
some slack in the mooring assembly. The pick-up rope must never be used to heave
the ship into position or to maintain its position.

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1.10.2 Focsle Watchkeeping Arrangements


Although tending of moorings is not required, an experienced crew member should be posted
forward at all times to observe the moorings and advise if the vessel starts to ride up to the
buoy or starts to yaw excessively.
The crew member must communicate with the Officer on Watch by radio at least every 15
minutes.
1.10.3 Equipment to be Available
When mooring to a SBM, essential equipment such as a large axe, sledgehammer and a crow
bar should be readily available.

1.11

Anchoring Equipment and Anchoring

1.11.1 Basic Principles


Anchors are used for three basic reasons:
To anchor the vessel in one place for a period of time;
To assist in a controlled manoeuvre in a restricted area;
To act as a brake in an unplanned emergency manoeuvre.
It must be noted that anchors are only designed to hold the ship at anchor in moderate
weather conditions.
Factors which can affect anchor holding capacity include:
The nature of the bottom;
The amount of cable laid out;
The wind force;
The rate of the tide;
Significant waves or swell;
Manoeuvring with an anchor down, and the forces applied to it whilst using the engines.
The greater each of the above forces is, the more likely it is that the anchor will drag, and
obviously a combination of any of the above factors will act to reduce the ability to hold. In a
worst case scenario excessive forces may lead to the loss of the anchor.
1.11.2

Anchoring Equipment

1.11.2.1 Windlass
The most important part of the windlass is the brake. The brake lining must be regularly
inspected for wear. It should be borne in mind that the lining is secured to the brake band by
bolts, the heads of which are pan-shaped and which protrude into the brake lining. Excessive
wear of the lining will mean that the heads of the bolts will be rubbing against the brake drum
which will result in damage.
Some vessels are fitted with brakes which, in addition to the brake tensioning screw, also have
a bottle screw type brake adjustment. Unless this bottle screw is correctly adjusted, it is
possible that the crosshead holding the brake tensioning screw will contact the winch
foundation and prevent the brake being fully tightened. There should be at least 30 mm of
clearance between the bottom of the cross head and the winch foundation. The most effective
way to check that a brake is being fully applied is to tighten it and then, with the windlass in
gear, attempt to move the gypsy.
The Master must know the amount of cable that the windlass is capable of lifting and the
weight of each shackle of cable. A safety factor of at least 10% of that weight must be allowed

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when anchoring in deeper water and allowance must also be made for the reduced efficiency of
the windlass as it ages. The information must be readily available on the bridge.
1.11.2.2 Chain Clearing Bars
The windlass gypsy is provided with anchor cable clearing bars. The purpose of these bars is
to prevent the cable jamming in the gypsy and returning around it.
It is important that these bars are in place. If for any reason they become dislodged or
damaged, they should be repaired at the earliest opportunity.
1.11.2.3 Anchors
The holding power of an anchor is mainly a function of the fluke area, and for an ordinary
stockless anchor it is about three times its weight. However, as vessels have increased in size,
the weight of anchors has increased but not proportionally, and the holding power of such
anchors on ships the size of a VLCC has thus become marginal.
1.11.2.4 Anchor Cable
The anchor cable is fitted in shackles or shots, each of 90 feet or 27.5 metres in length.
Kenter shackles are used to join the shackles.
Each shackle should be marked to allow easy identification of how much cable has been laid
whilst anchoring. The most effective way of doing this is to paint the number of links
corresponding to the number of shackles either side of the joining shackle in white paint.
However, this is not particularly easy to do, and the paint rarely lasts very long. An equally
useful method, although less visually effective, is to mark the stud of the link corresponding to
the number of shackles with Tespa band.
Kenter shackles must be checked for condition whenever the anchor is heaved up. The parts
of a Kenter shackle are secured together with a tapered spile pin. The pin itself is held in place
by a lead plug and the Officer in charge on the focsle should check that the plug and spile pin
are in place whilst the anchor is being heaved in.
1.11.2.5 Anchor Cable Bitter End
The inboard end of the cable, the bitter end, is attached to the chain locker bulkhead by a
device which allows the cable to be released from outside the chain locker. This connection
must be regularly maintained to ensure that in case of an emergency it is free. It is likely that
a sledge hammer will be required to release the cable and such a hammer must be dedicated
for this purpose and must be stored adjacent to the release point.
Maintenance must also be carried out to maintain the watertight integrity of the connection.
Where a pin or other device passes through a gland, this must be watertight. Pins are
generally fitted with an O ring, and this should be regularly checked and greased.
1.11.2.6 Bow Stopper
The primary function of the bow stopper is to take the weight when the vessel is at anchor.
There are three general types of devices which secure the cable against movement:
A guillotine bar
A pawl
A screw clamp
Immediately the vessel is brought up, the bow stopper should be closed and secured using the
locking pin. The anchor cable should then be walked back just enough to locate the cable
securely against the stopper and to take the weight off the windlass brake, and the windlass

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must be taken out of gear. It is important, in order to prevent damage to the windlass and its
bearings that the weight is not taken solely on the windlass brake.
A secondary device for securing the cable at sea should be provided on the forward end of
stopper, usually consisting of a turnbuckle and a wire strop. The strop is passed through
cable at the top of the hawse pipe. Under no circumstances must chain be used. Chain is
inflexible, and in heavy seas with the bow panting, there is risk that damage to, or loss of,
anchor may occur.

the
the
too
the

Bow stoppers are either fitted with rollers or guides to facilitate the deployment of the cable
through the change of angle between the head of the gypsy and the hawse pipe. Where rollers
are fitted, these occasionally develop cracks, which can result in large pieces of metal
becoming detached during operation. They must therefore be regularly checked to ensure
they remain intact.
1.11.2.7 Spurling Pipes
The spurling pipe is the point below the gypsy where the anchor cable enters the chain locker.
It should be provided with arrangements to secure it against the entry of water.
Normally this will consist of two steel plates placed one each side of the cable, and which are
either sealed with cement or other such suitable material, and then covered with canvas or
sheeting.
When proceeding on voyage where there is any possibility of shipping water over the focsle,
the spurling pipes must be adequately and securely sealed well before entering such
conditions.
1.11.2.8 Hawse Pipes
Hawse pipes should either be protected by railings or have steel covers fitted, in order to
prevent personnel accidentally stepping into the opening.
Cable washers should be maintained in good order and must be used to clean the cable
whenever necessary. Significant amounts of mud must not be allowed to pass into the chain
locker, as this will lead to the blockage of the suction and subsequent corrosion.
1.11.3

Anchoring Procedures

1.11.3.1 Nature of the Bottom


The nature of the bottom has more influence on the holding power of anchors than any other
single factor:
Mud - high coefficient of friction, good holding power, flukes normally penetrate easily;
Sand - half the holding power of mud, reasonably good, allows the anchor to penetrate
completely and cover the flukes;
Rock - very poor holding ground. The holding power is generally about one third of the
weight of the anchor. On a hard bed such as rock, the anchor drags and will slide along
until it comes to a soft patch. The danger here is that the anchor may lie on the fluke
points and if during dragging it comes up against an obstruction, then damage may
result.
1.11.3.2 Amount of Cable to Use
As a general rule, the scope (the amount of cable outside the hawse pipe) to be veered should
be about five to seven times the depth. Therefore for a 35 metre depth the amount of cable to
use should be about 200 metres, or 7 shackles of cable.

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In practice other factors will need to be taken into consideration such as the quality of the
holding ground, the wind, current, and length of stay. In crowded anchorages, it may not be
possible to use the optimum amount of cable.
The cable should lie on the seabed for some distance between the anchor and where the
catenary begins. If the cable is off the bottom and the angle between it and the anchor shank
is 5 degrees, the tendency is to lift the anchor out of the bottom and the holding power can be
reduced by as much as 25%. If this angle becomes 15 degrees the loss of holding power can
increase to 50%.
If the anchor drags, weather permitting the normal practice is to veer more cable until the
anchor holds. This ensures that the cable is lying on the seabed, as well as providing
additional resistance.
1.11.3.3 Anchoring
Anchoring is a delicate procedure and should never be rushed. It is also a practical operation
for which practical training is necessary but rarely given.
Masters should take every
opportunity to offer such training to junior Officers.
The clearing of anchors may be carried out by qualified rating, but the walking out of the
anchor prior to letting go must be supervised by an officer. He must check that the brake is
fully tightened before removing the compressor bar or guillotine. The anchoring operation
itself must also be supervised by a qualified deck officer. Prior to anchoring, the Master must
select a suitable position, clear of underwater obstructions, pipelines and cables, offering good
holding ground, and one which provides a suitable swing circle clear of other vessels.
Whilst at anchor, a continuous watch must be maintained, not only to ensure that the vessel
remains in position, but also to look out for other traffic.
Prior to anchoring, a meeting should take place between the Master and the Officer supervising
the anchoring so that the procedure can be discussed. The Master must make his intentions
and requirements clear to the Officer.
The anchor to be used must be decided, and the decision should take into account any
anticipated changes to the weather conditions or tide which may result in a change in heading.
Consideration must always be given to the fact that a second anchor may have to be let go.
It is important that the Officer understands that once the anchor has been let go the Master
must be continuously updated as to the amount of cable paid out, the direction it is leading,
the weight, and the movement of the vessel in relation to the cable. He should be prepared to
act decisively and quickly in advising the Master as to what action to take should it appear
likely that excessive weight might come on the cable.
The anchor should be let go with the heading the same as that anticipated when brought up
head to tide and wind. When approaching an anchorage, the direction other vessels are lying
in will indicate how the approach should be carried out. Every effort must be made to avoid
changes of course immediately prior to letting go the anchor. The vessel should be making a
small amount of sternway when the anchor is let go to avoid a foul hawse.
The depth of water will determine how the anchor is to be let go. In depths of less than 25
metres, the anchor can be walked back to just above the water and then let go on the brake.
However, in deeper water and on large vessels with heavy anchors, it should be walked back
to a few metres above the seabed and then let go on the brake. Provided the Master is

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confident that the vessel can be satisfactorily controlled, the anchor and cable may be walked
out entirely, which method allows the most control.
On larger vessels a small amount of movement can generate significant forces on the anchor
and cable and anchoring such vessels takes time and care. The slightest movement of a large
ship will have a huge momentum which the windlass brake will be unable to hold.
As the cable runs out, the brake should be carefully applied to control the rate.
must not be allowed to run freely out at high speed.

The cable

Provided the deck Officer keeps the Master fully informed about the direction of the cable and
the weight on it, the latter can use the engines either to reduce the weight on the cable, or put
more weight on it to avoid it piling up on the bottom.
Once the required amount of cable has been paid out, the windlass brake should be tightened
and the cable observed to see the weight come on and then off with the anchor holding. At
that point the vessel can be considered to be brought up, and the fact reported to the bridge.
If the anchor is dragging, it should be observable through the motion of the cable.
Personal protective equipment must be used by all persons involved in anchoring on the
focsle. The amount of debris which can exit from the spurling pipe at high velocity can be
significant.
Some vessels are fitted with equipment which allows the anchor to be let go from the bridge.
This function is designed to be used only in an emergency and should not be used during
normal anchoring operations.
1.11.3.4 Recovering the Anchor
The effect of deteriorating weather and heavy seas can cause significant problems both in the
risk of the loss of the anchor and in the safety of the personnel who have to go forward to
heave up. The decision to heave the anchor must be made in good time.
The heaving of an anchor under normal conditions again relies upon the communication
between the Officer forward and the bridge.
Once the anchor is aweigh the fact should be reported to the bridge. The anchor should be
sighted as quickly as possible to confirm that is free of significant quantities of mud, or of
debris, cables, ropes etc., and the fact reported to the bridge. If necessary the anchor can be
cleaned by leaving it under the water for a period.
The period between the anchor breaking the surface and coming to the hawse pipe is critical,
particularly if the vessel is rolling, and care must be taken to prevent a swinging anchor
coming heavily in contact with the hull.
1.11.3.5 Emergency Anchoring
There are several types of emergency when anchors will be used:
Loss of steering in shallow waters where collision or grounding is imminent;
Loss of power and danger of drifting on to a lee shore;
An inability to stop the vessel in case of either engine failure or excessive speed.
In either case the control of the vessel will not be absolute, and there will be a risk that a
significant amount of weight might be put on the cable. The experience of the personnel on
the focsle will be invaluable in such a situation, and the way the anchor is allowed to run out
must be very carefully managed and controlled on the windlass brake.

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If time allows, the anchors can be walked out until they are just on the bottom. The risks in
carrying out such a manoeuvre whilst travelling at speed are obvious, but the anchors will
have a braking effect.
Every situation will be assessed based on the state of the emergency, the size of the vessel
and its momentum, and damage limitation. The loss of an anchor and windlass is preferable to
the grounding of the vessel.
1.11.3.6 Manoeuvring Whilst at Anchor
It is occasionally necessary to make a lee for small craft to come alongside whilst at anchor.
The fact that the climatic conditions are such that it is necessary to make a lee will generally
mean that the only course of action is to heave up the anchor, manoeuvre to allow the transfer
process to take place, and then re-anchor afterwards.
In heavy seas, wind, or tide, the strain placed on the cable and stopper becomes unacceptable
if the engines are used to put the vessel beam on, or nearly beam on to the weather. With the
bow stopper in use, there is no give in the system and failure of a component will be likely.
Masters should only consider making a lee whilst at anchor in relatively calm conditions in
accordance with good seamanship.

1.12

Working with Tugs

1.12.1 General Principles


The following should be considered prior to a tug being secured:
Prior to towing operations being undertaken, suitable means of communication should
be established;
The Master must discuss with the pilot the intended use of the tugs where they will be
made fast, where they will be let go, and where they will be used for pushing;
Tugs should not be permitted to come alongside before the Master has satisfied himself
that it is safe for them to do so;
Tugs should be adequately fendered to avoid causing damage to the vessels hull, and
should push at the marked strong points;
All cargo tank openings must be closed, regardless of whether there is cargo on board
or not;
Except in a emergency, tugs should not be allowed to come alongside or remain
alongside during cargo operations.
1.12.2 Emergency Use of Tugs
On occasion, climatic conditions such as severe weather, strong tides, etc., may require the
use of tugs to assist the vessel in remaining alongside. The Master may also decide that the
attendance of a tug is simply prudent, even if it is not actually used to hold the vessel
alongside.
Any intent by the Master or request from the shore for tugs to remain alongside during cargo
operations should be treated as non-routine and must only be carried out after a risk
assessment has been carried out. Such a risk assessment should address whether or not the
use of a tug will effectively lessen the effect of the climatic conditions. If time allows then the
company should be contacted to discuss the matter. The position of the tugs engine exhausts
in relation to the direction of the wind and the proximity to gas-hazardous areas should also be
considered.

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1.12.3 Safe Handling of Tug Lines


The following precautions must be followed when handling tugs lines:
The condition of the towing line and the experience and competence of the tug crew are
unknown factors. The crew on mooring stations will not be able to tell what load is
being applied to the towing line. It is therefore important to stay well clear of the
towline and the recoil area, in case the towline parts.
Ensure the bitts upon which the towing eye is to be placed are clear of rope or wire;
When the tug is being secured or let go, the person in charge of the mooring should
monitor the operation closely to ensure that no load comes onto the line before it is
properly secured, or whilst it is being let go;
Never release a tug until instructed to do so from the bridge. Do not respond to
directions from the tugs crew;
When securing towing lines, the personnel involved must be prepared to release the
towline should weight come on it whilst they are trying to make it fast. It is far better
to have to start the whole operation over again than injury be caused.
When releasing a towline, it must be carried out in a controlled manner. It must not be
simply taken off the bitts and left to whiplash along the deck;

1.13

Emergency Fire Wires

1.13.1 General Provisions


OCIMF have revised their guidance with respect to the use of fire wires (emergency tow-off
pennant systems) and have suggested that in view of the fact that they have never been used
for the purpose for which they were intended, and that they have been the cause of many
accidents to personnel whilst deploying and retrieving them, the use of emergency towing-off
wires should cease.
However, most terminals still require fire wires to be deployed and each vessel should continue
to use them if so required. If not required by a terminal then the company position is that
they should not be deployed. The Master or Chief Officer should determine whether fire wires
are required before the vessel berths and act accordingly.
1.13.2 Making Fast Emergency Fire Wires
Fire wires should be rigged as follows:
A fire wire must be rigged at each end of the vessel, on the outboard side. At SPMs,
the wire should be hung on the side opposite the cargo hoses;
The wire must be turned up on bitts, with a minimum of five turns;
The eye must be uppermost and must not be placed over a post;
The wire should be led overboard and hung in as large a bight as possible with all slack
outside the rails. Slack wire on deck should be avoided;
The overboard part of the wire should be suspended using a light line which can be
broken by a tug in an emergency;
The outboard eye should be suspended between the water and one metre above it.
Fire wires must not be made fast to bitts with an SWL less than the MBL of the pennant.
During cargo operations the wire must be adjusted to ensure that the eye remains between
the water and one metre above it.
1.13.3 Minimum Breaking Load, Length and Construction
Fire wires should be of the following minimum breaking load (MBL) and length:
Less than 20,000 tons dwt
30 tons MBL
25 metres in length
20,000 to 100,000 tons dwt
55 tons MBL
45 metres in length
100,000 to 300,000 tons dwt
100 tons MBL
60 metres in length
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300,000 tons dwt and above

120 tons MBL

70 metres in length

Fire wires should be of 6 x 36 construction and have an independent wire rope core (IWRC),
not a fibre rope core.
1.13.4 Maintenance
Fire wires should be properly maintained in accordance with a planned maintenance
programme. The wires should be lightly lubricated to prevent corrosion, and the condition of
the wire, particularly the eyes, should be carefully inspected at regular intervals but in any
case must be checked for condition at least every 6 months and the ECF14 - Emergency Fire
Wire Check completed. If there is any doubt about the condition of a fire wire it should be
replaced.

1.14

Maintenance and Testing of Mooring Equipment

1.14.1 Responsibility
The Chief Officer and Chief Engineer are jointly responsible for ensuring that all mooring
equipment is covered by a regular maintenance programme.
Equipment used in mooring operations is often subjected to significant loads and any
deficiencies must be rectified immediately, or brought to the attention of the company if action
cannot be taken on board.
1.14.2 Storage, Maintenance and Care of Mooring Lines
Ropes, wires and stoppers must all be in good condition, and they must be regularly inspected.
Each mooring rope is to be individually identified, and checked for condition including wear,
damage and corrosion at least every 3 months. The condition must be carefully recorded on
the ECF11 - Mooring Rope Check or ECF12 - Mooring Wire Check, as applicable.
1.14.3 Ordering Replacement Ropes and Wires
When ordering replacement wire or synthetic ropes which are to be fitted to powered drums,
the diameter and breaking strength of the rope must be taken into consideration - too great a
diameter may result in the drum being unable to store a full length rope, and the rope must be
of the correct size for the design of the winch. The size of rope ordered must be correct for
the BHC of the mooring winch as originally designed no useful purpose is achieved in
ordering a rope which is of a larger breaking strength than about 120% of the BHC of the
winch. Too large a size of rope may even lead to difficulties in storing sufficient rope on the
drum.
Whenever new mooring ropes, wires, tails and shackles are received on board they should
have a manufacturers test certificate. Each piece of mooring equipment must be individually
identified and the certificate endorsed with the location of the equipment. Certificates should
be kept in the Mooring Equipment File.
When ordering new mooring wires right hand lay with an independent wire rope core (IWRC)
must be specified. Where a wire rope is to be used on a powered drum then a steel wire core
provides better resistance to the crushing forces they are subjected on drums.
1.14.3.1 Mooring Ropes
Modern polypropylene mixture ropes contain a proportion of synthetic fibres such as polyester
and they have superior qualities to the traditional polypropylene. Polypropylene rope has
approximately the same elasticity as polyester rope, but is significantly weaker than either
polyester or nylon, and must not be used on Columbia vessels, nor should polyethylene1. Mooring Procedures
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polypropylene ropes which exhibit similar characteristics as polypropylene. The company has
adopted a policy of using polyester-polypropylene mix ropes.
The following is general guidance in the use, storage and inspection of synthetic ropes;
Synthetic ropes should be stored in clean and dry surroundings, away from excessive
heat, clear of chemicals, chemical vapours and other harmful substances;
Ropes should not be exposed to sunlight longer than necessary as ultraviolet rays can
damage the fibres;
Synthetic ropes should be examined frequently while in service. As well as obvious
external mechanical damage to ropes, excessive wear may also be indicated by
powdering between the strands, which again indicates a reduced breaking load and a
need to replace the rope;
Replacement of a synthetic rope should also be considered when abrasion burns or cuts
are evident. If abrasion reduces the solid diameter of the rope by more than 5% or a
cut penetrates more than 25% of one or more strands then the rope should either be
spliced or retired.
1.14.3.2 Mooring Wires
It is important that mooring wires are adequately lubricated before being put into service, and
that they are regularly lubricated throughout their working life. The frequency of lubrication
will be dictated by the amount of use and exposure to weather. If surface rust is detected on
the strands then lubrication should be carried out as quickly as possible. The lubricant used
must be one which penetrates the strands and wires, and ordinary grease is not satisfactory
for this purpose. It is also important that the wire is completely removed from the drum when
being lubricated in order to ensure that both the entire length and circumference of the rope
are treated. If necessary the wire should be cleaned before being lubricated.
The following is general guidance in the use, storage and inspection of mooring wires ropes;
Wires should be stored on mooring winch drums with care, and each layer should be
neatly and tightly laid in order to prevent crushing;
The area most susceptible to failure is the eye of the wire where it passes around the
tail shackle. This also happens to be the part of the wire which is easiest to access and
therefore particular attention should be paid to ensuring that it is frequently inspected
and lubricated even if there is sufficient time to deal with the whole wire;
Wires should be inspected for deterioration and broken strands;
Splices in wires should be inspected regularly to check they are intact, particularly
where an eye is shackled to a mooring wire tail. This is a very common area of
corrosion and failure;
Wires must be replaced if the number of broken strands exceeds 10% of the visible
strands in any length of wire equal to 8 diameters;
If dry or darkened patches are observed, the depth and degree of corrosion should be
checked. An effective way to do this is to place the wire on a solid surface and strike it
with a hammer. This will cause the rust to fall away and part the weakened strands,
exposing the severity of the corrosion.
It is recommended that mooring wires be turned end for end at least every 36 months.
However shore assistance will be required to make an eye in the inboard end and therefore the
matter should be discussed with the Technical Superintendent. The eye of the outboard end
should be removed before the wire is stored on the drum, otherwise damage will occur to large
lengths of the wire through the crushing effect.
1.14.3.3 Mooring Wire Tails
Vessels fitted with mooring wires will have tails fitted to the wires. The tails provide a degree
of elasticity which prevents sudden loads from parting the wire.

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Tails should be 11 metres in length. They must have a breaking strength at 25% more than
that of the wire unless made of nylon in which case the breaking strength must be at least
37% more than the wire. This is because nylon tails can lose strength when wet.
It is Columbia policy that all tails, regardless of use, must be replaced after 24 months in
service. For this reason, accurate records must be maintained.
Each mooring wire tail is to be individually identified and checked for condition including wear,
damage and corrosion at least every 3 months. The condition must be carefully recorded in
the ECF13 - Mooring Wire Tail and Connecting Shackle Check.
Tails must be joined to the wire by a special stainless steel shackle such as a Tonsberg, Mandal
or Boss shackle. The eyes of the tails which are attached to the connecting shackle should be
sheathed in leather, plastic or canvas to protect them from chafing.
Tonsberg and Mandal shackles must be correctly connected. Tonsberg shackles have a
straight pin and the tail should be connected to it. A Mandal shackle has a curved roller and
the wire should be connected to it. Boss shackles can be connected either way round.
It is very important that the connection of tails to wires, in particular the condition of the eye
of the wire, is checked at frequent intervals. Each mooring wire tail connecting shackle is to
be individually identified, and checked for condition including wear, damage and corrosion at
least every 3 months. The condition must be carefully recorded in the ECF13 - Mooring Wire
Tail and Connecting Shackle Check.
Spare tails must be stored under cover away from water, daylight and any contaminants such
as hydraulic oil or paint - inside the foc's'le would be ideal. New tails must be individually
identified to ensure that their date of manufacture and test certificate can be easily traced
throughout the life of the tail. When replacing tails, spare tails should be put into service and
new tails retained as spares.
1.14.4 Spare Mooring Wires, Ropes and Tails
The level of spares ropes and tails to be carried will depend largely on the trading area, but as
a minimum Columbia requires every vessel to carry at least two spare wires and four spare
tails if so fitted, or two spare mooring ropes.
1.14.5 Disposal of Condemned Ropes
Ropes or wires in an unacceptable condition must be disposed of ashore as soon after they are
condemned as possible. Until they are disposed of they must be clearly marked as having
been condemned.
1.14.6 Winch Brake Testing
It is important to be aware that:
Each mooring winch is designed to take a rope of a specific minimum breaking load
(MBL);
Mooring winch brakes are designed to hold a maximum of 80% of the MBL of the rope
for which the winch was designed;
Mooring winch brakes must be set to 60% of the MBL of the rope;
The maximum heaving load, or stalling load, is nothing to do with brake holding
capacity; the maximum heaving load is simply the maximum load that the winch drive
motor can exert on a rope when the winch is new.

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Every vessel should determine the designed drum brake holding capacity (BHC) of each winch
on board. The designed MBL of mooring ropes must not be exceeded without company
approval. As a rough guide, vessels fitted with winches of 50 tons BHC should be fitted with
ropes with 60 ton MBL, and for winches of 100 tons the ropes should be about 120 tons MBL.
Regardless of the brake type, periodic testing is essential. The following should be adhered to:
Each winch brake is to be tested individually, and tests are to be carried out every
twelve months;
In addition, individual winches are to be tested after completion of any modification or
repair involving the winch brakes, or upon any evidence of premature brake slippage or
related malfunctions;
All winch testing is to be carried out under the supervision or in the presence of a
Senior Officer or repair superintendent familiar with the test procedure and the
operation of the winches;
When the vessel is equipped with undivided, single drum winches, due consideration
should be given to the number of layers of wire which will be on the drum during
normal operations. The number of layers will affect the BHC the more layers the less
the BHC. For this purpose it should be assumed that 30-50 metres of wire minimum
will be outboard of the fairlead and the number of layers which will then remain on the
drum determined in order to calculate the lever.
Winch brake testing should follow the following guidelines:
CCR2 and CCR3 - Mooring Winch Brake Test (Method 1 and Method 2) in the
CCR Information File offers guidance in determining the rendering setting using
different types of test equipment;
Prior to testing taking place, the required jack pressure in order that the brake just
holds at 60% of the MBL of the line fitted to the winch, must be calculated;
Care must be taken to ensure that the deck is adequately re-enforced under the jack to
prevent damage;
With the test equipment fitted to the winch, the brake should be applied;
Pressure should be applied to the jack up to the pre-calculated level;
The following action should then be taken:
If slippage occurs at a pressure less than designed, the brake should be tightened or
repaired and jack pressure reapplied;
If slippage does not occur at the design pressure, the brake setting should be
adjusted so the brake renders at the design load;
Once the brake setting has been determined, it should be recorded on each brake by a
suitable method such as an adjustable collar, pointer or the equivalent.
The record ECF10 - Mooring Winch Brake Test should be completed.
Most mooring winch brakes are of the screw type and it is difficult to accurately show the
correct brake setting. The most effective method is to use a distance indicating device which
shows how far the brake should be tightened, but this is invariably inaccurate.
The maximum brake holding capacity should be marked on each mooring winch.
1.14.6.1 Marking the Correct Brake Tension
The point of marking the correct tension is to avoid the brake being applied too hard, which
might result in the rope parting before the brake renders.
Vessels equipped with screw-type mooring winch brakes are to fabricate, using jubilee clips
and plate metal, preferably brass, the arrangement shown in the picture provided at the end of
this chapter. The picture is self explanatory and the devices should be easy to fabricate.
Other forms of marking the brake tension are to be dispensed with.

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For those winches the brakes of which do not allow the fitting of such an arrangement, the
matter must be discussed with the Marine Superintendent and an alternative method found.

1.14.6.2 The Storage of Winch Brake Testing Equipment


The company requires that winch brake test equipment is all kept in a single location,
preferably the focsle space, and that it is clearly marked as to its purpose.
The location must be off the deck and clean. After the equipment has been used it should be
cleaned and greased as required in order that it will not suffer deterioration over the following
year.
1.14.7 Winch Brake Band Lining and Drum Checks
Mooring winch brake linings must be checked every three months and form ECF10a
Mooring Winch Brake Band Lining and Drum Check completed. The thickness of the
brake band lining must be checked, and where there is significant wear observed then the
lining must be replaced. It should be borne in mind that the brake lining is secured to the
band by bolts, the heads of which are on the inside of the lining and therefore allowance must
be made to replace the lining before the bolt heads start to damage the brake drum. The
average thickness of the remaining lining should be recorded in millimetres on form ECF10a;
this will give an indication of the time period over which the lining thickness is reduced, but will
of course vary with the trading pattern.
This procedure applies to all vessels fitted with mild steel brake drums. It does not apply to
those vessels which have stainless steel bands fitted to the winch brake drums. Where
winches are fitted with mild steel brake drums, the surface can quickly deteriorate. The more
surface rust there is on a brake drum, the less area of contact with the lining there is, with a
subsequent loss of brake holding power and increased wear on the brake lining. The smoother
the drum the better. Where the surface of the drum has deteriorated and there is significant
scale build-up, then it should be de-scaled and cleaned until once again smooth. The average
percentage surface contact of the lining on the drum should be estimated and recorded on
form ECF10a; this will give an indication of how often maintenance will be required on the
brake drums.
Where de-scaling of a brake drum has been carried out, the BHC of the winch must re-tested
and the tension marks adjusted.

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1.14.8 Pedestal Rollers, Roller Fairleads and Chocks


The rollers on pedestal rollers and roller fairleads must all be free to move by hand. Greasing
points, particularly grease nipples, must be kept in good order and nipples replaced where
necessary. A seized roller should be freed as a matter of priority - if a seized roller lead is
allowed to remain seized then grooving of the roller will result, as well as friction damage to
ropes.
If a roller becomes seized, the application of a light lubricant such as gas oil or lubricating oil
into the greasing point nipple, and then left to act for several hours, can often solve the
problem.
The use of a rope wound several times around a seized roller and a winch used to apply a
turning force is an operation which can carry significant risk if the rope parts, and should only
be carried out under the carefully controlled conditions.
Chocks will eventually show evidence of grooving. The rate of grooving can be reduced to
some extent by trying to ensure that the wire passing through the chock does not always use
the same groove. Where there is grooving of more than a few millimeters, the matter should
be brought to the attention of the technical superintendent for action at the next repair period.
1.14.9
Anchor and Cable Condition Checks
An inspection of each anchor and the associated components must be carried out at intervals
not exceeding six months and the form ECF10b Anchor and Cable Condition Check
completed.
In order for the equipment to be closely inspected it will be necessary to lower the anchor to
the water in calm weather and the inspection carried out from a service boat. Care must be
taken to ensure that the anchor has tripped and that the flukes are lying at an angle to the
shank and not parallel to it if that is the case then the anchor must not be approached too
closely.
The following must be examined:
The anchor flukes, to ensure they are not bent or damaged;
The anchor head is free of any debris, such as wires or cables, which will prevent its
free movement;
The anchor head shackle, which must be secure and the spile pin and lead plug must be
in place as far as can be seen;
The seagoing securing arrangements, including the wire strop and turnbuckles;
The chain stopper, including the guillotine and roller if fitted;
The spurling pipe watertight securing arrangements;
There is no visible damage to any part of the anchoring equipment.
1.14.10 SWL Marking of Mooring Equipment
All mooring winches, bitts, bollards, chocks, panama leads, roller leads and fairleads must be
marked with their SWL, in tonnes, with the letter t. Mooring Equipment Guidelines
recommends that the marks are bead welded, but punching the outline is sufficient until the
vessel proceeds to the next repair period. If the SWL is marked in KN on any vessel, they
should advise their Marine Superintendent and the company will review whether or not to
change it at the next docking.
Bow stoppers used for SBM operations must be permanently marked both with the SWL and
the manufacturers serial number.

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1.14.11 Certification, Marking and Periodical Survey of Bow Stoppers


There should be two certificates on board for each bow stopper:
1. A copy of the manufacturers type-approval certificate for each bow stopper;
2. A copy of the certificate attesting to the strength of the bow chain stopper foundations
and associated ship supporting structure.
In other words, a certificate for the
equipment and structure as fitted;
Each bow stopper should be permanently marked with the SWL and appropriate serial
number so that certificates can easily be cross-referenced. The serial number should be that
identified on the certificate in 1 above. If there is a manufacturers serial number on a bow
stopper, this should be highlighted in order that it can be read. If not, it should initially be
marked by punching and painting.
Bow stoppers should be subject to periodic survey at least once every 5 years. This should be
carried out by class, and records of such survey must be available on board. The Masters of
vessels more than 5 years of age should ensure that such a survey is carried out, and should
discuss the matter with the Technical Department.
1.14.12 Mooring Equipment File
A Mooring Equipment File should be established. Manufacturers test certificates for each
item of mooring equipment should be placed in the file.
Every mooring rope and wire should be identified with an individual tag, which must be related
to its manufacturers Certificate of Test in the Mooring Equipment File. The date of the rope
being put into service must be recorded, and when the rope is disposed of the Certificate of
Test must also be disposed of at the same time.
The Mooring Equipment File should include:
Manufacturers test certificates for each item of mooring equipment, including:
Mooring ropes and wires;
Mooring shackles;
Mooring wire tails;
Fire wires;
Mooring winches and other ancillary equipment such as bitts and chocks;
The manufacturers type-approval certificate for the bow stoppers;
The certificate attesting to the strength of the bow stopper, as fitted;
Individually identified and tagged mooring lines to allow them to be traced;
A record of where each rope and wire is deployed;
Records of regular inspections;
Records of maintenance.

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2.

Safe Access

2.1

Responsibility

Primary responsibility for ensuring safe access remains at all times with the vessel, regardless of
whether a shore gangway is supplied or not.
It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure safe access, including the provision of a
safety net where required, and that a lifebuoy, light and line are provided. If he is not satisfied
with the access then he should inform the Master. Access to the vessel should be prohibited
unless it is deemed to be safe.
The only occasions where responsibility for safe access does not rest with the vessel are at repair
yards where the yard has provided the access and manages it.
Once the access has been fully and completely rigged to the satisfaction of the Chief Officer,
personnel may be allowed to use it. Throughout port operations it remains the responsibility of
the Deck Officer of the Watch and the deck watch rating to ensure that the access remains
correctly and safely rigged.
The Officer of the Watch is responsible for ensuring that:
The gangway remains clear and is properly illuminated;
Mooring lines are not allowed to go slack;
The gangway is properly secured;
Stanchions are not allowed to become loose;
The handrail ropes are kept tight;
A lifebuoy, light and heaving line are available close to the gangway, and, if necessary, a
safety harness and work vest or lifejacket;
A copy of the Fire and Safety Plan with a crew list is available at the head of the gangway.
It should be noted that the rigging of an accommodation ladder may require work outboard, in
which case a permit for work aloft or outboard should be completed.

2.2

Provision of Safe Access

2.2.1 General Provisions


Whenever possible either the accommodation ladder or the vessels gangway, both with fitted
handrails, must be used for access unless the terminal provides adequate access. Homemade
gangways, planks of wood, etc., are strictly forbidden.
Where, because of the lack of adequate space on a berth, it is not possible to rig either the
accommodation ladder or a gangway, then a pilot ladder, or as a last resort a ladder, will have to
be used. In these cases, a safety harness and also a work vest or lifejacket must be made
available in addition to the lifebuoy, light and heaving line.
Where the vessels gangway is used, the berth must have sufficient landing area to provide an
adequate clear run in order to maintain safe, convenient access at all states of the tide and
changes in freeboard.
Where necessary the steps of gangways and accommodation ladders should be covered in a
suitable non-slip surface to prevent slips.

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The following must be taken into account when deploying gangways and accommodation ladders:
The means of access should be placed as close as possible to the accommodation and as
far aft as possible from the manifold;
It should be borne in mind that the means of access also provides a means of escape. The
location of any portable gangway should be carefully considered to ensure that it provides
a safe access to any escape route from the jetty;
Particular attention must be given where the difference in level between the decks of the
tanker and jetty becomes large;
Angles of inclination of a gangway or the accommodation ladder should be kept within the
limits for which it was designed. Gangways should not be used at an angle of inclination
greater than 30 from the horizontal and accommodation ladders should not be used at an
angle greater than 55 from the horizontal, unless they are specifically designed for
greater angles;
A bulwark ladder must be provided when the inboard end of the gangway or
accommodation ladder rests on or is flush with the top of a bulwark or handrail;
Gangways and other access equipment are not be rigged on ships rails unless the rail has
been reinforced for that purpose;
Lighting in the area must be adequate;
As far as is possible access to the vessel should be kept free of snow, ice, grease or any
other substance likely to cause a slip or fall;
Irrespective of whether it is provided by the terminal or the ship, the gangway should be
subject to inspections carried out at regular intervals throughout the vessels stay at the
berth.
Personnel should use only the designated means of access between the ship and shore.
The steps of gangways and accommodation ladders, where necessary, should be provided with a
non-slip surface. Such a surface may be provided by the use of non-slip tape.
The top and bottom steps of gangways and accommodation ladders should be painted in a
contrasting colour, such as yellow.
2.2.2 Lifebuoys
Each tanker should have available two lifebuoys fitted with McMurdo L40 Ex rated Lifebuoy
Lights for use at the gangway, pilot access, and accommodation ladder access, as applicable.
Normally one such light will be sufficient, but each vessel should have two such lifebuoys
available in case of access being required on both sides at the same time.
Lights which are fitted to lifebuoys in the maindeck area, including up to 3 metres aft of the cargo
tanks, and those in the focsle area are to be removed and fitted to lifebuoys around the
accommodation such that:
Not less than half the lifebuoys must be fitted with lights;
At least one lifebuoy on each side must be fitted with a buoyant line;
No lifebuoy must be fitted with both a lifeline and light.
Note that the manufacturers of L40 lights have issued instructions for the annual maintenance of
lifebuoy lights, and these instructions must be included in the planned maintenance system. L40
lights are to be replaced after 5 years in service.
The lifebuoys for use at access points must have a light fitted, and there must be a heaving line
available with each, but not attached to the lifebuoy.

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2.3

Marking of Gangways and Accommodation Ladders

Gangways and accommodation ladders have a safe working load. The maximum number of
persons and equipment allowed on the gangway at any one time should not exceed this safe
working load, and in order to provide guidance throughout the fleet it is a company requirement
that only three persons be allowed on a gangway at any one time. The deck watch rating should
ensure that this requirement is not exceeded.
All gangways and accommodation ladders must be marked at both ends with the following:
The maximum angle of inclination. This will be 300 for a gangway and 550 for an
accommodation ladder, unless there is manufacturers instructions on board stating that
these angles may be exceed. If so then that larger angle should be marked;
The maximum safe loading;
The maximum number of persons allowed on the gangway at one time. This will in all
case be three.
The marking should be painted in as a large a letters as possible, at both ends of the gangway or
accommodation ladder, and in a position clearly visible to anyone using the access.

2.4

Safety Nets

The purpose of a safety net is to prevent a person from falling from the access either into the sea
or between the vessel and the berth. Safety nets, when fitted, must be spread at the ships side
sufficiently to prevent anyone falling off the access from falling into the sea or between the vessel
and the berth.
Safety

nets are required as follows:


Where non-permanent stanchions and rope handrails are fitted;
If the permanent handrails are low enough that a person might still fall over them;
If there is a possibility of a person falling through the gap between the handrail and the
gangway structure.

Where rope handrails are fitted these might become slack, or a non-permanent stanchion might
become dislodged.
Where a deep fixed handrail is fitted, such as on an accommodation ladder or on a terminal
gangway, then it is probable that a safety net will not be required. The decision rests with the
Chief Officer whether to provide one or not under these circumstances.
If the terminal supplies a gangway or other means of access, it is the responsibility of the vessel
to ensure that a safety net is rigged where one is required.

2.5

Access Area Equipment

A lifebuoy with an Ex rated light attached must be provided at the safe access. There must also
be a heaving line, which should not be attached to the lifebuoy.
Where necessary, a safety harness and work vest or lifejacket must also be provided.
Access from the top of a gangway to the deck must be provided. This must be safe to use and
must not involve a person using the access having to take large or difficult steps. Handrails or
ropes must be provided at the top of a gangway in order that persons using the gangway can
safely transfer from the gangway to the steps at the rail, and vice versa.
A copy of the Fire and Safety Plan with an up to date Crew List must be positioned at the
gangway.

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2.6

Maintenance of Gangways and Accommodation Ladders

2.6.1
Gangway Inspection
Each gangway must be inspected at six monthly intervals and the form ECF4 - Gangway
Inspection completed. The inspection must pay particular attention to the following, as
applicable:
Steps and treads;
The structure, including side stringers and cross members, should be checked for
condition, particularly corrosion and cracks. Particular attention should be paid to the
underside of gangways;
Top and bottom platforms and turntables, and bottom roller;
All support points, including lugs, brackets etc.;
Stanchions, rigid handrails, ropes and connections. Bent stanchions must be replaced.
2.6.2
Gangway Safety Net Inspection
Each gangway safety net must also be inspected at six monthly intervals and the form ECF5
Accommodation Ladder and Gangway Safety Net Inspection completed.
Any defects in the equipment must be put right before the equipment is used in service.
2.6.3
Accommodation Ladder Inspection
Each accommodation ladder must be inspected at six monthly intervals and the form ECF6 Accommodation Ladder Inspection completed. The inspection must pay particular attention
to the following, as applicable:
Steps and treads;
The structure, including side stringers and cross members, should be checked for
condition, particularly corrosion and cracks. Particular attention should be paid to the
underside of accommodation ladders;
Top and bottom platforms and turntables, and bottom roller;
All support points, including lugs, brackets etc.;
Stanchions, rigid handrails, ropes and connections. Bent stanchions must be replaced;
Davits, sheaves, and lifting motor;
Lifting wires, particularly where they pass through sheaves and at ends;
Any defects in the equipment must be put right before the equipment is used in service.
2.6.4
Accommodation Ladder Lifting Wires
The manufacturers certificate of test for each accommodation ladder lifting wire must be retained
on board in the Lifting Equipment File. When ordering replacement wires the size must be in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
The wires must be lubricated on a regular basis and they must be renewed every 30 months.
2.6.5
Accommodation Ladder Lifting Winches
Accommodation ladder lifting winches must be inspected in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions, but as at a minimum at annual intervals. The inspection must include the following,
as applicable:

Brake mechanism;

Remote control system;

Power supply system.

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2.7

Signs and Notices

2.7.1
Tankers
The notice CCR6 - Gangway Notice must be displayed at the shore end of the gangway,
accommodation ladder or any other form of access which is in use. The reason for placing the
notice at the shore end is simply once a person has boarded it is too late to prevent the carriage
of matches, lighters or activated electronic equipment such as mobile phones, on board.

2.8

Control of Access

In accordance with the requirements of the security plan, nobody should be allowed on board
unless the person has:
Confirmed their reason for coming on board;
Showed adequate photographic identification;
Confirmed compliance with the requirements of the shore notice;
Their name and details entered into the Visitors Log;
Been provided with a boarding card.
Persons who have no legitimate business on board should be refused access.

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3.

Watertight Integrity and Heavy Weather Precautions

Heavy weather can be defined as those conditions which pose an increased risk due to:
Increased stress on the vessels structure;
Difficulty in maintaining the intended course and speed;
An increased hazard to personnel due to the movement of the vessel;
Significant risk of inadequately secured objects moving and causing either damage or
injury;
Difficulty in operating machinery;
Increased difficulty in detecting other vessels or objects in the immediate area;
Increased fatigue for all seafarers.
The degree to which a vessel is affected by heavy weather is obviously determined by the size of
the vessel and the particular combination of wind, sea and swell. The main objective is to ensure
that the vessel is prepared before the onset of heavy weather. Ideally, the objective should be to
avoid extremes of heavy weather, but frequently, due to the speed of approach of storms or
limited sea room, it is unavoidable. All ships are designed to withstand heavy weather, within the
limitations of their construction provided that the basics of good seamanship are observed
beforehand.
The unexpected ingress of water into, and flooding of, compartments is more often than not
caused by a lack of due care and attention and poor seamanship.
The maintenance of all parts of the structure where water can enter, such as door and vent
packing, the dogging or sealing arrangements on hatches, and the provision of simple remedies
such as on canvas covers where required, are fundamental and basic concepts of good
seamanship.
Water ingress can result in a catastrophic loss of buoyancy and the subsequent risk of the loss of
the vessel. It invariably results in a considerable amount of work restoring the spaces to their
original condition, and in repairing and replacing equipment,

One of the main objectives of ship-handling in heavy weather is to prevent breaking seas coming
onboard the ship itself.

3.1

Securing the Vessel for Sea

All seafarers have a collective responsibility to ensure that whenever necessary all
spaces which could be subject to water ingress are adequately secured whilst the
vessel is at sea, regardless of the current weather conditions.
Every vessel must be fully secured when proceeding to sea from port if there is any doubt as to
the weather conditions outside the harbour. Every vessel must also be fully secured each night
when the days work has been completed. There are to be no exceptions to this requirement.
It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure that either he or the senior deck rating
personally ensure that all spaces have been closed and adequately sealed and that the fact is
reported to the bridge. The Watch Officer must record the fact in the Deck Log Book.
In extended periods of bad weather, it is crucial that all spaces, particularly those forward and
those accessed from the maindeck, are checked as being dry on a regular basis, and at least once
daily. Bilge alarms must not be solely relied upon to warn of water ingress. Particular care must
be taken with respect to those spaces not fitted with bilge alarms.
The Master is to take all necessary precautions to protect the welfare of those inspecting exposed
areas in bad weather, including considering turning the vessel to provide weather protection. It
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is for the Master to judge, in severe weather conditions, whether there is a risk in turning the
vessel, and the more prudent course of action might be to delay the inspections.

3.2

Ingress of Water in Heavy Weather

Ingress of water is most commonly experienced in the focsle space, and this area requires
particular attention. However, all spaces with the potential for water entry in bad weather must
be treated with equal importance and must be secured both each night at sea and on the onset of
bad weather.
Water

can enter in numerous ways:


Doors, hatches or vents left open;
Packing in poor condition. Hard, perished or deeply grooved packing must be replaced;
Incorrectly fitted packing the ends of packing must be cut diagonally, not square;
Painted packing. Paint prevents adequate sealing;
Incorrect packing. Very hard or very soft packing should generally be avoided;
The packing retaining track in poor condition, allowing the packing to become dislodged;
Dogging arrangement in poor condition, preventing the securing of hatches;
Hatch hinges seized or poorly designed, preventing vertical movement of the hatch cover
and resulting in an inability to secure the hatch;
Vents in a wasted condition, resulting in the vent being washed away;
Ingress into the chain locker through inadequately sealed spurling pipes, and subsequently
through the anchor cable bitter end securing arrangement;
The fracture or wastage of sounding pipes.

The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that all securing arrangements are maintained in
good order, in accordance with the planned maintenance system.
The following should be checked at regular intervals:
The physical condition of doors and hatches, including hinges, dogs and other securing
arrangements;
The condition of packing. Painted, perished, soft, very hard, or deeply grooved packing
should be replaced;
The sealing arrangement for the spurling pipes must be checked as being adequate to
prevent water ingress;
The sealing arrangements for the anchor cable bitter ends;
The physical condition of ventilators, including the condition of securing arrangements of
flanged connections on the vent standpipes.
Masters must ensure that whenever poor weather is expected the anchor cable spurling pipes are
adequately sealed. There should be steel plates which fit securely around the cable above the
spurling pipe, and these should be sealed with cement and a canvas cover secured over the
whole to ensure that location and watertight integrity are maintained. The Chief Officer must
ensure that such arrangements, or the equivalent, are both available and utilised.
The anchor cable bitter ends are often secured with pins within the focsle space. These pins are
provided with O rings which require regular maintenance. Should the chain locker become
water-full, then if these glands are not watertight water will leak into the focsle space and may
result in severe flooding.
The condition of focsle head vents should be carefully checked, particularly those which are
placed in exposed positions. Where internal corrosion is suspected with associated weakness
then the most prudent course of action may be the use of protective covers.

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Some vessels have the facility to remove ventilator cowls and blank them. It is for the master to
decide whether to use this facility when bad weather is expected.

3.3

Heavy Weather Precautions

The overriding consideration is the state of the sea both the wave height and the swell height;
wind speed is of a secondary consideration as far as the prevention of water ingress is concerned.
It follows that the interpretation of the term heavy weather will be different for vessels of
different size, and will also depend upon the state of loading. It is the responsibility of the Master
to decide under what weather conditions these procedures need to be applied, and to what
extent. The larger vessels in the fleet will obviously consider that these procedures will require
implementing only in more severe conditions than the smaller vessels in the fleet. However,
Masters should bear in mind that the onset of bad weather can happen extremely quickly and
seas can build rapidly.
When heavy weather is expected the following procedure must be complied with to the extent
deemed necessary:
Crew members should be prohibited from proceeding to exposed areas;
All watertight openings must be securely closed;
All mooring ropes either stowed on drums or off the deck;
Anchor securing arrangements and spurling pipe covers checked;
Cranes and davits properly secured;
Stores and equipment on deck, and in store rooms, the accommodation and the engine
room properly secured;
Additional securing fitted to equipment such as liferafts and lifeboats;
Covers fitted to equipment which require it, such as exposed vents, winch controls,
mooring wires on drums etc.;
Removal of lifebuoys, or additional quick-release lashings fitted;
Where necessary, the free surface effect in ballast and other tanks reduced to an
acceptable level;
Consideration given to reducing the amount of fuel in high wing tanks to avoid overflow
during rolling;
Freeing ports and scuppers checked as being free of obstructions;
Sufficient bunkers aft available to avoid having to transfer during bad weather;
Lifelines rigged as appropriate;
Consideration given to menus which avoid the need to use the galley ranges.

3.4

Bilges and the Sounding of Compartments

There must be a daily routine for the checking of the focsle space, chain locker, bow thruster
compartment, cofferdams and holds, and any other space where unexpected water ingress might
occur. Where bad weather prevents the checking of such spaces daily they should be checked as
soon as possible after the weather moderates. In prolonged periods of bad weather consideration
should be given to turning the vessel to allow access to spaces at least every two days. The
record ECF7 - Non-Cargo Compartment Sounding must be maintained.
Regular testing of bilge alarms, where fitted, must be carried out. In addition, bilge alarms should
be tested prior to the forecast onset of bad weather.

3.5

Vents and Sounding Pipes

3.5.1
Marking of Vents and Sounding Pipes
All vents and sounding pipes must be clearly marked to indicate which spaces they serve.

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3.5.2
Maintenance of Vents and Sounding Pipes
Vents, whether on ballast, bunker, lubricating oil or other tanks, work on the principle that a float
of some sort, when immersed in water, seals the aperture from which air normally enters or exits
from the tank during filling and discharging. This prevents the ingress of water.
It is important that these vents are properly maintained; they must be regularly dismantled and
the operation of the float or flap proved to be in good order.
Where flame screens are fitted, these must not be painted over or in any other way blocked. If
they are, or if corrosion is evident, then they should be replaced.

3.6

Hatches and Watertight Doors

Ingress of water into compartments such as the focsle space is often a very serious event and
can have disastrous consequences. The cause is invariably a lack of attention to the watertight
integrity of the hatches and doors.
3.6.1
Maintenance of Hatches and Watertight Doors
The packing and securing arrangements of all hatches and watertight doors must be maintained
in good order at all times, including:
The packing should be checked for condition;
Dogs and securing arrangements must be well greased and free to move;
Hinges must be greased and free to move;
Hinges should be checked to ensure that they are free to move in the vertical if not then
no amount of tightening of the dogs will ensure water tightness.
With respect to packing, the following must be taken into account:
The ends of packing must be cut at an angle of 45 degrees, and must not be square cut;
The ends of the packing should be placed in the most sheltered position from the effects of
waves;
If packing is hard, cracked, deeply grooved or painted over, it must be replaced;
The packing retaining track must be in good order. Corroded or wasted packing track
should be repaired at the earliest opportunity.
The requirements for ensuring the watertight integrity of spurling pipes and anchor cable bitter
ends are contained in the Mooring Procedures section.

3.7

Ventilators

Ventilators, particularly those on the focsle, are prone to damage by wave action when heavy
seas are shipped. The cause may be either poor design, poor protection from wave action, or
corrosion. The result of a ventilator being damaged can be a rapid ingress of substantial volumes
of water, with significant consequences.
3.7.1
Maintenance of Ventilators
The most significant issue with ventilators is that corrosion invariably commences from the inside
is virtually undetectable unless the vent is removed from its base. However, in view of the
significant amount of water ingress which can occur if a ventilator is damaged, it is prudent to
check the condition of the internal parts of every ventilator exposed to heavy seas. This should
be carried out on an annual basis.
Each ventilator will have a flap to allow the vent to closed in case of fire. The flap does not serve
to provide any useful watertight protection. These flaps should be regularly maintained and kept
free to operate easily by hand.
Some vessels have the facility to remove ventilator cowls and blank them. It is for the master to
decide whether to use this facility when bad weather is expected.
3. Watertight Integrity
6th February 2012
DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations (Rev. O-2)

Page 4 of 4

4.

Lifting Equipment

4.1

Description of Lifting Equipment

The term lifting equipment applies to all equipment used for that purpose, whether cargo
derricks or cranes, provisions handling davits and cranes, engine room cranes, lifeboat and
liferaft davits and cranes, accommodation ladder davits, pilot hoists, chain blocks, trolley blocks,
and lifting beams.
Loose gear refers to any ancillary equipment used for lifting including chains, ropes, slings,
pulleys, eyebolts, shackles, swivels, rope blocks, chain blocks, trolley blocks and any other
equipment used in the lifting process.

4.2

Marking of Lifting Equipment

Every item of lifting equipment as defined above must have its Safe Working Load marked on it.
In addition, all lifting equipment must be individually marked to ensure that certification can be
related to the correct item.
4.2.1 The Marking of Controls and Switches
All crane and derrick controls, particularly those for hoisting and lowering the load, and those for
slewing and luffing, must be clearly marked as to their purpose and direction of operation.
All other controls and switches must be clearly marked as to their purpose.

4.3

Maintenance of Lifting Equipment

All lifting equipment must be periodically and regularly checked in accordance with the planned
maintenance programme and the manufacturers instructions, and records maintained.
4.3.1 Inspection and Maintenance of Lifting Equipment Wires
The wires of all lifting equipment must be periodically checked to ensure that they are in
satisfactory condition. Particular attention must be paid to those areas of any wire which
are not normally visible. The wire should be run off to the extent necessary to ensure that all
such areas, including the connection of the wire ends to the drum or davit head, can be closely
inspected. Lubricant must be removed in exposed areas as necessary to ensure that the wire
underneath has not suffered any deterioration.
The above instruction applies to the following equipment:
Cargo handling cranes;
External provisions or stores handling cranes, gantries and davits;
Lifeboat davit wires;
Rescue boat crane;
Accommodation ladder lifting wires;
Gangway lifting slings;
Suez Canal light davit;
Bunker hose handling cranes or davits;
Any other external davits or cranes used for any lifting purpose.
During production wires receive lubrication. This treatment provides the rope with ample
protection against corrosion and is designed to reduce the friction between the wires which make
up the rope, as well as the friction between the rope and sheaves or drums. This lubrication,
however, only lasts for a limited time and should be re-applied periodically.
Wire ropes must be re-lubricated at regular intervals, depending on their use, particularly along
the zones subjected to bending and to weather. If for operational reasons lubrication cannot be
4. Lifting Equipment
DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations (Rev. O-1)

1st June 2010

Page 1 of 9

carried out then a shorter service life may be expected and inspection intervals have to be
increased accordingly.
The planned maintenance system already covers the regular inspection and testing of lifting
equipment and all wires must be checked and lubricated as required by the system. Maintaining
the wire ropes at regular intervals increases rope life significantly.
Under identical test
conditions, well-greased ropes permit four times as many reverse bending cycles as ungreased
ropes. It is important that lubrication is carried out regularly right from the beginning of the
service life of the rope.
In lubricating wires penetrative grease specifically designed for the purpose must be used in
order that the wires and strands are lubricated both internally as well as externally. If the vessel
does not have a supply of such penetrative wire lubricant the company must be informed. If the
vessel has been equipped with a mechanical wire lubricator, that should be used. If possible, the
lubricant recommended in the equipment manufacturers instruction manual, or the equivalent,
should be used. The lubricant used should be compatible with the original lubricant.
It is completely unsatisfactory to lubricate merely the parts of the wire which are immediately
visible and accessible. The whole wire must be lubricated and in order to achieve that the wire
will have to be run off the winch drum. Particular attention must be paid to the ends of wires,
and those parts of the wires which are normally around sheaves in the stored position.
Before lubrication is carried out, clean heavily soiled wire ropes by brushing. If the soiling is
extremely heavy or the grease is resinous, clean the wire, sheaves and drums with a non-caustic
degreaser and dry before applying lubricant.
Make sure that when reeling a wire off a crane that at least three turns remain on the drum,
unless the end of the wire is adequately secured at the drum to allow the whole wire to be run
off.
There are several techniques of lubricant application:
The most common ones at present are painting or swabbing (Figure1/a);
The lubricant can be applied at a sheave (Figure 1/b) using a continuous drip method. If
only a little lubricant is required, pressure spray nozzles can be applied.
Various other systems involve continuous application using a bath (Figure 1/c);
Maximum penetration of the lubricant can only be guaranteed if a high pressure lubricator
is used (Figure 1/d).

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Page 2 of 9

Lubricators involve a two-part sleeve, with rubber seals, which are clamped around the rope and
screwed together. While the rope runs through the lubricator the lubricant is pressed into the
sleeve at a pressure of up to about 30 bars. This process ensures deep penetration and the
removal of old lubricant. The other methods detailed above only lubricate the surface of the wire.
Upon completion of lubrication, the equipment should be operated if possible in order to better
distribute the lubricant within the strands.
4.3.2 Replacement of Lifting Equipment Wires
The lifting wires on the equipment listed below, are to be replaced on all vessels in the fleet at
intervals not exceeding 30 months, regardless of condition. This includes lifeboat davit wires
regardless of the SOLAS requirement that they be replaced every 5 years.
Cargo and hose handling cranes;
External provisions or stores handling cranes, gantries and davits;
Lifeboat davit wires;
Rescue boat crane;
Accommodation ladder lifting wires;
Gangway lifting slings;
Suez Canal light davit;
Bunker hose handling cranes or davits;
Any other external davits or cranes used for any lifting purpose of which the wire diameter
does not exceed 24 mm.
This 30 month replacement schedule applies to lifting equipment wires which are external and are
therefore exposed to the weather. Other wires on lifting equipment fitted internally and not
exposed to the weather, such as the internal engine room overhead crane wires, should continue
to be replaced as required and at intervals not exceeding 5 years.
The replacement of wires must be conducted by a senior responsible person designated by the
Master. A risk assessment should be carried out, if necessary, prior to each wire replacement,
and accurate and complete records must be maintained of when each wire is renewed.
4.3.3 Installation of Wire Ropes
When crane wires require replacement it is important to consult the manufacturers manual and
to follow the instructions contained therein. The following general guidance is given to assist
where such manufacturers guidance is not available.
When installing steel wire ropes care must be taken that the rope is unreeled from the storage
drum or coil without allowing turns to develop. The storage drum or coil should be suspended
using a turntable or similar device allowing the wire to pulled off without turns developing.

Figure 1
4. Lifting Equipment
DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations (Rev. O-1)

Figure 2
1st June 2010

Page 3 of 9

Under no circumstances must rope be pulled off a coil while it is lying on the deck, nor should it
be looped over the head of the reel (Figure 2), because this will induce one turn per wrap into the
wire rope. The wire will try to resist the enforced turns, form loops, and may well result in
irreparable kinks which will result in the rope being unsafe to use.
When fitting new wires to cranes, there are two basic methods:
Discard the old rope first and then install the new afterwards;
Attach the new wire to the end of the old and pull it through. This should be the preferred
method for larger cranes, but the connection between the two must be very secure,
particularly if hauling through several sheaves is required.
Consideration should be given as to whether the rope should be pulled through the whole sheave
system or whether it should first be wound from the coil or reel onto the drum and afterwards be
reeved through the system. However, if one end of the rope has a fitting attached, there will
usually be no other possibility than pulling the loose rope end through the whole sheave system.
When replacing wires it is important that the new has the same direction of lay as the wire being
replaced. If the new wire to be fitted is of a different lay and is fitted by being pulled in using the
old with the two rope ends buttwelded together, the lay of the wire being fitted can be severely
damaged
The use of buttwelding to join the two ends of rope is not recommended. Even though special
electrodes are used the connection may break due to the bending stresses when running over
sheaves.
If that type of connection is used, the safety should be increased by using a Chinese Finger.
Fewer problems are caused by connecting wire ropes with welded eyes or chain links (Figure 3),
which are joined by either strands or thin wire ropes. This connection provides satisfactory load
capacity, it is flexible and prevents the transfer of twist from one wire to the other.
The two wires may be connected using solely Chinese Fingers. These are tubes made out of
braided strands, which are pulled over the wire rope ends and then secured at their ends with
tape (Figure 4). Under load Chinese Fingers will contract and hold the wire rope ends by friction.
However, when installing a long lay wire rope care must be taken that the Chinese Finger does
not unwind. It is good practice to wrap tape around the whole length of the Chinese Finger to
increase the friction.

Figure 3

4. Lifting Equipment
DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations (Rev. O-1)

Figure 4

1st June 2010

Page 4 of 9

4.3.4 Storing Spare Crane Wires


Steel wire ropes should be stored in an internal clean dry place. The ropes must be kept off the
deck, and must be stored either on the reels they were supplied with or placed on pallets.
Each wire must be clearly marked as to its intended purpose and the equipment it is designed to
be fitted to.
4.3.5 Limit Switches
If a hoist limit switch fails to operate then an additional load will be placed on the equipment
which may result in failure. The company requires all limit switches in the planned maintenance
system to be checked for correct operation on a monthly basis.
These monthly inspections should check that the limit switches are free of paint, operate
correctly, and should prove that the limit switches cut off the respective driving motor.

4.4

Testing of Lifting Equipment

Each lifting appliance shall be tested by a shore service agency and in accordance with class
requirements at least once every 5 years, and the test and examination recorded in the Lifting
Equipment Register.
Every item of lifting equipment must have an up to date test certificate. Where it is not
immediately obvious which test certificate applies to which item of lifting equipment, such as
engine room lifting beams, these must be individually identified.

4.5

Thorough Examination

Every derrick, crane, davit, accommodation ladder, pilot hoist and lifting beam must be
thoroughly examined by the Chief Officer, Chief Engineer or 2nd Engineer at least annually, and
the examination recorded in the Lifting Equipment Register.
Such examination must include all parts of the lifting equipment, including those parts not
normally visually inspected. All wires must be run fully off storage drums in order that the
condition of the inner layers and ends can be inspected.

4.6

Qualified Operators

Lifting equipment must only be used by personnel trained in its use.


This requirement
particularly applies to cargo cranes and derricks, and to stores cranes and engine room cranes
and lifting beam chain blocks.
Such personnel must be fully conversant with the controls of the particular lifting device, the
checks which must be made prior to using the equipment, and to the safety precautions required
to be followed during such use.
The CCR Information File contains diagram CCR1 - Hand Signals for Cranes and the Chief
Officer must ensure that all Officers and ratings are familiar with these signs and that they are
used whenever directing a crane or derrick operator.
In exceptional circumstances the SWL of lifting equipment may need to be exceeded, for example
for load testing or for exceptional operational reasons. The company must be advised and
permission obtained prior to the SWL being exceeded.

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4.7

Lifting Operations

Whenever possible the operator of the lifting equipment should be able to see the load which is
being moved, whether it be cargo or stores, machinery, or ancillary lifts such as lifeboats or
accommodation ladders. Where the operator is unable to fully view the area of the lift then a
signaller must be used. Lifts must not be made without at least one person being able to sight
the lift and the area around it.
The signals to be used are contained in the CCR Information File, and all deck officers and
ratings should be familiar with them.
Planning a lifting operation is essential and the following should be considered:
Where the load is to be picked up from;
Where the load is to be placed;
What areas and obstructions are to be passed over;
The proximity of personnel;
How the load is to be slung;
How the slings are to be removed;
The weight of the load;
The ability of the operator to sight the load from lifting to final placing;
How the operator will be directed, and by whom, if he is unable to sight the full operation;
Weather conditions.

4.8

Checks Prior to Use

4.8.1 General Provisions


Use of lifting equipment has one of the most significant potentials for accidents of all the work
carried out on board ship. Accidents with lifting equipment are caused both by operator error and
equipment failure, and occur generally not to the lifting equipment operator, but to those working
in the adjacent area.
Each item is to be checked prior to each arrival in port, or prior to each use at sea. Checks
should include any particular manufacturer's pre-operation recommendations. Any significant
failure must be rectified before the equipment is put into use; minor faults in the operation of
lifting equipment which do not affect safety must be reported and rectified as soon as possible.
It is the responsibility of any person using a derrick, crane, davit, chain block, lifting beam or
other article of lifting appliance, to check the lifting appliance and all associated equipment prior
to use and ensure that it is in apparent good order.
4.8.2 ECF1 - Lifting Equipment Pre-Operation Check
ECF1 - Lifting Equipment Pre-Operation Check must be completed prior to the use of lifting
equipment. Such checks must include a thorough visual inspection of the equipment as far as is
possible from the deck of the working platform, but without having to climb to normally
inaccessible parts of the lifting equipment.
There are two reasons for the check list the first is to ensure that when any lifting equipment is
operated or used it has been visually inspected to ascertain that as far as possible the equipment
is apparently in good order; this is merely good practice. The second is to ensure that any faults
found with lifting equipment are recorded and that they are corrected either before the
equipment is used, or if of a minor nature and do not affect safety, as soon as possible thereafter.
ECF1 - Lifting Equipment Pre-Operation Check is an inspection and function test of the
equipment, controls, stops, brakes, safety devices etc, before the start of any lifting operation,
and in the case of extended operations, daily. Inspection means a thorough visual inspection by

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Page 6 of 9

a competent person to establish that there are neither faults nor any significant deterioration
which can affect the safe use of the equipment.
The form must be completed by a competent person. A competent person is a person possessing
the knowledge or experience necessary to enable him to satisfactorily perform the duties
required. Such a competent person might obtain his knowledge either through training provided
by the manufacturer of the equipment or by in-house or local training provided either within the
company or on the vessel. In Columbia those persons are considered to be the Master, Chief
Officer, Senior Engineers and senior, experienced, deck or engine room ratings.
ECF1 - Lifting Equipment Pre-Operation Check does not in any way replace the planned
maintenance routines for the equipment; regular preventative maintenance must continue to be
carried out. Such regular maintenance should include annual thorough examinations completed
by a competent person and should be designed to check for material faults such as cracks,
distortion and corrosion, as well as wear and tear that could affect the safe working load and
overall strength.
If there is any doubt as to whether the equipment is fit for purpose the Chief Officer must be
informed.

4.9

Crane and Derrick Hooks

If lifting equipment hooks are fitted with safety catches which automatically close to prevent the
load coming off the hook. These catches must be maintained in good order at all times.
When stowed, the hook of any crane, davit or derrick must not be secured using a wire or chain
strop. The reason for this is that if any significant weight is placed on a crane or davit wire then
where the wire turns around a sheave the wire will to some degree be opened, which will allow
the ingress of water and subsequent corrosion. This corrosion may not be readily visible when
the weight is taken off the wire.
When securing hooks to the deck or rail, a light synthetic rope must be used. Only the minimum
amount of weight must be placed on the strop to ensure that the hook is secure. For larger
hooks a turnbuckle should be used to tighten the securing.

4.10

Use of Slings

Prior to use, wire, rope and chain slings must be thoroughly checked to ensure that they are in
good order and fit for purpose.
If more than one sling is used, the angle between the slings determines the maximum Safe
Working Load that the slings can handle. The diagrams below illustrate this.

4.11

Use of Chain Blocks

When using chain blocks it is not difficult to exceed the SWL, with subsequent damage to both
the chain block and the equipment being lifted, and the very significant risk of injury to
personnel. Whenever a chain block is used care must be taken to ensure that the SWL of the

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1st June 2010

Page 7 of 9

equipment is not exceeded. Where there is any doubt as to the weight of a lift, measures such as
the weight being distributed between two lifting appliances should be considered.

4.12

Control of Loose Gear

All loose gear not permanently attached which is used for lifting must be kept under the control of
the Chief Officer, except for chain blocks which should be kept under the control of the 2nd
Engineer.
All wire and rope strops, slings and chain blocks must be individually tagged in order that they
can each be referenced to the manufacturers certificate. A file of test certificates must be
maintained.

4.13

Bulldog Grips

4.13.1 General Provisions


Bulldog grips are a convenient way of making a loop or eye in a rope. However, their use is
discouraged and an alternative should be found when possible.
The diagram below shows the correct way of applying a bulldog grip, and the correct size of grip
to use. The "U" of the grip must be placed on the dead end of the rope as illustrated, and the
distance between each grip should be about 6 rope diameters.
Bulldog grips which are correctly fitted and with a thimble can be expected to hold about 80% of
the minimum breaking strain of the rope to which they are fitted; if a thimble is not fitted when
making an eye the grip will hold significantly less. It should be noted that an incorrectly fitted
bulldog grip may reduce the effective breaking strain by as much as 50%.
The following must be complied with when using bulldog grips:
They must only be used on wires;
They must never be used on lifting equipment as the prime means of making an eye.
They may, however, be used to secure the loose end of a wire on lifting equipment for
example where a socket and wedge is used to make the eye;
They should not be used on plastic coated wire rope;
They must not be used where strong vibrations are anticipated;
They should be regularly checked for tightness;
Where grips are used to form an eye, a thimble must always be used;
The grip farthest from the eye or thimble must not be over tightened, because that is the
vulnerable section in this form of assembly;
The grip fitted nearest to the eye should be positioned as close to the eye as possible but
not in such a position that the correct tightening of the Grip will cause damage to the
outer wires of the rope.
4.13.2 The Fitting of Bulldog Grips
Bulldog grips must be fitted as shown in the diagrams below.

4. Lifting Equipment
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4.13.3 Table of the Number of Grips to be Used


The number and size of bulldog grips required for any particular apllication should be in
accordance with the table below.

E - mm

B - mm

Minimum
number of
grips

Distance
apart in mm

E - mm

B - mm

Minimum
number of
grips

Distance
apart in
mm

40

48

28

105

152

11

48

57

32

114

171

13

54

67

35

121

191

16

64

76

40

140

210

18

67

86

40

140

229

19

73

95

44

159

248

19

73

105

48

178

267

22

79

114

48

178

286

22

79

124

54

190

305

26

92

133

57

203

324

26

92

143

60

210

343

4. Lifting Equipment
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5.

Adverse Climatic Conditions

5.1

General Provisions

There are a number of occasions when adverse climatic conditions may require action such as the
cessation of cargo operations, or even evacuation of the berth.
Prior to berthing and continuing throughout the time alongside, weather forecasts should be
monitored in order to provide adequate warning of any approaching severe weather conditions.
The possibility of local weather factors and conditions, such as extreme tidal flows and tidal
surges should be discussed with either the terminal representative, the pilot or the port authority.
The completion of a risk assessment should be considered and acted upon if necessary.

5.2

Adverse Weather

5.2.1
Integrity of the Mooring System
One of the most important factors as far as adverse weather is concerned is the ability of the
mooring system to keep the vessel alongside, without risk of damage to either the vessel or the
quay.
The terminal should have established parameters for swell, wind speed and sea state, above
which vessels of a certain size should in the first instance cease cargo operations and then if
conditions deteriorate further vacate the berth.
Regardless of whether that is the case or not, it is the Masters responsibility to take whatever
action he deems necessary, including the cessation of cargo operations and the evacuation of the
berth, in order to prevent damage to the vessel or the terminal.
5.2.2
Cold Weather
In cold weather precautions must be taken to prevent any part of the cargo system freezing.
Particular attention should be paid to cargo lines and valves, and to venting systems.
5.2.3
Significant Tidal Ranges
There are river berths which, particularly during spring tides, can present significant problems to
vessels. The speed of the flow of the tide, coupled with the fact that if a berth is placed close to a
bend there might be significant offshore currents, can place a significant strain on the mooring
system. At such a terminal the number of moorings should be increased.
Deck Officers should be aware that at such berths particular attention must be paid to
maintaining all mooring ropes tight and the weight on each is evenly distributed. The mooring
system will require constant attention because of the rise and fall of the tide. Under no
circumstances must the vessel be allowed to start surging at the berth.
It may also be considered prudent at such berths to employ the services of a tug to ensure that
the vessel remains alongside. In extreme cases it may be prudent to evacuate the berth, and
although this would be a rare occurrence, the company will always support the Masters decision
to do so if he deems it necessary.
5.2.4
Tidal Surges
Where a vessel berths in a river subject to tidal surges the Master should ascertain from the pilot
or local port authority the times of the tidal surges, and the extent to which they might affect the
mooring of his vessel.

5. Adverse Climatic Conditions


DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 2

If the

height of the surge warrants it, the following actions should be considered, as necessary:
The main engines in operation and ready for immediate manoeuvring;
Mooring parties on station to tend the ropes;
Cargo operations stopped and shore lines disconnected;
The assistance of a tug obtained.

5.2.5
Hot, Calm Conditions
If there is little air movement, the vapour from both petroleum and chemical products, most of
which are heavier than air, may accumulate and remain on deck in heavy concentrations.
If there is a slight wind, eddies can be created on the lee side of the vessels accommodation or
deck structure which can carry such gas towards the accommodation structure.
Either of these effects may result in heavy local petroleum gas concentrations and it may be
necessary to extend the precautions concerning external openings in superstructure, or to stop
loading, ballasting of non-gas free tanks, purging, tank cleaning, or gas freeing, while these
conditions persist.
If tank cleaning at sea, it may prove beneficial to temporarily alter course to disperse any gas
overboard.
5.2.6
Electrical Storms
When an electrical storm is in the vicinity of the vessel or terminal, the following operations must
be stopped, regardless of whether or not the ships cargo tanks are inerted:
The handling of volatile petroleum;
Handling of non-volatile petroleum in tanks not free of hydrocarbon vapour;
Purging, tank cleaning or gas freeing after the discharge of volatile petroleum.
All tank openings and vent valves must be closed, including any bypass valves fitted on the tank
venting system, until the danger has passed.
5.2.7
Tank Cleaning in Heavy Weather
When tank cleaning with portable machines in heavy weather, consideration must be given to the
possibility of damage to the machines if the vessel is rolling, and tank cleaning operations must
be suspended if necessary. The following should be considered:
The possibility of a spark should a tank cleaning machine come into contact with tank
structure;
Damage to coatings;
Damage to the tank cleaning machine.

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1st January 2009

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6.

Operation in Sub-Zero Conditions

6.1

Cold Weather Precautions

Before entry into cold weather (when the temperature is expected to fall below zero) the Master
should ensure that all personnel are fully aware of the hazards of operating in sub-zero
temperatures and of the need to take additional precautions to prevent damage to, or freezing
of, equipment.
Deck and engineering officers must ensure that equipment, particularly safety equipment, is
regularly checked whilst in cold weather, daily if necessary, to ensure that it remains fit for
purpose.
These procedures are primarily designed for vessels which are not specifically equipped for
operation in sub-zero temperatures. Ice class vessels should apply and adapt these procedures
as necessary to supplement any special equipment fitted.

6.2

Deck and Superstructure Icing

Deck and superstructure icing is a complicated process which depends upon meteorological
conditions, the condition of loading and the behaviour of the vessel in bad weather. The most
common cause of ice formation is the deposit of water droplets on the vessel's structure and
decks. These droplets come from spray driven from wave crests and from ship-generated spray.
Ice formation may also occur in snowfall, sea fog, a sudden fall in ambient temperature, and
from the freezing of raindrops which come into contact with the vessel's structure.
Freezing spray warnings are usually included in marine forecasts. However, it is difficult to
provide accurate forecasts as to the effects of icing as individual vessel characteristics have
markedly different results. Graphs assessing the rate of icing based on air temperature, wind
speed, and sea-surface temperature can provide a guide to possible icing conditions, but should
not be relied on to accurately predict ice accumulation rates. Caution should be exercised
whenever winds of about 17 knots or more are expected, in combination with air temperatures
below -20C. Generally speaking, winds of Beaufort Force 5 will produce light icing; winds of Force
7 moderate icing, and winds of above Force 8, severe icing. Under these conditions, the most
intensive ice formation takes place when wind and sea come from ahead. In beam and
quartering winds, ice accumulates more quickly on the windward side of the vessel, thus leading
to a constant list which is extremely dangerous.
Icing is a function of the ship's course relative to the wind and sea and generally is most severe
in the areas of the bow, bulwarks and rails, the windward side of the superstructure and
deckhouses, hawse pipes, anchors, deck gear, forecastle and upper decks, freeing ports, aerials,
masts and associated rigging.
The effects of freezing spray can be minimised by reducing speed in heavy seas, by running with
the sea, or by seeking more sheltered conditions.
It is important to try to maintain the windlass free of ice so that the anchor may be dropped in an
emergency.
6.2.1
Severe Icing and the Effect on Stability
Ice accretion on deck can significantly affect stability, although the occasions when this might
happen are very few and far between. Ice build up on deck in significant amounts only occurs
when the vessel is shipping seas or spray in sub-zero conditions, and whilst in open water.
Obviously the more ice there is on deck, the more the stability is affected.
It is extremely difficult to estimate precisely the amount of ice on deck, but a reasonably accurate
figure can be determined by multiplying the deck area coated by an estimated average thickness.
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The Master and Chief Officer must be fully aware of the effect of icing on the stability of the
vessel, and must have pre-calculated how much may be allowed to accrue on deck before the
stability is affected enough to warrant taking preventative action. Under severe icing conditions
manual removal of ice becomes important because of the effect on stability.
Such action must be taken well before stability becomes of concern. The manual removal of solid
ice is a long and difficult process and the best course of action is to avoid the accretion of ice in
the first place. Where there is concern that the amount of ice accumulating on deck might
significantly affect stability, measures should be taken to reduce the propagation of it, for
example by reducing speed in order to reduce the amount of spray coming on board, or by
heading in a different direction. An important factor will obviously be how long the icing
conditions are expected to continue for. Whilst in ice bound waters the only ice build-up will be
from snow, or possibly rain. This should be relatively easy to remove manually if necessary.
6.2.2
Removal of Ice
The removal of ice on deck should only be attempted when considered absolutely necessary.
Wooden tools are preferred to steel, in order to prevent damage to equipment. The use of steam
hoses should be considered, but adequate precautions must obviously be taken to prevent injury
to personnel.
Ice removal equipment such as wooden mallets, shovels, crow bars, hammers, spikes and sledge
hammers should be readily available in various locations. Steam or hot water hoses should be
available.
An adequate supply of sand and salt for decks should be arranged and should be stored in readily
available locations, particularly forward and around the accommodation decks. It is important
that walkways are maintained safe for personnel as far as is possible.

6.3

Crew Protection

Winter clothes suitable jackets, gloves, boots, balaclavas etc. must be available for the crew
who are expected to work outside. These should have been obtained prior to entering cold areas.
The crew must be briefed on the dangers of exposure to freezing conditions, and the significant
effect that wind can have on increasing the chill factor. They should be instructed to ensure that
walkways are either kept ice-free or coated in sand or salt.

6.4

Accommodation and Internal Spaces

All external doors to the accommodation, stores, pump room, emergency escapes, emergency
generator room, safety equipment stores, and the focsle space should be closed. Vents, where
not required for ventilation, should be closed.
The accommodation and critical spaces must be maintained at an adequate temperature for crew
comfort and to prevent damage to equipment. If necessary where equipment is liable to damage
from freezing conditions, it should be moved to another appropriate location.
Space heaters, where fitted, must be checked as fit for purpose and used as required. These
include the bow thruster compartment, focsle space, emergency generator room, emergency
fire pump compartment, under deck passages and duct keels, where fitted.
Oil tank heaters must be turned on.

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6.5

Navigation Bridge

The following precautions should be taken:


Ensure bridge window heating is fully operational, and that it remains in use during
periods of sub-zero temperatures. If heating is not available transparent heat shrink film
may assist in the prevention of frost and condensation. Portable fans or improvised
ducting fed from the bridge heating system may also be used, but care must be taken to
avoid significant temperature changes which might cause windows to crack;
Provide equipment such as scrapers, de-icing spray and salt on the bridge;
Wheelhouse heaters should be kept on. If not fitted, portable heaters should be provided,
consistent with safety. It is important that an adequate temperature is maintained in the
wheelhouse to protect sensitive electronic equipment;
The bridge window wash water line should be drained and the drains left open;
Ensure that the whistle heater, if fitted, is operational and remains on at all times, and
that compressed air is moisture free. Drain any water traps;
Slack down all signal halyards;
Keep radar scanners running at all times whilst in sub-zero temperatures;
Ensure that navigation and deck lights remain fit for purpose and ice-free;
Switches for the duct heaters to be switched on (where fitted).
Clear-view screens to be kept running when needed;
Search lights should be checked as fit for purpose;
Ensure that the EPIRB trace-heating is operational it should activate automatically by
thermostatic control when the temperature drops below 20C.
It is important that there is an effective means to maintain clear vision through the wheelhouse
windows. All round vision must remain unimpaired. Any mechanical means to clear moisture
from the outside of a window should have an operating mechanism protected from freezing or ice
accumulation that could impair its effective operation. Humidity from the heating system should
be avoided in order to prevent window fogging.

6.6

Fire, Foam and Deck Lines

Prior to entry into cold weather the fire, foam and fresh water lines must be isolated and drained
completely. Drain valve plugs should be left open. The notice CCR5 - Cold Weather
Precautions must be displayed on the Bridge and in the Cargo and Engine Control Rooms,
stating that the fire lines have been isolated and drain valves plugs are opened. Notices must
also be posted at each fire and foam pump operating position.
All exposed valves must be left cracked open because moisture may freeze the valve seat and
the valve together rendering the valve impossible to open. It is possible that with some fire line
configurations additional drains may need to be fitted to allow adequate draining.
Using fire lines in below freezing temperatures, or maintaining water in the line, requires a
constant flow of water through all exposed lines and branches. This is achieved by opening end
valves slightly and leading water overboard through hoses, although care should be taken to
avoid branch lines becoming water full and freezing.
After using a fire line in freezing conditions it must be quickly drained, within 10 minutes, and
again all exposed valves left cracked open. Use of the anchor cable washing should only be
considered if there is no possibility of significant ice accumulations in the hawse pipe.

6.7

Holds and Other Spaces

Holds and bilges in all areas liable to freezing should be stripped dry.
focsle spaces should also be stripped dry.

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The chain locker and

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Where sounding pipes are exposed, the level in the associated tank should, as far as possible, be
lowered to prevent freezing of the sounding pipe and subsequent damage. Where the pipe
cannot be drained then consideration should be given to using anti-freeze.
When receiving freshwater alongside, water is to be left running continuously. Ensure that the
end of the hose is pushed well down inside the freshwater tank filling pipe to prevent freezing.

6.8

Deck Equipment

Prior to entering into cold weather conditions action must be taken to ensure that all moving
equipment, including mooring winches, roller and pedestal leads, cargo lashings, vent flaps,
hatches, door hinges and dogs, trackways, sounding pipes, hydrants and valves, ships side
railing openings, etc. have been adequately lubricated in order to prevent seizure. Antifreeze
mixed with the grease has proved to be effective.
All loose equipment on deck should be stowed away;
Exposed electric and air motors of accommodation ladders, provision cranes, bunker
davits, electric whistle, winch starting switch boxes etc. should be protected with canvas
covers;
Pilot ladders should be kept under cover and protected against icing. Pilot ladders must
not be deployed overboard too early in order to prevent them becoming slippery and
dangerous;
6.8.1
Cargo Equipment
The following precautions must be taken:
Steam and condensate lines such as heating coils, IGS pipework and decontamination
showers which are not in use, should be drained, blown through if necessary, and the
drains left open;
If cargo heating is required, the following recommendations should be followed: the
heating system should be operated before entering cold weather, and should remain on
until finally clear;
Cargo and COW lines should be drained to prevent solidification of the cargo;
Where fitted, heating of p/v valves should be operational and used as necessary;
All p/v valves should be regularly checked for correct operation whilst in cold weather;
Deck cargo heaters and tank cleaning heaters, where fitted, should be drained;
IGS deck seal heating must be operational as used as necessary;
IGS p/v breakers must be filled with a suitable glycol/water mixture according to the
manufacturers instructions.
6.8.2
Mooring Equipment
The following precautions must be taken:
Mooring ropes on drums must be kept covered until required for mooring operations. In
severe conditions consideration must be given to removing ropes from drums and storing
them internally;
The windlass and mooring winches should be operated well in advance of mooring
operations. In severe conditions hydraulic tank heaters should be turned on. In severe
conditions and whilst alongside consideration should be given to keeping mooring winches
operating at slow speed;
Polypropylene and other synthetic ropes are best suited for severe temperature use manila should not be used for lashings as it becomes stiff and difficult to handle.
When in freezing conditions, decks and walkways should be kept free of ice as far as is possible.

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6.8.3
Anchors
Where freezing spray conditions are likely there must be means of clearing ice from the anchor
hawse pipes and windlasses before arriving in restricted waters.
When approaching a freezing spray area it is good practice to leave anchors slightly lowered
about 1 metre in order that the hawse pipe may be cleared by heaving the anchor as well as by
lowering it. Care should be taken to avoid damage.
Ice accretion on windlass brakes resulting in loss of grip should also be taken into consideration.
It may be necessary to de-ice brakes before lowering anchors.

6.9

Hydraulic Machinery Rooms

The following precautions must be taken:


Hydraulic systems should be filled with fluid designed for cold weather operation;
The space heater, where fitted, should be checked for correct operation;
The oil tank heater should be used as necessary;
The compartment vent should be closed, or a shield used;
A small quantity of 70% Isopropyl Alcohol will remove moisture in hydraulic oil and ease
control mechanisms, but the equipment manufacturers instructions must be reviewed.

6.10

Cold Weather Precautions with Ballast

6.11

Safety Equipment

The following precautions must be taken:


Seawater freezes at about -30C (280F);
Where fitted, heating should be operated in all wing ballast tanks, even those which are
empty. This will prevent condensate freezing and damaging lines;
All ballast and freshwater tanks should have sufficient ullage to allow for expansion due to
freezing. When alongside, if practicable, the level in ballast tanks should be lowered to
below the waterline to prevent freezing ballast water will not freeze below the waterline
except in extreme conditions;
Where sounding pipes are exposed, the level in the associated tank should, as far as
possible, be lowered to prevent freezing of the sounding pipe and subsequent damage.
Where the pipe cannot be drained then consideration should be given to using anti-freeze;
Ballasting and de-ballasting operations must only be carried out after confirming that airpipes are clear. Operations must be very carefully monitored. It is advisable to strip each
tank completely to prevent freezing of any small volumes of water;
Where fitted, heating should be operated in fresh water tanks, even those which are
empty. The temperature of fresh water tanks should be regularly monitored.

6.11.1 Lifeboats
The following precautions must be taken:
When approaching cold weather, an additive specifically designed to aid the starting of
diesel engines should be added to the fuel tank in the proportions recommended by the
manufacturer;
Regular engine oil should be replaced by an appropriate winter grade type such as 5W30.
Synthetic oils reduce friction and can achieve easier starting than multi-grade oil in cold
weather. Instruction on the proper viscosity for lubricating oil should be obtained from
the lifeboat engine manufacturers manual;
Where fitted, engine heaters should be in use. A suitable temporary heater may be used,
consistent with safety. A fire resistant blanket over it may be used to conserve heat.
Electrical cables should not be run through access doors or windows;

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The lifeboat engines must be operated more frequently in cold weather to ensure
continued satisfactory operation. The engine starting systems should be able to operate
in temperatures of 150C and within two minutes of commencing the start procedure;
Any water cooling of lifeboat engines must have an adequate amount of antifreeze in the
coolant. The antifreeze mixture should prevent freezing up to temperatures of at least
350C to avoid damage to the cylinder block;
All lifeboat sea water lines must be drained of water as far as is practicable;
Precautions should be taken to prevent the freezing and subsequent damage to lifeboat
fixed fresh water containers by ensuring that there is sufficient space for expansion should
they freeze. Portable water containers can be moved to an internal location and personnel
temporarily delegated on the muster list to load the water into the boats in the case of an
emergency;
Equipment in the lifeboats such as the bilge pump and rudder must be regularly checked
to ensure that they remain free to move;
The lifeboat davits, blocks, sheaves, micro-switches, release equipment and all other
running gear must be adequately lubricated to ensure continued operation;
Emulsified oil in a davit gearbox may solidify under cold conditions. If the oil is
contaminated then it should be replaced and the cause of the contamination determined
and rectified. Excessive moisture in the gearbox may lead to braking system failure.

Uncovered survival craft, as well as the associated access ladder, should be protected from snow
and ice by an appropriate cover.
Avoid material made from natural fibres for painters, embarkation ladders, ropes and protective
covers because natural fibres absorb moisture resulting in a loss of flexibility and durability under
cold weather conditions.
Ice accretion should be regularly removed from lifeboats and launching equipment.
removal wooden mallet should be available in the vicinity of the lifeboats.

An ice

6.11.2 Emergency Generator


The following precautions must be taken:
The emergency generator room space heater must be switched on, where fitted;
If no heating is provided, then the emergency generator fuel tank must be filled with
winter grade Gas Oil;
Any water cooling of emergency generator engines must have an adequate amount of
antifreeze in the coolant. The antifreeze mixture should prevent freezing to avoid damage
to the cylinder block;
The emergency generator must be run regularly in cold weather to ensure continued
satisfactory operation.
Emergency generating sets should be capable of being readily started at a temperature of 00C. If
this is impracticable, or if lower temperatures are likely to be encountered, provision should be
made for heating arrangements.
Even though the emergency generator space may be heated, engineers must be aware that if the
fuel tank is located on an outside bulkhead then there may still be the possibility that the
temperature of the fuel can be lowered to below its cloud point.
6.11.3 Emergency Diesel Driven Fire Pump
The following precautions must be taken:
The emergency fire pump space heater must be switched on, where fitted;
If no heating is provided, then the emergency fire pump fuel tank must be filled with
winter grade Gas Oil;

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Any water cooling of the emergency fire pump engine must have an adequate amount of
antifreeze in the coolant.
The antifreeze mixture should prevent freezing up to
temperatures of at least 350C to avoid damage to the cylinder block;
The emergency fire pump must be run regularly in cold weather to ensure continued
satisfactory operation.

6.11.4 CO2 Rooms, Foam Rooms and Other Fire-Fighting Spaces


The following precautions must be taken:
Ensure that equipment will not be affected by sub-zero temperatures. If so, appropriate
action must be determined and taken.
Officers should be aware that CO2 systems will usually only operate in temperatures above -160C
and it is therefore important that provision should be made for ensuring that such systems are
maintained above that temperature. The manufacturers specific instructions must be reviewed.

6.12

Engine Room

The following precautions must be taken:


All external doors to the engine room and associated stores and emergency escapes
should be closed. Vents, where not required for ventilation, should be closed;
The engine room must be maintained in all areas at an adequate temperature to prevent
freezing. Heating, where fitted, must be used as necessary, particularly in adjacent
compartments such as the steering flat. Temporary heating should be provided where
necessary;
The number of ventilation fans in use should be kept to a minimum consistent with
maintaining a positive pressure in the engine room. Care should be taken to ensure that
equipment directly below ventilation intakes is not subject to unduly low temperatures;
Where engine exhaust uptake dampers are fitted they should be closed when the engine is
not in use to prevent condensation;
Heating of fuel oil tanks must ensure that the fuel remains at an adequate temperature;
Where fitted, heating systems for sea water service systems should be tested to ensure
they are fit for purpose. Such heating systems should be used as necessary when in cold
weather;
The after peak should be filled to well above the level of the stern tube. Such additional
water should not affect the trim and draft significantly. The water should not be allowed
to freeze and should therefore be checked regularly;
Heating systems for sump and lubricating oil storage tanks, fresh water cooling systems
and hydraulic systems should be operational and should be used as necessary when in
cold weather;
Bilge wells should be maintained dry;
Heaters for generators and electric motors should be operational and used as necessary in
cold weather;
The main engine air heater, if fitted, should be operated;
Consideration should be given to maintaining a flow of water through the sanitary system
and soil drains;
The heating for the sanitary holding tank and overboard line should be operational and
used if the temperature falls below 50C (410F). When possible, and if time permits, purge
air or steam through all wash water outlets that do not drain to a level well below the
water line. If necessary, add antifreeze to unused drain traps and toilets.
6.12.1 Sea Inlets
The potential exists for ice and slush to enter sea inlet boxes, blocking seawater flow to the
cooling system. The problem is encountered by the majority of ships entering ice-covered
waters. Should the inlets become blocked the result will obviously be the overheating of the
machinery which relies on such cooling water.

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The lower main sea suction should be used where possible as the water temperature is likely to
be higher, and freer of ice.
The methods for dealing with the prevention of blockage by ice of sea water inlets vary from ship
to ship. Occasionally steam heating is provided for sea inlets, and this should be tested and be
operational before entering freezing conditions.

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7.

Maintenance and Inspection of Cargo and Ballast Tanks and Other


Compartments

7.1

Implementation of an Inspection Routine

Every cargo and ballast tank, and other compartments such as holds, cofferdams, void spaces,
ducts and water tanks should be inspected at least annually.
The exception to this requirement is the cargo tanks of crude oil carriers, or product carriers
continuously carrying heavy oil, where the tanks are not regularly cleaned. The cargo tanks on
such vessels must be inspected as and when it is possible to do so, such as when a tank has to
be cleaned for repair work. However, if a period of 30 months is approaching since the last cargo
tank inspection then the operator should be consulted well before the 30 month anniversary to
try to arrange a suitable opportunity to clean and inspect the cargo tanks.
It is important that an accurate record is maintained for each compartment. On larger vessels
the inspection of compartments such as ballast tanks can be a very complicated process and in
order to ensure that adequate records are maintained it may prove necessary to divide the
compartment into transverse sections and use more than one form for each compartment.
Every effort must be made to accurately record coating breakdown and corrosion. If records are
accurate then any deterioration in the condition of the compartment can be monitored.
The Records Tank Inspection (ECF15 - Fore Peak, ECF16 - Aft Peak, ECF17 - Double
Bottom, ECF18 - Side Wing Ballast, ECF19 - Generic,) should be used to maintain a record
of the compartments inspected, and they should be forwarded to the Technical Department once
completed.
All reports should be filed and retained on board as well as forwarded to the Technical
Department.
Double hulled vessels present specific problems with respect to the inspection and maintenance
of those spaces. The reasons are as follows:
The relatively numerous and confined compartments of a double skin design make the
surface preparation and paint application at the building stage more difficult, thereby
increasing the likelihood of coating breakdown;
A relatively larger area of ballast tank boundaries adjacent to cargo or bunker tank
boundaries presents a greater risk of leakage from one to the other;
The greater amount of ballast tank area adjacent to cargo tank boundaries, particularly
during the carriage of heated cargoes, will lead to the formation of more condensation
within the double skin, with consequential corrosion potential;
Interaction between the inner and outer hulls, caused by loading stresses and differential
expansion, increases the possibility of fatigue cracking;
The number of relatively small compartments with reduced ventilation capability can result
in pockets of hydrocarbon vapours occurring;
The reduced and often difficult access to all double skin compartments makes the
monitoring of coating condition and the rectification of defects more difficult.

7.2

What to Check for During Inspections

The following is very broad guidance and reports on the inspection of a compartment should
contain as much descriptive detail as possible in order for the condition to be adequately
assessed by the office.
7.2.1
Coating
The condition of the compartment coating should be carefully checked. The coating is the key to
preventing corrosion. Guidance in inspecting coatings is as follows:

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Breakdown of the coating is likely to occur first in areas of insufficient film thickness, such
as on the leading edges of frames and lightening holes;
Areas of the tanks where air may be trapped when the tank is ballasted, as well as areas
from which it is not possible to remove all the water, when the compartment is empty, are
important points to check for the onset of coating breakdown and corrosion;
Any cracks found in the coating may indicate stress points in the vessel's structure and
must be carefully checked;
The coating in areas beneath suction bell mouths should be given special attention. High
coating abrasion in these areas may quickly lead to breakdown and the formation of
pitting;
Attention should be paid to the coloration of the coating. Changes in shade may indicate
corrosion beneath the paint.

The condition of the coating should be reported as accurately as possible. It is often very difficult
to describe the level of breakdown and simple comments such as 10% breakdown are unhelpful
and non-descriptive. Records should give the exact location of the breakdown, and should state
whether it is coating breakdown, if corrosion is evident and the type of corrosion, whether surface
powder rust, or penetrating rust. If there is hard rust evident then this should be recorded.
Where there is damage to a coating the steel should be prepared and recoated at the earliest
opportunity.
7.2.2
Structure
The Master or Chief Officer should, when circumstances permit, take the opportunity to visually
check the external hull whilst alongside a berth. If indentations or other damage more than very
minor are observed, the extent and location of the damage must be reported to the office, and a
record made on board. Photographic evidence must only be taken in accordance with company
safety procedures.
During the inspection of a compartment, checks should be made for cracks, deformation, and
corrosion. Guidance in inspecting for structural damage is as follows:
Cracks are most likely to occur where frames, girders, and webs are attached to the
double hull and where there are structural discontinuities. The first indications of cracking
are likely to be damage to the coating;
It should be remembered that once a crack has formed, it will propagate and may well
penetrate either the outer or inner hull. Therefore, if a crack is detected, its full extent
should be determined and then should be monitored until a repair can be affected;
Deformation, such as the buckling of frames, webs and plating, is a potentially serious
problem and any indication should be very carefully checked. It is likely that severe stress
has been placed on those structural members. Reasons can be poor design, heavy
weather, impact damage, or under or over pressurisation during cargo operations.
Any structural issues must be immediately reported to the company.
7.2.3
Corrosion
Corrosion must be kept under control. The maintenance of coatings is vital in the prevention of
corrosion. Where break down of coatings is noted then remedial action must be taken as soon as
possible.
It should be remembered that the problem of condensation and corrosion is accelerated when
heated cargoes are carried or in spaces subject to condensation, and if necessary a more
frequent inspection regime should be followed.
Areas where corrosion is often difficult to control are sounding pipes, striking plates, hangers,
brackets, and pipe work generally.

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Particular attention should be paid to the plating under suction bell mouths, where pitting may
occur. These areas are difficult to check because bell mouths are placed close to the plating, but
nevertheless it is very important that they are examined carefully.
7.2.4
Coating Maintenance
Through regular inspection the condition of the coating, which directly affects the condition of the
steel, is monitored and plans can be made for repairs to be carried out while the damage is still
relatively minor.
However, in some areas of double skin spaces this may not be practicable and surface
preparation has to be carried out using hand tools. A surface tolerant coating should be used to
ensure that the repair is effective.
The manufacturer's instructions should be followed regarding the preparation quality and method
of application of the paint.
Repairs to steel structure, should defects be found, should not be attempted by the ship's crew.
Full details of the defect should be reported to the company in order for a repair schedule to be
drawn up.
7.2.5
Sediment
Occasionally a vessel will be required to ballast in places such as rivers where there are
significant amounts of sediment suspended in the water. If sediment is found during a ballast
tank inspection then the amount should be estimated and recorded.
In accordance with the requirements of the Ballast Water Management Plan, the sediment should
be removed at the earliest opportunity.
7.2.6
Anodes
Where anodes are fitted the condition of the anodes should be reported, in terms of the
percentage of wastage. Where the wastage is greater than 75%, the anodes will require
scheduling for replacement at the next docking.
7.2.7
Bilge Pumping and Sounding Arrangements
The condition of the bilge pumping arrangements in non-cargo or ballast tanks should be
checked, particularly pipework.
7.2.8
Enclosed Space Entry
The requirements of the company enclosed space entry procedures must be strictly complied with
when carrying out compartment inspections.

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8.

Walkways and Avoiding Slips and Falls

All areas where personnel walk should be kept clean and free of obstructions at all times. Any oil
or other substance which may make the surface slippery must be immediately cleaned up.

8.1

Walkways

Walkways must be kept clear of obstructions. Equipment may only be temporarily stored on
walkways and catwalks, and must be moved to a storage location as soon as possible.
Any permanently fitted structure or fitting which might present a tripping hazard on a walkway
should be painted in a contrasting colour, such as yellow, or in the case of larger hazards such as
manholes, ringed in black and yellow stripes.
Walkways on the main deck and on the poop deck leading into the accommodation access should
have a non-slip band about 1 metre wide and be edged in yellow paint to identify where the nonslip area is.
Removable gratings must be properly secured when in place to prevent movement either when
walking over them or when the vessel is moving in a seaway.
Where there is low headroom, the reduced height should be marked either in yellow or with black
and yellow bands.
Handrails must not be used for securing objects to.
8.1.1
Openings in Walkways
Where a grating is temporarily removed from a walkway, the area must be fenced off to prevent
somebody falling into the space. Warning notices must be posted.
8.1.2
Resin and Fibre Glass Gratings
Occasionally resin or fibreglass gratings are provided in place of the usual galvanised gratings, on
walkways and at the manifold saveall. These resin or fibreglass gratings should have a certificate
attesting to their fire and chemical resistant properties.

8.2

Ladders and Companionways

The steps and handrails of ladders and companionways must be kept clean at all times. The top
and bottom steps of ladders should be painted in a contrasting colour, such as yellow. If deemed
necessary, the steps of ladders which present a slipping hazard should be covered in a non-slip
material.
During internal inspections the security of handrails and steps on inter-deck companionways
must be checked to ensure that they are secure.

8.3

Mooring Areas

Mooring areas on the focsle and the poop deck must be coated with effective non-slip surfaces.
The entire working area should be coated, which may result in all the focsle head and all the
poop requiring coating.
Tripping hazards in mooring areas, such as eyebolts in the deck, must be coated in a contrasting
colour such as yellow.

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8.4

Manifold Areas

Where the height of the manifold platform is 2 metres or more above the level of the main deck,
the platform must be fitted with a handrail around the circumference.
Masters may consider that such a precaution is required even where the height is less than 2
metres.

8.5

Working Aloft Safety Equipment

Whenever a person works more than 2 metres above the deck level, a safety harness must be
used. Form FR 6.10 - Work Permit must be completed prior to the work taking place.
Where a person is working in any location where it is possible that they might fall into the sea,
both a safety harness and a life vest which provides buoyancy, must be worn. A lifebuoy and line
must be immediately available at the work site. A responsible person must supervise such work
whilst it is being undertaken.
Under no circumstances is it permitted to work overboard when the vessel is making
way.
Whenever a person is working aloft there must be an attendant at deck level to assist as
required. If working in an area where the inadvertent operation of any machinery might
prejudice the safety of the person working aloft, such as on a radar mast, the notice CCR9 Working Aloft must be posted.
8.5.1
Safety Harnesses
Each vessel should have at least three safety harnesses on board. Only harnesses with webbing
straps over the shoulders, around the waist and between the legs are to be used. Belt type
safety harnesses, the use of which may result in significant internal injury, are not permitted
aboard Columbia vessels and should be disposed of.
Safety harnesses are to be properly stored, under the control of the Chief Officer, away from any
substance, such as paint or chemicals, which may damage them. Each harness is to be
individually identified and regularly checked for condition. Records of inspection are to be
maintained.
Safety harnesses must be checked every 3 months and the ECF2 - Lifting Equipment Safety
Harnesses Check completed. Safety harnesses must also be personally checked by the Chief
Officer prior to each use and the record completed.
8.5.2
Working Life Vests
Each vessel should have at least three working life vests on board. These should be of the
positive buoyancy type.
The use of inflatable life vests is discouraged because of the
maintenance that they require, and once the CO2 cartridge has expired they should be disposed
of and replaced with a working vest type.
Working life vests are to be properly stored, under the control of the Chief Officer, away from any
substance, such as paint or chemicals, which may damage them. Each working life vest is to be
individually identified and regularly checked for condition. Records of inspection are to be
maintained.
Working life vests must be checked every 3 months and the ECF3 - Lifting Equipment
Working Life Vests Check completed. Working life vests must also be personally checked by
the Chief Officer prior to each use and the record completed.

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Lifejackets must not be used in place of working vests.


8.5.3
Bosuns Chairs
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that bosuns chairs are properly stowed away from
any substance, such as paint or chemicals, which may damage them. Prior to use, the condition
of the seat and the rope work is to be thoroughly checked for condition. If there is any doubt as
to the condition, the chair is to be withdrawn from service.
Safety harnesses must always be used when working from bosuns chairs and if necessary,
working life vests. Bosuns chairs must be secured to the gantline by a double sheet bend and
the end seized to the standing part with an adequate tail.
Winches must not be used to haul a person aloft in a bosuns chair it should be carried out only
by hand.
8.5.4
Stages
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that stages are properly stowed away from any
substance, such as paint or chemicals, which may damage them. Prior to use the condition of
the stage and associated rope work is to be thoroughly checked for condition. If there is any
doubt as to the condition, the stage is to be withdrawn from service.
Safety harnesses must always be used when working from bosuns chairs, and if necessary,
working life vests.
8.5.5
Gantlines
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that gantlines are properly stowed away from any
substance, such as paint or chemicals, which may damage them. Prior to use, the condition of
the gantline is to be thoroughly checked for condition. If there is any doubt as to the condition,
the stage is to be withdrawn from service.

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9.

Working with Tools

9.1

General Precautions

A tool is designed for one particular function and no other. It should be treated with respect. The
material of which it is made is appropriate to the intended purpose but usually not for others.
Files are hard but brittle, screwdriver shanks bend where levers do not, pliers may slip on nuts.
For every job, the proper tools in the right sizes should be available and used. Tools used for a
purpose for which they were not designed may cause injury to the user and damage to the work
piece and the tools.
Damaged or worn tools should not be used. Handles of hammers, screwdrivers and chisels should
be secure; wooden handles should be straight-grained, smooth and without splinters. Punches
and cold chisels with jagged heads should not be used. Cutting edges should be kept sharp and
clean. Faces of hammers, punches and spanners should be true. The repair and dressing of tools
should be carried out by a competent person.
When not in use, they should be stowed tidily in a suitable tool rack, box or carrier, with cutting
edges protected.
Tools should only be used for the purpose for which they intended. Personnel should only use
the correct tools for the intended task.
When using moving machinery, loose clothing or jewellery must be avoided. Long hair should be
tied back or covered. Personal protective equipment such as goggles, working boots, aprons etc
must be used as necessary
Prior to use, equipment must be checked to ensure that it is in good order.
applies to machinery such as grinders and electrical equipment.

9.2

This particularly

Hand Tools

Damaged or worn tools should not be used. Cutting edges should be clean and sharp.
repair or dressing of hand tools should be carried out by a competent person.

9.3

The

Portable Power Operated Tools

9.3.1
General Provisions
Power operated tools may be dangerous unless properly maintained, handled and used correctly.
Because of the greatly increased risk of electric shock from supplies at main voltage, portable
electric equipment for use in particularly damp or humid conditions should be of low voltage. The
flexible cables of electric tools should comply with the relevant Flag State Legislation and be of the
minimum rating practicable. This is most important if double insulated tools are used.
Double insulated tools (where the exposed metal parts are not designed for earth connection) are
not recommended for use on ships because water (which may be salt-laden) can provide a
contact between live parts and the casing, increasing the risk of a fatal shock when the tool is
used.
Before using portable electrical equipment, and after use, the electric cable and connections must
be carefully examined for damage, and defects should be repaired and the tool tested by a
competent person before its re-use.

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Where cables pass through doorways or hatches, the access must be properly secured open to
prevent damage to the cable. During breaks electrical equipment should be isolated from their
power source. Electric leads and the hoses of pneumatic and hydraulic tools should be kept clear
of damage from nails, sharp edges, hot surfaces, oil and chemicals etc. Where leads or hoses
pass through doorways or other openings, the doors etc. should be secured open. Where they
trail across decks or passageways, leads or hoses should wherever possible be suspended high
enough to give clearance over men passing beneath. Where this is not possible and they lie on
deck, they should be protected with suitable guards.
Accessories or tool pieces should be absolutely secure in the tool. In particular, retaining
springs, clamps, locking levers and other built-in safety devices on pneumatic tools should be
replaced after the tool piece (drill, bit, chisel etc.) is changed. Serious injuries can be caused if
any of these are omitted, since the tool piece may be ejected with considerable force when power
is applied. Accessories of fitments should not be fixed or replaced while the tool is connected to
a source of power.
Where a safety guard is needed for a particular operation, it should be securely fixed before work
begins; if it is removed for changing an accessory, it should be replaced immediately.
During a temporary interruption of work, power tools should be switched off and disconnected
from the source of power and left in a safe position with leads clear of passageways. A check that
the switch or control is off should be protected.
The vibration caused by reciprocating tools (pneumatic drills, hammers, chisels etc) or high
speed rotating tools (e.g. drills) can give rise to a disablement of the hands known as dead or
white fingers. In its initial stages, this appears as a numbness of the fingers and an increasing
sensitivity to cold but in more advanced stages, the hands become blue and the finger tips
swollen.
9.3.2 Air-Driven Equipment
Air driven tools are generally safer to use but operators should be aware of the dangers of
whiplash from the air hose if an air connection comes apart. Prior to use, the integrity of air
connections must be carefully checked.
When compressed air is used, the pressure should be kept no higher than is necessary to operate
the equipment satisfactorily.
Whiplash from pneumatic hoses in the event of breakage of couplings may be prevented by fitting
a chain linkage between the couplings of an air hose.
Compressed air should not be used to clean a working area, and in no circumstances should
compressed air be directed at any part of the body.
9.3.3 Compressed Gas Cylinders
Compressed gas cylinders should always be handled with care, whether full or empty. They should
be properly secured and kept upright. If available, cylinder trolleys should be used to transport
cylinders from one place to another.
Oxygen and Acetylene cylinders must be stored in separate compartments at least one metre
apart. Full and empty cylinders should be segregated. Cylinders should be stored in a place
where they will not be subject to extremes in temperature.
Piping to the engine room workshop from the cylinders must be of welded steel construction and
should be colour coded blue for Oxygen and red for Acetylene. Flashback arresters must be
fitted at both the cylinders and the workstation.

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The protective caps over the valve should be screwed in place when the cylinders are not in use or
being moved. Valves should be closed when the work has been completed.
Special precautions as follows need to be taken in the case of cylinders of Oxygen and Acetylene
or other fuel gases:

Cylinder valves, controls and associated fittings should be kept free from oil, grease and
paint. Control should not be operated with oily hands;

Gas should not be taken from such cylinders unless the correct pressure reducing regulator
has been attached to the cylinder outlet valve;

Cylinders found to have leaks that cannot be stopped by closing the outlet valve should be
taken to the open deck away from any sources of heat or ignition and slowly discharged to
the atmosphere.
9.3.4 Use of Machinery
No one should operate a machine unless authorised to do so. The operator should be competent
in its use and familiar with its controls.
All dangerous parts of machines should be provided with efficient guards, which should be
properly secured before the machine is put into operation. Self-adjusting guards are preferable
where the position of the guard has to relate to the work piece. Grinding machines should be
fitted with eye screens, which need to be renewed from time to time.
Guards should be made preferably in solid material. Where they are of perforated metal, mesh or
bars, the openings should not be large enough to allow a finger to be inserted to reach a
dangerous part. Controls of machines and switches for supplementary lighting, where they are
provided, should not be so placed that the operator has to lean over the machine to reach them.
A machine should be checked every time before use. It should not be operated when a guard or
safety device is missing, incorrectly adjusted or defective, or when it is itself in any way faulty. If
defective in any respect, the machine should be isolated from its source of power prior to any
adjustment or repair. Only a competent person should attempt repairs; unskilled interference
with electrical equipment in particular is highly dangerous.
9.3.5 Working Areas
Working areas should be kept uncluttered and, as far as practicable, free of litter and spilled oil.
Loose gear, tools and equipment not required for immediate use should be cleared away and
properly stowed. Work benches should be well lit and some machines may require individual
supplementary lights.
Swarf (metal turnings, filings and the like) should not be allowed to pile up around a machine.
The machine should be stopped for its removal. A rake or similar device should be used for the
purpose, never the bare hands.
Before a lathe or drill is started, the chuck key should be removed and the operator should make
sure that other people are clear of the machine.
Where a machine is driven by a V-belt in conjunction with a stepped pulley, and alterations in
spindle speed require a change in the belt position, means should be provided if practicable for
the belt tension to be eased during that operation; the position of the belt should never be
changed while the machine is running.
A heavy item of equipment brought into a workshop for repair should be made secure against
accidental movement.
Work pieces for drilling or milling should be at all times securely held by a machine vice or clamp.

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9.3.6 Personal Protective Equipment when using Tools and Machinery


Appropriate eye and face protection should be worn during chipping, scaling, wire brushing,
grinding and similar work where particles may fly; this is a special risk in turning brass. Where
sanding or other processes generate a lot of dust in the air, dust masks or respirators should be
worn. Other personnel working in the area may also need the protection detailed above.
9.3.7 Abrasive wheels
Abrasive wheels should be selected, mounted and used only by competent persons and in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Abrasive wheels are relatively fragile and should
be stored and handled with care.
The manufacturers instructions should be followed on the selection of the correct type of wheel
for the job in hand. Generally, soft wheels are more suitable for hard material and hard wheels
for soft material.
Before a wheel is mounted, it should be brushed clean and closely inspected to ensure that it has
not been damaged in storage or transit. The soundness of a verified wheel can be further
checked by suspending it vertically and tapping it gently. If the wheels sounds dead it is probably
cracked, and should not be used.
A wheel should fit freely but not loosely on the spindle; if the fit is unduly tight, the wheel may
crack as the heat of operation causes the spindle to expand.
The clamping nut should be tightened only sufficiently to hold the wheel firmly. When the flanges
are clamped by a series of screws, the screws should be first screwed home with the fingers and
diametrically opposite pairs tightened in sequence.
The speed of the spindle should not exceed the stated maximum permissible speed for the wheel.
A strong guard should be provided and kept in position at every abrasive wheel (unless the nature
of the work absolutely precludes its use) both to contain wheel parts in the event of a burst and to
prevent an operator having contact with the wheel. The guard should enclose as much of the
wheel as possible.
Where a work rest is provided, it should be properly secured to the machine and should be
adjusted as close as practicable to the wheel, the gap normally is 1.5 mm or less. The work piece
should never be held in cloth or pliers.
The side of a wheel should not be used for grinding; it is particularly dangerous when the wheel is
appreciably worn.
When dry grinding operations are being carried out or when an abrasive wheel is being trued or
dressed, suitable transparent screens should be fitted in front of the exposed part of the wheel or
operators should wear properly fitting eye protectors.
9.3.8 Use of Electrical Equipment on Tankers
Electrical equipment must not be used within a gas hazardous area on a tanker unless the area
has been certified as gas free, company hot work procedures have been complied with, or the
equipment is Ex rated for use within a gas hazardous area.
All tankers have been supplied with air driven tools for use on deck and in gas-hazardous areas.

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10.

Denzo Tape

Denzo tape has very limited capabilities with respect to the protection of wires or pipework.
Unless very carefully applied, water can get under the tape resulting in accelerated corrosion.
Because the wire or pipe is covered in tape, it is impossible to monitor corrosion without
removing it, and the entire length of wire or pipe cannot be monitored without removing all the
tape. Finally, despite its protective qualities, Denzo tape deteriorates over time, and eventually
breaks down it therefore requires periodic replacement.
The company has a policy on the use of Denzo tape. It should not be used in the following
places:
Standing rigging;
Any wires associated with safety equipment, such as lifeboat falls, gripes, and fire flap
releases;
Any wires used for lifting, such as gangway slings;
Any part of any lifting equipment;
Anchor securing wires;
Fire wires;
Around hydraulic pipe work;
Around any wires which serve as removable handrails, such as those adjacent to liferafts;
Around VJ couplings and expansion joints;
Heating coils.
However, occasionally a vessel is delivered with certain pipelines, such as steam lines, with Denzo
tape applied professionally. This should be left in place until such time as deterioration of the
tape is obvious, or there is a reason to suspect that the condition of the pipe under the tape is
deteriorating. The deteriorated sections of tape should then be removed.
Denzo

tape may be used in the following places, but in as small a quantity as possible:
Electrical equipment, to prevent water ingress;
Turnbuckles and bottlescrews, but only around the thread of the screws;
COW machine gear box covers.

Whenever Denzo tape is applied, it must be done so with considerable care to ensure that the
tape provides an effective seal against water ingress. The equipment being coated in tape must
be clean and dry before the tape is applied.

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11.

The Handling and Storage of Chemicals and Pesticides

11.1

Chemicals

11.1.1 General Provisions


Chemicals are purchased and supplied to the vessels for onboard use as cleaning agents or
additives. Chemicals are often toxic or corrosive, or both, and can be skin sensitive. Some
chemicals when heated may give off irritating fumes.
Exposure to chemical vapours, or coming into contact with them without protective equipment,
may result in injury; exposure to aggressive chemicals may lead to death.
The chemicals which are supplied to the fleet are provided with Material Safety Data Sheets which
describe the health hazard to users, the precautions to be taken when using the chemical, and the
first aid to be provided if people are affected by the chemicals.
11.1.2 Storage of Chemicals
Chemical containers maybe damaged during sea passage if they are not properly stored and
secured at dedicated rooms. All chemicals, whether for deck or engine room use, shall be stored
under controlled conditions. The following procedures must be complied with:
The chemical locker must be properly marked with specific warning signs;
Chemicals which might react with one another must be stored sufficiently widely
separated;
Chemicals must not be stored over or adjacent to other equipment;
A record of chemicals on board should be maintained;
Material Safety Data Sheets, for each chemical, must be available adjacent to the chemical
storage;
The chemical locker must be properly ventilated;
Safety equipment must be immediately available close to the chemical storage area. The
equipment should consist of:
Eye protection which fully covers the eyes, and without ventilation openings. A
face shield is preferable to goggles;
Elbow length gloves;
Chemical resistant apron;
An eye wash or washes.
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that all deck chemicals are stored in one area. If any
of the chemicals are flammable, then if stored within a compartment fire protection must be
provided. If the area of the locker is less than 4 m2 then an extinguisher will suffice, if more than
4 m2 then a fixed installation must be fitted.
The 2nd Engineer is responsible for ensuring that all engine room chemicals are properly and
safely stored in one area, except for ready use chemicals.
Material Safety Data Sheets should have been provided with the chemical at the time it was
placed on board. If not, every effort must be made to obtain an up to date MSDS from the
supplier. Prior to using a chemical the person using it should familiarise themselves with the
content of the MSDS. Chemicals which do not have suitable MSDS should not be accepted.
Chemicals need not be housed in sealed lockers. However, adequate control over the distribution
and use of chemicals must be maintained, and any seafarer using a chemical must be conversant
with both how to use it, the dilution necessary and what action to take if the chemical is either
accidentally spilled or personnel come into contact with it.
If a chemical is found in an unmarked container it should not be used but should always be
disposed of.
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Empty chemicals containers must be thoroughly cleaned before being disposed of.
When using caustic, always add the caustic slowly to the water, never the other way round.
11.1.3 Using Chemicals
Chemicals should be handled only under supervision of a competent responsible officer, who shall
ensure that:

Chemicals are never used without reference to the MSDS;

The manufacturers advice on the correct use of the chemicals should always be followed;

Chemicals should not be mixed unless it is known that dangerous reactions will not be
caused;

Seafarers using chemicals, even though diluted, shall wear the correct safety gear;

Smoking and naked flames should be prohibited while chemical handling is in progress;

Fire fighting equipment should be immediately available;


11.1.4 Medical First Aid
In the event of accidental exposure to a dangerous substance, reference should be made to the
Medical First Aid Guide for Use in Accidents Involving Dangerous Good, in the IMDG Code.

11.2

Pesticides and Fumigants

Pesticides broadly fall into two categories Pesticides and Fumigants. Generally Pesticides are
supplied in aerosol spray cans, and Fumigants in a gaseous state.
11.2.1 Pesticides
Some Pesticides are toxic to some degree but in general those for the control of insects are
harmless. However, they should not be used in food preparation areas when food is present.
If there are significant problems with flying insects in areas such as galleys and mess rooms, the
supply of ultra violet insect killing devices should be considered.
11.2.2 Fumigants
Fumigants are used where there is an infestation of insects such as cockroaches. These cases are
normally dealt with using shore services and Fumigants should neither be carried nor used on
board Columbia vessels without prior company approval.

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12.

Fabric Maintenance

12.1

General Procedures

Company policy is to promote an image of a well maintained fleet of vessels. A well maintained
vessel also reflects well upon the crew who man it. However, the main purpose of fabric
maintenance is the control of corrosion.

12.2

Responsibility

The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that the coatings in all areas, including the external
hull but excluding the engine room and associated compartments is maintained in accordance
with company standards.
The Second Engineer is responsible for ensuring that the engine room and all associated areas,
including the steering compartment, is maintained in accordance with company standards.

12.3

Stores and Other Storage Areas

All areas must be maintained clean and tidy. Any oil deposits must be immediately dealt with.
Store rooms must be kept free from rubbish and redundant equipment, which should be disposed
of at the earliest opportunity.

12.4

Type of Coating

Each vessel has a specification for which type and colour of paint to be used for each area, and
this must be complied with.
Some areas such as steam lines require specialised paints and these must be used as necessary.
Ordinary coatings must not be used for these applications.

12.5

Application of Coatings

Paint coatings must be applied on well prepared surfaces, which must be clean and free from oil,
salt, water or other deposits. The application of coatings should be avoided at times of high
humidity, i.e. above 85%.
Any corrosion must be effectively removed and the area cleaned before the coating is applied. It
is very important that any corrosion is completely removed, the area cleaned, and the coating
applied as soon as possible, preferably within a few minutes. Corrosion resumes immediately
bare steel is exposed. It is far better to clean the corrosion from a small area and immediately
coat it, than to descale a large area and delay the application of a coating. At least two coats of
primer should be applied the same day and when remedial action to remove corrosion is being
undertaken the work must be planned to allow sufficient time for this.
When applying coatings, equipment such as thermometers, controls, grease nipples, valve
spindles, labels, identification tags, packing, fire boxes, electric cables etc. must be protected. It
is simply poor workmanship to paint over such items. When painting above another surface, the
area below must be protected against paint splashes.

12.6

Protection of Coatings

Care must be taken whenever moving objects around the deck to avoid damaging the coatings.
Protection such as the use of trolleys, wooden blocks etc should be used.

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12.7

Management of Paint and Paint Lockers

Paint must be properly secured on the shelves so that it cannot move in a seaway.
Older stocks of paint are to be used first. Cans of paint should not be opened unnecessarily, but
when opened must be properly sealed in order to prevent the paint drying out.
An inventory of paint stocks must be maintained by the Chief Officer on the form ECF8 Monthly Paint and Thinner Inventory.
12.7.1 Paint Lockers
All paint must be stored in a paint locker which is protected by a fire fighting system or other
extinguishing means:
For lockers of less than 4 m2 deck area, an externally applied fire extinguishing
arrangement, such as a extinguisher or a fire hose can be used, but there must be the
facility to use it from outside the space. If an extinguisher is provided it must be located
adjacent to the port through which it is to be used;
For lockers of more than 4 m2 deck area, a fixed fire fighting system, either CO2, dry
powder or water, must be fitted.

12.8

Personnel Protection when Painting and Scaling

When painting and scaling personnel should be provided with suitable respiratory protection.
12.8.1 Filter Masks
Under no circumstances is it permitted to use filter masks as protection against cargo or chemical
vapours.

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13.

Accommodation Ventilation

In order to prevent the ingress of hydrocarbons or toxic gas if there was an incident either on
deck or at the terminal, the accommodation must be maintained under positive pressure whilst
the vessel is alongside.
It should be borne in mind that sanitary and galley exhausts will extract a certain volume of air
out of the accommodation on a continuous basis.
The accommodation ventilation or air
conditioning systems should therefore not be set on 100% recirculation, but there should be
enough intake of fresh air to maintain a slight positive pressure.
Positive pressure will to tend to reduce the amount of warm air drawn into the accommodation
from outside when doors are opened, or from the engine room or galley.

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14.

Communications, Electrical and Radio Equipment

14.1

General Provisions

The use of non-intrinsically safe electrical equipment is strictly prohibited in any gas hazardous
area. Such equipment includes mobile telephones, torches, pagers, portable lamps, handheld
computers, cameras and any other device which has an electrical source of power.
The entire main deck area and foc'sle head, forward of a line 3 metres aft of the accommodation
front, should be considered a gas hazardous area. Any space which opens onto the main deck of
a tanker such as a pump room or compartments either on deck or in the foc'sle space must also
be considered gas hazardous areas.
In areas outside the accommodation block, engine room and other internal compartments, the
use of electrical equipment can be considered provided that a risk assessment is undertaken and
a Hot Work Permit completed. Such areas might include outside the accommodation aft of the 3
metre line and compartments in the foc's'le space which have double door protection from the
main deck.

14.2

The Use of Cameras

If photography is to be undertaken in a gas hazardous area - such as the main deck or focsle photographic equipment which does not have a flash or any battery or power operated parts,
such as the non-flash plastic disposable type, must be used. These cameras can be considered
safe for use in hazardous areas.
If photography requiring a flash or the use of other electrical equipment is to be undertaken in
ballast tanks or other compartments which open onto the main deck:
The compartment within which the equipment is to be used must be safe for hot work;
The adjacent compartments must also be safe for hot work, or have been purged of
hydrocarbon to less than 2% by volume and inerted, or are completely filled with ballast
water, or any combination of these; and
All tank openings to other compartments not safe for hot work or purged as above are
closed and remain so.

14.3

Torches

All torches on board the tanker fleet, regardless of where they are to be used, must be certified
safe for use in gas hazardous areas.
It is the responsibility of the Master or his delegated responsible person, to ensure that all
torches which are received from ship chandlers are clearly stamped on the case that they are Ex
rated. If this is not so the torches must be returned to the provider.

14.4

Radio Equipment

Personnel should be aware that the use of radio equipment during cargo or ballast handling
operations can be potentially dangerous.

14.5

Satellite Communications Equipment

This equipment normally operates at 1.6 gHz and the power levels generated are not sufficient to
present an ignition hazard. Satellite communications equipment may therefore be used to
transmit and receive messages as normal in port.

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14.6

HF and MF Radio Equipment

Transmissions from HF and MF radio equipment (300 KHz to 30 MHz) can radiate significant
energy and may induce an electrical potential in unearthed receivers such as stays and rigging
up to 500 metres from the transmitting antennae. This electrical potential may produce an
incendive spark, even though insulators are fitted.
Such equipment should not therefore be used when alongside a terminal or other vessel where
gas hazardous atmospheres might exist. The aerials of HF and MF equipment should be earthed
where possible. Each vessel must determine the way in which the aerial can be earthed, and
which may be one of the following:
A keyboard command;
A manually operated isolation switch;
By manually disconnecting the aerial;
By switching the equipment off.

14.7

VHF and UHF Radio Equipment

The use of permanently and correctly installed VHF and UHF equipment during cargo operations is
considered safe. However, the transmission power of such equipment should be set to a low
power of not more than 1 watt where possible.

14.8

Portable VHF and UHF Radios

The use of portable VHF/UHF radios within a terminal or on board ship presents no hazards as
long as the equipment is certified and maintained to intrinsically safe standards. Each radio must
have an identification label on the equipment stating that it is Ex rated and must be individually
identified.
It is of the utmost importance that portable radios are maintained in good condition. The Chief
Officer must check portable radios regularly and if there is any evidence whatsoever of damage to
a portable radio, the battery, or the aerial, then it must be withdrawn from service and either
returned ashore for repair or replaced. It should be noted that a damaged aerial, even though it
can be easily removed and is not part of the electrically powered part of the radio, is considered
to affect the intrinsically safe rating of the radio and therefore radios must not be used with
damaged aerials.
Portable radios must not be used without their protective cases. In order to avoid dropping the
equipment, the harness must be secured to the wearer.

14.9

Radars

Radars present no radio ignition hazard due to induced currents, nor are there any significant
health risks providing sensible precautions such as not looking directly into a scanner from close
range are taken.
The only issue with radars is that the scanner motor will not be Ex rated, but since it will always
be sited well outside the gas-hazardous area, this does not, under normal circumstances, present
a problem. The testing and servicing of radars in port is therefore considered safe unless there
are accumulations of hydrocarbons present, such as might be experienced on calm, hot days.
However, it is good practice to either switch radars off or to standby whilst alongside, and to
consult with the terminal before testing them.

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14.10 Automatic Identification System (AIS)


The AIS operates on a VHF frequency and transmits and receives information automatically, and
the output power ranges between 1 and 12 watts or more. Even when set to low power,
automatic polling by another station may cause some types of equipment to reply at the highest
wattage setting, even when initially set to low power.
When alongside a terminal or port area where hydrocarbon gases may be present, either the AIS
should be switched off or the aerial isolated and the AIS given a dummy load. Isolating the aerial
preserves manually input data that may be lost if the AIS is switched off. However, some port
authorities may request that the AIS is kept on when a ship is alongside, and the Master should
determine if this is the case.
When involved in STS operations, the AIS should remain in use at all times, including during
cargo operations. The equipment need not be set to low power output.

14.11 Telephones and Pagers


The great majority of mobile phones and pagers are not intrinsically safe and are only considered
safe for use in non-hazardous areas. The use of them should therefore be restricted to inside the
accommodation. It is important that the deck watch intercepts all persons boarding the vessel
and ensures that any mobile phones or pagers they are carrying are turned off.
When there is a direct telephone connection from the ship to the shore control room or
elsewhere, telephone cables should preferably be routed outside the dangerous zone. Whenever
this is not feasible, the cable should be routed and fixed in position by qualified shore personnel
and should be protected against mechanical damage.

14.12 Communication with the Terminal


Communication must be maintained between the vessel and the terminal. Communication can be
either by telephone, portable radio, or, in exceptional circumstances, by word of mouth.
Communications should be checked at regular intervals and the Master must be informed if there
is a failure, at which time consideration should be given to stopping cargo operations until
communication is restored.
In terminals where communication is solely by word of mouth between the jetty and the vessel,
the deck watch must remain in contact with the jetty operator and must be able to adequately
converse with them.

14. Communications, Electrical and Radio Equipment


DCO (Tankers) Deck Operations (Rev. O-1)

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DECK and CARGO


OPERATIONS
MANUAL
Part A
Cargo Operations General
Part A - General Section
DCO (Tankers) Cargo Operations

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

1.

Commercial Instructions and Voyage Planning

1.1

Introduction

Columbia, as a ship management company, is responsible for operating the vessels under its
management in the most efficient and profitable manner for their customers, having due regard
to safety and environmental protection. This responsibility derives from the Companys obligation
to provide a quality, full technical management service.
Columbia is not generally involved in commercial operations and often commercial matters are
dealt with by the owner or their agent, in which case they may issue their own procedures and
instructions. However, if there is a commercial agreement then Columbia or one of its affiliated
commercial operations offices may issue specific instructions to the vessels involved.
For vessels that are not commercially managed by Columbia, the company should be notified if
the commercial procedures and guidelines issued by the owners, their agents or charterers differ
from those of Columbia in this Chapter
Regardless of the difficulties presented by not performing a commercial function, Columbia
endeavours to offer a first class service including performance, readiness to receive, handle and
discharge cargo, and to perform voyages without undue delay and cargo loss or damage.
Columbia, whether commercially responsible or not, remains responsible for ensuring a quick and
efficient turnaround in port as this is related to the vessels technical fitness. Masters should
therefore ensure the vessels fitness and readiness and should:
Serve the charterers and cargo interests in a professional manner;
Operate the vessel in the most economical way;
Optimise the performance;
Maintain the highest technical standards; and
Ensure that safety is always given the highest priority.
In addition to the instructions received from the owners, commercial operators or charterers,
Columbia also has a responsibility to supply the Master with all the information necessary to
assist him in protecting the owners interests and to operate efficiently through in-house and
external experts.
The vessel may be let on time charter and the relationship between the owners, the vessel and
the charterer is governed by the terms of the charter-party. The charterer may carry out many
of the aspects of the commercial operation of the ship, such as booking cargo, arranging for the
issue of Bills of Lading, arranging delivery of cargo at the destination, etc. Charterers have the
right to instruct the Master, but legitimately only to the extent permitted by the charter-party.
Charterers interests may conflict with the owners interests and their instructions may not
necessarily comply with the charter party, prudent safe operating procedures, or law. The Master
should therefore carefully assess orders from charterers and verify that they do not conflict with
the charter party, prudent safe operating procedures, or law.
The company must be informed of:
Any instructions from the charterer which contradict law, safe operating practice, or the
terms of the charter-party;
Any problem or any potential problem that may affect the smooth operation of the vessel,
or which may lead to loss, damage or delay to the ship or cargo, or involve risk of injury.
It is the Masters responsibility to follow the owners or charterers legitimate instructions and to
keep the company informed.
If at any time the Master has concerns with respect to seaworthiness, cargo care,
dangerous cargoes or with any other matter, then the company, owner and charterer
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must be immediately informed.


becoming a larger one.

1.2

Early notification can prevent a small problem

Seaworthiness

The companys reputation, and that of the owner, is largely maintained by the vessels properly
performing the services required by charterers and cargo owners, particularly in delivering the
cargo without loss, damage or delay. This requires that the Master ensures that the vessel is
seaworthy, properly prepared to receive the cargo, and that it is cared for from the time loading
starts until all cargo is safely discharged. These are the legal obligations imposed by The Hague,
Hague-Visby and Hamburg Rules.
Due vigilance must be exercised to ensure that the cargo is safely handled during loading and
discharging, and that the stowage is adequate for the particular cargo with due consideration for
the expected weather conditions.
Seaworthiness has a broad meaning covering all aspects of the vessels operation, including:
The condition of the vessel;
The condition of all equipment, including navigation equipment, propulsion machinery,
auxiliary engines, steering gear, cargo handling and cargo care equipment (according to
the type of ship) etc.;
The numbers, competence and qualifications of the crew, including their ability to deal
with any unusual or emergency situation;
The cleanliness and general suitability of the cargo compartments, tanks, pumps, lines,
etc., as appropriate for the trade;
Adequate supplies of provisions, good quality bunkers, spare parts, etc.;
Charts and passage planning;
The stowage of the cargo;
Draft, trim and stability;
Proper safe procedures and systems of working.
The Master should ensure that he has a basic working knowledge of the Hague, Hague-Visby, and
Hamburg rules. These rules tolerate no excuses for failure of the carrier to deliver cargo other
than in the same apparent condition and quantity as that loaded, and without delay. Only the
highest degree of care and diligence is accepted.

1.3

Speed and Fuel Consumption

Should the vessel be unable to perform a voyage at the speed or fuel consumption required by
the charter-party or in accordance with the commercial operators instructions, then the company
must be promptly advised together with the reason for not being able to achieve the required
speed.
When calculating the commercial performance of the vessel with respect to the charter-party,
periods of bad weather are excluded. A description of exclusion periods will either be in the
charter-party or in other instructions from the charterers or commercial operators. If in doubt
the Master is to request clarification from the commercial operator.
When reporting the noon wind force on Form OP811, or on the charterers equivalent form, the
wind speed used must be that which prevailed during the entire reporting period and not
necessarily the wind force that existed at noon. For example, if the wind was force 6 between
1600 and 0400 the following day, then reduced to force 4 by 1200 hrs, force 6 should be
recorded on the form, not force 4, as otherwise the owners will be penalised for reduced speed
unreasonably.

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It is of significant importance that clear, unambiguous remarks are entered where, for any
reason, the speed or fuel consumption are not in accordance with charter-party warranties. Such
remarks might include:
Speed reduced due to charterers instructions, reduced visibility, traffic congestion;
Increased fuel consumption due to hold cleaning, ventilation or other cargo related
activities.
Vessels that operate with a shaft generator and it has not been in operation are requested to
record the reason in the Voyage Abstract, such as heavy weather or traffic congestion and as a
result more oil fuel was used.
Where the vessel achieves a higher daily speed than that required, for example, as a result of
favourable weather or tidal conditions, and unless Master receives instructions from the
commercial operators to the contrary, this higher speed should be maintained PROVIDED the
daily fuel consumption remains within that of the charter-party or as instructed. For example, if
the charter-party speed is 15 knots on a consumption of 55 mts per day, and the vessel achieves
a higher daily speed the Master must not reduce speed as long as the daily fuel consumption is
within the original 55 mts. The reason for this is that while charter-parties allow for adverse wind
over a certain force, they do not take into consideration unfavourable currents or swell which
often leads to a speed reduction. Therefore, any speed gained as a result of favourable
conditions in one voyage can be used to offset adverse conditions on another because
performance calculations are normally carried out on an annual basis.

1.4

Commercial Operations Requiring Company Approval

The following should not be carried out without prior written company approval:
The signing of a Bill of Lading if it contains inaccurate information, for example:
The cargo quantity is disputed;
There is water in the cargo that is not referred to in the Bills of Lading;
The product name or specification is not as per the shippers or terminal Quality
Certificate;
Co-mingling of cargo or carrying out Load On Top;
Loading multi-grade incompatible cargoes without double valve segregation;
Receiving line displacement from a shore line;
Providing a line plug with sea water with cargo on board;
Transferring cargo from one cargo tank to another;
Complying with instructions from a terminal, shipper, receiver or local agents which are
contrary to the charterer's voyage orders or operators instructions.
The carriage of dangerous cargoes as described in the IBC Code, which have been
excluded from the charter-party or from the vessels Certificate of Fitness;
Solvent spraying in cargo tanks.

1.5

Voyage Orders

The voyage orders should contain at least the following elements:


The voyage number;
The rotation (loading and discharge ports, and ranges);
Technical names, trade names, quantities and margins of each grade;
The type of charter-party, including the date of the charter-party;
Laydays and cancelling date (laycan);
Any particular cargo characteristics;
Details of the required cargo care (e.g. heating instructions, purging, inerting, padding,
drying, separation and compatibility, etc.);
Any particular charterers requirements (e.g. speed to be maintained on voyage);
Any particular port requirements;

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A request to issue an order for bunkers within the margins required by the commercial
operators of the vessel. Should the margins required by the commercial operators be less
than those set in the companys Safety Management System, then the company should be
informed and a final decision sought.

It is the Masters responsibility to ensure that the cargo is correctly and safely stowed and
handled during the voyage, and that the loading and discharging operations are satisfactorily
carried out.
The Master is therefore expected to carefully study the voyage orders and:
Review the voyage orders and ensure that they are feasible, practicable and do not in any
way compromise the safety of the vessel;
Ensure that there is enough information in the voyage orders, including that listed below,
to safely and satisfactorily complete the instructions contained therein;
Advise and assist the Chief Officer in the preparation for, and implementation of, the
voyage orders;
Consult the applicable publications and ensure that all their recommendations and
requirements are complied with. Such publications include, for petroleum tankers:
Company procedures;
ISGOTT.
And, in addition for chemical tankers:
Certificate of Fitness;
IBC Code;
P and A Manual;
Miracle Tank Cleaning Guide.
Ensure that the carriage requirements detailed in the IBC Code, are strictly complied
with. No dangerous cargo as described in the Code - if excluded from the charter-party or
from the Certificate of Fitness must be carried without prior approval of the company.
Where there is any doubt about whether or not a cargo can be carried then the company
must be immediately consulted.
Once the voyage orders have been reviewed and found fully acceptable in all respects, the Master
shall send a confirmatory message to the company, operators and charterers.

1.6

Voyage Planning

The Master shall pre-plan the intended voyage and must take the following into account as a
minimum:
The adequacy of the manning level;
The amount of bunkers, lubricating and hydraulic oil required;
There are adequate charts and navigation publications;
All safety equipment, including toxic product detector tubes, if required;
Sufficient amount of provisions and freshwater;
Tank cleaning materials required and available on board;
Material Safety Data Sheets are obtained for every product to be carried, regardless of
whether the grade is of chemical or petroleum nature;
Any additional equipment required for the satisfactory implementation of the voyage.

1.7

Cargo Loadable

Masters are requested to read the voyage orders very carefully and if they are in any doubt as to
exactly what is required they should immediately contact the commercial operator for further
advice. Any clarification provided by the commercial operator should be in writing.

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Upon receipt of voyage orders the Master must send the maximum quantity the vessel can load
including a full breakdown of the deadweight calculation. Form CCR101 Cargo Quantity
Request should be used to request the cargo quantity from the cargo suppliers.
The message should include, where applicable:
The maximum deadweight, taking into consideration the company Under Keel Clearance
Policy and any applicable Loadline Zones;
Cargo temperature and density;
Any limitations, for example draft restrictions at load or discharge ports and Fresh Water
Allowance;
The need for double valve segregation, compatibility with adjacent cargoes and the
carriage requirements of the IBC Code;
Bunker quantities, specifying each grade;
The deadweight constant;
Fresh water and stores;
The trim, list sheer forces and bending moments;
The final amount of cargo which the vessel can safely load.
Example:
If the vessel is fixed to load 20,000 mts + 5% more or less in owners or charterers option,
subject to no draft restrictions in the voyage orders or advised by the agents at both load and
discharge ports (if known), then the Master is to call for maximum cargo, i.e., 21,000 mt, always
providing this is within the vessels maximum deadweight and is in accordance with company
procedures for the maximum amount of cargo in each tank.
Where there are draft, deadweight, ullage or other restrictions, the Master is to call for the
maximum quantity of cargo the vessel can load whilst still complying with the restrictions.
This maximum quantity of cargo to be loaded must be stated in form CCR104 - Notice of
Readiness.
The Master is to note protest if the terminal stops the loading operation before this maximum is
reached and must immediately advise the company.

1.8

Notice of Readiness

It is a basic requirement that for laytime to commence the ship must be commercially ready to
load, which requires the ship is at the place required by the charter party and that a valid Notice
of Readiness (NOR) has been sent.
1.8.1 Tendering Notice of Readiness
CCR104 - Notice of Readiness must be tendered immediately the vessel is ready in all aspects
to load or discharge a cargo. If the vessel is not ready, any Notice of Readiness will be rendered
invalid.
Notice of Readiness should be tendered at the end of sea passage and subject to other instruction
in voyage orders. However if the vessel proceeds directly to an anchorage area, Notice of
Readiness should be tendered when the anchor is dropped and subject to other instructions in
voyage orders and not at the end of sea passage. If the vessel proceeds directly to the berth and
without delays in waiting for a pilot then Notice of Readiness should be tendered when the vessel
is alongside and all fast and following other instructions in voyage orders.
Occasionally charterers attempt to invalidate the Notice of Readiness tendered by the vessel.
Where they are successful, the point at which laytime begins depends on the clauses contained
within the governing charter-party. The tendering of an invalid Notice of Readiness may mean

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that laytime starts upon berthing or the commencement of cargo operations at the port in
question, with consequent high financial consequences.
If there is any doubt about the validity of the initial Notice of Readiness, Masters should not
hesitate to tender a second (or third, or fourth) Notice of Readiness. Second and subsequent
Notices of Readiness should be marked Without prejudice to the validity of previously tendered
Notice(s) of Readiness.
The Master shall:
Ensure that upon arrival at either the loading or discharging port, including at an
anchorage, and the ship does not berth immediately regardless of whether the berth is
occupied or not, the ship has properly complied with all entry formalities and is in full
compliance with all requirements of the charter-party for the ship to be an arrived ship,
and is otherwise ready in all respects to load or discharge the cargo without delay, before
issuing the Notice of Readiness;
Issue the Notice of Readiness as soon as he is satisfied that the ship is in all respects
ready to load or discharge as above, and following the Notice of Readiness tendering
advice in voyage orders;
Ensure that the Notice of Readiness states the time the ship was ready, e.g. the arrival
time, the exact amount of cargo to load or to discharge and any other information that
may be required according to the charter-party and/or voyage instructions;
Communicate the Notice of Readiness to the parties specified and by the means permitted
in the charter-party or voyage instructions. This may be facilitated through the nominated
agent if the vessel has to wait at an anchorage;
Ensure that the Notice of Readiness will then be forwarded by the agency to the Shipper,
Receiver, Charterer and Terminal, as applicable;
Ensure that written confirmation is received stating that the Notice of Readiness has been
forwarded and received by the Shipper, Receiver, Charterer and Terminal as applicable.
If there is any doubt about the validity of the previous Notice(s) of Readiness served, reserve the Notice of Readiness Without prejudice to the validity of previously tendered
Notices(s) of Readiness, either every 24 hours or on significant events taking place,
whichever is the sooner, such as being ordered to leave the anchorage, picking up the
pilot, upon arrival of the berth, upon connection of the lines, or commencement of loading.
Masters should note that tendering Notice of Readiness on arrival at a waiting place or
anchorage outside port limits may, in theory, be incorrect because the ship is not classed by the
local authorities as having officially arrived. However, Notice of Readiness should still be
tendered in order to start the laytime and/or damages for detention. A second Notice of
Readiness should be tendered as soon as the ship arrives within port limits. A third Notice of
Readiness may need to be tendered if the ship is required to anchor inside port limits. All
subsequent Notice(s) of Readiness must be marked Without prejudice to the validity of
previously tendered Notices(s) of Readiness.
When early loading has been authorised by the charterers, Notice of Readiness is to be tendered
upon arrival and following other new provisions agreed. A second Notice of Readiness should
also be tendered when all fast on the berth, and a third Notice of Readiness upon
commencement of laydays, if the vessel has not already berthed or commenced loading
operations. All subsequent Notice(s) of Readiness must be marked Without prejudice to the
validity of previously tendered Notice(s) of Readiness.
If, following inspection as provided for by the charter-party, the ship has been properly rejected,
the Master must serve a further Notice of Readiness Without prejudice to the validity of
previously tendered Notices(s) of Readiness, as soon as any measures to correct any problem
leading to the rejection have been completed.

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Any potential event involving delay is to be protested and reported in the CCR106 - Statement
of Facts with the reason for the delay.
1.8.2 Tendering Notice of Readiness at Multiple Ports
Masters must always tender Notice of Readiness at the first load port upon commencement of
laydays, or upon arrival whichever is latest, taking into consideration all other tendering
provisions in voyage orders.
Masters must, after completion of loading at the first load port, proceed with utmost dispatch to
the next load port.
It is imperative that a Notice of Readiness is tendered upon arrival at each load and discharge
ports.
Masters must disregard any laydays or cancelling date given in the voyage orders, or verbally
given by the terminal, agent or shipper at second or subsequent ports, as these are contractual
laycans between the supplier of the cargo and the charterer and are not applicable in connection
with the charter-party between the charterers and the owners.
1.8.3 Tendering Notice of Readiness after a USCG TVEL Inspection
In order to have a valid start time to laytime, Notice of Readiness should be tendered upon
completion of a USCG TVEL, provided the TVEL was performed prior to the commencement of
cargo operations.
If the Notice of Readiness had already been tendered prior to a USCG TVEL inspection then it
should be re-tendered upon completion of the TVEL inspection. The re-issued Notice of Readiness
should contain the wording: Issued without prejudice to the validity of any previously tendered
Notice(s) of Readiness.

1.9

Free Pratique

The Master is to request Free Pratique from the port or quarantine authority via the local agents
upon arrival at a port. This request can be sent by e-mail, fax or telex.
The Free Pratique request message must include:
Vessel name, port of registry, IMO and voyage number;
Departure port, date and time;
Arrival port, date and time;
Last port of call in the period of the last 15 days;
Ship Sanitation Control Certificate, the date of issue and validity period;
Health condition of the crew and passengers on board;
Any illness on board.
The agent is to inform the vessel of the time and date when Free Pratique has been granted.
Normally Free Pratique is granted within 6 hours of the request.
Should Free Pratique not be granted within 1 hour, then a Letter of Protest should be issued,
again either by email, telex, or fax while the vessel is still waiting outside the port. The Letter of
Protest is to be signed by the terminal representative upon berthing.

1.10

Ullage Reports

Ullage reports should be completed after loading and before discharging in order to confirm the
quantity of cargo on board. Form CCR96 Ullage Report should be used.

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The cargo quantity calculated after loading should be very similar to that calculated upon arrival
at the discharge port. Suppliers or receivers should be requested to sign the ullage reports.
Where an ullage report is prepared by shore personnel it is important to check that it is correct
before signing it. If the vessel considers that the figures are incorrect then the Master is to seek
the advice of the company.
Under no circumstances must the vessel accept an endorsement on Ullage Reports in respect of
Liquid and/or pumpable cargo. Crude carriers are likely to have some sludge or sediment
remaining in cargo tanks. Remarks in respect of ROBs must be supported by the statement
Unpumpable and unreachable with the vessels fixed pumping equipment being in normal good
working order.

1.11

Temperature Calculation

The vessel must ensure that any thermometers used for the measurement of cargo are reading
correctly. Where remote temperature monitoring equipment is fitted, the temperature must be
the average of all the levels available, preferably top, middle and bottom. Where temperatures
are taken manually, three levels must be taken.

1.12

Water Dips

Water dips are to be taken after completion of each loading operation. Ensure that the dipstick
actually reaches the bottom of the tank. If water is found, it will be very likely that the amount
will increase en route as the cargo settles. Consequently, a Letter of Protest (CCR115 - Free
Water in the Cargo) should be issued at the load port. The quantity of water present in the
cargo must always be stated in the ullage report and should be deducted from the gross cargo
quantity in order to record the net cargo quantity on board.

1.13

Gross Standard Volume

The gross standard volume must be calculated for each individual tank using the average
temperature for that tank.

1.14

Statement of Facts

The CCR106 - Statement of Facts is the basis for accounting for all time in port and should be
completed at every port. It must include all the relevant facts detailed below. The statement
must be signed by the Master, the shipper, receiver (usually the Loading Master) and the agent.
An accurately completed Statement of Facts will often assist the company in dealing with disputes
with other parties, and it is therefore important that it contains all the conditions and events that
have had an influence on the time the vessel has spent in the port.
A Statement of Facts should contain the following information, as applicable to the events in the
port:
Name of the vessel;
Voyage number;
Port of loading or discharging;
Time of end of sea-passage;
Time of arrival at NOR tendering designated area;
Name and number of the berth;
Any reason for delay at the port approaches (e.g. awaiting berth availability, terminal or
cargo readiness etc.);
Time the pilot boarded;
Time of passing a breakwater, if applicable;
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Time of all fast alongside and finished with engines;


Time the gangway was deployed, or the shore gangway placed on board;
Notice of Readiness tendered;
Draft on arrival fore and aft together with the corresponding water density;
Time ullages, soundings, taken, or of completion of tank inspection;
Time samples taken;
Time hoses connected;
Time commenced loading or discharging;
Time completed loading or discharging;
Time ullages/samples taken, or of tanks being accepted as empty and dry;
Time of hoses disconnected;
Time cargo documents were on board;
Draft on departure fore and aft together with the corresponding water density;
Time of the pilot on board;
Time of departure from the berth;
Time pilot dropped;
Time of commencement of sea passage;
Loaded cargo grades and quantities as per the Bill of Lading, and the ships figures;
The quantity of bunkers taken;
Any additional remarks (e.g. purging, inerting, padding times, delays whilst alongside and
the full reasons for them etc.).
A list of the Letters of Protest issued and received.

The Statement of Facts must be completed in local time.

1.15

Deadfreight Statement

When the vessel receives less cargo than the minimum quantity stated in the voyage orders, or if
there is an owners option to complete to a full cargo and the quantity received is less than the
vessel called for, then a Letter of Protest (CCR120 Short Loading/Deadfreight) should be
issued to the terminal.
Should the charterers require the vessel to issue a Deadfreight Statement, Form CCR120
Short Loading/Deadfreight should be completed and the Bill of Lading figures should be used
for this purpose.

1.16

Letters of Protest

1.16.1 Issuing Letters of Protest


The Master must issue a Letter of Protest in the following circumstances:
If Free Pratique is not granted to the vessel within one hour of arrival, on form CCR110
Non-Provision of Free Pratique.
If the shore facilities are not able to comply with the vessels performance, such as in the
case of restrictions imposed by the terminal, on forms CCR118 Restrictions on the
Loading Rate or CCR119 Restrictions on the Discharge Rate;
The terminal or shipper providing less cargo than that requested on the voyage orders or
Notice of Readiness, on form CCR120 Short Loading/Deadfreight;
When discharging into lightering vessels and there is a restriction in the pumping rate
imposed by the lightering vessel. A Letter of Protest (CCR119 Restrictions on the
Discharge Rate) is to be issued to each and every lightering vessel which imposes
restrictions;
There are operational delays either berthing or unberthing that impose or may impose any
loss and/or damage and/or extra expense. Any reasons must be fully documented on
form CCR112 Delays Berthing or Unberthing;

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There are other operational delays that impose or may impose any loss and/or damage
and/or extra expense. Any reasons must be fully documented on form CCR116
Operational Delays;
There is a serious breach of the charter-party terms committed by the charterer or his
agent, such as a refusal to load, undue delays in loading, loading improper cargo, etc., on
form CCR111 General Letter of Protest;
There are restrictions imposed by the terminal upon the loading rate on form CCR118
Restrictions on the Loading Rate;
There is a ship/shore difference in cargo figures, on form CCR114 Discrepancy in
Cargo Figures;
There is free water in the received cargo upon completion of loading, on form CCR115
Free Water in the Cargo;
Free water is found to have settled out during transit, on form CCR115 Free Water in
the Cargo;
The cargo is shipped in such a condition that it is likely to suffer deterioration during the
voyage, on form CCR111 General Letter of Protest;
The cargo temperature is either too high or too low, on form CCR111 General Letter
of Protest;
A refusal by the shipper or terminal to sign any of the vessels documents, including the
Statement of Facts, Letters of Protest or Pumping Logs, on form CCR111 General
Letter of Protest;
The discharge back pressure is more than 7 kg/cm2 which causes vessel to discharge all
cargo in more than 24hrs, on form CCR119 Restrictions on the Discharge Rate;
There are delays awaiting cargo documents, on form CCR121 - Waiting for Cargo
Documents;
There are any circumstances which could result in the owners being exposed to a liability
on account of a failure by the shippers, terminal or receivers to fulfil their obligations
under the charter-party, on form CCR111 General Letter of Protest;
If the instructions from, or requirements of, the shipper, receiver, representatives of the
terminal or port authorities, or the agent do not conform to those received from the
charterer or the owners, on form CCR111 General Letter of Protest;
If the Bill of Lading does not contain the full and correct information, including the charter
party clauses, CCR117 - Remarks in a Bill of Lading must be completed.

The Master shall ensure that the party involved countersigns the Letters of Protest, which ensures
that the other parties involved are protected against any claims.
1.16.2 Letters of Protest Issued Against the Vessel
Letters of Protests presented to the vessel should be signed For receipt only.
If the information in a Letter of Protest is not fully correct or completely acceptable, the Master
should write detailed remarks on the Letter of Protest. If the Master disagrees with the content
of a Letter of Protest which has been issued against the vessel, the reasons must be indicated on
the Letter of Protest.
If a terminal issues a Letter of Protest with respect to either cargo quality or quantity, or because
of a difference between the ship's figure and the shore outturn figure after the cargo is
discharged, the Master must always issue a Letter of Protest, endorsed to the effect that "The
vessel is not responsible for cargo quantity nor quality once the cargo has passed out of the
vessels manifold".
A selection of Letters of Protest is included in the Commercial Cargo Forms section of the CCR
Information File.

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1.17

Mates Receipts

As Bills of Lading are prepared based on the information contained in the Mates Receipts,
particularly if the Bills of Lading are going to be signed later by the charterers agent, then it is
essential that these Mates Receipts contain a true reflection of the quantity and quality of cargo
loaded.

1.18

Bills of Lading

1.18.1 General Provisions


Bills of Lading are important documents and their correct preparation and handling is vital in
protecting the owners interests.
Masters must be vigilant when their vessels are on time charter, as the time charterers local
agents frequently perform commercial tasks such as the signing of the Bills of Lading, and
arranging loading, unloading and delivery. Even if the charterer appoints the agent, the owner
may be legally responsible for any mistakes that agent may make. Wrongful acts by charterers
or the agents may expose owners to the risks of claims.
A Bill of Lading has three main functions, which are:
A receipt for cargo delivered on board;
Evidence that there is a contract of carriage, i.e., there is a Charter Party in existence;
It is a document of title, i.e., it confirms ownership of the cargo.
Before signing Bills of Lading the Master must ensure that all details are accurate. Once signed
the Bill of Lading becomes a legal document and the vessel and owners are liable for delivery of
the cargo as described in the Bill of Lading.
Masters should ensure that all remarks entered on the Mates Receipts, are, as far as is possible,
inserted word for word in the relevant Bill of Lading, unless specific instructions are received from
the company.
Unless already agreed with the company, a Bill of Lading stating that the freight is prepaid and/or
where the amount of freight to be paid has been entered should not be signed. This item should
always be claused Freight payable as per charter-party.
If the Bill of Lading refers to a charter-party the following clause (or similar) is normally used:
"All terms, conditions, exceptions and liberties of the charter-party dated......... are herewith
incorporated.
The Master should assure himself that the following clauses are incorporated:
Paramount clause
Both to blame collision clause
Hague rules or Hague Visby rules
York-Antwerp rules
New Jason clause
Form CCR100 - Bill of Lading Remarks must be used on arrival at each load port, instructing
the shipper/terminal to include the above remarks in the Bills of Lading.
In addition, the Master should ensure that where information is required to be entered in the Bill
of Lading, this has in fact been done and that there are no spaces with information missing.
Where this is not the case, a Letter of Protest should be issued to the terminal, although the
vessels sailing must not be delayed.
Where more than one original Bill of Lading is issued, the second and third originals may be
described as Duplicate or Triplicate, or as Second original or Third original. There are no
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differences between these Bills of Lading and they are equally valid for procuring cargo discharge
and passing title. Masters should regard any Bill of Lading not marked non-negotiable as being
an original Bill of Lading.
It is important that Bills of Lading are correctly dated; the date of the Bill of Lading is normally
the date when the loading was completed (In Venezuela and Nigeria the practice for dating the
Bill of Lading is the date that the hose was disconnected).
1.18.2 Loading Port
The agent may request written authority from the Master to sign the Bill of Lading on his behalf.
If an agent is to sign the Bill of Lading, the Master should ensure that any letter of authority to
the agent clearly states such authority provides that it is valid only if they are in conformity with
the Mates or tally Clerks receipts. The form, CCR103 - Letter of Authority to Sign a Bill of
Lading must be issued.
If, during loading, the Chief Officer considers that the condition of the cargo may not be be of the
expected quality, the Master must be immediately advised. The quantity must also be carefully
verified.
Disputes with the shipper on these issues must be reported to the company and the operator
immediately.
Upon receipt of the Bill of Lading for signature the Master must check the following details:
The name of the vessel;
The loading port;
The intended discharge port or range;
The date of loading;
The apparent condition of the cargo;
The quantity and/or weight of the cargo;
Whether or not trans-shipment is indicated;
Whether or not the Bill of Lading is marked Freight pre-paid. The Master must check
with the operator for permission to sign Freight pre-paid Bills of Lading.
Whether or not the Bill of Lading indicates that a charter-party is incorporated. The
Master must check with the commercial operator the date of the charter-party to be
inserted in the Bill of Lading, as previously advised by the owners commercial operator.
Any other information, such as a comingling clause, etc., as previously advised by the
owners commercial operator.
1.18.3 Inaccurate, Incomplete or Incorrect Bills of Lading
By virtue of Article III (3) of The Hague and/or Hague-Visby Rules or Article 16 of the Hamburg
Rules the Master cannot be compelled to sign a Bill of Lading he reasonably believes to be
incorrect. If an incorrect or inaccurate Bill of Lading is presented for signature the Master should:
Verify that there is no obvious error on the part of the vessel, particularly in the case of a
quantity dispute. If in doubt that any of the information is incorrect, the Master must
contact the company for assistance;
Start and maintain a log of all events, significant discussions and conversations, especially
those with the party giving instructions. All future instructions from this point onwards
must be in writing;
Advise the voyage charterers, shippers and agents in writing, copied to the time charterer
and the company, of the reasons why he believes the Bill of Lading to be incorrect and
requesting them to rectify the error;
In the case of a quantity dispute, the Master should follow the instructions described under
the section Cargo Discrepancies. Unless the shortage is within reasonable limits, the
Master should endeavour to ensure that the ships figure is included on the Bill of Lading;
it is acceptable to include a shippers figure believed to be incorrect provided that the
ships figure is also included;
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If the shippers still insist on the Master signing an incorrect Bill of Lading, the Master must
immediately notify the company and refuse to sign;
The company, owners, or commercial operators may seek assistance from the P and I Club
in verifying and recording any inaccuracy and to assist in negotiating with the
charterers/shippers.
NOTE: The local P and I club correspondent or surveyor, if attending, can only act in the capacity of
an advisor, and he cannot instruct the Master to sign the Bill of Lading. The Master should only sign
the Bill of Lading if he is satisfied that the investigations have shown there is no inaccuracy, or upon
receiving company instructions to do so;

Regardless of whether or not recommended by the local P and I Club surveyor or


correspondent, if the Bill of Lading is incorrect neither a Letter of Protest nor a shippers or
charterers Letter of Indemnity in return for issuing a clean Bill of Lading will prevent
claims from the ultimate receiver of the cargo. Letters of Indemnity are normally invalid.
Any request to issue an incorrect Bill of Lading supported by a Letter of Protest or Letter of
Indemnity must be conveyed to the company and their written instructions obtained
before any action is taken;
Any threat of any nature, such as a threat by a time charterer to put the ship off-hire
unless the Master complies with a request to issue an incorrect Bill of Lading, is illegal.
The company must be immediately informed of any such threat;
The Master may only sign an incorrect Bill of Lading upon the explicit, written instructions
of the company;
If the discharge port or ports stated on the Bill(s) of Lading conflict with the charter-party
and/or Voyage Orders discharge ports range/option, the Master must contact the
Company prior to signing the Bills of Lading and request instructions. No Bill of Lading
must be signed that has a discharge port not already stated in the charter-party and/or
Voyage Orders;
On the Palm Oil/Vegetable Oil trade, neither the Master nor the agents are authorised to
sign/release Bills of Lading without company approval;

When assessing the ship/shore difference, the vessels experience factor must be taken into
consideration. This factor is derived from the last twenty voyages ship/shore differences and
should be recorded on the form CCR90 - Vessel Experience Factor. A voyage that has an
abnormal ship/shore difference and/or carries one of the conditions stated in the form is regarded
as an unqualified voyage for experience factor purposes and should be excluded from experience
factor calculations.
1.18.4 Cargo Discrepancies
In the event of any ship/shore discrepancy where the Bill of Lading figure exceeds the ships
figure, an investigation should be immediately requested in writing. Every effort should be made
to resolve the difference, including re-calculating the cargo quantity both on board and ashore,
and re-measuring for water. Refusal by the terminal to carry out an investigation should be
protested and a Letter of Protest (CCR114 Discrepancy in Cargo Figures) should be
issued if the difference cannot be resolved.
If the terminal refuses to adjust the Bill of Lading figure and the discrepancy is 0.3% or less, the
Master should not delay the vessel in seeking reconciliation provided that a Letter of Protest has
been issued and receipt acknowledged.
In the event that the ship/shore discrepancy is more than 0.3%, then no Bills of Lading must be
signed and the company must be contacted immediately for further instructions.
The vessel must always note protest for any discrepancy between the Bill(s) of Lading and the
ship's figures.
1.18.5 Cargo Non-Conformance
The company and the commercial operator must be immediately informed if there is any cargo
non-conformance. Such non-conformances include, but are not necessarily limited to:
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Quantity discrepancy which cannot be resolved;


Significant quality discrepancy, such as temperature, colour, density etc.;
Solids or deposits noted in the samples or the cargo;
Significant quantities of water.

The non-conformance should also be immediately reported to the terminal or shippers


representative and if loading, consideration should be given to stopping operations until the
matter has been resolved.
Remarks on cargo condition and quantity must be realistic and reasonable and not dictated solely
by a desire to protect my Owner, therefore it is important that good judgement be exercised
about condition or short cargo.
1.18.6 Original Bill of Lading Carried on Board
The original Bill of Lading being carried on board is exceptional and should not be accepted
without company permission, in which case specific instructions will be issued.
Any changes required to be made to the Bills of Lading for clerical errors after the vessel has
departed are to be referred to the company.
1.18.7 Discharging Port
To ensure that the cargo is delivered to the legal owner, the Master must (unless otherwise
agreed by the company or the commercial operator) normally only deliver the cargo against the
production of an original Bill of Lading. Therefore before commencement of discharge the
consignee or his agent must present an original Bill of Lading.
Delivery of a cargo without production of the original Bills of Lading may prejudice the owners P
& I cover and may expose the owners to uninsured claims for the full value of the cargo.
If original Bills of Lading are not available when the cargo discharge is requested, the company or
the commercial operator must be consulted. Delivery of a cargo without production of original
Bills of Lading may only be authorised by the commercial operator upon production of an
appropriate Letter of Indemnity.
Upon receipt of discharge instructions, if the number of discharge ports does not equal the
number of Bills of Lading issued, i.e., one Bill of Lading is issued for two discharge ports, the
Master should issue the following statement to all parties under the said voyage orders:
It has been noted that the number of Bills of Lading issued is not equal to the number of
discharge ports. Therefore the owners and the vessel reserve their position as to the quantities
which are delivered through the manifold, because there is likely to be a difference between the
requested and delivered quantities, for which the owners and the vessel will not be held
responsible.
Further, if the number of discharge ports is equal to the number of Bills of Lading issued, i.e., two
Bills of Lading for two discharge ports, but the cargo is loaded as one parcel then the Master is to
issue the following statement to all parties under the said voyage orders:
It has been noted that the vessel is to discharge a fully homogenous cargo which has not been
divided into a parcel for each discharge port. Therefore the owners and the vessel reserve their
position as to the quantities which are delivered through the manifold, because there is likely to
be a difference between the requested and delivered quantities for which the owners and the
vessel will not be held responsible.
Where cargo is discharged against an original Bill of Lading, the word Accomplished must be
clearly marked across the Bill of Lading at the end of the discharge and forwarded to the
company together with the other cargo documents.

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1.19

Cargo Pumping Performance

1.19.1 Maintaining Discharge Pressure


Unless otherwise advised in writing the vessel must maintain a maximum discharge pressure, but
never less than 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi), at the vessels manifold throughout the discharge, or must
complete discharging in not more than 24 hours, including stripping. Should the vessel anticipate
periods where the pressure cannot be sustained, for example due to reduced head during the
later stages of the discharge, then it would be prudent to maintain a slightly higher pressure at
the manifold during the bulk discharge in order to compensate for such events, always subject to
any limitations imposed by the terminal.
If the vessel cannot complete the discharge in 24 hours or maintain a minimum back pressure of
7 kg/cm2 at the manifold, then the company must be notified immediately. Any reason for slow
pumping such as an inadequate number or diameter of shore lines, or the distance to, or height
of, the shore tanks, is irrelevant, all that matters is that the shore back pressure on the ship's
manifold is maintained.
1.19.2 Hourly Pumping Log
The hourly pumping log CCR93 Pumping Log or CCR94 Pumping Log Deep Well
Pumps, in which the pressure at each manifold is recorded, must be maintained and signed by
the terminal representative.
It is imperative to fill in the pumping log completely and to always indicate pumping times, as
well as any stoppages and the reasons for them in the remarks section. If the vessel cannot
comply with the charter-party discharge conditions due to terminal restrictions, then a Letter of
Protest (CCR119 Restrictions on the Discharge Rate) should be issued, stating that the
vessel was capable of discharging the cargo within 24 hours or of maintaining a minimum of 7
kg/cm2 at the manifold, but that terminal restrictions did not allow for it. The restrictions should
be detailed.
The pumping log must always record the maximum pressure or discharge rate permitted by the
terminal in the appropriate spaces. The start and completion times of stripping, and therefore
periods of low back pressure, must also clearly be entered in the pumping log.
The pumping log must be signed by the shore representative. If they refuse to sign the log must
be marked Terminal refuses to sign.

1.20

Crude Oil Washing and Stripping

In most charter-parties crude oil washing and stripping has to be performed concurrent with
discharge, and it is important to comply with the charter-party requirements when performing
crude oil washing and stripping operations to ensure that laytime or time on demurrage is not
interrupted. However, some charter-parties do not require that charter-party minimum pressure
is maintained at the manifold during crude oil washing and stripping.
In cases where discharge is temporarily stopped in order to carry out crude oil washing or
stripping, and for a short period only, the phrases Ceased discharge or Resumed discharge
must not be used in the statement of facts but only the time of commencing or completing
stripping, followed by the time the discharge is completed.
When conducting lightering operations or sailing en-route between multiple discharge ports the
vessel should in all cases perform crude oil washing or stripping and collect the cargo in as few
tanks as possible in order to minimise discharge time at subsequent ports, provided the operator
has approved the operation.

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It is important that operations are planned to ensure that equipment is utilised to its maximum
potential and that the discharge is completed as quickly as possible concurrent with safety.

1.21

Cargo Manifests

A Cargo Manifest is usually prepared by the agent at the loading port, or by the Master while the
vessel is en route to the discharge port. It lists the quality and quantity of cargo parcels loaded
on board together with their stowage tank.
Its purpose is to provide readily available data for customs authorities and agents in the
discharge port.

1.22

Early Departure Procedures (EDP)

In order to avoid delay in departure awaiting the preparation of documentation, some loading
ports request the Master to accept an Early Departure Procedure.
Where an Early Departure Procedure has been agreed, the company form CCR102 - Early
Departure Procedure must be used instructing the agent to communicate to the vessel all the
details which have been entered into the Bills of Lading by them. The Master must ensure that all
the details given are correct, and when this has been confirmed the agent can be instructed to
sign the original Bill of Lading on the vessels behalf.
When all Bill of Lading details are agreed, the Master is to send form CCR103 - Letter of
Authority to Sign a Bill of Lading to the agents instructing them to sign and release the
agreed Bills of Lading.
Should a terminal request the Master to follow an Early Departure Procedure and the charterer
has not made provision for it in the voyage orders, the Master should seek the advice of the
company.

1.23

Certificates of Origin, Quality and Quantity

1.23.1 Certificate of Origin


A Certificate of Origin is a document issued by the manufacturer or shipper, countersigned by the
customs authorities, which attests to the country in which the cargo was produced. It may be
required by financial authorities in the importing country so that they may assess import taxes or
grants. Unlike the Certificates of Quality and Quantity, it is not complementary to, or supportive
of, the Bill of Lading, but its distribution to the shipper, carrier, and cargo receiver is similar.
1.23.2 Certificate of Quality
A Certificate of Quality provides the product specification in terms of physical characteristics (such
as the vapour pressure and density) and component constituents. It is issued by the loading
terminal or by an independent cargo inspection organisation as, or on behalf of, the shipper. The
data in the document assists the Master in verifying the accuracy of the Bill of Lading contents.
1.23.3 Certificate of Quantity
A Certificate of Quantity is issued by the loading terminal as, or on behalf of, the shipper. It
states the cargo quantities declared as loaded. The Certificate of Quantity figure will then become
the Bill of Lading/shore figure.

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1.24

Tank Inspection and ROB - OBQ Certificates

1.24.1 Tank Inspection (Dry Tank) Certificates


CCR107 - Tank Inspection Certificates are issued both prior to loading and upon completion
of discharge prior to hose disconnection.
Under no circumstances must the vessel accept an endorsement on a Dry Tank Certificate in
respect of Liquid and/or pumpable cargo. For crude carriers, there is likely to be sludge or
sediment remaining in the cargo tanks. Remarks in respect of ROBs must be backed up by the
statement Unpumpable and unreachable with the vessels fixed pumping equipment being in
normal good working order.
1.24.2 ROB - OBQ Certificates
These certificates are issued both prior to loading and upon completion of discharge prior to hose
disconnection on form CCR95: ROB OBQ Report.
ROB Certificates give the breakdown of the cargo remaining on board in each cargo tank and
state whether it is liquid or non-liquid. As with the Tank Inspection Certificates, if ROB is found
the certificate must be claused with the following statement: Unpumpable and unreachable with
the vessels fixed pumping equipment being in normal good working order.
On every occasion that there is:
A high liquid ROB;
A higher than normal non-liquid ROB,;
Disagreement between the cargo surveyor and the vessel as to whether the cargo on
board is liquid or non-liquid;
Disagreement between the cargo surveyor and the vessel as to whether the cargo on
board is pumpable or unpumpable; then
the company or operators must be contacted and advised of the situation, before signing the
ROB certificate and sailing from the port. The operator will then advise the Master on a
suitable course of action that will best protect the owners interests. It is also essential that at
least one cargo hose is kept connected and shore lines are not drained into ships tanks until the
ROB certificate has been signed.
ROB quantities can be minimised by good stripping and for crude tankers, by crude oil washing.
Adequate trim and list should be maintained during tank stripping and line draining. When
discharging a waxy or heated cargo, ballasting of double bottom tanks must be avoided until each
tank is well stripped as cold sea water will reduce the stripping effectiveness, and thus increase
the ROB.

1.25

Signing Documents

The Master, Chief Engineer, Chief Officer and any other person authorised to sign documents
must study each document carefully before signing it.
Agents are appointed to assist and advise but they do not relieve the Master of his responsibility
for safeguarding the business interests of the owners and charterers.
On completion of the cargo operation, the vessel is to provide a copy of the following cargo
documents to the agents for forwarding to the commercial operator by e-mail upon the vessels
departure, together with a covering letter indicating the contents, the voyage number and the
port. All documents must be signed by the Master and the agent or terminal representative:
Notice of Readiness
Statement of Facts issued by the vessel, agent, and terminal;
Mates Receipt;
Letters of Protest received by the vessel;
Letters of Protest tendered by the vessel;
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1.26

ROB - OBQ and Tank Inspection Certificates;


Ullage Report;
Certificate of Quality;
Certificate of Quantity;
Copy of Bill of Lading;
Sample Delivery Receipt;
Deadfreight Statement;
Pumping Log maintained by the vessel and the terminal, if any.

Freeboard and Load Line Zones

The Chief Officer shall ensure that the freeboard and drafts of the vessel are recorded prior the
vessels departure from any port. Where required by Flag State regulations, these drafts and
freeboard should be recorded on the FRE Form issued by the Flag State. The drafts must also be
recorded in the Official and Deck Log Books.

1.27

Off-Hire Statements

The utmost care should be taken to avoid the vessel going off-hire under a time charter and
ensure that there are no interruptions to laytime or demurrage.
Off-hire is defined as time when the vessel is not available for a commercial operation. An offhire statement should be made on the following occasions or when requested by the commercial
operator:
Any stoppages due to technical breakdown at port or at sea;
Detention by competent authorities;
Deviations for owner purposes (include a deviation statement);
Dry-dock;
Any stoppages not authorised by the operator;
Any time used carrying out maintenance which exceeds the time required for commercial
operations.
The time should be recorded on the statement as well as the bunker consumption during the offhire period.
No off-hire statement must be issued to the charterers without the companys prior consent.

1.28

Documentation Requirements when Trading to U.S. Ports

1.28.1 Standard Carrier Alpha Code (SCAC)


This is used as the first part of the Unique Bill of Lading Identifier UBLI and consists of a code of
four alphabetic characters.
For all vessels that are commercially controlled by the Columbia Operations Department, the
SCAC Code to be used is COSP. All other vessels must use the SCAC code as instructed by their
commercial/pool operator, owner or time charterer. CCR105 SCAC Code Request
1.28.2 Unique Bill of Lading Identifier (UBLI)
When entering the United States all Bills of Lading are required to bear a unique Bill of Lading
Identifier Code. The unique identifier code must contain no more than 16 characters and it must
contain both letters and numbers.
It is recommended that the 16 characters compromise the following:
The SCAC Code;
The vessel's 4 or 5 digit call sign;
The year of loading the cargo;
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The month of loading the cargo;


The date of loading the cargo;
The Bill of Lading number.

For example, a vessel that has a SCAC code COSP, call sign ABCD (4 digit call sign) or ABCDE (5 digit call
sign), completed loading on the 22nd of November 2004, the UBLI for the B/L will be COSPABCD04112201
for a 4 digit call sign vessel, or COSPABCDE0411221 for a 5 digit call sign vessel.
If more than one B/L is issued at the same port, then the 2nd parcel UBLI will be COSPABCD04112202 for a
4 digit call sign vessel or COSPABCDE0411222 for a 5 digit call sign vessel, and so on.

1.29

Weather Routeing

This section applies to vessels which are on time charter or are operated by a pool. Should the
Master require the assistance of a Weather Routeing Service, then he should approach the time
charterer or pool operator in the first instance and request them to appoint a Weather Routeing
Service. If they refuse then the Master is to follow the companys guidelines and use the
company weather routeing service.

1.30

Time Charterers Supplies of Bunkers or Equipment

Charterers may arrange for their own account the supply of goods and services, but if they fail to
pay for them, this may expose owners to claims from the suppliers.
The Master is therefore responsible for ensuring that all crew who may sign for goods and
services are aware of the requirement to exercise care.
When signing receipts for such supplies on behalf of a charterer, it is necessary to sign any
document, voucher or invoice by adding: "For and on Behalf Of ..... (Name of Charterer)
If the goods supplier allows for the receipt to be claused then the following remarks should be
included on the vouchers/invoices: "The goods and/or services being hereby acknowledged,
receipted for, and/or ordered are being accepted and/or ordered solely for account of the
charterers of the m.v. "(name of vessel)" and not for account of said vessel and/or her
Owners/Managers.
Accordingly no lien and/or other claim against said vessel can arise
therefore".
The Master and Chief Officer are responsible for controlling charterers equipment placed on
board. It remains the vessel's responsibility to keep the equipment in good operational order at
all times, and to return it when required. Defects or damages to equipment should be reported
without delay to charterer and commercial operator.
1.30.1 Maintaining an Inventory
When such cargo gear is supplied to the vessel by the charterer, the Chief Officer should prepare
and maintain and inventory of the equipment. He should check that each piece of equipment is in
good order, and should record the fact on the inventory if they are not.
He must ensure that a copy of the test certificate for each piece of equipment is provided. The
Chief Officer must ensure that:
The equipment is safely stowed when not in use;
The equipment is used in the way it was designed, in order to prevent damage to it;
Records are maintained of any damage to, or loss of, the equipment, and that the
charterer is informed in such cases;
Records of maintenance are kept.

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1.31

EU Advance Cargo Declaration Regime

The European Union (EU) Advance Cargo Declaration became mandatory on 1st January 2011
(the Security Amendment to the Community Customs Code, Regulations 648/2005; 1875/2006;
and 312/2009).
The EU advance cargo declaration regime applies to the import, export or transit of goods, in the
following three cases:
The IMPORT of goods from countries outside the EU to one or more EU Member States;
The EXPORT of goods from one or more EU Member States to countries outside the EU; or
The TRANSIT of goods, which are not into free circulation, over the territory of one or
more EU Member States.
For import and transit cargoes arriving in EU ports, an Import Control System (ICS) will be
required, and pre-arrival information is to be submitted in a declaration form, known as an Entry
Summary Declaration (ENS) (CCR122 Import Control System ICS Data Form) which will
include, amongst other things, details which identify:
The cargo;
The traders involved in the movement;
The vessel; and
The envisaged route into and across the EU.
The ENS must be sent to the Customs electronically at the first port of entry into the EU,
irrespective if those goods are due to be discharged at that port or not.
The following are the time frames for submission of an EMS:
Tankers, bulk and general cargo vessels: at least 4 hours before arrival at the first
EU port.
Deep sea containerised cargo: at least 24 hours prior to loading on the vessel that will
bring the cargo into the EU.
Customs will perform a risk assessment based upon the pre-arrival information contained in the
ENS and will assign one of the risk categories as follows:
Risk A Loading of cargo is refused (Do not load message - DNL)
Risk B Risk is handled in the first EU port (e.g. Unloading for examination, irrespective if
the shipment is due for discharge at that port or not)
Risk C Risk is handled in the intended port of discharge (e.g. Examination)
The legal responsibility for ensuring that an ENS is submitted (and within the time limits) lies with
the Carrier. In the case of vessels trading on spot (voyage charter) and are operated by
Columbias operations department Columbia will assume the role of the Carrier, in which case
the submission must be handled via the first EU port of call local agent, applying Columbias
Economic Operator Registration and Identification Number (EORI), which is: DE5511380.
For those vessels that are trading spot but not operated by Columbias operations department,
on time charter, or are in commercial pools (except UPT pools), it will be the responsibility of
their commercial office, time charterers or the pool managers to assume the role of the Carrier.
Therefore Masters are to contact their respective commercial office/time charterer/pool operator
well in advance, requesting their procedure as to how an ENS is to be handled. Columbias EORI
must not be used for this purpose.
In order to submit the required declaration, the local agent (or any other ENS handler) will
require receiving information from the vessel concerning its cargo, vessels details and the
operators/carriers EORI. A complete set of information required can be seen in the attachment
provided. As agents need time to process the ENS, it is therefore important to provide your ENS
handler with all required information as soon as possible after sailing from the load port; this will
avoid any delays and/or errors entering the ENS.
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The agents will categorize goods in accordance with the 6 digit Harmonised System
Commodity Code required by the EU and submit all the information to the local customs
authorities via designated software. We expect that the information required to complete an ENS
will be requested from the vessel by the agents in a free-style form and attached is an example of
same. Should there be any information missing which is necessary to complete the form, please
immediately contact your vessels operator.
Your respective vessel commercial operator is to be copied on all declarations made to local
agents towards an ENS declaration. Once all customs information has been submitted, an agent
will then have to communicate to you a copy of the Movement Reference Number (MRN) receipt
as provided by EU Customs. Please pass the MRN on to the next port agents (if it lies within EU).
ENS handlers will then have to update arrival /departure information with the customs. The
process is now complete.
Please take a note of the full list of EU member states:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands,
Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom.
Whilst Norway and Switzerland are not EU member states they have adopted these EU
regulations.

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2.

Cargo Documents and Diagrams

2.1

Recording of Cargo Operations

It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure that all cargo events are fully and completely
recorded. The form CCR106 - Statement of Facts should be used and the main events should
also be recorded in the Deck Log Book.

2.2

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)

An MSDS is a document that contains information on the potential hazards (toxic, fire, reactive,
corrosive and environmental) of a particular product. It should contain details of the physical
properties of the product, and should also contain emergency procedures following contact with
it, spillage, and health data. Each MSDS should relate to the particular grade and type of
product, whether crude oil, petroleum or chemical products.
SOLAS requires each vessel to be provided with a Material Safety Data Sheet for all Annex I
cargoes prior to loading such oil. Each cargo owner or bunker supplier shall provide the ship with
an MSDS for any of the MARPOL Annex I cargoes and any bunkers supplied to the ship
respectively, which should include the data stipulated in the appended document.
If a vessel does not receive the MSDS, or the MSDS provided to the ship does not contain the
information required, the ship should notify the competent authority of the loading/bunkering
port and the authority of the relevant port of destination. In addition, the ship should notify the
company which in turn will notify the Flag administration.
However, provision of an MSDS does not guarantee that all of the hazardous or toxic components
of the particular cargo or bunkers being handled have been identified or documented and absence
of an MSDS should not be taken to indicate the absence of hazardous or toxic components.
It is the responsibility of the supplier of the product to provide an MSDS and it is the
responsibility of the vessel to provide a copy of that MSDS to the receiver of the cargo prior to
discharge commencing. If the shipper does not provide an MSDS then a Letter of Protest
should be issued.
The Chief Officer shall:
Ensure that the relevant MSDS for each product to be carried is obtained from the
suppliers prior to loading commencing;
Inform the Master if an MSDS for a particular product is not received prior to loading
commencing. The Master should then contact the operator and obtain advice prior to
loading being allowed to commence;
Discuss with all Watchkeeping Officers and ratings the particular hazards of each product
prior to carrying each cargo, with reference to:
What the particular hazards of each product are whether flammable, toxic, corrosive
or reactive;
What safety equipment must be used;
What action to take in case of contact with the product, including the use of any
antidote;
What action to take in the case of a spill;
Post an MSDS for each product both in the Cargo Control Room and in the Officers and
ratings mess rooms;
Ensure that a copy of the MSDS is provided to the receivers of the product;
Ensure that terminal operators and cargo surveyors are informed about the hazards of
cargoes either being carried or which were carried previously.

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Generic MSDSs must not be used, nor should those from publications such as the USCG CHRIS
Code be relied upon to provide accurate information on the actual product being carried. Every
effort must be made to obtain a new MSDS from the cargo supplier each time a product is loaded,
regardless of whether or not the product has been previously carried.
2.2.1
Product Hazard Chart
For brief information on the hazards associated with different products CCR25 Product
Hazard Chart should be consulted.

2.3

Maximum Loading Rates

2.3.1
Information on Loading Rates
The vessel should be provided with information on the maximum loading rate for each cargo and
ballast tank. This information is generally provided by the shipyard and is required to ensure that
the tanks are not over-pressurised by exceeding the capacity of the venting system, including the
secondary venting system. Where tanks have a combined venting system, there should also be
information for each group of cargo tanks.
Venting capacity is based on the maximum volume of cargo entering a tank, plus a 25% margin
to account for gas evolution (vapour growth). When calculating loading rates, a maximum
venting line velocity of 36 metres/second should be used. This flow rate should be calculated for
each diameter of line in the vapour return system. The volume throughputs may be aggregated
where a common vent riser is used, but the maximum flow rate should not be exceeded
anywhere within the system.
The notice Maximum Cargo System Pressure, Venting Capacities, Pressure Alarms, Cargo
Temperature and Density (CCR29 Cargo System Maximum Capacities) should be posted
in the Cargo Control Room and a copy retained in the CCR Information File.
In order to exercise adequate control over the loading rates the rate of liquid level rise in any
cargo tank must not exceed 150 mm/minute. Small tanks, such as slop tanks, may, for various
reasons, have larger tank valves than their size would normally require and the maximum
loading rate may therefore be required to be less than the venting system is designed to handle.
The notice CCR45 Maximum Rate of Liquid Rise must be posted in the Cargo Control Room
and a copy retained in the CCR Information File.
Maximum volumetric loading rates should be determined for each cargo tank according to the
following general guidance:
Static Accumulator Cargoes:
A volumetric loading rate based on a linear velocity of 1 metre/second at the tank inlet for
the initial loading rate for static accumulator cargoes into non-inerted tanks. ISGOTT
11.1.7.3 details flow rates for various pipe diameters at a flow rate of 1 metre/second.
Figure 11.1 is a flow chart for the initial loading of static accumulator cargoes in non-inert
tanks;
A volumetric loading rate based on a linear velocity of 7 metres/second for bulk loading
static accumulator cargoes into non-inerted tanks.
Non-Static Accumulator Cargoes, or when Loading any Cargo into Inerted Tanks:
A volumetric loading rate based on a maximum linear velocity of 12 metres/second. This
velocity is provided for guidance only and is generally considered as a rate above which
pipeline erosion may occur at pipe joints and bends.
Where a number of tanks are loaded through a common manifold, the maximum loading rate will
be dictated by the flow rate through the manifold or drop lines. In these circumstances it is
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important that the number of cargo tanks valves open simultaneously is constantly monitored
and that the rate is reduced if necessary if valves are closed.
Note: The calculation of flow rates is a simple linear expansion a flow rate of 7 metres/second is 7 x a
flow rate of 1 metre/second for a given pipe diameter. Therefore if the flow rate is 100 m3/hour at 1
metre/second, it will be 700m3/hour at 7 metres/second and 1200 m3/hour at 12 metres/second.

The Chief Officer shall ensure that:


Maximum flow rates have been calculated and that the information is available in the
Cargo Control Room;
When loading static accumulator cargoes in non-inert tanks the maximum initial and bulk
loading rates are calculated and applied;
When loading non-static accumulator cargoes or cargo into inert tanks, the maximum flow
rate of 12 metres/second is not exceeded.
The notice CCR30 - Cargo System Maximum Loading Rates must be posted in the Cargo
Control Room and a copy retained in the CCR Information File.

2.4

Cargo Pump Performance Information

Cargo pump performance information is provided by the pump manufacturer. Generally these
are in the form of diagrams which provide tabular information on the rated volumetric output of a
pump for various parameters, such as revolutions, amps, head etc.
The Chief Officer shall ensure that cargo pump performance curves are available and that Deck
Watch Officers understand their use.
The notice CCR26 - Cargo Pump Performance Curves should be completed and posted in the
Cargo control Room and a copy retained in the CCR Information File.

2.5

Cargo Pumping Performance Log

The Chief Officer shall ensure that a record of events and performance is fully maintained, and at
least the following must be recorded:
The times of starting and stopping cargo and ballast pumps;
The pressure at the manifold every hour;
The reasons for any stoppage;
The reasons for non-compliance with charter party requirements, such as terminal
restrictions;
The time stripping commenced and was completed, on each occasion.
The terminal representative should be requested to sign the Cargo Pumping Log, and a note
made in the log if there is refusal to do so.

2.6

Diagrams of Cargo, Venting and Inert Gas Systems

A diagram, or diagrams, of the cargo, ballast, venting and inert gas systems must be readily
available in the Cargo Control Room. The mimic diagrams on cargo or inert gas control consoles
or in computerised cargo control systems satisfy this requirement, provided all the elements are
included.
There must also be a diagram of the cargo monitoring equipment, showing the location in each
tank of temperature and pressure sensors, vapour locks, ullaging equipment and dipping points.

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A diagram of the cargo and ballast systems, as applicable, must be available in the bottom of
each cargo or ballast pump room.
On vessels fitted with cargo tank venting or inert gas stop valves, there must be clear visual
indication of the status of the valves and the notice CCR43a - Operational Status of the Inert
Gas Tank Valves Wing and Centre Tanks and CCR43b - Operational Status of the Inert
Gas Tank Valves Wing Tanks Only should be displayed in the Cargo Control Room. The
display must therefore be capable of being changed for each tank from open to closed and vice
versa.

2.7

Oil and Cargo Record Books

The importance of correctly completing Oil and Cargo Record Books


emphasised. Masters and Chief Officers must be aware that any omission
have serious consequences including detentions, fines and commercial
regardless of whether the operation had actually been carried out in
applicable regulations.

cannot be too highly


or incorrect entry can
vetting observations,
compliance with the

Each completed operation must be signed for and dated by the officer in charge. The Master shall
sign each page immediately it is completed. The Master must also sign any part-completed page
after the last entry when he leaves the vessel. It is of the utmost importance that the entries
made in the Oil and Cargo Record Books are carefully checked as being both complete and correct
by the Master before being countersigned.
The distinction between records made in the Cargo Record Book and those made in the Oil
Record Book Part 2 is very precise and should be followed to the letter. For example, in the
situation where an Annex I cargo is used to clear lines after having discharged an Annex II
product, all details related to the discharge of the Annex II product must be recorded in the
Cargo Record Book and all details relating to the Annex I line clearance must be recorded in the
Oil Record Book Part 2. Any tank having contained an Annex I line clearance product should
be cleaned in accordance with MARPOL Annex I and the details recorded in the Oil Record
Book Part 2.
2.7.1
Oil Record Book Part 2
The Oil Record Book Part 2 shall be completed on each occasion that a cargo operation
involving MARPOL Annex I cargoes, or a ballast operation, takes place. The Oil Record Book
must be completed in strict compliance with the instructions contained in the front of it.
The Plan View of Cargo and Slop Tanks in the front of the Oil Record Book Part 2 must be fully
completed, including the tank capacities and the depth of the slop tanks.
The occasions when the Oil Record Book must be completed are:
Loading a MARPOL Annex I cargo;
Internal transfer of cargo during the voyage;
Discharging a MARPOL Annex I cargo;
Crude oil washing;
Ballasting of cargo tanks;
Cleaning of cargo tanks;
Cleaning of cargo tanks which have contained a MARPOL Annex II chemical, using a
MARPOL Annex I product as a washing agent, including a mandatory MARPOL Annex
II pre-wash. Both the Oil Record Book Part 2 and the Cargo Record Book must be
completed;
Discharge of dirty ballast;
Discharge of water from slop tanks into the sea;

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Disposal of residues and oily mixtures not otherwise dealt with;


Discharge of clean ballast contained in cargo tanks;
Closing of all applicable valves or similar devices after slop tank discharge operations;
The condition of the oil discharge monitoring and control system (ODME);
The accidental or other exceptional discharge of oil.

It is extremely important that whenever an operation is carried out, all the required entries for
that operation are made. For example, whenever a decanting operation is undertaken, each of
the codes under Section I must be completed. If the required information is not available to fully
complete a section then the operation cannot proceed. Where any doubt exists it is better to
include too much information rather than too little.
In the event of an accidental or other exceptional discharge of an Annex I cargo, full details of the
circumstances of the discharge must be made in the Oil Record Book Part 2 and must be
supported by an investigation report.
2.7.2
Cargo Record Book
The Cargo Record Book shall be completed on each occasion that a cargo operation involving
MARPOL Annex II cargoes, or the ballasting of a cargo tank, takes place. The Cargo Record
Book must be completed in strict compliance with the instructions contained in the front of it.
The Plan View of Cargo and Slop Tanks in the front of the Cargo Record Book must be fully
completed, including the tank capacities and the depth of the slop tanks.
The occasions when the Cargo Record Book must be completed are:
Loading a MARPOL Annex II cargo;
Internal transfer of cargo during the voyage;
Discharging an MARPOL Annex II cargo;
Mandatory prewash, including the use of a MARPOL Annex I product as a washing agent,
in which case both the Cargo Record Book and the Oil Record Book Part 2 must be
completed;
Cleaning of cargo tanks;
Cleaning of cargo tanks which have contained a MARPOL Annex II chemical using a
MARPOL Annex I product as a washing agent, in which case both the Cargo Record
Book and the Oil Record Book Part 2 must be completed;
Discharge into the sea of tank washings;
Ballasting of cargo tanks;
Discharge of ballast water from cargo tanks;
An accidental or other exceptional discharge of a product;
Control by authorised surveyors;
Additional operational procedures and remarks.

2.8

Terminal Satisfaction Reports

On each occasion a vessel calls at a terminal, the Master should request the terminal
representative to complete a CCR98 - Terminal Satisfaction Report after completion of the
cargo operation. Comments, both positive and negative, may be made.
The Master should then sign the form and forward a copy to the Marine Department with the
original sent to the commercial operator together with the routine cargo documents.

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2.9

Vapour Lock Certification

Where the vessel is fitted with vapour locks a copy of the certificate of calibration by a recognised
cargo inspection organisation should be placed in the section CCR28 Vapour Lock
Certification in the CCR Information File.

2.10
Cargo

Cargo Tank Calibration Tables


tank calibration tables must be stamped as certified by either:
The Flag state authority;
A national measurement authority;
The class society;
A recognised cargo surveying organisation.

There must be a set of cargo tank tables for each measuring method available on board for
example the fixed gauging system and vapour locks, or alternatively, a certified correction table
should be available with the cargo tank calibration tables for a different level measurement
system.
The cargo tank tables should clearly identify the measurement system for which they are
computed.

2.11

Cargo Tank Coating and Cargo Hose Chemical Resistance Lists

Cargo tank coating and cargo hose manufacturers documentation should be available on board
indicating for which chemicals the coating and each hose is suitable, and for which chemicals they
are not suitable.

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3.

Basic Properties of Petroleum and Chemical Products

3.1

Density of Hydrocarbon Gases

The gases from most petroleum liquids are heavier than both air and inert gas and can therefore
result in the layering of the gases, which in turn can give rise to hazardous conditions.
The density of the undiluted gas from a high vapour pressure distillate, such as motor gasoline, is
likely to be about twice that of air and about 1.5 times that of a typical crude oil. These density
differences diminish as the gases are diluted with air. Flammable mixtures usually contain at
least 90% by volume of air and consequently have densities almost indistinguishable from that of
air.
The table below gives gas densities relative to air for the three pure hydrocarbon gases, Propane,
Butane and Pentane, which represent roughly the gas mixtures that are produced respectively by
crude oils, motor or aviation gasoline and by natural gasoline. These figures are not significantly
changed if inert gas is substituted for air.
Density relative to air
Pure hydrocarbon

50% by volume
hydrocarbon / 50% by
volume air

Lower flammable
limit mixture

Propane

1.55

1.25

1.0

Butane

2.0

1.5

1.0

Pentane

2.5

1.8

1.0

Gas

3.2

Vapour Pressure

All crude oils and the usual petroleum products are essentially mixtures of a wide range of
hydrocarbon compounds (i.e. chemical compounds of Hydrogen and Carbon). The boiling points
of these compounds range from -1620C (Methane) to well in excess of +4000C and the volatility
of any particular mixture of compounds depends primarily on the quantities of the more volatile
constituents (i.e. those with a lower boiling point).
The volatility (i.e. the tendency of a crude oil or petroleum product to produce gas) is
characterised by the vapour pressure. When a petroleum mixture is transferred to a gas free
tank or container it commences to vaporise, that is, it liberates gas into the space above it.
3.2.1
Non-Volatile Petroleum
A non-volatile product is one with a flashpoint of 600C or above, as determined by the closed cup
method of testing. These liquids produce, when at any normal ambient temperature, equilibrium
gas concentrations below the lower flammable limit. They include distillate fuel oils, heavy gas
oils, and diesel oils.
However, if a cargo is being handled at a temperature within 100C of its flashpoint it should be
considered volatile as lighter factions may be given off and a flammable gas/air mixture may form
above the liquid. Therefore, for example, a cargo with a flashpoint of 800C should be considered
volatile if being handled at a temperature of 700C and above.
Since less stringent precautions are appropriate for non-volatile liquids, it is essential that under
no circumstances is a liquid capable of giving a flammable gas/air mixture ever inadvertently
included in the non-volatile category.

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3.2.2
Volatile Petroleum
A volatile product is one with a flashpoint below 600C as determined by the closed cup method of
testing. Some petroleum liquids in this category are capable of producing an equilibrium gas/air
mixture within the flammable range when in some part of the normal ambient temperature
range, while most of the rest give equilibrium gas/air mixtures above the upper flammable limit
at all normal ambient temperatures. Examples of the former are Jet Fuels and Kerosenes and of
the latter, gasolines and most crude oils.
The choice of 600C as the flashpoint criterion for the division between non-volatile and volatile
liquids is to some extent arbitrary. The dividing line must therefore be chosen to make allowance
for such factors as the misjudging of the temperature, inaccuracy in the flashpoint measurement
and the possibility of minor contamination by more volatile materials. The closed cup flashpoint
figure of 600C makes ample allowances for these factors and is also compatible with the
definitions adopted internationally by the IMO and by a number of regulatory bodies throughout
the world.

3.3

Flammability

3.3.1
General
In the process of burning, hydrocarbon gases react with the Oxygen in the air to produce carbon
dioxide and water. The reaction gives enough heat to form a flame, which travels through the
mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air. When the gas above a liquid hydrocarbon is ignited, the
heat produced is usually enough to evaporate sufficient fresh gas to maintain the flame and the
liquid is said to burn. In fact, it is the gas that is burning and is being continuously replenished
from the liquid.
3.3.2
Flammability Classification of Petroleum
The basic principle in determining flammability is to consider whether or not a flammable
equilibrium gas/air mixture can be formed in the space above the liquid when the liquid is at
ambient temperature.
Generally, it is sufficient to group petroleum liquids into two categories entitled non-volatile and
volatile, defined in terms of flashpoint as follows:
3.3.3
Flammable Limits
A mixture of hydrocarbon gas and air cannot be ignited and burn unless its composition lies
within a range of gas in air concentrations known as the Flammable Range.
The lower limit of this range, known as the Lower Flammable Limit (LFL), is that hydrocarbon
concentration below which there is insufficient hydrocarbon gas to support and propagate
combustion.
The upper limit of the range, known as the Upper Flammable Limit (UFL), is that hydrocarbon
concentration above which there is insufficient air to support and propagate combustion.
The table below gives the flammable limits for these three gases. It also shows the amount of
dilution with air needed to bring a mixture of 50% by volume of each of these gases in air down
to its LFL. This type of information is very relevant to the ease with which vapours disperse to a
non-flammable concentration in the atmosphere.
In practice the lower and upper flammable limits of oil cargoes carried in tankers can, for general
purposes, be taken as 1% and 10% by volume respectively.

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Upper

Lower

Number of dilutions by
air to reduce 50% by
volume mixture to LFL

Propane

9.5

2.2

23

Butane

8.5

1.9

26

Pentane

7.8

1.5

33

Gas

Flammable limits % volume


hydrocarbon in air

3.3.4
Effect of Inert Gas on Flammability
When an inert gas, typically flue gas, is added to a hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, the result is to
increase the lower flammable limit hydrocarbon concentration and to decrease the upper
flammable limit concentration. These effects are illustrated in the figure below, which should be
regarded only as a guide to the principles involved.

Flammability Composition Diagram hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixtures


Every point on the diagram represents a hydrocarbon gas/air/inert gas mixture, specified in
terms of its hydrocarbon and Oxygen content. Hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures without inert gas lie
on the line AB, the slope of which reflects the reduction in Oxygen content as the hydrocarbon
contents increases. Points to the left of the line AB represent mixtures with their Oxygen content
further reduced by the addition of inert gas.
The lower and upper flammability limit mixtures for hydrocarbon gas in air are represented by the
points C and D. As the inert gas content increases, the flammable limit mixtures change as
indicated by the lines CE and DE, which finally converge at the point E. Only those mixtures
represented by points in the shaded area within the loop CED are capable of burning.

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On the diagram below, changes of composition due to the addition of either air or inert gas are
represented by movements along straight lines directed either towards the point A (pure air), or
towards a point on the Oxygen content axis corresponding to the composition of the added inert
gas. Such lines are shown for the gas mixture represented by the point F.
It is evident from the figure that, as inert gas is added to hydrocarbon gas/air mixtures, the
flammable range progressively decreases until the Oxygen content reaches a level, generally
taken to be about 11% by volume, where no mixture can burn. A figure of 8% by volume of
Oxygen allows for a safety margin.
When an inerted mixture, such as that represented by the point F, is diluted by air its composition
moves along the line FA and therefore enters the shaded area of flammable mixtures. This
means that all inerted mixtures in the region above the line GA go through a flammable condition
as they are mixed with air, for example, during a gas freeing operation.
Those below the line GA, such as that represented by point H, do not become flammable on
dilution. It should be noted that it is possible to move from a mixture such as F to one such as H
by dilution with additional inert gas (i.e. purging to remove hydrocarbon gas).

3.4

Flashpoint

The flashpoint is the lowest liquid temperature at which a flame being repeatedly and
momentarily applied to the surface of the liquid initiates a flash of flame across the surface of the
liquid which is being gradually heated in a special pot. The flash of flame indicates the presence
of a flammable gas/air mixture above the liquid.
For all oils, except some residual fuel oils, this gas/air mixture corresponds closely to the lower
flammable limit of the mixture.

3.5

Persistent and Non-Persistent Oil

Generally, persistent oils do not dissipate quickly and therefore pose potential threats to natural
resources when released to the environment. Such threats have been evident in the past in
terms of impact to wildlife, smothering of habitats and oiling of amenity beaches. Cleanup
techniques in response to persistent oils depend on the nature of the oil and the environment in
which the oil has been spilled and include for example, the use of booms and skimmers for
containment and recovery, the application of dispersants and manual cleanup of foreshores and
coastlines.
In contrast, when released to the environment, non-persistent oils will dissipate rapidly through
evaporation. In light of this, spills of these oils rarely require a response but when they do,
cleanup methods tend to be limited. Impact from non-persistent oils may include, for example,
effects on paint coatings in marinas and harbours and at high concentrations, acute toxicity to
marine organisms.
The 1992 Civil Liability Convention Fund applies only to persistent hydrocarbon mineral oil,
and a certificate is required to be carried by vessels carrying more than 2,000 tons of persistent
oil in bulk as cargo.
The US Code of Federal Regulations distinguishes between persistent and non-persistent oils
and oil products. Tankers carrying non-persistent oils are considered clean tankers and those
carrying persistent oils are considered dirty tankers.

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3.5.1
Persistent Oil
The definition of persistent oil is, in fact, based upon the definition of a non-persistent oil; in
other words, anything which is not non-persistent, is persistent. Persistent oil does not meet the
distillation criteria for non-persistent oils, and is classified as follows:
Group II
A specific gravity less than 0.85;
Group III
A specific gravity between 0.85 and less than 0.95;
Group IV
A specific gravity of 0.95 up to and including 1.0;
Group V
A specific gravity greater than 1.0.
Examples of persistent oil are:
Crude oil;
Lubricating oil;
Fuel oil;
Heavy diesel oil.
3.5.2
Non-Persistent Oil
Non-persistent oil has the following distillation criteria:
At least 50% of which by volume, distils at a temperature of 3400C (6450F);
At least 95% of which by volume, distils at a temperature of 3700C (7000F).

and

Examples of non-persistent oils are:


LNG and LPG;
Gasoline Mogas and Avgas;
White Spirit;
Kerosene;
Distillates Gas oil, Heating oil, Auto diesel;
Gasoline blending components Naphtha.
In view of the fact that pollution liability and the method of dealing with a spill is significantly
different between persistent and non-persistent oil, the Master should know which type of oil the
vessel is carrying, and he should if necessary request from the cargo suppliers a written
confirmation of the type of cargo. The information should in fact be contained in the Certificate of
Quality, although this is not always the case.

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4.

Static Electricity

Static electricity precautions are necessary on vessels carrying static accumulator


cargoes in non-inert tanks.
Static

electricity precautions are not necessary under the following conditions:


If cargo tanks are inerted;
If it can be guaranteed that the atmosphere in the tank is non-flammable;
If static non-accumulator cargoes are being carried;
For ullaging if vapour locks are fitted with full depth sounding pipes.

4.1

Electrostatic Charge Generation

Static electricity presents fire and explosion hazards during the handling of petroleum and during
other operations such as tank cleaning, dipping, ullaging and sampling. There is no risk of
ignition unless a flammable mixture is present, or if the compartment is protected by inert gas.
Risk of the generation of an electrostatic charge and thus an incendive spark may occur in several
ways, amongst them:
On the surface of the cargo:
The flow of liquid petroleum through pipework;
The flow of liquid through fine filters (less than 150 microns). This has the ability to
charge fuels to a very high level, as a result of all the fuel being brought into intimate
contact with the filter surface, where charge separation occurs;
Contaminants, such as water droplets, rust, or other particles, moving relative to oil as a
result of turbulence in the oil as it flows through pipes;
The settling of a solid or an immiscible liquid through a liquid (e.g. water, rust, or other
particles through petroleum). This process may continue for up to 30 minutes after the
completion of loading into a tank;
Gas bubbles rising up through a liquid (e.g. air, inert gas introduced into a tank by the
blowing of cargo lines or vapour from the liquid itself released when pressure is dropped).
This process may also continue for up to 30 minutes after completion of loading;
The splashing or agitation of a liquid against a solid surface (e.g. tank cleaning, or the
initial stages of filling a tank with cargo).
Within the compartment:
The ejection of particles or droplets from a nozzle (e.g. during tank cleaning, steaming, or
the injection of inert gas);
Turbulence and splashing in the early stages of loading oil into an empty tank. A mist can
form above the liquid;
The development of a charged mist during tank cleaning.
On equipment lowered into a tank:
The vigorous rubbing together and subsequent separation of certain synthetic polymers
(e.g. the sliding of a synthetic rope through gloved hands);
The actual act of lowering equipment into a tank.
In summary there are three main ways in which an electrostatic charge can generate an
incendive spark:
The cargo surface can develop a charge. A spark can then pass from the surface to the
equipment being lowered into the tank. In such cases, bonding of the equipment can
facilitate the development of a spark;
Unbonded equipment can generate a charge as it is lowered into the tank. A spark can
then pass from that equipment to the surface of the cargo;

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A charge can develop within a mist in the tank, such as when tank cleaning.

4.2

Bonding

Bonding is an essential precaution for preventing electrostatic charge accumulation and its
importance cannot be over-emphasised. However, while bonding facilitates relaxation, it does
not prevent the accumulation and production of hazardous voltages. Bonding must not therefore
be seen as a universal remedy for eliminating electrostatic hazards.
Examples of objects which might be electrically insulated in hazardous situations and which must
therefore be bonded are:
Ship/shore hose couplings and flanges, except when an insulating flange or a single
length of non-conducting hose is used to provide electrical isolation between the ship and
shore;
Portable tank cleaning machines and hoses;
Manual ullaging and sampling equipment;
The float of a permanently fitted ullaging device if its design does not provide an earthing
path through the metal tape.
The best method of ensuring bonding and earthing will usually be a metallic connection between
the conductors. Any earthing or bonding links must be established whenever the equipment is
set up and must not be disconnected until after the equipment is no longer in use. For example,
portable tank cleaning machines and hoses must all be connected together and to the tank
washing main before being introduced into the compartment; UTI tapes must be effectively
bonded before the tape is lowered into the tank.

4.3

Portable Tank Washing Machines and Hoses

The outer casing of portable machines should be of a material that will not give rise to an
incendive spark upon contact with the internal structure of a cargo tank.
The coupling arrangement for the hose should be such that effective bonding can be established
between the tank washing machine, the hoses and the tank washing water supply line.
Washing machines should be electrically bonded to the hose by means of a suitable connection or
external bonding wire.
When suspended within a cargo tank, machines should be supported by means of a natural fibre
rope and not by means of the water supply hose.
Bonding wires should be incorporated within all portable tank washing hoses to ensure electrical
continuity.
Tank cleaning hoses should be indelibly marked to allow identification.
Tank cleaning hoses should generally be tested for electrical continuity prior to each use if such
use is infrequent. If hoses are in regular use then they should be tested at least once per week
or whenever there is evidence of damage. In no case should the electrical continuity exceed 6
ohms per metre length.
The record ECF80 - Tank Cleaning Hose Condition and Continuity Test must be maintained
of the testing of tank cleaning hoses, and the results.

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It is important that hoses and portable tank cleaning machines are connected together before the
machine is introduced into the compartment to be washed. Connections must not be broken
whilst the machine is still in the tank.
Portable tank washing machines must not be introduced into a tank containing a flammable
atmosphere until the tank has been ventilated to 10% LFL or less.
Particular care must be taken when using portable tank cleaning equipment if the vessel is
experiencing rolling that the machines are not allowed to strike the tank structure whilst
suspended within the tank.

4.4

Vapour Locks and UTI Tapes

Whenever UTI tapes are used with vapour locks the tape must be bonded to the vapour lock.
Although not strictly necessary on cargo tanks which are either inerted, or which contain nonstatic accumulator cargoes, or where full-depth sounding pipes are fitted, Columbia require UTI
tapes to be bonded on every occasion before being introduced into cargo tanks.
Bonding may be achieved in two ways:
The UTI tape may be of a design which incorporates internal bonding;
An external bonding wire may be supplied which should be properly connected before the
tape is introduced into the tank.
Where internal bonding is provided the continuity of such internal bonding must be checked at
periods in accordance with the manufacturers instructions but in any case at intervals not
exceeding 6 months. The record ECF63 - UTI Tape Condition and Bonding Check must be
maintained.
Where full depth sounding pipes are not fitted below vapour locks or any other ullaging
or sampling aperture, a relaxation period of at least 30 minutes must be allowed after
loading the tank has ceased before introducing any portable equipment or UTI tape
into a tank containing a static accumulator product.
This requirement applies when carrying static accumulator products, or any product which is
flammable, or any non-volatile cargo being carried at a temperature within 10oC of its flashpoint.

4.5

Synthetic Ropes

4.6

Precautions with Static Accumulator Cargoes in Non-Inerted Tanks

The use of synthetic rope, for example for ullaging, sampling, dipping or portable tank cleaning
equipment, is not permitted at any time.

These precautions apply to vessels handling static accumulator cargoes in tanks which are not
inerted. No precautions are necessary if the tank is inerted or if static non-accumulator oils are
being handled.
4.6.1
Static Accumulator Oils
The definition of a static accumulator product is one with an electrical conductivity less than 50
picoSiemens/metre (pS/m) so that it is capable of retaining a significant electrostatic charge.
A static accumulator product may carry sufficient charge to constitute an incendive ignition
hazard during loading into the tank, and for up to 30 minutes after completion of loading.
All petroleum products should be considered to be static accumulators with the exception of the
following:

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Fuel with an anti-static additive;


Heavy black fuel oils;
Conductive crude;
Bitumen;
Alcohols;
Ketones.

Known static accumulator chemicals are as follows:


Alcohol;
Cumene;
Cyclohexane;
Diethyl ether;
Heptane;
MTBE;
Nonene;
Octane;
Styrene;
Toluene;
Xylene.
Where there is any doubt as to whether a product is a static accumulator or not it must
be assumed that it is and the necessary precautions observed.
4.6.2
Precautions against Electrostatic Discharge
There is a possibility of electrostatic discharges whenever equipment is lowered into cargo tanks.
The discharges may come from charges on the equipment itself or charges already present in the
tank, such as on the surface of the liquid, or on water or oil mists.
If there is any possibility of the presence of a flammable hydrocarbon gas/air mixture, then
precautions must be taken to avoid incendive discharges.
When handling static accumulator cargoes in non-inert tanks:
Metallic equipment should always be bonded;
Metallic equipment which has been bonded must not be introduced into a tank during
loading and for 30 minutes thereafter, unless a sounding pipe is used;
Metallic equipment which has been bonded may be introduced into a tank whilst tank
washing. Metallic equipment which has not been bonded must not be introduced into a
tank whilst tank washing and for 5 hours thereafter, unless a sounding pipe is used. If the
tank is continuously ventilated then the period is reduced to 1 hour.
4.6.3
Initial Filling of a Cargo Tank
In order to control electrostatic generation during the initial stages of loading the velocity of oil
entering into the tank must be restricted to 1 metre/second until the tank inlet is well covered
and all splashing and surface turbulence in the tank has ceased.
The 1 metre/second limit applies in the branch line to each individual cargo tank and should be
determined at the smallest cross sectional area including valves or any other piping restrictions.
The reasons for such a low linear velocity as 1 metre/second are threefold:
At the beginning of filling a tank, there is the greatest likelihood of water being mixed with
the oil entering the tank. Mixtures of oil and water constitute the most potent source of
static electricity;
A low product velocity at the tank inlet minimises turbulence and splashing as the oil
enters the tank. This helps reduce the generation of static electricity and also reduces the

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dispersal of any water present, so that it more quickly settles out to the bottom of the
tank where it can lie relatively undisturbed when the loading rate is subsequently
increased;
A low product velocity at the tank inlet minimises the formation of mists that may
accumulate a charge, even if the oil is considered not to be a static accumulator. This is
because the mist droplets are separated by air, which is an insulator. A mist can result in
a flammable atmosphere even if the liquid has a high flash point and is not normally
capable of producing one.

4.6.4
Spread Loading Static Precautions
Spread loading presents a number of potentially significant static generation risks which must be
assessed and properly managed. For example:
Uneven flow in the ships cargo lines can create a back flow of vapour (gas or air) from
other open tanks to the tank receiving product. This eductor effect will create a two phase
mixture of product and vapour which will result in increased turbulence and mist formation
within the tank;
The possibility of exceeding 1 metre/second product velocity at a tank inlet due to poor
distribution of product amongst the open tanks;
The overall loading rate should be selected so as to ensure a maximum product velocity of
1 metre/second into any one tank, assuming even distribution of cargo between tanks;
Possible different flow distributions into different tanks should be considered and best
efforts should be made to ensure equal flow distribution between cargo tanks;
Not more than four cargo tanks should be loaded at any one time;
Tank inlet valves should not be used to control cargo flow in the initial loading phase. Their
use will reduce the cross sectional area of the inlet, resulting in increased tank inlet
velocity and greater turbulence and mist formation.

4.7

Sample Bottles, Cages and Lines, Sounding Rods and Lines

Non-conducting and intermediate conducting materials may be acceptable in some


circumstances, for example plastic sample bottle holders can be lowered safely with natural fibre
(intermediate conductivity) rope. Synthetic rope generates significant static charge when sliding
rapidly through an operators gloved hand and must not be used for cargo operations at any time.
A material of intermediate conductivity such as wood or natural fibre, generally has sufficient
conductivity as a result of water absorption to avoid the accumulation of electrostatic charge. At
the same time these materials have low enough conductivity that instantaneous release of a
charge is not possible.

4.8

Re-Circulated Wash Water and Water Mists

The spraying of water into tanks, for instance during water washing, gives rise to electrostatically charged mist. This mist is uniformly spread throughout the tank being washed. The
electrostatic levels vary widely from tank to tank, both in magnitude and in sign either positive
or negative.
When washing is started in a dirty tank, the charge in the mist is initially negative, reaches a
maximum negative value, then goes back through zero and finally rises towards a positive
equilibrium value. Among the many variables affecting the level and polarity of charging, the
characteristics of the wash water and the degree of cleanliness of the tank have the most
significant influence.

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Under no circumstances must recirculated washing water be used for washing cargo
tanks which are not inerted and which have not been cleaned and gas freed, regardless
of the type of cargo.
Recirculated water may be used either from a slop, residual or cargo tank:
In non-inert cargo tanks provided the washing water is clean and the cargo tanks have
been cleaned and gas freed;
In inerted cargo tanks at any time provided that the conditions for washing in an inert
atmosphere are complied with.

4.9

Steaming of Cargo Tanks

Steaming of cargo tanks can present significant risks with respect to the generation of
electrostatic charges and must under no circumstances be carried out in any compartment which
has carried an Annex I cargo without the Company first being consulted. If steaming should be
required then the procedures in Cargo Operation Chemical, Chapter 8: Tank Cleaning
Chemical (8.13) should be complied with.

4.10

Free Fall of Liquid

Free fall is defined as the unrestricted fall of liquid into a tank. It is essential to avoid the free
fall of liquids into a non-inerted tank which contains a flammable atmosphere.
Loading or ballasting from the top - overall - delivers charged liquid to a tank in such a manner
that it can break up into small droplets and splash into the tank. This may produce a charged
mist as well as an increase in the petroleum gas concentration in the tank.

4.11

Maximum Flow Rates

Flow rate is the linear velocity of flow of liquid in a pipeline, usually measured in metres per
second (m/s). The determination of the flow rates at locations within cargo pipeline systems is
essential when handling static accumulator cargoes in non-inert tanks.
4.11.1 Flow Rates in Loading Lines
A number of loading rates need to be determined for each cargo tank according to whether
carrying static accumulator or non-static accumulator cargoes. These loading rates will be
dependent on the maximum flow rates in the cargo lines for different products.
The following flow rates must be calculated for each section of the cargo system, and displayed
in the Cargo Control Room:
A loading rate based on a linear velocity of 1 metre/second at the tank inlet for the initial
loading rate for static accumulator cargoes into non-inerted tanks;
A loading rate based on a linear velocity of 7 metres/second for bulk loading static
accumulator cargoes into non-inerted tanks;
A loading rate based on a linear velocity of 12 metres/second for loading non-static
accumulator cargoes and also for loading static accumulator cargoes into inerted tanks.
This velocity is provided for guidance only and is generally considered as a rate above
which pipeline erosion may occur at pipe joints and bends.
Where a number of tanks are loaded through a common manifold, the maximum loading rate
may be determined by the flow rate through the manifold or drop lines. For this reason, it is
important that a constant check is kept on the number of cargo tank valves that are open
simultaneously and that a suitable loading rate is determined for the particular loading operation.

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An offshore floating hose supplied in accordance with OCIMF Guidelines and having a nominal
diameter of less than 400 mm is suitable for continuous operation at a flow velocity of 21
metres/second. Offshore floating hoses having a diameter greater than 400 mm are suitable for
continuous operations at a flow velocity of 15 metres/second. However, the maximum loading
rate may be controlled by the size of the ships loading line inboard of where the hose is
connected.

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5.

Stability

5.1

Requirements for Stability, Stress and Bending Moments

All vessels are supplied with stability data. This data occasionally includes restrictions in the way
the vessel may be loaded and Masters and Deck Officers must be aware of any such restrictions.
These might include:
The maximum number of slack tanks at any one time;
Maximum filling capacities;
Filling restrictions. Occasionally, in order to reduce sloshing effects, there are restrictions
on how much a tank can be loaded to;
A lack of GM under certain conditions of loading.
If assumptions and estimates have to be made when calculating stability, they should be made
with caution.
The company requires all vessels to comply with SOLAS requirements of a minimum GM of 0.15
metres, with all additional dynamical stability criteria set out in the Trim & Stability Booklet for
each particular vessel, and to maintain stress limits and bending moments within the class
approved parameters at all times. If for any reason operational requirements may result in not
being able to maintain these limits then the company must be immediately informed.
Under no circumstances may a vessel sail from a port with the sheer forces and bending
moments exceeding the seagoing limits, with a GM of less than 0.15 metres, or with any other
minimum stability criteria not being met.
There are vessels which might conceivably have an issue with a GM of less than 0.15 metres. On
these vessels the CCR40 Stability Notice must be displayed in the Cargo Control Room and a
copy retained in the CCR Information File.
Care must be taken to ensure that the sheer forces and, in particular, the bending moments, for
harbour conditions, are not exceeded whilst alongside.

5.2

The Calculation of Stability and Stress

It is of importance that stability and stress conditions are calculated for the commencement and
completion of each sequence of cargo or ballast operations, at intermediate intervals, and that
permissible limits are always observed.
On each occasion a cargo or ballasting operation is carried out the stability and stress must be
pre-calculated for the following stages of each operation:
At the commencement;
At the completion;
At the 25%, 50% and 75% stages.
Most vessels will, to a greater extent, follow a pre-determined sequence when loading,
discharging, ballasting or de-ballasting. Account should be taken of the following, as applicable:
The loading or discharging sequence;
Cargo securing and the maximum metacentric height of deck cargo;
Bunker consumption en route;
Maximum departure and arrival drafts;
All possible free surface effects;
The Load Line Zones to be transited during the voyage;
The limits of the stability and stress calculation equipment and methods.

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It is of paramount importance that permissible limits are always observed, and the Master should
be advised if at any time if the vessel is likely to be subject to stress, stability or draft conditions
outside those limits.
The calculations must be attached to the cargo or ballasting plan. The Chief Officer
that all other Deck Officers are aware of the cargo plan and the attached stability
and of what action to take should there be any deviations from the cargo plan
significantly affect stability. Where there is a deviation from the original plan
calculation must be performed.

5.3

must ensure
calculations,
which might
then a new

Damaged Stability

5.3.1 The Calculation of Damaged Stability


The Master must take into account damaged stability and satisfy himself that on a loaded voyage
the vessel complies with the damaged stability requirements of MARPOL, or the IBC or IGC
Codes, as applicable. Masters may be required by port authorities to demonstrate that damaged
stability has been taken into account for all parts of a voyage.
Most Stability Information Books contain a statement to the effect that the stability is
approved for the stated loading conditions only and a deviation from any of those conditions is
only permitted as long as the stability complies with the IBC or IGC Codes or MARPOL. In
effect this means that if the actual loading condition deviates from one of the loading conditions
in the SIB by more than 1% then an additional calculation for damaged stability must be made.
5.3.2 Cargo Loading Computers Provided with Damaged Stability
Most loading computers have now been provided with a damaged stability programme. On such
vessels the damaged stability must be assessed for the actual loaded conditions and a printed
copy, signed by the Master, must either be included in the stability calculation or appended to it.
This procedure must be complied with for all loaded conditions, including departure, arrival and if
necessary, an intermediate condition.
5.3.3 Cargo Loading Computers not Provided with Damaged Stability
The vessel should be loaded as close as practically possible to one of the loading conditions
provided in the Stability Information Book taking into consideration the cargo quantity and
draft restrictions provided in the voyage orders.
The following must be taken into consideration:
1. The vessel should normally loaded in accordance with the conditions in the Stability
Information Book;
2. If an alternate loading condition is used, has written authority been obtained from either
the class or flag administration?
3. The Master must verify any alternate loading condition by assessing the condition against
the critical damage KG data which is included in the approved stability information.
The Master must check the actual loaded condition against the closest conditions provided in the
approved Damage Stability Booklet in order to verify compliance with damage stability criteria.
This condition should be copied, signed by the Master, and attached to the intact stability
calculation.

5.4

Comparisons during Cargo Operations

During cargo operations comparisons are to be made between the pre-calculated data at 25%,
50% and 75% of the operation and the actual data obtained from the loading computer.
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Should significant differences be noted then consideration must be given to stopping the
operation until the cause has been found. If there is a difference of more than 0.2 metres or
20% of the pre-calculated GM, the cargo operation must immediately cease. An investigation
must be carried out as to the reasons for the difference and operations must not be resumed
until the Master is satisfied that the cause has been identified and adequate corrective action, as
required, has been taken.
At the completion of cargo operations and periodically, the actual draft is to be compared with
that calculated and any significant differences must be investigated and dealt with.

5.5

Revisions to the Original Cargo Plan

5.6

Slack Tanks

During cargo operations it may be necessary to revise the discharge plan due to unexpected
circumstances, for example to accord with the requests of the receivers or shippers. If
necessary, stability must be re-calculated and this may result in delay. Under no circumstances
must cargo operations proceed if there is any doubt as to whether or not stability and stress can
be maintained within the desired limits. If problems arise then the company is to be immediately
informed.

Every effort is to be made to avoid slack cargo and ballast tanks in order to keep free surface
effect to a minimum.
Particular attention must be paid to the effect slack ballast tanks can have on stability,
particularly those which do not have a centreline bulkhead and which extend across the width of
the vessel.

5.7

Loss of Stability

Loss of stability or an excessive list is caused by:


The loss of buoyancy on one side of the vessel; or
A minimal or negative GM.
The result of instability will either be capsize or the vessel attaining an angle of loll.
For vessels with a negative GM, any external force applied will result in the vessel heeling. As
the vessel heels, the centre of buoyancy will move outwards and provided it can move
sufficiently outboard then it will result in stability being re-established and it will come to rest at
an angle of list, known as the angle of loll. At that point, the centres of gravity and buoyancy
are in the same vertical line and any further external forces applied will result in a righting lever
developing which will return the vessel to the angle of loll when the applied force is removed.
The vessel has effectively capsized to an angle of loll. Angles of loll generally are of the order of
between 5 and 10 degrees.
A vessel at an angle of loll is in a potentially dangerous condition. It would take little to
cause the vessel to roll through the vertical and come to rest at an opposite angle of loll. Apart
from the obvious physical results of a vessel moving quickly through what can be a large angle,
there is also a possibility that the momentum will cause the vessel to roll to a larger angle, lose
stability and capsize.
If a vessel assumes an unexpected angle of inclination the following actions must be taken:

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If the vessel is in port all cargo, ballast, bunkering and storing operations must
immediately cease;
Check that stability calculations were correct and that an error has not been made;
If at sea, alter course to put the head into the weather;
Check that there is not an obvious reason for the list, such as an unplanned movement of
cargo, bunkers, water or ballast. If there are no such listing effects then it should be
assumed that the vessel is unstable and is lying at an angle of loll;
Check for slack tanks free surface effect will have a significant effect on stability;
Inform the company as soon as circumstances permit.

Masters must ensure that before taking any action to correct stability, such action will in fact
improve the situation and not compromise it. External forces, such as wind and tide, must be
considered, and it might be necessary to take immediate action to prevent a deterioration of the
situation.
If the vessel is at a terminal they should be informed. If considered prudent cargo hoses must
be disconnected.
The company subscribes to a class Ship Emergency Response Service for all tankers in the
fleet. The service may not necessarily be provided by the same society as the vessel is classed
under. The SERS may be contacted at any time to provide emergency assistance.

5.8

Loading Computers

A loading computer is provided to supplement the Trim and Stability Booklet to those vessels
in the fleet where one will be of benefit. Its primary function is to facilitate the pre-calculation of
conditions of loading with respect to draft, trim, shear force and bending moments. Officers are
expected to know how to manually calculate draft, trim and stress using the Trim and Stability
Booklet in case of a malfunction of the loading computer, and to be able to manually calculate
damaged stability using the Damaged Stability Booklet.
The loading instrument will be approved by a regulatory body, usually the class society, and a
copy of the approval certificate should be lodged in a certificate file and shown to those who have
the authority to ask for it.
The output data is only as good as the input data, and that care should be taken in ensuring that
the quantities entered are correct, particularly with respect to slack tanks where free surface may
be an issue. Data on stores, fuel and ballast must be updated regularly where necessary.
The loading computer must be tested monthly for operational accuracy against both the approved
test data supplied by the manufacturer or class and against the conditions in the Trim and
Stability Book. The load computer results must also be checked at least monthly where
practicable against visually observed drafts. The record ECF40 - Cargo Load Computer Test
must be maintained. If there are any significant differences the company must be informed.
Records of stability calculations must be retained on board. It is recommended that upon sailing,
a copy is taken to the bridge and left available in the event of an emergency situation. Upon
arrival at the next port, this stability record should then be removed to the Cargo Office and
filed.

5.9

Free Surface Effect

The two issues with free surface are the effect on transverse metacentric height, and thus
stability, and sloshing, which can cause structural damage. The effect on stability will be most

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severe with tanks which have a large transverse width, such as ballast tanks that extend the full
width of the vessel.
The most critical stages of any operation will be while filling and emptying double bottom ballast
tanks and whilst the liquid level is below the double bottom tank top. If sufficient cargo and
ballast tanks are slack simultaneously, the overall free surface effect could well be sufficient to
reduce the transverse metacentric height to a point at which the transverse stability of the ship
may be threatened. This could result in the ship suddenly developing a severe list or angle of
loll.
It is imperative that personnel involved in cargo and ballast operations are aware of this potential
problem, and that all cargo and ballast operations are conducted strictly in accordance with the
ships loading manual.

5.10

Sloshing

The movement of liquid with a free surface within a cargo tank when the vessel is pitching or
rolling at sea is called sloshing.
There

are several negative effects of sloshing:


The slamming effect of the liquid may cause damage to the tank structure and fittings;
A rolling and pitching motion can generate a source of ignition an electrostatic charge;
The effect of free surface reduces the ships GM and may lead to a loss of stability.

Although none of the Columbia vessels is subject to restrictions, in order to avoid any potential
problems slack tanks should be avoided wherever possible whilst the vessel is at sea.

5.11 Maximum Density Restrictions

Most, if not all, vessels have density restrictions. Such restrictions must be complied with and if
necessary a reduced volume of cargo loaded in order to ensure that the restrictions are not
exceeded.
If the vessel is requested to load a cargo, the density of which is in excess of the maximum
density it is approved to carry, the company must be informed and approval sought before
commencing loading.
The maximum permitted cargo density must be recorded on the notice CCR29 - Cargo System
Maximum Capacities.

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6.

Gas Detection and Personal Protective Equipment

6.1

Gas Detection Equipment - Analysers

Flammable vapours are not limited by just hydrocarbons but include other flammable gases,
such as Hydrogen, that cannot be detected by infrared gas detectors. Gases that can be
measured by infrared gas detectors must be infrared active, such as hydrocarbons, while gases
that do not absorb infrared energy, such as Hydrogen are not detectable.
6.1.1
Responsibility for Gas Analysers
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that:
The analysers on board are in good order and regularly checked and calibrated in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions;
He is fully familiar with the method of checking each analyser to ensure that it is
working satisfactorily. The manufacturers instructions with respect to testing and
calibration are to be strictly adhered to. Failure to do so may result in the malfunction
of the instrument;
That all officers are fully familiar with the operation and checking of each analyser;
That all ratings are familiar with the use of the MSA Altair 4 personal analyser.
6.1.2
Requirements for the Use of Analysers
Personal portable analysers must be used as follows:
On every entry into an enclosed space, as defined in the company enclosed space entry
procedures;
On every entry into a pump room;
On every occasion where there is doubt about the atmosphere either within an area or
a compartment not defined as an enclosed space;
Whenever cargoes or bunkers with a high H2S content are being handled.
The MSA Altair 4 personal analyser is supplied on board every vessel in the fleet for this
purpose.
6.1.3
Equipment
The supply of analysers and calibration gas to the fleet is detailed below.
Under no circumstances is it permitted to use any other equipment than that supplied by I M
and M under the present contract the company has with them, unless the company has
specifically agreed to the use of alternative equipment.
The equipment supplied by I M and M is as follows:
6.1.3.1 Draeger X-AM 7000: Two supplied to each vessel.
The X-AM 7000 measures %LEL, % volume HC, % volume O2, H2S ppm.
The X-AM 7000 is fitted with infra-red sensors and is therefore capable of the measurement of
hydrocarbons in an inert atmosphere. The Draeger X-AM 7000 has an in-built pump, powered
by the batteries, to sample atmospheres using a sample tube.
The sensors in the Draeger X-AM 7000 have a 5 year service life. Each unit is returned to I M
and M every two years for servicing. Replacement analysers will be supplied before the units
are landed. The analysers do not require annual servicing. It should not be necessary to
replace sensor filters within the two-year cycle of returning to I M and M.
The alarm settings for the X-AM 7000 are:
5 ppm;
H2S
LEL
10%;
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O2
19%.
There is no alarm setting for % volume HC.
6.1.3.2
MSA Altair 4: Three are supplied to each vessel.
The MSA Altair 4 measures %LEL, % volume O2, H2S ppm, CO ppm.
The alarm settings for the MSA Altair 4 are:
Alarm A1 = 5 ppm, alarm A2 = 10 ppm. TWA over 8 hours 5 ppm;
H2S
LEL
10% and 20%;
19 .5 % deficiency, 22.0% enrichment;
O2
CO
TWA 30 ppm.
Each MSA Altair 4 has a service life of 2 years, after which period it will be automatically
replaced by I M and M. The analysers do not require annual servicing. The out of date units
must be disposed of immediately upon the new ones being received on board. It should not be
necessary to replace either the sensors or the filters within the two year life of each analyser.
The MSA Altair 4 is supplied with a manual aspirator, to sample atmospheres using an
extension tube.
6.1.3.3
Extension Hoses and Aspirators
Each vessel must be equipped with at least two manual aspirators and two lengths of
extension hose to allow the atmosphere to be sampled from the deepest tank, hold or
compartment.
Extension hoses and aspirators are universal and fit every analyser using the analyser
manufacturers coupling.
Care must be taken when using extension hoses. As a very broad guide, one aspiration should
be made for each metre length of extension hose; 10 aspirations for hoses of 10 metres in
length and so on.
Operators must also be sure to clear the atmosphere from the previous test from the extension
hose before commencing sampling the current atmosphere. Therefore before being connected
to the analyser, the extension hose should be aspirated a similar number of times.
It should be noted that the maximum length of extension hose which can be supported by
some hand pumps, such as the Draeger Accuro, is 15 metres. Longer lengths of extension
hose may result in inaccurate readings.
6.1.4
Identification of Analysers
Each analyser must be individually identified to ensure that its record of service and
maintenance can be traced. The use of the unit serial number is recommended.
6.1.5
Operation of Analysers
Analysers must be operated strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
When taking measurements, careful attention must be paid to the reading as the hose is
introduced into the space. If there are significant concentrations of gas in excess of the
analysers measurement range, there may well be an initial full-scale deflection which is
immediately followed by a return to zero. If this occurs the analyser should be removed to
fresh air and allowed time to settle.

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It should be noted that if the analyser has been subjected to an excessive amount of the gas
being measured, it may take several hours before the sensor returns to normal mode.
It is recommended that a manual breath bump test, as described below, is carried out prior to
each non-safety use.
6.1.6

Span (Calibration) Gas

6.1.6.1
Draeger X-AM 7000
Three different types of span (calibration) gas are provided for checking the Draeger X-AM
7000 analysers:
8% volume Butane, 13% CO2, balance N2, 20 litres, used for % volume HC
(Butane);
3 cylinders supplied, each capable of providing about 15 calibrations. The analyser
should give a reading of 8% volume HC. The CO2 is solely for improving the
accuracy of the calibration of the analyser.
25 ppm H2S, balance N2, 110 litres, used for H2S;
1 cylinder supplied, capable of about 60 calibrations. The analyser should give a
reading of 25 ppm H2S.
0.75% volume Butane, balance air, 20 litres, used for %LEL;
3 cylinders supplied, each capable of providing about 25 calibrations. The analyser
should give a reading of 50% LEL.
Note that the O2 is factory set and the analyser can only be calibrated in fresh air. Nitrogen must not
be used.

6.1.6.2
MSA Altair 4
One type of span gas is provided for checking the MSA Altair 4 analyser:
Mixed 4 gas cylinder, 58 litres, 15% O2, 20ppm H2S, 60ppm CO, 29% LEL
(1.45% volume Methane), balance N2;
2 cylinders supplied, each capable of providing about 30 calibrations. The analyser should give
a reading of 15% O2 and 29% LEL.
6.1.7
Calibration Gas Cylinders
It is important that replacement span gas cylinders are obtained only from I M and M, who will
automatically supply the correct gas for each analyser.
Obviously the more often an analyser is checked using span gas, the more gas is used, and the
higher the cost of replacement will be. Chief Officers should bear in mind that the supply of
span gas can be expensive as it almost always involves the transport by air of dangerous
goods. Span gas should therefore not be wasted.
The shelf life of cylinders containing H2S, which is a reactive gas and therefore goes off, is
one year, and although there is no theoretical shelf life for the other cylinders a shelf life of 3
years is considered prudent.
Calibration gas should be checked every 3 months and the record ECF22 - Analyser Calibration Gas Check maintained. Replacement canisters must be ordered in good time
before those on board expire.
Calibration gas cylinders must be completely emptied before being disposed of. They may
then be disposed of with garbage ashore. Empty calibration gas cylinders must not be
incinerated.
6.1.8
Analyser Calibration and Testing
There is often confusion regarding the terms calibration, checking and shore servicing.

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Each analyser performs an electronic-self test when it is switched on. It is important to note
that in the case of the sensors other than the Oxygen sensor, this tests the electronics it
does not check the physical ability of the analyser to take atmosphere samples.
A Bump test, or check, can be applied, either by breathing into the analyser, in which case
there should be a drop in the Oxygen reading of about 3 - 5%, or by the use of span gas which
should result in the test gas being registered. This test simply shows that the analyser is
reacting to the gas and therefore should not be considered to be a calibration. Excessive
bump testing should be avoided as exhaled moisture can affect sensor readings.
Calibration is physically altering and re-setting the readings the machine is giving, and involves
resetting the zero and span levels. Calibration should be carried out strictly in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions at the intervals described below.
Shore servicing is self-explanatory.
The company requirements with respect to the checking and calibration of analysers are that
each analyser and all its associated equipment including the case, sampling line and
attachments is to be checked every 3 months and calibrated using span gas.
Each time the analyser is switched on:
The analysers should complete their automatic, internal checks at start up without
incident;
The analysers should then be "zeroed" in fresh air without incident and should give
stable fresh air values;
During operation the analysers should respond normally to gas (i.e. fast response, fast
recovery) and at all times show sensible stable readings in line with the tasks being
undertaken;
At no time during the operation should the sensors respond to gas above the range
installed.
If any of the above conditions are not met then the analyser must be checked using span gas.
If there is any doubt about the operation of an analyser then I M and M should be contacted
for advice contact details can be obtained from the company if required. If replacement of
the analyser is recommended they will make the necessary arrangements.
When

calibrating using span gas, the following should be observed:


The analyser and the sensors should be given sufficient time to warm up;
Calibration should take place in a gas-free atmosphere;
Calibration should not take place immediately after the battery has been charged.

Analysers should be checked using calibration gas at least every 3 months and the records
ECF20 Analyser - MSA Altair 4 Calibration or the ECF21 Analyser - Draeger X-AM 7000
Calibration maintained.
The Draeger X-AM 7000 has a factory set zero of the Oxygen sensor and this should not be
adjusted. Under no circumstances must a zero calibration of the Oxygen sensor using nitrogen
gas be attempted, as this will probably result in the failure of the analyser. Therefore all
vessels should only perform a zero check, not a zero adjustment.
6.1.9
Draeger Six Monthly Inspections by a Qualified Person
The company uses the services of I M and M to train the Marine and Technical Superintendents
in the maintenance of analysers. The Superintendents in turn check the equipment when they

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are on board for ship visits and also train the officers on board. Draeger have confirmed that
this satisfies their requirement that the analyser is checked by a qualified, competent, person
at least every 6 months.
6.1.10 The Measurement of Hydrogen Sulphide
The X-AM 7000 and the MSA Altair 4 analysers will all be affected by high concentrations of
H2S. As a very rough guide, exposure to concentrations of H2S of 100 ppm or more over 10
minutes may damage the sensors, and therefore such exposure must be avoided. Exposure to
short term high levels of H2S concentrations should not affect the operation of an analyser nor
should it shorten the life of the sensor. However, it may require more frequent recalibration.
6.1.11 Cross-Sensitivity
Personnel should be aware that all analysers are cross-sensitive to other gases and may give
false readings when exposed to an atmosphere other than that which they are designed to
measure.
Examples of this are:
A CO analyser will give a reading when exposed to Hydrogen in places such as battery
lockers and lifeboats;
A CO analyser might react to CO2 from exhaled breath in an enclosed space.
All electrochemical analysers regardless of make are cross-sensitive to the SO2 in inert gas
when measuring H2S content and the analyser will give higher readings of H2S than is actually
the case. The level of cross sensitivity is about 4 to 1 and therefore for every 4 ppm SO2 the
reading of H2S will be about 1 ppm higher than is actually the case. The accuracy of
measurement will be satisfactory for normal purposes, it is only if it is necessary to very
accurately measure the level of H2S will Draeger tubes or the equivalent be required to be
used.
6.1.12 Sampling Lines
Only sampling lines provided by I M and M for the particular instruments must be used.
Sampling lines must be kept clean and must be inspected regularly to ensure that they are in
good physical condition. Sample tubing which is cracked or blocked, or which has become
contaminated with cargo residues, can significantly affect analyser readings.
At least one sampling line long enough to reach the bottom of all cargo tanks, holds or other
compartments should be available on board.
6.1.13 Other Analysers
Occasionally a vessel will be supplied with a different type of analyser by the owner or previous
manager. These analysers, along with all the ancillary equipment such as spare filters and
calibration gas regulators, must be placed in a sealed box clearly marked Not to be used and
stored away. They are to be retained on board for eventual return to the vessels owner. The
old equipment must not be used for atmosphere testing, kept as spares, nor should they be
serviced. Further, in view of the fact that they have not been serviced, nor should there be
the correct calibration gas on board for checking them, they may well be unsafe to use.

6.2

Chemical Indicator Tubes and Hand Pumps

6.2.1 General Provisions


Chemical indicator tubes consist of a sealed glass tube containing a proprietary filling which is
designed to react with a specific gas and to give a visible indication of the concentration of that
gas. To use the device, the seals at each end of the glass tube are broken, the tube is inserted

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into a bellows-type fixed volume displacement hand pump, and a prescribed volume of gas
mixture is drawn through the tube at a rate fixed by the rate of expansion of the bellows.
A colour change occurs along the tube and the length of discolouration, which is a measure of
the gas concentration, is read off a scale integral with the tube. In order for the correct
reading to be obtained, the correct number of full pumps, or strokes, must be applied.
Measurement errors may occur if several gases are present at the same time, as one gas can
interfere with the measurement of another.
The analyser manufacturers operating
instructions should always be consulted prior to testing such atmospheres.
The tubes supplied by different manufacturers are not compatible with the pumps of other
manufacturers. Therefore only tubes manufactured by the same manufacturer as the hand
pump must be used.
There should only be one type of hand pump on board. Tubes from a different manufacturer
to that of the pump should be disposed of. The hand pumps must be checked every 3 months
to ensure that they are in good order and the record ECF25 - Analyser - Toxic Gas Detector
maintained.
6.2.2 Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Tubes
Each crude oil tanker should be equipped with two hand pumps and one box each of the
following H2S tubes from the same manufacturer as the pump:
0.5 to 150 ppm; and
100 to 2000 ppm.
Each product tanker should be equipped with two hand pumps and one box of the following
H2S tubes from the same manufacturer as the pump:
0.5 to 150 ppm.
In addition, product carriers loading chemicals must have the required tubes for the cargoes
they are handling.
Each dedicated chemical tanker should be equipped with two hand pumps and one box of the
following H2S tubes from the same manufacturer as the pumps:
0.5 to 150 ppm.
6.2.3 Benzene Tubes
There may be an occasion when a vessel either loads a cargo which is high in Benzene or it is
necessary and prudent to check the Benzene level of a cargo. Detector tubes are not always
readily available at the port of call and in view of the possible safety issues
involved the company has therefore taken the decision to require each tanker to maintain a
stock of Benzene tubes - Benzene 0.5/a - 0.5 to 10 ppm.
There are also occasions when a vessel will be required to carry cargoes such as Motor
Gasoline (Mogas), where the Benzene content may be more than 0.5% by volume. The
provisions of DCOM(T) Part B: Cargo Operations Petroleum Chapter 1, section 1.4.2
Monitoring Atmosphere Quality, must be strictly complied with. Each vessel carrying such
cargoes must have enough Benzene tubes available to be able to carry out such monitoring
effectively.
The Occupational Exposure Limits of Benzene are:
A TWA of 1 ppm over an eight hour period;
A STEL of 5 ppm over any 15 minute period.

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It is important to ensure that the tubes that are ordered and supplied are of the same
manufacturer as the Toxic Gas Detector Draeger tubes for the Draeger Accuro analyser, and
so on.
For more detail about Benzene and its Threshold Limit Value (TLV), refer to the DCOM(T)
Part B: Cargo Operations Petroleum Chapter 1 or Part C: Cargo Operations
Chemical Chapter 1.
6.2.4 Stocks of Chemical Tubes
Vessels carrying chemicals must carry a standard stock of gas detector tubes in accordance
with the list CCR74 List of Toxic Gas Detector Tubes to be Carried. Additional tubes for
specific cargoes will also be required and these should be obtained prior to loading the
particular cargo. If the correct tubes cannot be obtained the company must be immediately
informed prior to loading the cargo.
Detector tubes are to be checked at least every 3 months and the record ECF26 - Analyser Toxic Gas Detection Tubes maintained. Replacement tubes must be ordered in good time
prior to the expiry of the tubes on board.

6.3

Fixed Gas Detection Systems

Fixed gas detection equipment, including that for the pump room, must be checked with the
manufacturers recommended calibration gas at monthly intervals and the record ECF23 Analyser - Fixed Gas Detection System maintained. The vessel must ensure that the
correct calibration gas is available and that replacement gas is ordered before the expiry date.
Fixed gas detection system control boxes should be labelled in a convenient position with the
type of type of calibration gas to be used.
Fixed gas detection systems are to be considered critical equipment, and any failure must be
immediately reported to the company.
If there is a failure of the ballast tank fixed gas detection system then ballast tanks and any
other compartment adjacent to loaded compartments, such as cofferdams, void spaces and
spool tanks which are served by the equipment must be checked on a daily basis and the
results recorded in the ECF30 - Atmosphere Check Cargo and Other Spaces.
Calibration gas should be checked every 3 months and the record ECF22 - Analyser
Calibration Gas maintained. Replacement canisters must be ordered in good time before
those on board expire.

6.4

Personal Protective Equipment

6.4.1 General Provisions


It is the responsibility of every seafarer to wear appropriate personal protective equipment for
the tasks they are involved in. The minimum PPE for anyone working on deck during cargo
operations is a safety helmet, safety boots, overall, gloves and, if necessary, goggles.
Anyone not involved in cargo operations proceeding on deck during cargo operations must
wear safety helmet, safety boots, and suitable clothing which covers both the arms and legs.
In addition, where the MSDS of a particular cargo recommends the use of additional safety
equipment, this must be readily available. Seafarers must be aware of the dangers of
dermatitis and skin cancer from prolonged contact with various oils and chemical substances.

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6.4.2 Safety Helmets


Safety helmets are provided to protect the wearer against falling objects and against head
knocks.
Helmets which have suffered a large impact must be discarded. It is not permitted to paint or
mark a safety helmet with adhesive tape or labels, as this can significantly reduce the
protection they offer.
6.4.3 Hearing Protection
There are two types of hearing protection generally available ear defenders and ear plugs.
The latter come in various types.
Ear defenders offer the best protection and should be worn by all personnel working in areas
of high noise, including the engine room and associated compartments, pump rooms,
aggregate pump rooms, and when using high noise equipment such as that for scaling or
grinding.
6.4.4 Face and Eye Protection
Risk of eye injury may occur through a variety of reasons, and it is the responsibility of each
person to ensure that they are wearing appropriate eye protection for the task they are
involved in. Examples of risk to eyes are:
Infra red rays from gas welding;
Ultra violet rays from electric welding;
Foreign particles;
Chemical splashes;
Various types of goggles, glasses and face shields or visors are available to protect against
these hazards and each is designed for a specific purpose.
6.4.5 Respiratory Protection and the Use of Filter Masks
Under no circumstances is it permitted to use filter masks as protection against cargo or
chemical vapours.
6.4.6 Hand Protection
The type of protection required will depend on the work undertaken. Whenever sharp objects
are being handled, leather palmed gloves should always be used. When handling hot objects,
heat-resistant gloves should be used.
When handling chemicals or corrosive substances, rubber, synthetic or PVC gloves should be
worn.
When handling mooring wires, leather palmed gloves should be worn, but mooring wires
should not handled wearing gloves during the deployment of wires overboard in case the glove
becomes entangled in the wire with subsequent danger to the wearer.
6.4.7 Foot Protection
Most foot injury results from the wearing of improper footwear such as sandals, trainers or
flip-flops. All personnel should wear the appropriate footwear for the activity they are
undertaking. Safety boots or shoes must be worn whenever at work, be it on deck, in
machinery spaces or in the galley.
Whenever a seafarer proceeds on deck or into a machinery space for non-work purposes,
suitable footwear must be worn.

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6.4.8 Body Protection


The company provides all seafarers with overalls. These should be reasonably close fitting and
should be worn without scarves, belts, loose flaps, or bulging pockets. They shall be correctly
closed with the buttons or zips. Sleeves must not be rolled up during work where there is risk
of injury to the arms.
Overalls shall be kept as clean as possible for reasons of health and hygiene. When in port the
company expects every seafarer to wear clean overalls in order that the standards of the
company are seen by outsiders to be high.
Whenever an overall becomes unserviceable for any reason, be it such damage that it no
longer offers full protection, or becomes unpresentable, then a replacement should be
requested.
6.4.9 High Visibility Jackets
High visibility jackets shall be worn where there is a need to be seen, for example during cargo
operations on dry cargo vessels.
6.4.10 Handling Chemicals
Specialised protective equipment such as rubber or leather aprons, gloves and full face
protection may be required when handling chemicals, maintaining emergency batteries or
welding.
6.4.11 Oxygen Resuscitator
When handling either a petroleum or chemical cargo, an oxygen resuscitator must be
immediately available. During cargo operations the resuscitator must not be kept in a locked
hospital or medical locker.

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7.

Maintenance of the Watch in Port

7.1

Responsibility

The Master shall ensure that an appropriate and effective watch is maintained in port, whether
cargo operations are being carried out or not. He should decide the composition of the watch,
taking into consideration the experience of the officers and the prevailing conditions.
Either the Master or the Chief Officer must be on board whilst the vessel is in port, regardless of
whether a cargo operation is being undertaken.
Whilst the vessel is moored alongside, but is not carrying out cargo operations, the watchkeeping
procedures below must be complied with to the extent that they are applicable to ensure that the
safety of the crew, ship, the protection of the environment and the cargo are all satisfactorily
addressed.
The Deck Officer must be prepared to call the Master or Chief Officer at any time if in doubt.

7.2

Supervision and Control of Cargo Operations

Control of cargo watchkeeping duties is normally delegated to the Chief Officer, who must keep
the Master fully informed of all operations that are to be undertaken, must also ensure that a
copy of each and every cargo plan is given to him, and that he is informed about any unexpected
situations or occurrences. Where the Chief Officer is in doubt as to whether to contact the
Master, he should do so.
It is company policy that all Deck Officers should have completed an approved specialised training
programme for the type of vessel petroleum, chemical or both, upon which they are serving,
and should have Paragraph 2 Dangerous Cargo Endorsements. However, Third Officers new to
their rank will not be able to obtain a Paragraph 2 Dangerous Cargo Endorsement until they have
attained sufficient experience appropriate to their duties.
A responsible officer must be on watch throughout all cargo operations. There should be
sufficient crew on board at all time to deal with operational issues, emergencies and to move the
vessel should it be required.
During cargo operations the Cargo Control Room should not be left unattended. With respect to
ratings, the following functions will need to be managed:
A rating should be stationed at the manifold;
The gangway should be attended at all times;
Assistance will be required for cargo operations, such as operating valves, ullaging and
sampling;
Moorings will require tending;
Continued adherence to the Ship to Shore Safety Check List (SSSCL) must be
regularly monitored.
It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer and the individual officers of the watch to ensure that
each of these functions is adequately addressed with the available manpower.
During STS operations whilst underway there must, in addition to the above, be a Deck Officer on
the bridge.
During STS operations at anchor where the Columbia vessel is at anchor, then a Deck Officer
must keep a watch on the bridge on one of the two vessels and in addition, a lookout should be
provided if the Master deems it prudent.

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During STS operations at anchor where the other vessel is at anchor, it is incumbent upon them
to maintain a watch, but the Master must discuss the matter with the Master of the other vessel
to ensure that a watch and lookout is being maintained. If he is in any doubt about the intentions
of the other vessel he should post a lookout.
The Master must ensure that:
All Deck Officers and ratings have received familiarisation training on the cargo equipment
to the extent required by their duties;
The Chief Officer fully understands his role as the officer in charge of cargo operations,
and that he is competent to carry out that role;
The Chief Officer has completed his own Standing Orders for cargo operations on the
company form Chief Officer's Standing Orders, and that the orders comply with
company requirements;
All Deck Officers have read and understood the company procedures;
All Deck Officers are familiar with ISGOTT, at least to the extent that they are aware of
how to access the publication for information and guidance;
That all officers clearly understand their duties, in particular to the safe completion of
operations and the prevention of pollution.
A continuous watch of the tank deck and the area surrounding the vessel must be maintained and
a Deck Officer must be on duty whilst cargo, ballast, or tank cleaning operations are taking place.

7.3

Responsibility of the Chief Officer

The Chief Officer is responsible to the Master for the planning and control of all cargo, ballast and
tank cleaning operations, and for ensuring that cargo operations are carried out in accordance
with company procedures, with particular attention being paid to safe operations and the
prevention of pollution.
The Chief Officer is also responsible for:
The accurate measurement and recording of all cargo quantities;
Ensuring that all official and company records are fully and accurately completed;
Ensuring that all checks, tests and maintenance of equipment is carried out in accordance
with company requirements;
Ensuring that all cargo equipment is in good order, and if not, that the matter is brought
to the immediate attention of the Master and the company;
Ensuring that whenever a tank aperture is opened, the packing is carefully inspected for
any signs of damage. If there is any doubt as to the watertight or vapour integrity of the
aperture then remedial action must be immediately taken, including the replacement of
packing if necessary. Temporary solutions such as the use of silicon sealer must be
avoided, although occasionally silicon is used as an additional precaution for particularly
sensitive cargoes.
The Chief Officer is to ensure that all cargo equipment identified on the form CCR22- List of Key
Equipment in the CCR Information File is maintained at all times in good working order. If
any piece of equipment on the List of Key Equipment should fail the matter should be treated
as urgent and discussed with the company.

7.4

Responsibility of the Cargo Watch Officers

All Deck Officers must be familiar with the company procedures with respect to cargo operations,
and must be fully conversant with all the cargo equipment which they are required to operate
during a cargo watch. Deck Officers must understand that they have sole responsibility for the

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management of the cargo operation whilst the Chief Officer is absent, and that the prevention of
pollution is of the utmost importance.
Deck Officers must be familiar with, and must be ready to immediately refer to, industry
publications such as ISGOTT, the ICS Tanker Safety Guide (Chemicals) the IBC Code, as
applicable, and associated other industry publications.
7.4.1
Taking over the Cargo Watch
Officers in charge of a deck watch shall not hand over the watch to their relieving officer if they
have any reason to believe the latter is not capable of carrying out their duties effectively, in
which case the Master shall be advised. Officers of the Watch shall ensure that all members of
their watch are capable of carrying out their duties.
If any important activity is taking place at the time of handing over the watch, it shall be
concluded by the officer to be relieved before passing the watch to another.
Prior to taking over the watch, the relieving officer shall ensure that he is fully familiar with the
following, as necessary:
They fully understand the cargo plan, have reviewed any amendments to it, and that they
are confident that its requirements are currently being followed;
The current situation with respect to the cargo, ballast or tank cleaning operations that
are taking place;
That all gauge read-outs such as ullages, pressures, revolutions and temperatures are as
they should be;
The Chief Officers Orders, and that they have been signed as read and understood;
The method of communicating with shore personnel including port authorities in the event
of an emergency or assistance required;
The depth of water at the berth, the current draft and the time and height of high and low
water;
The arrangement of the moorings;
The state of main engines and their readiness for use in emergencies;
The number of crew on board and the presence of other persons on board;
Any special port regulations and the procedures for notifying the appropriate authority in
the event of environmental pollution; and
Any other circumstances of importance relative to the safety of the crew, ship, pollution
prevention or cargo.
7.4.2
Performing the Cargo Watch
It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure that watch officers understand their duties
during cargo operations, and that they adhere to company requirements.
The officer in charge of the deck watch holds considerable responsibility whilst in charge of the
cargo watch, and it is their duty to ensure that the safety of life, the vessel, the terminal and the
environment are not in any way compromised.
Regular inspections of the external deck area must be conducted during the watch to ensure
continued compliance with the requirements of CCR83 - Ship to Shore Safety Check List. It is
not satisfactory practice to rely solely on the deck watch and remain in the Cargo Control Room.
However, the management of the cargo operation takes priority and the Cargo Control Room
should not be left unattended at critical periods.
Whilst on watch Deck Officers must be dressed in suitable personal protective equipment to
enable instant response to an emergency.

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During the watch, the Officer on Duty is required to ensure that:


With respect to basic watchkeeping:
An effective deck watch is maintained to address cargo, pollution prevention and security
matters. The deck watch must be adequately briefed as to their duties, and should be
monitored and advised as necessary, including:
Maintaining a security watch, that a gangway watch is maintained, and that
personnel boarding the vessel comply with company requirements with respect to
lighters, matches, electronic equipment and presenting ID;
Assisting in cargo operations;
Making rounds;
Monitoring cargo operations, including pipework for signs of leakage;
Tending moorings;
Pollution prevention;
Keeping a look-out for other passing vessels, warning the Deck Officer, and
tending moorings if the vessel surges;
Monitoring spaces adjacent to the cargo area for flammable or toxic gases;
Any other function that should require their attention;
The vessel remains safely moored alongside at all times;
Weather conditions, including strong winds, strong tides, sea state and electrical storms
are monitored and action taken as necessary;
Pollution prevention measures are in place, with particular reference to the checking of
the deck area, especially the manifold, for cargo leaks, and:
The checking of segregated ballast prior to discharge;
Regular monitoring overside during ballast discharge;
Monitoring the area around the vessel for instances of pollution from other
sources;
Management of rain water on deck and oil sheens on the surface of the water;
Management of storing and the risk of pollution from packing materials;
Terminal and local regulations and requirements are complied with, as applicable;
The order and the normal routine of the ship are maintained;
The access to the vessel is safe.
Lights and signals, as required, are exhibited.
And with respect to cargo operations:
The cargo operation is monitored to the extent necessary to ensure that it is completed
safely, effectively, and in accordance with the cargo plan;
The requirements of the CCR83 - Ship to Shore Safety Check List are observed
throughout the cargo operation, including but not limited to re-checks of the R items. A
repeat check must be made at least every four hours of the deck and mooring areas to
ensure continued compliance and the fact recorded. The Deck Officer must take the
opportunity to leave the Cargo Control Room and carry out these repeat checks whenever
possible;
The cargo transfer rate is calculated at least every hour and recorded;
Stability and stress are to be checked and recorded in CCR81 Cargo Operation Plan of
the Cargo Forms Module every hour, and the Chief Officers pre-calculations with respect
to draft, trim and stress confirmed as being maintained within the required limits.
The Deck Officer on watch must be prepared to call the Chief Officer or Master if there is any
doubt as to the continued safety of the vessel, terminal, or environment.

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7.5

Training of Deck Officers

It is the duty of the Master in the case of the Chief Officer, and of the Chief Officer in the case of
the junior Deck Officers to ensure that each is trained and fully familiar with the cargo systems on
board and the carriage requirements of the various cargoes they have to deal with.
It is also the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure that Deck Officers are trained to a
sufficient standard that they can take on the work of a more senior position, particularly the
Second Officer who should be able to take over from the Chief Officer at any time.
It is crucial that each officer ensures that they fully familiarise themselves with the equipment
they are expected to operate, with the company procedures with respect to cargo handling, and
that they are able to take charge of a cargo operation, including, but not limited to:
Being able to calculate the vessels stress and stability;
Preparing and interpreting cargo plans for loading, discharging, crude oil washing and
tank cleaning;
Operating cargo handling and monitoring equipment;
Supervising a cargo operation;
Completing the required company and official records;
Advising the deck watch as to their duties;
Understanding the use and implementation of the CCR83 - Ship to Shore Safety Check
List;
Understand and be familiar with their duties with respect to what action to take in case of
an emergency, as detailed below;
Being familiar with the carriage requirements and hazards of the carriage of the cargoes
the vessel is handling, and what action to take in case of a spill;
Understand the use and calibration of both portable and fixed gas detection equipment.

7.6

Familiarity with Emergency Procedures

Readiness to act promptly to any emergency that may occur onboard and re-establish control is
crucial.
All officers must be fully familiar with the procedures contained in the Emergency Procedures
Manual. The Master and other officers should continuously consider what they would do in the
event of various types of emergency, such as a fire on deck, on the jetty, in the engine room or
in the accommodation, a cargo spill, pollution, the collapse of a person in a tank, or breaking
adrift or emergency release from the berth.
Deck Watch Officers must ensure that:
They are fully familiar with what immediate action to take in case of particular emergency
situations;
Crew members are also familiar with what action to take in an emergency, such as the
need to avoid inhalation of cargo vapours if there is a spill, breaking free from the berth,
fire etc.;
They are ready to act and establish control of an emergency situation;
They are familiar with the contact procedures to request assistance from the company,
third parties and the relevant authorities;
They are familiar with the contact procedures with the terminal to communicate the
emergency to them;
Emergency equipment is always readily available and in good order.
It may not be possible to foresee in detail what might occur in such emergencies, but advance
planning, thought and familiarity with procedures will result in quicker and more effective

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decisions and a well organised reaction to the situation.


protection of the safety of all personnel.

7. Maintenance of the Watch in Port


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8.

Environmental Protection and Pollution Prevention

8.1

Environmental Protection

The Columbia Shipmanagement Environmental Policy requires:


Strict compliance with all environmental legislation and regulatory controls;
The preservation and protection of natural resources;
The prevention of any kind of pollution;
The reduction of the impact on the environment resulting from company activities;
The encouragement of the respect and responsibility of all employees towards the
environment;
Combining efforts with other like-minded organisations for the protection of the
environment.
Compliance with the Company Environmental Policy requires the following to be applied throughout
the fleet:
Compliance with legal requirements and industry standards;
The taking of all possible measures to avoid any kind of pollution, including strictly following
company procedures;
All seafarers to be aware of the impact their activities may have on the environment, and the
provision of the necessary training;
The reduction of the production of waste through the continual improvement of operating
practices;
The safe and responsible disposal of waste;
Each vessel to be fully prepared to deal with any emergency.
Each seafarers awareness of what might cause or constitute a pollution risk is critical to the
prevention of it. The following list, which is not exhaustive, details the most significant risks:
Oil pollution;
Tank overflow;
Failure of cargo or bunker lines, or the ship to shore connection;
Fire or explosion;
Collision or grounding;
Sewage;
Waste disposal;
Untreated ballast water from foreign sources discharged into a new environment;
Emissions from the operation of the main engine, auxiliaries and boilers (SOx, NOx, CO, CO2,
HC);
Hull painting;
Discharge of the remains of chemical foam or powder into the sea with seawater.

8.2

The MARPOL Convention

MARPOL was designed to prevent pollution. Its stated objective is to preserve the marine
environment through the elimination of pollution by any harmful substance, be it waterborne or
airborne.
MARPOL contains six annexes, each concerned with preventing different forms of pollution:
Annex I
Oil
Annex II
Noxious Liquid Substances Carried in Bulk
Annex III
Harmful Substances carried in Packaged Form
Annex IV
Sewage
Annex V
Garbage
Annex VI
Air Pollution

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8.3

MARPOL Special Areas

The various Annexes to MARPOL include Special Areas where the discharge of pollutants are either
prohibited or regulated.
The CCR Information File contains CCR20 - MARPOL Map and CCR21 - MARPOL Map Annex
which show the various MARPOL Special Areas and brief details of them. A copy of each of these
maps is to be posted on the Bridge, in the Cargo Control Room, and in the Engine Control Room.
8.3.1
Annex I Petroleum Special Areas
The MARPOL Annex I Special Areas currently are:
The Mediterranean Sea;
The Baltic Sea;
The Black Sea;
The Red Sea;
The Persian Gulf area;
The Gulf of Aden;
The Antarctic;
The North West European area, including the North Sea, the Irish Sea, the English Channel
and part of the Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland;
The Oman area of the Arabian Sea;
The south coast area off South Africa.
Reference should be made to MARPOL Annex I Regulation 1 for the precise boundaries of the
Special Areas.
8.3.2
Annex II Chemical Special Area
The only MARPOL Annex II Special Area currently is the Antarctic Area south of latitude 600S.
8.3.3
Annex V Special Areas and Annex VI ECA
For MARPOL Annex V Special Areas and Annex VI Emission Control Areas please refer to
Operations Manual POL.08 and POL.10.

8.4

Pollution Prevention from Bilge Eductor Systems in Deck Areas

8.4.1
Sealing of Overboard Valves
Where there is a possibility of hydraulic, fuel or other oil accumulating in internal space bilge wells
such as the forecastle space, chain lockers, bow thruster compartments etc., adequate
arrangements should be in place for its disposal.
Where hand pumps or ejectors are fitted pollution prevention notices should be posted and the
overboard valves must be secured against accidental opening. Numbered seals rather than
padlocks must be used, so that the valves can be opened in an emergency.
8.4.2
Notices to be Posted
Two notices must be displayed in the vicinity of the overboard discharge valves:
These overboard valves must not be opened without the explicit consent of the Chief
Officer
and the notice required by USCG 33 CFR paragraph 155.450:
Discharge of Oil Prohibited

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8.4.3
Marking of Bilge Systems, and Operating Instructions
In order to ensure that, in the case of an emergency, the bilge systems are operated correctly, the
following is to be carried out:
The direction of flow of drive water, suctions and overboard discharges must be marked by
arrows on all associated piping and ejectors;
Each valve in such systems is to be painted in the same contrasting colour and numbered;
and
Clear operating instruction referring to which valves are to be open to drain which
compartment must be posted.

8.5

Disposal of Annex I Cargo Slops and Oily Water

8.5.1
General Provisions
MARPOL Annex I Regulation 34 details the conditions when oil and oily mixtures may be
discharged overboard.
Before any such discharge is contemplated, the Chief Officer must discuss the matter with the
Master and must ensure that the following can be complied with in all respects:
The vessel is not within a Special Area;
The vessel is more than 50 nm from the nearest land, but see Annex I Regulation 1.10 with
respect to Australian waters, the requirements for which are more stringent;
The vessel is proceeding en-route;
The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres per nm;
The total quantity of oil discharged into the sea does not exceed 1/30,000 of the total
quantity of the particular cargo of which the residue formed a part;
The ODME is fully operational and in use.
If the ODME is not fully operational then any discharge of oily water must not commence
until the matter has been discussed with the company.
If the ODME, or any part of it, fails during the discharge of oily water then the operation must cease
immediately and the company informed before any further discharge takes place.
If cargo tanks require a second tank cleaning, then regardless of the fact that they could be
considered to be clean to all intents and purposes clean under MARPOL Annex I, any further tank
cleaning water should first be transferred to a slop tank and the surface visually inspected for any
oil contamination before being discharged overboard as clean ballast with the ODME in operation.

8.6

Disposal of Annex II Products Contaminated with Annex I Products

8.6.1
Use of the ODME
When an ODME is used to monitor a solution containing both MARPOL Annex I and MARPOL
Annex II products, the ODME may be affected by the Annex II product and may not operate
correctly. There will be a risk that the discharge of the Annex I product will be permitted by the
ODME above the MARPOL Annex I maximum of 30 litres per nm.
Therefore when tanks, pumps or lines containing a MARPOL Annex II product have been flushed
with a MARPOL Annex I product or a solution containing one, then the solution is not to be
discharged overboard through the ODME. The solution must be retained on board for discharge
ashore.

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8.7

Use and Testing of the Oil Discharge Monitoring Equipment

The ODME must be tested according to the manufacturers instructions unless the instrument
performs its own self-test.
A functional test conducted on an oil content meter should include at least all the following
operations:
Verify the correct running of the pumps, absence of leakage in the sample pumping and
piping system, and the correct functioning of the remote controlled sampling valves;
Verify by checking flow rates or pressure drops, as appropriate, that the system operates
under correct flow conditions. This test should be repeated separately for each sampling
point;
Verify that alarms function correctly when a malfunction occurs external to the monitoring
system, such as no sample flow, no flow meter signal, power failure, etc.;
Vary the simulated signals manually while the monitoring system is operating on water and
check the recordings for correct values and timing. Vary the simulated manual input signals
until alarm conditions are obtained, and verify proper recordings. Ascertain that the
overboard discharge control is activating and verify that the action is being recorded;
Verify that the normal operating condition can be reset when the value of the instantaneous
rate of discharge is reduced below 30 litres per nm;
Activate the manual override control and verify that a recording is made and that the
overboard discharge control can be operated;
Turn off the system and verify that the overboard discharge valve closes automatically or
the relevant pumps are stopped and the overboard discharge control is inoperative;
Start up the system and check the zero and gain setting for the oil content meter in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions; and
Check the accuracy of the flow meter(s), for example by pumping water in a loop where the
flow rate may be calculated from the level change in the tank. The check should be made at
a flow rate of about 50% of the rated flow of the flow meter.
ODME printout records must be retained on board for a period of at least 3 years and may then be
disposed of.
8.7.1
Failure of the ODME
Should the ODME become defective, the company must be immediately informed. It is also a
regulatory requirement that the port State authority of the destination port is also informed, but
the company will discuss with the Master the action to be taken in notifying the authorities.
Any failure
The
The
The

of an ODME must be recorded in section M of the Oil Record Book Part 2, and include:
time of the failure;
time when the unit was made operational;
reason for the failure.

Any failure of an ODME must be immediately reported to the company, Administration, port State of
the destination, and the classification society.
The company requires that a defective ODME must be repaired at the next port regardless of
whether on loaded or ballast passages. However, there is some flexibility in MARPOL regulation 31,
which allows a repair to be deferred until the end of the loaded passage following the ballast
voyage. If repairs cannot be carried out at the load port then one voyage may be permitted to a
port where repairs can be carried out. It is therefore in the companys interests to have repairs
effected at a port immediately following the failure.
8.7.2
Use of a Manual Alternative
In the event of a failure of an ODME, a manually operated alternative may be used.

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If the ODME is not fully operational then no discharge of oily water may take place without first
consulting the company. The matter will be discussed between the Master and the company as to
whether or not the discharge should be carried out. If it is agreed that the discharge can go ahead
then the following will apply.
In the event of a complete failure of the ODME:
An oil/water interface detector must be used, providing it is in good order;
The discharge must only take place during full daylight hours;
The weather conditions must be calm enough, and the vessel not rolling or pitching in a
seaway, so that there is no surface turbulence to disrupt the oil to water interface in the
tank(s) being discharged;
The level of the oil to water interface must be very carefully monitored to ensure that a
good water bottom is maintained in the tank(s) being discharged. The actual depth of water
retained in the bottom of the tank(s) can only be decided taking the weather conditions and
settling time into account. Sufficient water bottom must be maintained to avoid any
possibility of oil passing overside.
Under no circumstance must commercial
considerations take precedence over the prevention of pollution; and
A continuous check must be made overside to ensure that there is no visible evidence of any
oil.
In the event of a partial failure of the ODME:
The manufacturers instructions regarding what action to take in case of a failure of any part
of the ODME must be strictly followed;
All the conditions above with respect to a complete failure of the ODME must be complied
with;
If a manual input for the speed is used, care must be taken to ensure that speed through
the water is used;
The overboard valve may be manually operated;
The ODME readout, if in operation, must be constantly checked to ensure that the permitted
oil discharge rate of 30 litres per nautical mile is not exceeded;
If there is any doubt about the accuracy of the flow meter, the rate of discharge should be
checked against pump performance curves;
A manual calculation should be made of the oil content vs water outflow to confirm that the
calculated total oil outflow is accurate; and
Where the flow meter is defective, pumps should be manually operated to ensure that
instantaneous rate of discharge of oil does not exceed 30 litres per nautical mile.
Oil content may be calculated by the following formula:
Oil content in ppm x flow rate in m3/hr / Ships speed in knots x 1000 = litres per nm

8.8

Pollution Prevention during Port Operations

It is the responsibility of the officer of the watch, supervised by the Chief Officer, to ensure that
there is nothing that could cause pollution whilst the vessel is in port. This includes:
Checking that cargo connections are tight and not leaking;
Ensuring the pipeline drains are all closed and capped;
Checking that the cargo system valves have been correctly set, particularly drop valves, to
avoid the inadvertent and unplanned filling of a tank;
Cargo system valves which are not in use should remain closed;
Checking that scuppers are adequately sealed;
The management of rain water on deck. The simple rule is that if it rains, then rain water
will require managing;

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Checking the water around the vessel immediately before cargo operations commence,
immediately after they have started, and at intervals throughout the discharge, to ensure
that no oil is escaping from the vessel;
The management of the taking of stores and ensuring that packing materials are not left
lying around to blow overboard.

Cargo tanks that have been topped up should be checked frequently during the remaining loading
operations to ensure that they are not still filling.
If, for any reason, there is a leakage from any source, or the presence of oil is noted where there
should not be, the most prudent course of action will be to immediately stop operations until the
reason has been ascertained.
8.8.1
Scuppers
All main deck scuppers must be sealed prior to the vessel berthing.
The deck watch officer must personally check before the CCR83 - Ship to Shore Safety Check
List is completed that all scuppers are both in place and are tight. Immediate remedial action
must be taken if there is any doubt as to the tightness of a scupper plug.
The deck watch officer must periodically tour the deck to ensure that scuppers remain in place and
tight.
Scuppers must not be removed without the permission of the officer of the watch, and whilst
removed the deck watch must remain in attendance. The plug must be replaced and sealed before
the deck watch leaves the area.
8.8.2
Management of Water on Deck
It is extremely important that water is not allowed to accumulate on deck during cargo operations,
and that accumulations are immediately removed. The reason for this is that rain water effectively
reduces the height of the boundary coaming, and therefore the available containment, so that if
there is a spill there is significant risk that the oil will not be retained on board but will move over
the surface of the water and directly overboard.
Provided the water is clean, it can be drained overboard through a scupper. If there is any trace of
oil or any other pollutant such as soot on the surface of the water, it must first be cleaned with an
absorbent mat. If there is any doubt as to whether the water is clean it must be disposed of to a
slop or residual tank.
All vessels must have an adequate stock of absorbent mats on board.
8.8.3
Spill and Oily Water Containment
Normally each vessel will be fitted with either slop tanks or a recovery tank. These tanks are to be
used for the disposal of spills or accumulations of oily water from the deck and manifolds.
If the use of a slop tank is not a viable option, for example to avoid cargo contamination, or if there
is no slop or recovery tank fitted, then an alternative enclosed spill and contaminated water
container with a capacity of at least 2 m3, or two containers of 1m3 each should be available for the
disposal of spills and oily water from the deck, and the draining of manifolds.
8.8.4
Portable Spill Equipment
Portable spill removal pumps, of adequate size, should be rigged for the prompt removal of any
spillage on deck, regardless of whether or not dump valves into a slop tank are provided. The
reason for this is because it is unlikely that dump valves will be able to be used at all stages of

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cargo operations. It should be possible to remove spills from either side of the maindeck at the
after end. It is preferable to have two portable spill pumps, one each side, but one larger pump
which can service both sides through fixed piping is acceptable provided that both sides can be
served at the same time.
The discharge from portable spill pumps must lead directly to a cargo tank using a fixed, valved
connection. Under no circumstances must the discharge from flammable or toxic cargoes be placed
into an open spill container, tank sighting port, vapour lock or the like.
Portable spill equipment, including plastic shovels, absorbent mats, absorbent granules and liquid
sweeps, should be readily available at the manifold.
Sawdust should not be used as the absorbent material, and in view of the fact that sawdust may be
liable to spontaneous combustion when wet, it should not be carried on board company vessels.
Portable spill pumps should be bonded to the vessels structure to prevent electrical discharge to
earth. Bonding may be made by external means, or by the discharge hose, if this is attached by
means of a flanged connection to the vessels structure. Pumps should also be mounted to prevent
movement and subsequent damage during operation.
The suction of portable spill pumps must be tested prior to each cargo operation using a bucket of
clean water to ensure that the pump is operating correctly. Defective pumps must either be
immediately repaired or replaced.

8.9

Manifolds

Every vessel must be provided with suitable arrangements for the removal of cargo and oily water
accumulations from manifold drip trays. The ships cargo manifolds are to be maintained in good
condition, permanently and clearly marked with the loads that they have been designed to
withstand. Each presentation flange of the principal reducers should be provided with a removable
steel blank flange. Flanges faces, gaskets and seals should be clean and in good condition. When in
their storage location, flange faces should be suitably protected from corrosion/pitting.

8.10

Dump Valves

It is important that Deck Officers understand that the use of dump valves may not necessarily result
in spilled oil being disposed of into the tank.
Before using dump valves, the following should be considered:
Is there sufficient ullage in the tank to allow the spill to drain into it? If the vessel is
trimmed by the stern and the tank is full, it is likely that further oil will be spilled rather than
the spill be disposed of;
If a U tube is fitted to prevent the inert gas pressure blowing out, is the U tube liquid full?
In an emergency the only way to ascertain this is to very slowly open the dump valve and
check that way. Great care should be taken, as by design scuppers are located very close to
the ships side and any back-flow of inert gas will result in overboard pollution.
If effective draining of a spill cannot be achieved or if pressure release is required, an alternative
method of immediately disposing of a spill should be provided.
It should be recognised that if the vessel is sagged a spill will accumulate amidships and if trimmed
by the head then it will accumulate forward. Spill equipment and disposal facilities will have to be
arranged to deal with these conditions.

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8.11

Cargo Leakage into a Segregated Ballast Tank

8.11.1
Immediate Action
On vessels fitted with an inert gas system, it is important that a contaminated segregated ballast
tank is sealed and inerted as quickly as possible following the ship-specific procedure outlined
below.
On vessels without an inert gas system the tank should be sealed as quickly as possible according
to the ship-specific procedure.
Reference should be made to Cargo Operations Petroleum, Chapter 6: Inert gas for the
procedure on inerting or ventilating a contaminated ballast tank.
The tank should be cleaned in accordance with Cargo Operations Petroleum, Chapter 8: Tank
Cleaning.

8.12

Overboard Discharges from Other Spaces

8.12.1 Sealing of Overboard Valves


Where there is a possibility of hydraulic, fuel or other oil accumulating in internal space bilge wells
such as the forecastle space, chain lockers, bow thruster compartments etc., adequate
arrangements should be in place for its disposal.
Where hand pumps or ejectors are fitted pollution prevention notices should be posted and the
overboard valves must be secured against accidental opening. Numbered seals rather than
padlocks must be used, so that the valves can be opened in an emergency. The number of the seal
should be recorded in the Deck Log Book. The fitting of a seal should not prevent the regular
testing of the system and valves in accordance with the planned maintenance system.
8.12.2 Notices to be Posted
Two notices must be displayed in the vicinity of the overboard discharge valves:
1. Notice CCR49 - Overboard Valves - Chief Officer in the CCR Information File
These overboard valves must not be opened without the
explicit consent of the Chief Officer
2. The notice required by the USCG 33 CFR paragraph 155.450:
Discharge of Oil Prohibited
8.12.3 Marking of Bilge Systems and Operating Instructions
In order to ensure that, in the case of an emergency, the bilge systems are operated correctly, the
following is to be carried out:
The direction of flow of drive water, suctions and overboard discharges must be marked by
arrows on all associated piping and ejectors;
Each valve in such systems is to be painted in the same contrasting colour and numbered;
Clear operating instruction referring to which valves are to be open to drain which
compartment must be posted.

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9.

Pump Rooms

9.1

Cargo Pump Rooms - General Provisions

A cargo pump room contains the largest concentration of cargo pipelines of any space within the
ship and leakage of a volatile product from any part of this system could lead to the rapid
generation of a flammable or toxic atmosphere. Cargo pump rooms may also contain a number
of potential ignition sources unless structured maintenance and inspection procedures are strictly
followed.
The company procedures with respect to cargo pump room entry must be strictly complied with.
The atmosphere must be checked prior to initial entry, and thereafter at four hourly intervals and
the ECF33 - Atmosphere Check and Entry Pump Room must be completed. Whenever a
cargo pump room entry is made the record must also be completed in respect of the Name,
Time in and Time out columns.
The notice CCR41 - Cargo Pump Room Entry must be hung across the access ladder entrance
of every cargo pump room, such that it has to be physically moved prior to a person being able to
enter.

9.2

Monitoring of Cargo Pump Rooms during Cargo Operations

Cargo pump rooms should be visually monitored during the course of cargo operations, but
particularly when pumps or eductors are started, or when different sections of the system are
used.
It should be borne in mind that often pump room cargo lines and pumps are pressurised and that
a leak may develop at any time and result in a local hazardous atmosphere, even immediately
after the space has been checked and found to be safe for entry.
Pump room ventilation fans are always of the type which remove air from the bottom of the pump
room. This results in air being drawn into the pump room from deck level and down the stair
well. If a reading is taken down that stair well with a length of portable hose from the pump
room top, what is actually being measured is the air from the deck which has just entered the
pump room.
All vessels should therefore fit two lengths of plastic hose from the top of the pump room to the
bottom and thence half way towards each side. This will then facilitate taking readings of the
atmosphere in the pump room bottom from the top which will more accurately reflect the actual
conditions.

9.3

Sea Lines in Cargo Pump Rooms

9.3.1 Cargo System Sea Valves


Sea valves must be closed and sealed, but must not be padlocked.
Sea lines, where fitted, must have a pressure/vacuum gauge fitted between the inner and outer
sea valves. Devices should be positioned so that both readings and samples can be taken from a
point far enough above the pump room lower platform level that there is no possibility of human
exposure to gas concentrations which may accumulate below the floor plates. The use of a
pressure/vacuum gauge, rather than a pressure-only gauge, is preferable in that it will provide a
reliable indication of a vacuum in the line should the line need to be opened for ballasting and
prior to opening the sea valve.

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The notice CCR49 - Overboard Valves Chief Officer must be displayed adjacent to the sea
valves and the valves must only be opened with the permission of the Chief Officer. Where
blanks are provided, these should always be used.
9.3.2
The Operation of Cargo System Sea Valves
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring the correct operation of sea and overboard valves.
This entails, but is not limited to:
The opening and closing of sea and overboard discharge valves;
Inspection of the water overside for any leakage at the start of loading, discharging or
transfer of cargo, at the start of taking on or of discharging ballast and at intervals
throughout these operations;
Securing of sea and overboard valves. The method by which overboard valves are
secured must be one which can be easily removed in an emergency; padlocks must not be
used. If overboard valves have been sealed by a terminal and it is necessary to remove
the seal, the permission of the terminal representative must be sought first.
Pumps must be started and a vacuum developed on the suction line before sea valves are
opened.
There should be no pressure in the pipe between the inner and outer sea valves and this should
be checked before cargo operations commence and should be regularly monitored both during
cargo operations and on longer voyages. During cargo operations pressure build-up in this line
would be apparent from the gauge reading and would indicate that one of the valves was possibly
leaking.
The drain should be checked to determine whether there has been leakage and if so,
whether the liquid make-up is oil or water, which will indicate which valve is leaking. The
company must be immediately informed.
9.3.3
Testing of Cargo System Sea Valves
Prior to arrival at loading or discharge ports the sea valves should be pressurised to a maximum
of 3.5 kg/cm2 (50 psi) and the pressure observed over a period of 15 minutes to ensure that it
does not dissipate. If it does then there is likely to be leakage. Care should be taken that test
pressures do not exceed 3.5.kg/cm2.
The record ECF71 - Cargo System Sea Valves must be maintained.

9.4

Routine Maintenance and Housekeeping

The integrity of pumps, valves, lines and other cargo and ballast handling equipment must be
maintained. During operations pump rooms must be regularly checked to ensure that any leaks
are detected in good time.
If there are leaks in any part of the cargo system in a cargo pump room then the operation must
be stopped until the matter is resolved, and another part of the system used where possible.
Pump room bilges must be kept clean and dry at all times and any leakage, particularly of
hydrocarbons or chemicals regardless of whether or not they are volatile, must be cleaned as
soon as possible. Pump room bilges must be painted in a light colour, either grey or white, in
order that any leakages are easily seen. Dark colours must not be used.
If it is necessary to remove sludge, scale or sediment from bilges, personnel involved must carry
personal gas analysers in order to continuously monitor the work area.
The following must be checked on a frequent and regular basis:

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9.5

Pipelines should be visually examined and subjected to routine pressure tests in


accordance with the planned maintenance programme to verify their condition. Valve
glands and drain cocks should be regularly inspected to ensure that they do not leak;
Mud boxes and filters must be properly sealed after they have been opened up for routine
cleaning or examination and the surrounding area thoroughly cleaned afterwards;
Bulkhead penetrations, where fitted, should be routinely checked to ensure their
effectiveness, and if there is a hydraulic seal the seal reservoir must be maintained topped
up;
Critical bolts on the cargo pumps and associated fittings, such as pedestal fixing bolts,
pump casing bolts and the bolts securing shaft guards, should be secure and checked in
accordance with planned maintenance routines;
Electrical equipment;
Cargo pump trips must be checked at the commencement of each cargo operation;
Other alarms and trips, including bilge alarms, must be checked in accordance with the
planned maintenance routines.

Bilge Pumping Arrangements

Means should be provided for the prompt removal of any spillage in cargo and ballast pump
rooms and bilge pumping arrangements must be maintained in good order.
Cargo pump room bilges should be able to be transferred to a slop or residual tank by means of a
fixed pump.
The cargo pump room bilge pumping arrangement should be operable from outside the pump
room on chemical carriers, but this requirement does not apply to petroleum tankers.
9.5.1
Bilge Level Alarm
Bilge level alarms should be checked prior to each cargo operation, or weekly if cargo operations
are not carried out, and the record ECF72 - Pump Room Bilge Level Alarms.

9.6

Electrical Equipment

The Chief Officer should make regular inspections of cargo and ballast pump rooms and it is his
responsibility to ensure that all electrical equipment is visually in good order.
The covers of light fittings must show no signs of cracking, all bolts must be of the correct type,
in place and secure, and cable glands must be in good order and properly secured. If there is any
doubt about the integrity of any electrical fitting the matter must be immediately raised with the
Chief Engineer and rectified. Explosion proof light fittings rely on a integral flame path to
dissipate any heat from the ignition of flammable gases within the lamp before the flame escapes
from the fitting. It is therefore extremely important that light fittings are not painted.
The integrity of the protection afforded by the design of explosion proof or intrinsically safe
electrical equipment may be compromised by incorrect maintenance procedures. Even the
simplest of repair and maintenance operations must be carried out in strict compliance with the
manufacturers instructions in order to ensure that such equipment remains in a safe condition.
Maintenance of explosion-proof and intrinsically safe equipment should only be carried out by
personnel qualified to undertake such work. This is particularly relevant in the case of explosionproof lights, where incorrect closure after changing a light bulb could compromise the integrity of
the light.

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9.7

Escape Harnesses

Every cargo and ballast pump room with a continuous vertical access from top to bottom must be
equipped with a rescue harness and lifting equipment. This lifting equipment must be suitable for
physically transporting an injured or unconscious person from the bottom of the pump room to
the top. Because of the possibility of electrostatic charge, natural fibre should be used on the
lifting equipment; synthetic rope should not be used.
Where there is no possibility of a vertical lift, a stretcher should be used.
Rescue harnesses and lifting equipment must be checked regularly to ensure they are fit for use
and rigged for immediate operation. Personnel must be trained and conversant with the fitting of
harnesses and the method of extracting an injured person from a pump room.

9.8

Escape Routes

Emergency escape routes should be properly marked. They should be free of obstructions.

9.9

Ventilation

9.9.1 Cargo Pump Rooms


Cargo pump room ventilation must be turned on prior to port arrival and must be continuously in
operation during cargo operations. It must not be turned off until after the vessel has left the
berth.
Cargo pump room ventilation fans must operate in the extraction mode. The suctions must be
just above bilge level. The reason for this is because all hydrocarbons, except for Methane and
Ammonia, are heavier than air, and therefore gas accumulations will develop at bilge level where
they will be removed by the ventilation fans.
However, as a consequence, should gas be present in the pump room the vapours will be drawn
through the blades of the fan impeller. Therefore pump room extractor fans, including impellers,
shafts and motors should be inspected on a regular basis. The condition of the fan trunking
should be inspected and the proper operation of fire dampers confirmed.
The ventilation system will be fitted with high level suctions at or above the bottom gratings. The
purpose of these suctions is to allow the fans to be operated when the bilges are flooded and the
flaps should therefore, under normal operations, be closed. The flaps of these high level suctions
must be operable from the pump room top and the equipment adequately marked as to its
purpose.
9.9.2 Ballast Pump Rooms
Ballast pump rooms are invariably located within the cargo area and there is the consequent risk
of a hazardous atmosphere.
Ballast pump room ventilation must be turned on prior to port arrival and must be continuously in
operation during cargo operations. It must not be turned off until after the vessel has left the
berth.
Ballast pump room ventilation fans must operate in the extraction mode. The suctions must be
just above bilge level. The reason for this is because all hydrocarbons, except for Methane and
Ammonia, are heavier than air, and therefore gas accumulations will develop at bilge level where
they will be removed by the ventilation fans.

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9.10

Pump Room Entry

9.10.1 General Provisions for Pump Room Entry


The atmosphere in a pump room must be checked using an analyser and extension hose to the
bottom of the pump room, prior to initial entry. When operating cargo the atmosphere of both
cargo and ballast pump rooms shall be checked at intervals not exceeding four hours.
Personnel entering a pump room must take with them a personal gas analyser. If two persons are
working in widely separated parts of a pump room then each person shall have a personal analyser
with them.
The notice CCR41 in the Cargo Control Room Information File must be placed across the access
ladder to every pump room in such a way that the notice has to be physically moved by a person
going down the pump room. The notice must state:
Has the officer on watch been informed?
Has your entry been recorded?
Do you have a personal gas detector?
Do you have a radio, and have communications been checked?
Radio checks must be made every 5 minutes
Has the pump room been tested for gas in the last four hours?
Has the ventilation been operating for at least 15 minutes?
Do you have an intrinsically safe torch?
Are you wearing adequate PPE?
Ear defenders must be worn if pumps are running
9.10.2 Cargo Pump Room Entry
Prior to entering a cargo pump room, permission must be obtained from the responsible officer and
the name of the person entering and the time of entry and exit must be recorded on ECF33 Atmosphere Check and Entry Pump Room. Ventilation fans must have been in operation for
at least 15 minutes, and the atmosphere must have been checked within the past four hours:
The oxygen content must be 20.9%;
The hydrocarbon gas content must be less than 1% LEL;
H2S and other toxic gas concentrations must be zero.
It is important to recognise that a hazardous atmosphere may develop in a localised area of the
cargo pump room, and that taking readings from the pump room top will not necessarily determine
that an area of the pump room is hazardous, particularly if the reading is taken down the stairwell,
which is usually the route that the incoming air from the deck takes. In such cases the reading may
effectively be of the deck atmosphere, not that in the pump room and every effort should be made
to ensure that sampling lines penetrate other areas of the pump room.
There is no entry permit for pump room entry, the procedures detailed above are sufficient to
ensure that adequate precautions are taken. However, the form ECF33 - Atmosphere Check and
Entry Pump Room must be completed whenever the atmosphere is checked in order that a
record of when readings were taken is maintained.
The frequency of pump room entry during cargo operations should be limited to minimise personnel
exposure.
Pump room doors shall remain open throughout cargo operations to allow adequate entry of air into
the space and thus ensure compliance with SOLAS requirements of 20 changes per hour.
Fixed pump room gas detection systems cannot be considered to give adequate indication of a
hazardous atmosphere to permit safe entry. They are designed to indicate the presence of gas and
the audible and visual alarm system will only operate when gas concentrations reach a pre-set level.

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They also have fixed detection heads which may not necessarily be located in a local hazardous
area. Portable and personal equipment must always be used.

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10.

Ballast

10.1

Ballast Water Management and Exchange

Ballast is essential to control trim, list, draught, stability and stress. However, ballast water may
contain aquatic organisms or pathogens which, if introduced into an alien environment may
create hazards to the environment, human health, property or resources.
The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and
Sediments requires all vessels to have a Ballast Water Management Plan.
Many administrations now have requirements for ballast water to be changed prior to arrival in
their waters, and full details are included in the National Requirements Annex of the Ballast
Water Management Plan, which is regularly updated.
Masters must follow the requirements of the vessels Ballast Water Management Plans with
respect to ballast water management:
Consult the Ballast Water Management Plan prior to undertaking a voyage to
determine which administration requirements are in force;
Consult DNV Navigator to ensure that information is up to date;
If considered necessary, consult with the agents at the next port to ensure that the
particular requirements of the administration with respect to changing ballast prior to
arrival are complied with;
Ensure that the stability and stresses of the vessel always remain within limits.
Ballast water exchange is normally to be undertaken:
200 nm or more from the nearest coast and in water of 200 metres or more in depth;
If this is not possible, as far from the nearest land as possible, in all cases at least 50 nm
from the nearest land and in water of at least 200 metres in depth; or
In sea areas designated by the administration.
If the Master reasonably decides that an exchange would threaten the crew or passengers, or the
safety or stability of the ship because of adverse weather, ship design or stress, equipment
failure, or any other extraordinary condition, then he should take whatever action he deems
necessary to ensure the safety of the vessel.
Record keeping is important to any ballast water management programme. The Ballast Water
Management Officer, who should be the Chief Officer, is responsible for ensuring the maintenance
of appropriate records and that ballast water management procedures are followed. Records of
ballast water exchange should be kept in the Ballast Water Management Plan.

10.2

Testing Ballast Valves

Ballast tank valves should be tested for tightness during loaded passages. This is achieved by
ensuring that all ballast tank valves are closed, and by opening line and sea valves to pressurise
the system.
The record ECF104 - Ballast System Valves should be maintained.

10.3

Loading Ballast into Non-Inerted Tanks

When loading ballast into non-inert tanks which have contained a flammable cargo it is important
to avoid the build up of an electrostatic charge in a mist or spray cloud near the point where the
ballast enters the tank. The following should be adhered to:
The tank valves should be the first valves opened;

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10.4

The initial flow of ballast should be restricted at the pump discharge, so that the entrance
velocity into the tank is less than 1 metre/second until the longitudinals are covered or, if
there are no longitudinals, until the depth of the ballast in the tank is at least 1.5 metres.

Segregated Ballast

Segregated ballast (SBT) is ballast water introduced into a tank which is completely separated
from the cargo, oil and fuel oil systems and which is permanently allocated to the carriage of
ballast water.
In general, there are no restrictions on ballasting or deballasting segregated ballast tanks at any
time, other than to exercise care not to exceed any maximum safe draft, nor the maximum
bending moments and sheer forces allowed.
However, the requirements of the port state or area to which the vessel is trading must be
complied with in respect to the ballast exchange when sailing from one area to another and in
accordance with the section Ballast Water Management and Exchange above.
10.4.1
Discharge of Segregated Ballast
Before any segregated ballast is discharged overboard, the surface of each tank must be visually
inspected for oil contamination. If oil is observed on the surface of the ballast the company must
be immediately informed before any further action is taken. The result of each inspection must
be recorded on the form ECF100 - Segregated Ballast Surface Check.
Each segregated ballast tank must be fitted with a port or hatch which allows easy removal,
preferably secured using a maximum of four bolts or wing nuts, and which are large enough to
allow the surface of the ballast to be inspected for oil contamination.
Before commencing discharge, the surface of segregated ballast must be visually checked to
ensure that it is clean.
At the commencement of discharge a visual watch must be maintained overside to ensure that
there is no evidence of an oil sheen on the surface of water alongside. Occasional checks must
be made throughout such discharge.

10.5

Discharge of Clean Ballast

Clean ballast from cargo tanks which have been cleaned, including all associated lines and pumps
so that any ballast loaded into the tank can be considered clean, can be discharged directly
overboard. Such discharges must only take place at sea and well away from the coast.
If it is necessary to discharge clean ballast in port then the permission of the terminal and the
local authorities must be obtained and the company must be advised beforehand. Such a
discharge should be treated as an exceptional occurrence and a risk assessment must be carried
out.
Before commencing discharge, the surface of the ballast in the cargo tanks must be visually
checked to ensure that it is clean. If there is any doubt about the cleanliness of the ballast
then it must be discharged in accordance with the procedures for dealing with dirty ballast.
At the commencement of discharge a visual watch must be maintained overside to ensure that
there is no evidence of an oil sheen on the surface of water alongside. Occasional checks must
be made throughout such discharge.

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10.6

Discharge of Dirty Ballast

Ballast which has been loaded into cargo tanks which have not been cleaned, on either crude oil
or product tankers, must be treated as dirty ballast. Any clean or segregated ballast which has
been contaminated with oil from any source must also be treated as dirty ballast.
Where there is any doubt as to whether ballast should be treated as clean or dirty, then it should
be considered dirty ballast and must dealt with in accordance with this section.
Dirty ballast must be discharged in accordance with MARPOL and either discharged to a shore
facility, or discharged overboard using an ODME.
The following must be observed when disposing of dirty ballast overboard at sea:
Lines and associated pumps to be used must have been cleaned and must be free of all oil
prior to the discharge commencing;
The initial discharge of dirty ballast should be internally to a slop tank;
The requirements of MARPOL with respect to the discharge of oil or oily mixtures
(Annex I - Regulation 34) must be complied with;
The ODME must be fully operational, and the instantaneous rate of discharge the rate of
discharge of oil in litres per hour at any instant divided by the speed of the ship in knots
at the same instant must be less than 30 litres per nautical mile;
Upon commencement of discharging dirty ballast, a visual watch should be established to
observe the ballast as it discharges into the sea. The operation should be stopped
immediately in the event of any oil sheen being observed;
Pump speeds should be reduced during the latter stages of discharge in order to avoid
vortices developing and oil being drawn into the suctions prematurely;
If the vessel is moving in a seaway then it will be necessary to transfer more residues to a
slop tank than when the weather is calm;
Decanting should not be undertaken if the vessel is rolling or pitching in a sea because of
the likelihood of turbulence and the loss of a satisfactory interface between any oil on the
surface and the water beneath;
A full record of the discharge must be maintained in the Oil Record Book Part 2.
Retained slops on board after de-canting should either be loaded on top, discharged to shore
reception facilities, or retained on board.
It is extremely important that accurate records are maintained in the Oil Record Book Part 2.

10.7

Ballasting Tanks Adjacent to Solidifying Cargoes

Consideration must be given to the effects on solidifying cargoes when ballasting tanks which
have a common bulkhead with such cargo tanks. It should be avoided as problems may be
experienced with the cargo solidifying, particularly in pumps and pump wells.

10.8

Heavy Weather Ballast

10.8.1
General Provisions
Severe weather should be avoided if at all possible and consideration should be given to deviation
or taking shelter if the Master considers that the safety of the vessel or the cargo might be
compromised by severe weather. Use should be made of the company weather routeing
systems.
A vessels response to heavy weather will depend to a large degree on its statical stability. A
vessel can be too stiff (return very quickly to the upright because of a relatively large GM) or too
tender (return slowly to the upright because of a relatively small GM). In tankers the change of
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GM during a voyage due to the use of fuel and water is generally a lot less than that of fine-lined
dry cargo vessels. The main concern with tankers is structural damage in heavy weather,
although if there is significant rolling this will invariably result in considerable discomfort to the
crew and possibly machinery and equipment damage.
In severe weather, if the forward draft is insufficient the bow will emerge periodically from the
water and slamming will result. Excessive slamming can lead to structural damage or even to
hull failure and ship loss in extreme conditions.
Deeper drafts forward will generally reduce the tendency for the ship to slam. If the sea
conditions are causing regular slamming, then in addition to heavy weather ballast, appropriate
measures such as a change in speed or heading may be required in order to avoid structural
damage.
If the aft draft is insufficient then in heavy weather the propeller will race when it emerges from
the water and will slow down when it re-enters. This may cause engine control problems and
increased loading on the propeller shafting and machinery. Increasing the aft draft reduces this
tendency.
Accordingly, safe ship operation in severe weather may require the loading of heavy weather
ballast into cargo tanks. The decision to initiate heavy weather ballasting procedures lies with the
Master when the weather forecast indicates that heavy weather will be encountered. The Chief
Officer shall be responsible for carrying out such ballasting and will report regularly to the Master
throughout the operation.
10.8.2
Specific Requirements for Crude Oil Carriers
MARPOL Annex 1 Regulation 18(3.1) states: In no case shall ballast water be carried in cargo
tanks, except on those rare voyages when weather conditions are so severe that, in the opinion
of the Master, it is necessary to carry additional ballast water in cargo tanks for the safety of the
ship. Such additional ballast water shall be processed and discharged in compliance with
Regulation 34 Control of discharge of oil.
Furthermore, IMO Crude Oil Washing Systems states:
If it is considered that additional ballast in a cargo tank or tanks may be required during the
ballast voyage under the conditions of regulation 35 of Annex 1 of MARPOL, the tank or tanks
which may be used for this ballast shall be crude oil washed.
It is the responsibility of the Master to determine whether or not it is likely that there may be a
requirement during the forthcoming voyage to ballast cargo tanks, either because of anticipated
bad weather, for draft or trim restriction requirements, or for any other reason. If so then the
cargo tanks designated as heavy weather ballast tanks must be crude oil washed prior to
departure from the final discharge port.
Under normal circumstances ballast water shall not be put into tanks that have not been crude oil
washed. Water that is put into a tank which has been crude oil washed, but not tank cleaned,
must be regarded as dirty ballast.
Care should be taken at the completion of crude oil washing that any cargo tank which might be
ballasted is stripped as completely as possible. Where such ballast is filled through cargo lines
and pumps, these must also be drained and stripped of oil.

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10.8.3
Specific Requirements for Product Tankers and Chemical Carriers
If possible cargo tanks and lines should be cleaned into a slop tank prior to the taking of heavy
weather ballast. This will result in significantly less dirty ballast than if the tanks were not
cleaned. However, the safety of the vessel should not be jeopardised in order to clean tanks, and
heavy weather ballast should be loaded if necessary into dirty tanks.
On tankers without an inert gas system, static precautions should be followed when loading
ballast into cargo tanks containing a flammable atmosphere.
10.8.4
General Considerations for All Vessels
Normally cargo tanks are ballasted using a cargo pump taking suction from a sea water intake via
the suction cross-over. However, some vessels are fitted with arrangements to connect the
ballast system with the cargo system and load ballast utilising a ballast pump.
One of the most important considerations when taking heavy weather ballast is that of sheer
forces and bending moments. It is important that the sheer forces and bending moments are
calculated for at least the initial, intermediate and final stages of the ballasting operation, and the
corresponding drafts and trim recorded. If necessary, further stages should also be calculated.
Before loading or discharging heavy weather ballast at sea, the operation should be discussed
and agreed between the Master and the Chief Officer.
The following precautions must be taken when taking heavy weather ballast:
Heavy weather ballast should be loaded well before any heavy weather is expected;
If the vessel is still alongside a terminal the terminal representative must be informed;
Any additional ballast must be loaded and discharged in such a way as to ensure that
stresses are maintained within the maximum limits at all times during the transfer
operation;
When commencing ballasting, cargo sea suctions must not be opened until the cargo
pump is running and there is a vacuum on the line, to avoid any oil escaping overboard;
The ballast must be loaded through the loading lines;
If it is necessary to mount special spool pieces to carry out ballasting, the spool pieces are
to be removed as soon as the ballasting is completed;
If ballast is to be loaded into tanks containing hydrocarbon vapour or which previously
contained cargoes that required closed operations, closed loading procedures must be
followed and the tank ventilation system utilised;
Reliable communications must be maintained between the officer in charge, the bridge
and the crew on deck during the entire operation;
The operation must be carried out in accordance with good tanker practice in the
management of the operation and the checking of it throughout, including the monitoring
of ullages and tank pressures;
Records of the operation must be maintained;
The Ballast Water Management Plan should be consulted.
10.8.5
Discharge of Heavy Weather Ballast
The discharge of heavy weather ballast must be agreed between the Master and the Chief Officer,
and be carried out strictly in compliance with the requirements of MARPOL if the ballast contains
any pollutants.
10.8.6
Ship-Specific Heavy Weather Ballast Procedure
Each vessel should develop a ship-specific heavy weather ballast handling procedure.
procedure should identify the following:
The sequence of which tanks are to be loaded and in which order;
The maximum loading rate;

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Which pumps and lines are to be used, with alternatives identified in case of unavailability
of the first choice;
The procedure for opening the sea valve, ensuring that pollution prevention methods are
adopted;
The final ullages of the tanks to be loaded;
Any venting requirements;
Copies of the initial, intermediate and final stress and stability calculations for a condition
with all side ballast tanks full, and bunkers, stores and other consumables at an average
level.

The procedure must be developed and lodged in the CCR Information File in the document
CCR27 - Procedure for Dealing with a Contaminated Ballast Tank.

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11.

Small Craft Alongside

11.1

General Provisions

Only authorised small craft with a specific reason for being there may be permitted to berth
alongside any Columbia vessel, and the length of stay must be limited to the time required to
complete the operation they are undertaking. Small craft and barges should not be allowed to
remain alongside once the operation has been completed.
Prior to any small craft coming alongside, the CCR99 - Small Craft Alongside Check List must
be completed.
Consideration must be given to cargo or ballast operations which are taking place, and the
inherent risk of the presence of volatile cargo vapours, before a small vessel is permitted to come
alongside. Apertures which might allow volatile cargo vapour to escape and cause a hazard must
be secured.
Small craft must only be permitted alongside where it is safe for them to do so. A constant watch
must be maintained to ensure that the small craft does not at any time compromise the safety of
the Columbia vessel.
Whilst it is appreciated that it is often difficult to maintain any degree of responsibility over small
craft alongside, it is imperative that if there are any actions observed being taken by the
personnel of the other vessel which cause concern they must immediately be brought to their
attention and a request made to stop such actions. If unsuccessful then further action, such as
advising the Master or terminal must be taken, and if necessary all operations stopped until the
matter has been satisfactorily dealt with.
If an unauthorised craft approaches or comes alongside the port authority must be immediately
informed. If necessary, cargo operations should be stopped.

11.2

Cargo Transfer to Small Barges

In accordance with the above, the CCR99 - Small Craft Alongside check list must be
completed.
If the vessel is alongside a terminal and working cargo, a CCR83 - Ship to Shore Safety Check
List will have been completed. The provisions of the Ship to Shore Safety Check List will, as
far as each item is applicable, also apply to cargo transfer to a small barge. If the vessel is not
alongside a terminal then a Ship to Shore Safety Check List must be completed and its
provisions complied with as far each item is applicable, and the terms Shore Ashore and
Terminal should be considered, where applicable, to refer to the barge.
Generally when discharging to small barges the charterer or the agent will have made the
arrangements and advised the terminal; it is nevertheless prudent to ensure that the terminal are
aware of such transfers.
When discharging to small barges it is important that the rate of transfer is agreed with the barge
and clearly understood by all. CCR82 - Pre-Transfer Meeting in the Cargo Forms Module
should be completed in as much as it applies to cargo transfer to small barges.

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12.

Control of Smoking

12.1

General Provisions

Smoking is prohibited outside of the accommodation, in cabins, alleyways and in the engine room
at all times.
When the vessel is at sea smoking is permitted in any public area subject to the Masters
discretion with respect to smoking in mess rooms during meal times.
Smoking is permitted in the Wheelhouse and Cargo Control Room only at the discretion of the
Master, and in the Engine Control Room only at the discretion of the Chief Engineer.

12.2

Control of Smoking in Port

When the vessel is in port or is undertaking cargo operations at sea, smoking must be limited to
a maximum of three areas. These areas, which in port may be determined by terminal
regulations, can be any three of:
The Masters cabin or office;
Officers mess room or lounge;
Crews mess room or lounge;
Engine Control Room;
Cargo Control Room or Cargo Office.
Note: In the port of Hamburg a Smoking Permit allowing smoking to take place in three specified
rooms will be issued. This permit is valid for one year. The smoke rooms cannot be changed
unless specifically requested by the Master, whereupon a new permit will be issued. It is
therefore imperative that the smoking rooms used in Hamburg are the same as those detailed on
the Smoking Permit.
Smoke rooms must not have doors that open directly onto open decks and preferably should
have at least one door between them and the external accommodation door which should remain
closed.
There must be a notice posted in a public place or places which states where smoking is allowed
for the particular port the vessel is in. Each smoke room must be identified by a notice on the
entrance door. The notices must be renewed each port as necessary, and only these notices
should be posted, all previous port-specific smoking notices must be removed. Notices CCR7
Smoking Room Notice and CCR8 Smoking Room Permission must be posted.
Cigarette lighters are prohibited on all company tankers, as is the bringing on board of matches.
The Master must ensure that safety matches and self-extinguishing ashtrays are provided in
smoke rooms.

12. Control of Smoking


DCO (Tankers) Cargo - General (Rev. O-1)

1st June 2010

Page 1 of 1

DECK and CARGO


OPERATIONS
MANUAL
Part B
Cargo Operations Petroleum
Part B General Section
DCO (Tankers) Cargo Operations

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

1.
1.1

Cargo Related Hazards


Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans. Toxic
substances can harm humans in three main ways:
1.1.1
Ingestion
Petroleum has low oral toxicity, but when swallowed it can cause acute discomfort and nausea.
There is then a possibility that liquid petroleum may be drawn into the lungs during vomiting and
this can have serious consequences, especially with higher volatility products such as gasoline
and kerosene.
1.1.2
Skin Contact
Many petroleum products, particularly the more volatile ones, when they come into contact with
the skin, cause irritation and remove essential skin oils which can lead to dermatitis. They can
also cause eye irritation. Certain heavier oils can cause serious skin disorders with repeated and
prolonged contact. Direct contact with petroleum should be avoided by wearing the appropriate
protective equipment, especially impermeable gloves and goggles.
1.1.3
Inhalation
Comparatively small quantities of petroleum gas, when inhaled, can cause symptoms of
diminished responsibility and dizziness similar to intoxication and headache. The inhalation of an
excessive quantity can be fatal. These symptoms can occur at concentrations well below the
Lower Flammable Limit.
The degree to which humans can be affected by contact with a product depends both upon the
toxicity of the product and the tolerance of the person involved, which can vary widely. It should
not be assumed that because conditions can be tolerated the gas concentration is within safe
limits. The smell of petroleum gas mixtures is highly variable and in some cases the gases may
dull the sense of smell. The impairment of smell is especially likely, and particularly serious, if
the mixture contains hydrogen sulphide. It should never be assumed that the absence of
smell indicates the absence of gas.
1.1.4
Other Effects
Toxic substances can also have local effects, such as eye irritation, but can also affect other,
more distant parts of the body and these are referred to as systemic effects.
Although not strictly a matter of toxicity, Oxygen deficiency can also result in harm to humans.
1.1.5
Risk Assessment
A risk assessment should have been carried out with respect to the loading of toxic cargoes. In
general, only work associated with cargo operations should be permitted within the cargo and
associated areas during the handling of toxic or dangerous products.
1.1.6
Exposure Limits
The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost entirely from
exposure to gases of various kinds.
In spite of the fact that serious health effects are not believed likely as a result of exposure to
TLV concentrations, the values are only guidelines and best practice is to maintain concentrations
of all atmospheric contaminants as low as is reasonably practicable. The term TLV-TWA (Time
Weighted Average) is used. Because they are averages, TWAs assume short-term excursions
above the TLV-TWA that are not sufficiently high to cause injury to health and are therefore
compensated by equivalent excursions below the TLV-TWA during the conventional 8-hour
working day.
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It is the responsibility of the Master and the Chief Officer to ensure that the crew are made aware
of any work situation concerning operations involving toxic substances that may impose a risk to
their health. They should be informed of any relevant safety precautions prior to cargo
operations.
1.1.7
Effects of Petroleum Gas
The main effects of low concentrations of petroleum gas on personnel are headaches and eye
irritation, with diminished responsibility and dizziness similar to intoxication.
At high
concentrations, these lead to paralysis, insensibility and death.
The toxicity of petroleum gases can vary widely depending on the major hydrocarbon constituents
of the gases. Toxicity can be greatly influenced by the presence of some minor components such
as aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. Benzene) and Hydrogen Sulphide. A TLV-TWA of 300 ppm,
corresponding to about 2% LFL, is established for gasoline vapours. Such a figure may be used
as a general guide for petroleum gases but must not be taken as applicable to gas mixtures
containing Benzene or Hydrogen Sulphide.

1.2

Threshold Limit Value

Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the airborne concentration of a substance under which it is
believed that most workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are
advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, and are based on industrial experience and
studies.
There are three different types of TLV:
Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) - The airborne concentration of a toxic substance
averaged over an 8 hour period, usually expressed in ppm;
Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) - The airborne concentration of a toxic
substance averaged over any 15 minute period, usually expressed in ppm;
Ceiling (TLV-C) - The concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the
working exposure.

1.3

Hydrocarbon Vapours

During the carriage and after the discharge of petroleum products, the presence of hydrocarbon
vapour should always be suspected in enclosed spaces for the following reasons:
Cargo may have leaked into compartments, including pump rooms, cofferdams,
permanent ballast tanks and other tanks adjacent to those that have carried cargo;
Cargo residues may remain on the internal surfaces of tanks, even after cleaning and
ventilation;
Cargo residues may remain in cargo or ballast pipelines and pumps;
Cargo vapour might transfer from one tank to another through a common ventilation
system;
Cargo vapours may be present in compartments adjacent to the cargo area;
Sludge, sediment or scale in a tank that has been declared gas free may give off further
hydrocarbon vapour if disturbed or subjected to a rise in temperature.
To be considered safe for entry a reading of less than 1% LFL must be obtained on suitable
monitoring equipment.

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1.4

Benzene

1.4.1
General Precautions
Benzene is known to be carcinogenic. It is absorbed into the blood and the effect is cumulative,
but whereas Benzene is readily absorbed it can take many years for it to be released. Thus
repeated, short term exposure can be dangerous.
There are a significant number of products which may contain Benzene in varying amounts, from
crude oil through to refined products such as Benzene mixtures, Naphtha and White Spirit.
However, it should be noted that crude oil and the majority of petroleum products carried on
product carriers do not contain sufficient quantities of Benzene to cause concern, and crude and
petroleum tankers should not have to take specific precautions against Benzene in the
atmosphere. These vessels do not require Benzene measuring equipment.
It should be noted that significant Benzene vapour concentrations may occasionally occur when
loading cargoes with a Benzene content of less than 0.5% by volume at terminals subjected to
unusual environmental conditions, such as still air combined with temperature inversion or high
ambient temperatures.
1.4.2
Monitoring Atmosphere Quality
Prior to, and during operations involving products containing known quantities of Benzene, the
Chief Officer must verify the effectiveness of the closed loading system in order to ensure that
concentrations of Benzene vapours around the working deck are minimised. This will involve
surveys to determine the potential for exposure of personnel to Benzene vapour, and to ascertain
vapour concentrations when tank cleaning, venting or ballasting tanks whose previous cargo
contained Benzene. Spot checks of the cargo area, associated compartments and if necessary
the area around the accommodation should be made to ensure that TLV-TWAs are not being
exceeded. If so action will be required to be taken; personal protective equipment should be
worn by personnel working on deck, but if there is a significant concentration around the
accommodation block then consideration must be given to stopping cargo operations.
1.4.3
Occupational Exposure Limits
Personnel exposure to airborne concentrations of Benzene vapours should be within the following
limits:

A Time Weighted Average (TWA) of 1 ppm, over an eight-hour period;

A Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) of 5 ppm, over any 15-minute period.
The airborne concentration of Benzene vapour should be measured and properly documented by
the Chief Officer on the form ECF30 - Atmosphere Check - Cargo and Other Spaces before
any crew member is authorised to work in a given area. Such measuring should be continued
whilst there is a risk of exposure to Benzene vapours taking into consideration gas measuring
equipment on board will only provide spot readings and that personnel may experience
concentrations of vapour in excess of the reading obtained. Therefore, careful consideration
should be given to the type of respiratory protective equipment employed for specific tasks.
Whenever direct or representative measurements indicate that exposure limits are being
exceeded during normal cargo handling operations, the personnel required to work in the affected
area should wear breathing apparatus.
1.4.4
Sampling and Gauging
Precautions must be taken in order to minimise exposure when measuring and sampling cargoes
containing Benzene. Chemical safety equipment including eye protection, impervious gloves, a
protective apron and breathing apparatus should be readily available to crew members and must

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be used while sampling or gauging and during the commencement of cargo operations or on any
other occasion where there might be risk of skin contact with the cargo or a release of vapour.
Chemical protective equipment must be readily available in case of spills or extensive amounts of
cargo vapour being detected. The Chief Officer must not hesitate to order the use of such
equipment, no matter how cumbersome its use may be, if there is a need for it.

1.5

Hydrogen Sulphide

Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is a very toxic, corrosive, and flammable gas. It has a very low odour
threshold and a distinctive odour of rotten eggs. H2S is colourless, heavier than air, has a relative
vapour density of 1.189, and is soluble in water.
1.5.1
Sources of Hydrogen Sulphide
Many crude oils are produced with high levels of H2S, but are stabilised. This process usually
reduces the level before the crude oil is delivered to the vessel. However, a cargo may be
received on board with either a reduced level of stabilisation or one which has not been stabilised
at all, in which case higher than normal levels of H2S may be encountered.
H2S can also be encountered in refined products such as Naphtha, Fuel Oil, bunker fuels,
Bitumens and Gas Oils. Cargo and bunker fuel should not be treated as free of H2S unless the
MSDS confirms it and the fact has been confirmed by monitoring.
1.5.2
Expected Concentrations
It is important to distinguish between concentrations of H2S in the atmosphere, expressed in ppm
by volume, and concentrations in liquid, expressed in ppm by weight. It is not possible to predict
the likely vapour concentration from any given liquid concentration but, as an example, a crude
oil containing 7 ppm (by weight) H2S has been shown to produce a concentration of 700 ppm (by
volume) in the gas stream leaving the tank vent.
Precautions against high H2S concentrations are normally considered necessary if the
H2S content in the atmosphere is 5 ppm by volume or above.
H2S concentration in vapour will vary greatly and is dependent upon factors such as:

The liquid H2S content;

The amount of air circulation;

The temperature of the air and the liquid;

The liquid level in a tank;

The amount of agitation of a liquid.


1.5.3
Exposure Limits
The TLV-TWA for H2S is 5 ppm over a period of eight hours. However, working procedures should
aim at ensuring that the lowest possible gas concentrations are achieved in work locations.
H2S concentration

(ppm by volume in air)

0.1 0.5 ppm


10 ppm
25 ppm
50-100 ppm
150 ppm

Physiological Effects
First detectable by smell
May cause some nausea, minimal eye irritation.
Eye and respiratory tract irritation. Strong odour.
Sense of smell starts to breakdown.
Prolonged exposure to concentrations at 100 ppm induces a
gradual increase in the severity of these symptoms and death
may occur after 4 48 hours exposure.
Loss of sense of smell in 2-5 minutes.

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350 ppm
700 ppm
700+ ppm

Can be fatal after 30 minutes inhalation.


Rapidly induces unconsciousness (few minutes) and death.
Causes seizures, loss of bowel and bladder control. Breathing
will stop and death will result if not rescued promptly.
Immediately fatal.

Note: Persons over-exposed to H2S vapour should be removed to clean air as soon as possible.
The adverse effects of H2S can be reversed and the probability of saving the persons life improved if
prompt action is taken.

Typical Effects of Exposure to Hydrogen Sulphide


1.5.4
Procedures for Handling Cargo Containing H2S
Precautions must be taken when handling all cargoes likely to contain hazardous concentrations
of H2S. They should also be taken when ballasting, cleaning, or gas freeing tanks which
previously contained a cargo having an H2S content.
In ship to ship transfers, particular attention should be paid to the difference in freeboards and
the possibility of vapour not being adequately dispersed. Vent velocities should be kept high on
the receiving ship and the vessels should be turned to allow the wind direction to carry the
vapours away from the accommodation.
The following precautions should be implemented when handling cargoes with a high H2S:
Closed loading procedures must be used;
Check that all doors and ports can be securely closed to prevent any gas ingress;
The cargo plan must contain specific details for the venting procedure, monitoring for
vapour, personal protective equipment, accommodation and engine room ventilation
arrangements and emergency measures;
Venting to the atmosphere at a relatively low pressure should be avoided, particularly in
calm wind conditions;
Cargo loading should be stopped if there is no wind to disperse the vapours or if the wind
direction takes cargo vapours towards the accommodation;
Only personnel actively engaged in either vessel security or cargo handling should be
permitted on open decks. Regular maintenance on deck should be limited or postponed
until after the end of cargo operations;
Visitors should be escorted to and from the accommodation and briefed on the hazards of
the cargo and emergency procedures;
The notice CCR47 - Hydrogen Sulphide must be posted at the gangway to warn visitors
of the fact that high H2S cargoes are being handled.
1.5.5
Vapour Monitoring
All analysers currently supplied to the Columbia fleet are capable of measuring H2S. High
concentrations and the corrosive nature of the gas can have a damaging effect on the sensors of
many electronic instruments, and therefore detector tubes should be used if it is necessary to
monitor a known high concentration.
A personal analyser must be carried by personnel on deck whenever cargo operations are being
undertaken involving a cargo with a known H2S content. If the H2S content is not known or is
uncertain then a check must be carried out to determine the level of H2S and precautions taken
as necessary. Where high levels of H2S are anticipated then the Officers and ratings involved in
the cargo operation must be briefed prior to the operation on what action to take in the case of
their portable analysers alarming on high H2S levels.
The company requires the alarm to be set at 5 ppm on both the MSA Altair 4 and the Draeger XAM 7000 analysers.

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If H2S is detected on deck then precautions should be taken to ensure that the entry of H2S into
the accommodation, wheelhouse, engine room, and stores spaces is as far as possible avoided.
Over time, low concentrations of H2S can cause discomfort to personnel.
For further information on the application and use of gas analysing equipment refer to Cargo
Operations General, Chapter 6: Gas Detection and Personal Protective Equipment.
For the procedure on the removal of H2S from cargo tanks refer to Cargo Operations
Petroleum, Chapter 5: Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing.
1.5.6
Personal Protective Equipment when Handling H2S
If, for whatever reason, personnel have to be involved in operations with products containing H2S
then the TLV-TWA of 5 ppm over 8 hours must be monitored and must not under any
circumstances be exceeded.
Breathing apparatus must be used if exposure over the TLV-TWA of 5 ppm over 8 hours is
anticipated. When working in areas where H2S might be unexpectedly encountered, then
consideration should be given to the use of breathing apparatus. Such occasions include:
Open gauging and sampling;
Removing blanks for connecting cargo hoses or loading arms;
Cleaning filters;
Draining lines to open containment;
Mopping up spills; and
Working in cargo tanks which have been cleaned but which previously contained a high
H2S content cargo.
If an H2S vapour-free environment cannot be guaranteed then breathing apparatus must be worn.
1.5.7
Corrosion
H2S is very corrosive and enhanced inspection and maintenance regimes should be put in place if
cargoes with a high H2S content are likely to be carried. P/V valve seats made of brass are more
likely to fail than those of stainless steel. Mechanical tank gauges are more likely to fail since H2S
has a damaging effect on stainless steel tension springs and metals such as brass and bronze.
1.5.8
General Nuisances
In addition to being a health hazard, H2S odour is also considered a public nuisance. Most
terminals ban the release of H2S concentrations above 10 ppm to the atmosphere. Vapour return
is normally provided.
Whenever a vessel is carrying a high H2S cargo, the notice CCR47 - Hydrogen Sulphide must
be posted at the gangway warning visitors of the hazard.

1.6

Mercaptans

Mercaptans are colourless, odorous gases generated naturally by the degradation of natural
organisms. Their smell has been likened to rotting cabbage. Mercaptans may occur on ships
where seawater has remained beneath an oil cargo or where oil residues are left in tanks that
contain water, such as in a dirty ballast tank after it has been incompletely drained. They are
also found in water treatment plants and ballast treatment facilities.
Mercaptans may be present in the vapours of Pentane Plus cargoes and in some crude oils. They
are used as an odourising agent in natural gas. They can be detected by smell at concentrations
below 0.5ppm, although health effects are not experienced until the concentration is several
times higher than this.

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The initial effects of Mercaptans on people are similar to those caused by H2S exposure, i.e.
irritation to the lungs, eyes, nose and throat. Headaches, nausea, vomiting, and unconsciousness
may result from exposure to Mercaptans.
Little is known about the dangers of Mercaptans, but it would be prudent to avoid prolonged
exposure above concentrations of 0.5ppm. The presence of Mercaptans can only be measured by
toxic gas detector tube.
All the current industry guidance indicates that the risk Mercaptans pose to personnel is minimal,
if any, in the quantities which might be found on petroleum tankers. The company has therefore
decided that the provision of Mercaptan detector tubes is unnecessary unless the vessel has
specific information that the cargo to be carried contains significant quantities of Mercaptans. If
this is the case Mercaptan detector tubes should be arranged to be on board prior to loading the
cargo.

1.7

Inert Gas

1.7.1
The Toxic Constituents of Inert Gas
The main hazard associated with inert gas is its low Oxygen content. However, inert gas
produced by combustion, either in a steam raising boiler or in an inert gas generator, will contain
trace amounts of various toxic gases that may increase the hazard to personnel exposed to it.
However, in gas-freeing a cargo tank from a hydrocarbon gas concentration of about 2% by
volume to 1% LFL and until a steady 21% by volume Oxygen reading is obtained, the toxic
constituents of inert gas will be removed.
1.7.2
Oxygen Deficiency
Before initial entry is allowed into any enclosed space, the atmosphere must be tested with an
Oxygen analyser to check that the air contains 20.9% Oxygen. This is of particular importance
when considering entry into any space, tank or compartment that has previously been inerted.
Lack of Oxygen should always be suspected in all enclosed spaces, particularly if they have
contained water, have been subjected to damp or humid conditions, have been inerted or are
adjacent to, or connected with, other inerted tanks, or compartments which have corrosion.

1.8

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is lighter than both air and inert gas. It is an extremely dangerous gas because it
cannot be detected by human senses. It is not toxic, but one single breath of pure, or almost
pure Nitrogen, can cause immediate death. One deep breath of 100% Nitrogen will be
fatal. 100% Nitrogen will displace Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen completely and, in the absence of
a Carbon Dioxide signal to the brain, the stimulus to breathe no longer exists. Breathing is
stimulated and controlled by the Carbon Dioxide present in the lungs. As the Carbon Dioxide
level increases, the brain sends a message to increase respiration. When the Carbon Dioxide
level drops, the rate of respiration will also decrease in order to maintain the proper balance.
Immediate death results, even when the person has been removed from the source and is in
clean air.
Where a tank has been inerted with Nitrogen, the notice CCR80 - Nitrogen must be placed on
the tank access hatch, and on each other aperture which is opened, throughout the time the tank
remains inerted with Nitrogen whilst in port and when carrying out cargo operations at sea.

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Care must be taken when opening the lids and hatches of a tank which has been inerted with
Nitrogen. Only the Master may give permission for any tank aperture to be opened on a tank
which has been inerted, padded or purged with Nitrogen.

1.9

Nitrogen Oxide

Fresh flue gases typically contain about 200 ppm by volume of mixed Nitrogen Oxides. The
majority is Nitric Oxide (NO), which is not removed by water scrubbing. Nitric Oxide reacts
slowly with Oxygen forming Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2). As the gas stands in tanks, the total
concentration of Nitrogen Oxide falls over a period of 1-2 days to a level of 10 - 20 ppm as the
more soluble Nitrogen Dioxide goes into solution in free water, or by condensation, to give
Nitrous and Nitric Acids. Further decrease below this level is very slow.
Nitric Oxide is a colourless gas with little smell at its TLV-TWA of 25 ppm. Nitrogen Dioxide is
even more toxic with a TLV-TWA of 3 ppm.

1.10

Sulphur Dioxide

Flue gas produced by the combustion of a fuel oil that has a high Sulphur content typically
contains about 2,000 ppm of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2). Inert gas system water scrubbers remove
this gas with an efficiency that depends upon the design and operation of the scrubber, giving
inert gas with a Sulphur Dioxide content of typically between 2 and 50 ppm. Sulphur Dioxide
causes irritation of the eyes, nose and throat and may also cause breathing difficulties in sensitive
people. It has a distinctive smell at its TLV-TWA of 2 ppm.

1.11

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is normally present in flue gas at a level of only a few ppm. Abnormal
combustion conditions and slow running can however give rise to levels in excess of 200 ppm. It
is sinister in its attack, which is to restrict Oxygen uptake by the blood, causing a chemically
induced form of asphyxiation.
Carbon Monoxide is toxic by inhalation and can cause serious damage to health by prolonged
exposure. High concentrations can prove fatal. The maximum exposure level to CO over an 8
hour period is 30 ppm, although for short term exposure not exceeding 15 minutes
concentrations of up to 200 ppm can be allowed.
Carbon Monoxide can also be generated in spaces which have carried Vegetable Oil. Large
concentrations may be found in tanks which are in the final stages of discharge and particularly
where heating has continued to the end.
The atmosphere must be continuously checked for the presence of Carbon Monoxide whilst
personnel are in cargo tanks, for example whilst carrying out squeezing operations after the
carriage of vegetable oil. Refer to the company Enclosed Space Entry Procedure.

1.12

Residual Fuel Oil

Although residual fuel oil normally has a flashpoint above 60C, it is often stored and managed at
temperatures close to, or even above, its flashpoint. High flashpoint fuels sometimes contain
residual quantities of light components that slowly migrate into vapour spaces after loading, so
raising the flammability. It must therefore never be assumed that the vapour spaces in, and
emissions from, cargo or bunker tanks containing fuel oil will always be safe simply on account of
a high specified flashpoint.

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Residual fuel oils are capable of producing light hydrocarbons in the tank vapour space such that
the vapour composition may be near to or within the flammable range. This can occur even when
the storage temperature is well below the measured flashpoint. This is not normally a function of
the origin or manufacturing process of the fuel, although fuels containing cracked residues may
show a greater tendency to generate light hydrocarbons. Although light hydrocarbons may be
present in the vapour spaces of residual fuel oil tanks, the risk associated with them is small
unless the atmosphere is within the flammable range and an ignition source is present. In such a
case an incident could result and such vapour spaces should be regarded as being potentially
flammable.

1.13

Oxygen Depleting Substances

Some chemical products and Vegetable Oils, even in very small quantities, may deplete the
Oxygen in a cargo tank.
Personnel entering cargo tanks must not assume that apparently harmless products such as
vegetable oil do not present hazards, and enclosed space entry procedures must always be fully
complied with. Refer to the company Enclosed Space Entry Procedure.

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2.

Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management

2.1

Over-Riding of Switch and Key-Operated Alarms

Columbia Shipmanagement categorically does not allow the overriding of safety


devices, trips and alarms during normal operations.
Where an overriding switch is operated by a key, the key must be kept under the control of the
Chief Officer. The Masters permission must be obtained before any safety device or trip is
overridden.

2.2

Cargo Planning

2.2.1
Responsibility
The Chief Officer is responsible for the planning and execution of all cargo, ballasting and tank
cleaning operations. When carrying crude oil, reference should be made to the Volatile Organic
Compounds Management Plan. Planning should be carried out as far in advance as possible. The
Master must review and approve each cargo plan.
No cargo operation should take place unless it has been adequately planned, the Master and
Chief Officer are completely satisfied that it is safe to do so, and that all relevant considerations
have been taken into account, discussed on board, and that all involved personnel have been
updated.
It is acknowledged that on some trades, particularly those of the chemical tankers, that there are
frequent changes to cargo plans. Nevertheless, adequate planning is essential in ensuring that
each operation is completed safely.
Communication with the company, operator, and terminal prior to arrival at the loading and
discharge ports is important in ensuring adequate preparation and thus preventing delays.
After each cargo plan has been approved by the Master a meeting should be held with the Deck
Officers to discuss the content. Deck Officers shall initial the plan to indicate that they have read
and understood it. The Chief Officer must ensure that the MSDS of the cargoes being handled
are also discussed. Additionally, the basic details of each plan must be discussed with the deck
watch ratings to the extent that it affects their work.
Whenever possible, the Chief Officer should involve Junior Officers, particularly the Second
Officer, in the preparation of cargo plans. Their involvement will have the following benefits:
They will have a better understanding of the current plan being developed;
They will provide input, which may in itself improve the plan;
They will learn the process of developing cargo plans.
Where modifications to a plan are required these must be carefully and fully documented before
the cargo operation takes place, and must be approved by the Master. The changes must be
discussed with the Deck Officers and the fact that changes to the original plan have been made
and discussed with the Deck Officers must be recorded on the plan.
2.2.2
Cargo Plans
A cargo plan must be completed for every cargo operation. Form CCR81 - Cargo Operation
Plan in the Cargo Forms Module must be used.
Form CCR89 Cargo Intake Calculations should be used for calculating the total amount of
cargo to be loaded.
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The cargo plan should cover step by step all stages of the transfer operation.
Cargo

plans should include, but not be limited to, the following details:
The quantity and grade of each parcel;
Density, temperature and other relevant properties;
A plan of the cargo and ballast tanks, lines and pumps to be used;
Details of which manifolds are to be used;
The sequence of transfer of both cargo and ballast;
The procedure when change of grade is required;
Transfer rates, including initial, final and topping off;
Final ullage for each tank;
Maximum allowable manifold pressure;
Critical stages of the operation must be identified and the action required to reduce
the risk;
Notice of rate change;
Operation of the venting system;
Pre-calculated drafts, trim, stability and stress information;
Ballast handling sequence;
Emergency stop procedures;
Emergency spill procedures and spill containment; and
Hazards of the particular cargoes, including toxicity, flammability and pollution.

Also, as required:
Precautions against static generation, including initial flow rates, ullaging and sampling;
Sampling procedures;
Control of cargo heating systems;
Operation of the inert gas system, including the precautions to be taken if nitrogen is to
be used;
Line clearing;
Crude oil washing procedures;
Under keel clearance limitations;
Bunkering;
Special precautions required for the particular operation;
The maximum freeboard permitted in order to ensure that the operating envelope of the
terminal cargo arms is not exceeded; and
Any specific terminal requirements or restrictions.
Columbia policy is that no cargo tank should be loaded above 98% full.

2.3

Chief Officers Standing Orders

The Chief Officer should complete his own Standing.


There is a template in the CCR
Information File. His orders should supplement the Standing Orders on the form and should
reflect his own requirements with respect to the actions the watch officers should take. The
Standing Orders should be posted in a prominent place in the Cargo Control Room and a copy
must be retained in the CCR Information File. They shall be read and signed by each Deck
Officer prior to commencing their first watch on the vessel.

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2.4

Testing of Critical Equipment Prior to Cargo Operations

In addition to the routine checking of equipment as required by the planned maintenance


system, certain critical equipment should be checked immediately prior to each cargo operation.
Prior to cargo operations the following checks of critical equipment must be carried out:
Each P/V pressure and vacuum valve must be manually operated;
Cargo and ballast tank high level and overfill alarms, warning lights and audible warnings
must be tested;
Cargo pump emergency shutdowns in the Cargo Control Room must be tested;
The pump room bilge alarm must be tested;
Inert gas system safety devices and functions must be tested, including checking the deck
seal and p/v breaker levels;
Remote ullage, temperature and pressure monitoring systems must be checked for
correct operation and that they are reading correctly.
If any of the above equipment is found to be defective then the fact must be recorded in the
cargo plan, added to the Chief Officers orders, and brought to the attention of each Watch
Officer.
In addition, the following must be carried out:
The pump room atmosphere must be checked;
The inert gas system Oxygen analyser must be calibrated, and the readings compared
between the indicators in the engine room, Cargo Control Room and bridge;
Deep well pump cofferdams should be purged (as well as before and after each
operation);
Mast riser sumps should be checked for liquid;
Where liquid traps are fitted in the main deck scupper drains to the slop tanks, these
must be charged to prevent the blowing back of inert gas;
If carrying out crude oil washing, the crude oil wash lines should be pressure tested prior
to arrival;
Fixed gas detection equipment should be checked and if necessary calibrated;
UTI tapes and samplers should be checked for correct operation;
Portable gas analysing equipment should be checked for correct operation;
Portable radios should be checked for condition and correct operation;
Oil spill equipment must be deployed at the manifold and at the after end of the maindeck
if the vessel is trimmed by the stern;
Where necessary, the times of any anticipated events such as tidal surges must be posted
in the Cargo Control Room;
Material Safety Data Sheets for each product must be posted;
Port and starboard manifold pressure gauges must be uncovered and the pressure
reading checked. If there is pressure this should be released prior to cargo operations
commencing;
Remote draft meters should be purged and checked for correct readings.

2.5

Checking the Setting of Cargo and Vapour Lines

2.5.1
Checking Lines
It is a company requirement that, in order to avoid one-man errors, once the cargo liquid and
vapour lines have been set by one officer the settings are checked by a second officer to ensure
that they are correct. The fact that the lines have been set and checked must be recorded in the
remarks section of form CCR81 - Cargo Operation Plan in the Cargo Forms Module.

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In order to avoid delays the setting of lines should, whenever possible, be carried out and
checked prior to arrival at the berth. Where this is not possible the checking of lines must not be
circumvented and the setting and checking of lines before discharge must be both completed
effectively and managed to avoid as far as possible any delays.
At each change in the cargo operation which requires the re-setting of lines then these settings
should again be carried out by one officer and checked by another.
2.5.2
Inert Gas and Vapour Lines
Inert gas lines may contain cargo which presents a possible pollution issue when commencing
cargo operations. They should be checked as being liquid free. Those vessels where the vapour
lines are angled and are designed to drain down into the cargo tanks will probably not have an
issue with cargo in the inert gas lines.
At both loading and discharge ports the best way to ensure that inert gas lines are liquid free
might be to run the inert gas system for a short period into the cargo tanks.
Section 2 (Inert Gas System) in CCR81 Cargo Operation Plan in the Cargo Forms Module
should be completed to reflect the fact that the inert gas lines have been checked as liquid free
prior to each cargo operation.
2.5.3 Clearing Lines after a Tank Overfill
In the case of a cargo tank overfill, all cargo operations must be immediately stopped. It is
important to ensure that inert gas and vapour lines are empty of cargo product after a tank
overfill. Inert gas and vapour lines must be proved to be clear of cargo product immediately
after such an overfill, and cargo operations must not be resumed until this has been completed.

2.6

Interface with the Terminal

2.6.1
Exchange of Information Prior to Arrival
The Master should provide pre-arrival information as required. The terminal should ensure that
the vessel has been provided with adequate and relevant port information.
The exchange of information between the vessel and the terminal should cover the following as a
minimum:
The depth of water at chart datum and the range of salinity that can be expected at the
berth;
Maximum draft and maximum air draft;
Any significant climatic conditions such as tidal surges, strong currents etc.;
Availability of tugs and mooring craft together with any terminal requirements on their
usage;
Details of any shore moorings that will be provided;
Which side to be moored alongside;
Number and sizes of hoses or arms available and manifold connections required for each
product or grade of the cargo and VECS, if appropriate;
Maximum shore loading rates;
Whether a Vapour Emission Control System will be used;
Closed loading requirements;
The availability of terminal access equipment, or of gangway landing space;
Nominated quantities of cargo to be loaded;
Advance information on the proposed cargo specification. Such information should
include the identification of any toxic components, such as H2S and Benzene, and any
particular safe handling requirements;

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Any other characteristics of the cargo requiring attention, for example high true vapour
pressure;
Flashpoints (where applicable) of the products and their estimated loading temperatures,
particularly when the cargo is non-volatile;
Any restrictions on crude oil washing procedures, tank cleaning and gas freeing, if
applicable;
Standby time for normal pump stopping;
Maximum pressure available at the ship/shore cargo connection;
Communication system for loading control, including the signal for emergency stop;
Limitations on the movement of hoses or arms;
Material Safety Data Sheets for each product to be handled;
Advice on environmental restrictions applicable to the berth;
Facilities for the reception of slops, oily residues and garbage;
Security levels in effect within the port. Security protocols may need to be agreed
between the vessel and the port or terminal;
Bunker specifications including H2S and Benzene content;
Proposed bunker loading rate and maximum pressure.
Sampling procedures, including that only closed sampling should be utilised.

Wherever possible, the following information should be sent by the Master to the terminal at
least 24 hours prior to arrival:
Name and call sign of vessel;
Flag;
Overall length and beam of the vessel and the draft on arrival;
Estimated time of arrival at designated arrival point, for example, pilot station or fairway
buoy;
Deadweight on arrival;
If loaded, cargo on board and disposition;
Maximum draught expected during and upon completion of cargo handling;
If fitted with an inert gas system, confirmation that the ships tanks are in an inert
condition and that the system is fully operational;
Any requirement for tank cleaning and/or gas freeing;
A request for vapour recovery to be provided;
Any defects that could adversely affect safe operations or delay commencement of cargo
handling;
Whether crude oil washing is to be employed and, if so, confirmation that the pre- arrival
checklist has been satisfactorily completed;
Ships manifold details, including type, size, number and distance between centres of the
connections to be presented, and also the products to be handled at each manifold,
numbered from forward;
Advance information on proposed cargo handling operations, including grades, sequence,
quantities and any rate restrictions;
Information, as required, on quantity and nature of slops and dirty ballast and of any
contamination by chemical additives. Such information must include identification of any
toxic components, such as H2S;
Quantities and specifications of bunkers required, if applicable.
2.6.2
Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal
A pre-transfer meeting should be held between the Chief Officer and the terminal representative,
during which the cargo transfer operations should be planned and agreed in writing. The
information which was received prior to arrival should be confirmed, and the cargo plan
discussed including the sequence of events, transfer rates, maximum pressures, emergency stop
procedure, changing grades and the anticipated timing for the operation etc. agreed. It is

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important that the amount of warning required by the terminal for rate reductions before topping
off, and the actual capability of the terminal in reducing the rate, is established and agreed.
A copy of the terminal regulations should be obtained and form CCR82 - Pre-Transfer Meeting
in the Cargo Forms Module completed.
A reliable communication system must be agreed upon. Before cargo transfer commences, the
system should be adequately tested, and a secondary stand-by system, which can be by voice,
should also be established and agreed. During cargo operations occasional test calls should be
made to ensure that the primary system is functioning as intended. The communications system
must be continuously attended throughout cargo operations. Attention to communications is
particularly important when operating at SBMs, although often a terminal loading master will
remain on board.
2.6.3
Completion of the Ship to Shore Safety Check List
The company Ship to Shore Safety Check List is form CCR83 in the Cargo Forms Module
and it must always be used and should be jointly completed with the terminal representative. If
the terminal requires their own Ship to Shore Safety Check List then this should be completed
in addition to the company version.
Cargo operations must not commence until a Ship to Shore Safety Check List has been
completed and signed by the Chief Officer and the terminal representative.
The Chief Officer shall:
Ensure that Parts A and B of the Ship to Shore Safety Check List are fully completed
and signed by himself and the terminal representative;
Inform the terminal immediately if a change of the conditions or circumstances will affect
the safety of the agreed operation;
Ensure that items indicated by a R as requiring repetitive checks will be inspected at
agreed intervals which should not exceed four hours;
Ensure that the Remarks column is completed for items which are indicated by a A and
which require an agreement or a procedure and;
Ensure that the re-inspections required by the code letter R are logged and signed in the
Ship to Shore Safety Check List;
Instruct the crew in regard to the Ship to Shore Safety Check List and monitoring strict
compliance;
Ensure that Watch Officers are aware of the guidelines for completing the Ship to Shore
Safety Check List which are laid out in the appendix.
2.6.4
Ullaging and Sampling Before and After Cargo Operations
Before the commencement, and upon completion, of cargo operations the Chief Officer shall
either supervise or delegate a responsible officer to the taking of ullages, temperatures, dips,
and water dips of all the tanks to be loaded or discharged at that berth in conjunction with a
terminal representative or cargo surveyor. Under normal circumstances open sampling is not
permitted. However, should a terminal insist on it, open sampling can be accepted as a nonroutine activity, providing a risk assessment is completed and company approval to perform open
sampling is obtained. A Letter of Protest must be issued to the terminal in this regard.
Upon completion of cargo operations at each berth, every cargo tank must be checked or rechecked to ensure that there has not been an unintentional transfer to or from a tank. Where a
part cargo remains on board, the quantity remaining on board must be re-calculated.
Once the quantities have been calculated they are to be compared with the shore figures and
recorded on the appropriate forms.

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If ballasting of cargo tanks is carried out with cargo on board, the ullages of cargo tanks must be
re-taken after ballasting has been completed.
Due regard must be paid to the possible toxic properties of cargoes and the appropriate safety
precautions which may be required:
The release of volatile vapour must be minimised;
The release of toxic vapours is not permitted at any time and closed ullaging and
sampling must be conducted.
In taking final ullages and temperatures the following must receive careful attention:
Draft readings must be taken concurrent with cargo measurement;
Care must be taken to ensure that the correct ullage datum is used and that, if there is
movement on the surface of the cargo, a true mean ullage is obtained.
The measured ullages must be corrected for trim and list in accordance with the ullage
tables before extracting the gross quantity for calculation;
If necessary float corrections must be applied;
Temperature readings are to be taken from the top, middle and bottom of each tank.
Water dips must be taken to detect water which has settled out during loading or on passage.
Where water finding paste is unsuitable, as with some black oil cargoes, the use of an interface
detector gauge may be more appropriate and the water dip calculated from the ullage of the
water interface.
2.6.5
Cargo Surveys
A cargo survey must be conducted and the Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that the
ships figures are calculated independently to those of any cargo surveyors. Whenever terminal
representatives or cargo surveyors conduct cargo surveys they must be accompanied by a ships
representative who shall verify and agree their results.
Cargo surveyors act on behalf of the shipper or receiver and are often independent of the
terminal. They will check the condition of tanks before loading, quantities of slops and their
stowage, quantity of cargo on board after loading completed, ROB after discharge etc. They will
also take samples before and after cargo operations.
The surveyor will require the following information:
The last cargoes carried in the tanks to be loaded;
Information on tank coating material;
Information on any tank cleaning which has been carried out;
The vessels experience factor.
2.6.6
Cargo Tank Inspections
Unless the cargo tank is gas free, under normal circumstances opening cargo tank hatches or
apertures is not permitted. Closed dipping is preferable to opening a tank hatch. However,
should a terminal insist upon it, opening a hatch or aperture can be accepted as a non-routine
activity providing there is no toxic gas present, a risk assessment is completed and company
approval is obtained. A Letter of Protest must be issued to the terminal in this regard.
When completing the risk assessment, items to be considered should include the fact that a
slight positive inert gas pressure must be maintained in order to prevent the ingress of air and
the tank must only remain open just long enough to allow the bottom to be visually sighted.
Frequently, tank atmospheres which are, or which have been, inerted, have a blue haze which
makes it difficult to see the bottom.

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If a tank contains toxic gas then it must remain closed and any request to visually
sight the bottom refused.
When opening tank hatches or apertures, care must be taken to avoid inhaling gas. Personnel
should therefore keep their heads well away from the issuing gas and stand at right angles to the
direction of the wind. Standing immediately upwind of the ullage port might create a back eddy
of vapour towards the crewmember.
Where required, appropriate PPE must be worn by all personnel when ullaging or sampling,
particularly with toxic cargoes.
If, because the cargo to be loaded has a critical specification, it is necessary for the inspector to
enter a tank, company procedures for entering enclosed spaces must be strictly complied with.

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3.

Cargo Operations - General Procedures

3.1

Agreement with the Terminal to Commence Transfer

Before commencing any cargo transfer the Chief Officer and the terminal representative must
formally agree that both the vessel and the terminal are ready to do so.

3.2

Periodic Checks

The following periodic checks, as applicable to the vessel, shall be completed during cargo
operations:
Cargo tanks not being loaded or discharged shall be monitored at least hourly to confirm
that cargo is only transferring to or from the designated cargo tanks;
Frequent checks should be made of the deck area, manifolds (particularly that on the
offshore side), deck cargo pipework, and the pump room;
The shore side manifold must be attended at all times;
Whether alongside or at a sea berth the area around the vessel must be carefully visually
checked for any signs of pollution; at night adequate torches should be used;
The officer of watch should check tank ullages hourly and calculate a transfer rate. Cargo
figures and rates should be compared with shore figures to identify any discrepancy;
Hourly checks should, where possible, include the observation and recording of the shear
forces, bending moments, draught and trim. The results should be checked against the
loading plan to confirm that safe limits are being adhered to. Any discrepancies should be
immediately reported to the Chief Officer;
Pump casing and bearing temperatures when discharging;
Inert gas pressures and Oxygen content.
Any unexplained drop in pressures, or any marked discrepancy between tanker and terminal
estimates of quantities transferred, could indicate pipeline or hose leaks, particularly in submarine
pipelines.
In such cases cargo operations should be stopped until the cause has been
determined.

3.3

Closed Operations

It is company policy that closed operations must be conducted at all times regardless of the cargo
and whether the tanks are inerted or not. The only exception to this is when a cargo such as
Molasses, Latex, Lubricating Oil or Vegetable Oil has to be loaded over the top (overall), in which
case the company must be consulted prior to loading commencing.
For effective closed operations all apertures into the tank must be closed, including ullage,
sounding and sighting ports, tank lids, tank cleaning hatches and p/v valves.
Where cargo tanks are inerted, either from flue gas, an on-board inert gas generator, or by the
use of nitrogen from ashore, ingress of air into the tank must be avoided to prevent any part of
the atmosphere entering into the explosive range.
In order for closed operations to be carried out the closed ullaging system must be in good order
on each tank.
If closed operations are required but the vessel is unable to comply because of a failure of a part
of the fixed ullaging system the company is to be informed prior to the operation taking place.

3.4

Cargo Segregation

All valves which are not required to be open should be kept closed.

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3.4.1 Two Valve Segregation


Whenever cargo segregation is required there should, whenever possible, be at least two valve
segregation. It must be noted that a tank valve must not be considered to be one of the two
valves.
If two valve segregation cannot be achieved then the company must be informed prior to cargo
loading commencing.
3.4.2 One Valve Segregation
Where different grades of cargo have to be loaded or discharged with single valve segregation,
every effort must be made to ensure that the valve is tight before the operation commences.
This also applies to the loading or discharging of a tank separated by a single valve from an
empty tank.
Where the segregation is between two similar cargoes, such as with different crude oils, then one
valve segregation, excluding the tank valve, may be permitted. On each occasion that one valve
segregation is required the company must be informed and approval obtained prior to loading
commencing.
Loading and discharging must commence at a slow speed in order to confirm the condition of the
single valve before the normal transfer rate is assumed.
Ullage checks must be made at least every half an hour on both the tanks separated by the single
valve in order to detect any leakage at an early stage. Should there be a leak, the cargo
operation must be immediately stopped and the company contacted for advice.
3.4.3
Prevention of the Accidental Operation of Cargo System Valves
The company recommends that positive protection against the accidental opening of cargo
system valves is adopted. This might be:
The covering of cargo console remote valve operating switches with a small cover of some
sort;
The lashing of valves, such that the lashing can easily be removed.

3.5

Line Draining

3.5.1
General Procedures
On completion of cargo operations, the deck lines should be drained into an appropriate cargo
tank to ensure that thermal expansion of the contents of the lines does not cause leakage or
distortion.
Terminal hoses or arms, and possibly part of the system between the shore valve and the
manifold, will normally be drained back to the vessel. If loading, sufficient ullage must be left in
the final tanks to accept the drained product.
After discharging, lines should be drained into an appropriate tank and then discharged ashore
using the smallest bore line available. Before disconnecting terminal lines, the manifold and
shore valves should be shut and the drain cocks at the manifold opened to finally drain the lines.
The amount of cargo should be minimal if the draining back into a cargo tank has been effective.
Wherever possible, draining into the manifold savealls should be avoided, as these will have to be
cleaned before the vessel proceeds to sea. If necessary, lines should be drained into portable
containers.

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Manifolds must be securely blanked as soon as possible after disconnection of the cargo hose or
arm.
3.5.2
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Terminal
If hoses or arms have to be cleared to the terminal using compressed air or inert gas, the
following precautions should be strictly observed in order to avoid the possible creation of a
hazardous static electrical charge or mechanical damage to tanks and equipment:
The procedure to be adopted must be agreed between ship and terminal;
Ensure that the amount of compressed air or inert gas is kept to a minimum, the operation
must be stopped when the line has been cleared;
The line clearing operation must be continuously supervised by a responsible person.
3.5.3
Clearing Hoses and Loading Arms to the Ship
The clearing of hoses and loading arms to the ship using compressed air should be avoided due to
the risks of:
Static charge generation;
Compromising inert gas quality;
Over-pressurisation of tanks or pipelines;
The risk of bubbling of the cargo in full tanks and subsequent spill of cargo through p/v
valves;
Oil mists emanating from tank vents.
The pressure at the manifold and in the cargo tanks must be continuously and carefully
monitored throughout the line clearing operation. A terminal representative must be available to
immediately stop any line clearing operation.

3.6

Atmosphere Checks of Cargo and other Areas during Cargo Operations

Whenever cargo operations, including tank cleaning, might result in the accumulation of toxic gas
or hydrocarbons, the atmosphere of all areas involved must be regularly and continuously
monitored.
Provided the vapour system is operating correctly then normally there should be no
accumulations of gas. However, in some conditions, such as hot, calm weather, an adverse wind
direction, when the exhausted gas is directed back at the vessel from a quay or jetty, or there is
an external source, accumulations of gas may be detected and it is important that personnel are
not exposed above the MSDS TVL.
Such areas and compartments are:
The cargo deck, in its entirety if necessary;
Any compartment the entrance to which leads directly onto the cargo deck and which is
not normally considered an enclosed space;
The external area around the superstructure, particularly in the vicinity of ventilation fan
intakes;
Internal areas of the accommodation.
Whenever such accumulations are suspected the areas above, as required, must be checked for
the presence of a hazardous atmosphere. Checks should continue as frequently as considered
necessary.
In extreme cases consideration must be given to stopping cargo operations, and the company will
always support such a decision if the safety of personnel is being compromised.

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Accumulations of gas within the accommodation are a difficult issue. Placing the accommodation
ventilation system on full recirculation will be ineffective if sanitary and galley exhaust fans are in
operation. Fortunately such accumulations are rare because the accommodation ventilation fan
intakes are placed as far from the cargo area as possible. However, accumulations of gas within
the accommodation or engine compartment are both dangerous and hazardous to personnel and
swift action must be taken if such accumulations are detected, including considering the cessation
of cargo operations if necessary.

3.7

Checks after Completion of Cargo Operations

After the completion of cargo operations the Chief Officer should check that all valves in the cargo
system are closed, that all appropriate tank openings are closed, and that p/v valves are correctly
set.
Cargo manifolds and arms or hoses should be securely blanked after being disconnected. The
contents of portable or fixed drip trays should be transferred to the residual tank, slop tank or
other closed receptacle.

3.8

Cargo Pump Cofferdam Purging

3.8.1
General
It is important that submersible pump cofferdams are regularly purged in order to keep the
cofferdams clean and product free, and to check the tightness of the seals. Either air or nitrogen
may be used. If using air then the supply should be drained of water before being applied.
Nitrogen should always be used for low flashpoint cargoes or self-reactive products.
When compressed air or inert gas is used for purging, precautions should be taken to prevent the
build up of static and over-pressurisation.
3.8.2
Purging Cofferdams
Cargo pump cofferdams are to be purged as follows, and in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions:
Immediately before loading;
One to two days after loading;
Immediately before discharge;
Immediately after discharge.
The results, in litres or parts of a litre, should be recorded in the ECF76 - Cargo Pump
Cofferdam Purging Record. The type of content should also be recorded, as follows:
H = Hydraulic oil;
C = Cargo;
W = Water condensate.
Any leakage of cargo of up to about 1 litre per day, particularly during the operation of the cargo
pump and with lighter cargoes, should not be considered serious. However, if the leakage is
more than one litre per day then the cofferdam should be purged daily and the ECF77 - Cargo
Pump Cofferdam Purging Record - Daily should be completed. For critical cargoes, and when
the leakage rate is 2 litres per day or more, the cofferdam must be purged at least twice a day
and a pressure test and if necessary a repair carried out at the first opportunity.
Where necessary, the cofferdam should be purged with fresh water to clean it, and then with air
or nitrogen to remove the water.

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When purging cofferdams consideration must be given to the toxic or flammable effects of any
cargo that might be contained in it, and suitable protective equipment used wherever considered
necessary. Product which is collected from purging must be disposed of in accordance with the
requirements of MARPOL Annex I or Annex II.
3.8.3
Evaluation of the Purging Result
Intensify the purging if the leakage rate is exceeding acceptable limits. If this is insufficient to
keep the leak under control, consideration should be given, depending on the nature of the
product, to discharging the tank using the portable emergency pump.
Cargo leakage into the cofferdam normally indicates a damaged shaft seal. However, it may be
as a result of flange connections leaking, or damage or holing of the pipe stack.
The development of leakage into a cofferdam should be monitored and maintenance planned
accordingly.
3.8.4
Hydraulic Oil Leakage
Hydraulic oil in the cofferdam normally indicates a shaft seal leak, but again may be as a result of
flange connections leaking, or damage or holing of the pipe stack. A small rate of leakage into
the cofferdam up to about 10 ml/h (0.25 l/day) from the mechanical oil seal or lip seal during
pump operation is normal, although for short periods of time higher leakage peaks can occur.
If the leakage rate is increasing above an acceptable level, the pump must be purged a couple of
times daily and inspected as soon as possible to determine the cause. If this is insufficient to
keep the leak under control, close the hydraulic service valve and consideration should be given,
depending on the nature of the product, to discharging the tank using the portable emergency
pump.
3.8.5
Blocked Cofferdam
It is not recommended to operate a cargo pump with a blocked cofferdam. If necessary the
advice of the company or of the pump manufacturer should be sought.
The cofferdam should be pressure tested to about 3 bars to locate any leakage prior to any
dismantling of the cargo pump.

3.9

Pressure Surges

A pressure surge is generated in a pipeline system when there is an abrupt change in the rate of
flow of liquid in the line. It is most likely to occur as a result of the rapid closure of a valve. A
pressure surge may travel in one direction in a pipeline and then meet sufficient resistance that
the pressure surge reverses and travels back down the pipeline, causing significant damage at
both ends.
Pressure surges may result in a rupture of the line and subsequent pollution. It is therefore
important that valves should not be closed suddenly against the flow and all changes in valve
settings should be made slowly. Where remotely controlled valves are installed, valve closure
time should be of the order of 30 seconds.
Valve closure rates should be steady and
reproducible.
There should be awareness of the possibility of a pressure surge if there are any valves fitted
which fail-safe to the closed position.

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3.10

Pigging

3.10.1 Pre-Operation Discussion with the Terminal


Procedures for the pigging of the shoreline must be discussed and agreed with the terminal
representative at the pre-loading conference. The discussion should include the following:
The estimated amount of time required for pigging;
The total quantity the vessel should expect to receive from the shore lines;
What notification the shore will provide as to when pigging will start and stop;
Sufficient ullage must be left in the cargo tank into which the contents of the pigging are to be
received.
3.10.2 Pigging Operations
After the completion of loading the manifold valve should be closed until pigging commences. When
the terminal advises that they are ready to commence clearing lines, the duty watch officer should
personally supervise the operation of the manifold valve, which should only be opened to about a
quarter. The manifold valve must be used to regulate the tank pressure if it becomes excessive.
During the pigging operation, the terminal will monitor the pressure upstream of the pig to ensure
that it is not stuck in the line. Failure of the pig to arrive within the approximate time period may
indicate that free movement of the pig has been restricted. This could be the result of the terminal
line or vessels manifold valves being inadvertently shut or the pig encountering an obstruction in
the line hindering its travel.
There is the possibility of a large volume of compressed air or gas entering the cargo tank, with
subsequent risk of an overflow or structural damage, particularly with a full tank, and this must be
taken into account.
The following procedures must be observed during pigging to avoid cargo tank over-pressurisation:
The manifold valve should only be open about a quarter throughout the pigging operation,
and should be used to control the pressure in the receiving tank;
The pressure in the receiving tank must be constantly monitored;
Good communications must be maintained with terminal personnel so that the air or gas
supply can be shut off at any moment;
The shore hose should be observed for sudden movement, which may indicate the pigs
arrival to the ships manifold or possibly a pressure increase. The shore hose will commonly
move during pigging operations as the product and pig surge towards the vessel; however, a
violent surge or movement may indicate excess flow or pressure.
Once confirmation that the pigging operation is completed, both shore and ships valves are to be
shut and hose pressure bled off before beginning disconnection.

3.11

Loading

3.11.1 Loading Rates


SOLAS requires the Master to be provided with information on maximum permissible loading
rates for each cargo and ballast tank and, where tanks have a combined venting system, for each
group of cargo or ballast tanks. This requirement is aimed at ensuring that tanks are not over or
under pressurised by exceeding the capacity of the venting system, including any installed
secondary venting arrangements.
All vessels shall post in the Cargo Control Room the notices CCR30 - Cargo System
Maximum Loading Rates and CCR29 - Cargo System Maximum Capacities stating the

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maximum loading rate and the maximum venting capacity for each cargo tank and if necessary
each group of cargo tanks.
3.11.2 Commencing of Loading
Whenever possible, the initial flow should commence by gravity, at a slow rate and to a single
cargo tank. The shore pumps should ideally not be started until the vessel advises that cargo is
being received on board.
Manifold connections must be checked for tightness until the agreed flow rate or pressure has
been reached.
3.11.3 Maximum Cargo Tank Loading Volume
It is company policy that no cargo tank shall be loaded to more than 98% full.
The table CCR46 - Time Taken to Load from 95% to 98% Full should be accurately
completed and the table retained in the CCR Information File for reference.
3.11.4 Loading through Pump Room Lines
For those vessels fitted with cargo pump rooms, it is not good practice to load cargo utilising the
cargo lines in the pump room. Wherever possible, this should be avoided.
3.11.5 Rate of Rise of Liquid in Cargo Tanks
Small tanks such as slop tanks may have larger filling valves than their size would normally
require. To exercise control over the rate of liquid rise in such tanks the loading rates should not
exceed 150 mm/minute.
A copy of the notice Maximum Rate of Liquid Rise must be retained in the CCR Information
File.
3.11.6 Loading over the Top (Loading Overall)
Loading over the top may be required for non-volatile, non-toxic cargoes such as such as
Molasses, Latex, Lubricating Oil or Vegetable Oil. The company must be consulted and approval
to do so obtained prior to loading commencing
Volatile products, or non-volatile products at a temperature within 100C of the flashpoint must
never be loaded over the top.
Products may be loaded over the top in the following circumstances:
The temperature of a non-volatile product is more than 100C below the flashpoint;
The cargo to be loaded over the top is non-volatile and non-toxic;
The tank to be loaded is gas free;
Contamination by a volatile product cannot occur;
Prior agreement has been reached between the vessel and the terminal;
Company approval has been obtained.
The free end of the loading hose should be lashed inside the tank coaming to prevent movement.
Under no circumstances must any liquid which might contain volatile products be allowed to free
fall into a tank from a tank hatch or any other aperture which is not gas free, even if the tank is
inerted. The reason is because opening an aperture might allow the ingress of air into the tank,
however small a quantity, which might result in the atmosphere in that part of the tank entering
into the flammable range.

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3.11.7 Topping Off


Topping off presents significant risks of pollution, particularly at the completion of loading a full
cargo, unless the process is adequately managed.
Adequate warning must be given to the terminal that a reduction in rate will be required, and the
amount of warning should have been determined at the pre-cargo operation discussion with the
terminal representative.
Preparations for topping off shall commence not later than 30 minutes before the first tank is
expected to reach the 98% level. On clean product and chemical carriers topping off is a
frequent operation nevertheless these procedures must be strictly adhered to in order to
mitigate the risks of an overflow or tank pressurisation.
In order that all risks are mitigated as far as is possible, the Chief Officer shall:
Advise the terminal in good time;
Ensure the high level and overflow alarms are activated;
Ensure adequate personnel are available for continuously monitoring the level in the
tanks, and for opening and closing of valves as required;
Reduce the loading rate to a safe level, and ensure the terminal is alert and ready to shut
down cargo operations immediately if required;
Ensure that enough ullage is left to allow for any anticipated cargo expansion;
Not, under any circumstances, exceed the company maximum of any tank being 98% full;
In the event of the activation of a tank overfill alarm, unless the cause can be
immediately determined and dealt with, stop cargo operations;
Continue to monitor the ullage of tanks after they have been topped off to ensure that
cargo is not still entering the tank.
Topping off must be carried out at a cargo transfer rate which the vessel can adequately and
safely manage. The results of topping off tanks too fast are the risk of tank pressurisation and of
cargo overflow.
The actual cargo transfer rate during topping off will be dictated by the circumstances, such as
whether or not the final tanks are being topped off, or whether cargo is gradually being bled into
other tanks to reduce the rate in the tanks being topped off.
After topping off individual tanks, master valves should be shut, where possible, to provide two
valve segregation of loaded tanks.

3.12

Discharging

3.12.1 Discharge Pressure at the Manifold


Unless otherwise advised in writing the vessel must maintain a minimum discharge pressure of
not less than 7 kg/cm2 (100 psi) at the manifold throughout the discharge. However, a pressure
of 10 kg/cm2 (150 psi) at the manifold should not be exceeded.
If the vessel can pump at a higher manifold pressure than the charter-party requires and the
terminal facilities can receive at a higher rate then the discharge should be carried out at such
higher rate, not exceeding 10 kg/cm2 (150 psi) at the manifold, that the terminal can accept.
If vessel cannot complete the discharge within 24 hours or maintain a back pressure of a
minimum of 7 kg/cm2, then Columbia Operations Department and the Marine Superintendent
must be immediately informed.

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The discharge rate may be subject to the limitations imposed by the terminal and it is important
that any restriction which results in not being able to maintain a pressure at the manifold of 7
kg/cm2, or a complete discharge within 24 hours, is fully recorded and protested.
3.12.2 Operation of Pumps and Valves
The requirements of the section on Cargo Handling and Monitoring Equipment with respect to
cargo pumps should be complied with.
Throughout pumping operations abrupt changes in the transfer rate should be avoided.
Vibration levels should be monitored and the cargo pump speed should be reduced if excessive
vibration is encountered. Centrifugal pumps should be operated at speeds that do not cause
cavitation.
3.12.3 Commencement of Discharge
The rate of cargo transfer should have been agreed with the terminal prior to operations
commencing.
Discharge must commence at a slow rate until the following has been proved:
The manifold connections have been checked as being leak free;
The cargo is confirmed as being transferred from the correct tanks;
The terminal have confirmed that the cargo is being satisfactorily received;
The water around the vessel remains free of oil, using a suitably powerful light at night.
After all the above have been proved satisfactory then the discharge rate may be increased.
At an offshore terminal the amount of time required to prove that the sea lines are intact and that
cargo is being received ashore may well be significantly more than that at a shore terminal.
Whenever commencing pumping it is extremely important that the discharge from the pump is
controlled and that the pressure in the cargo lines is built up slowly. Under no circumstances
must the discharge valve on the pump be immediately fully opened, as this may result in surges
of liquid at high pressure causing damage to the pipe system at bends and blanks, with the
subsequent risk of pollution.
3.12.4
Reducing the Ullage Level at the Commencement of Discharge
Cargo tanks are often loaded to almost 98% full. Where there is an increase in cargo
temperature in transit, or where the trim changes during the initial stages of a discharge, the
level at the high high level alarm may exceed 98%, thus rendering the alarm ineffective. In such
cases any cargo ingress into the tank will not activate any high level alarm, which in turn creates
a significant pollution risk.
In order to avoid a cargo overflow in the initial stages of the cargo discharge, at the
commencement of every discharging operation the cargo level of each and every tank which is to
be discharged on a common discharge line or lines must be reduced so that it is below the level
of the 95% high level alarm, before the bulk discharge commences.
3.12.5
Vessels Fitted with Deep Well Pumps
When commencing discharge only one cargo tank discharge must be open. The discharge valves
on the rest of the cargo tanks to be discharged on a common line must be closed. The following
procedure should be followed:
When commencing discharge from the second or subsequent tanks it is extremely important that
the following is complied with:

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Start the second or subsequent cargo pump. Do not open the discharge valve,
otherwise cargo will back-flow from the common line and a spill may result;
Bring the discharge pressure of the second or subsequent pump up to, or slightly above,
the common line discharge line pressure;
Crack open the discharge valve and observe that the tank is being discharged and that
cargo is not back-flowing into it from the common line;
Gradually open the cargo pump discharge valve fully, whilst continuing to ensure that no
back-flow is occurring and the tank is actually discharging;
Closely monitor the level in the second or subsequent tank to ensure there is no cargo
ingress.

Repeat the same procedure for each cargo tank on the common line or lines.
3.12.6 Fluctuations in Discharge Rate
The discharge rate should not be substantially changed without informing the terminal.
3.12.7 Stripping and Draining of Cargo Tanks into another Tank
Whilst stripping or draining cargo into another tank, such as a slop tank, it is important to
monitor the ullage in the receiving tank and ensure that at no stage does it become more than
98% full.
3.12.8 Line Displacement with Water
The practice of using cargo pumps on a sea suction should be avoided if at all possible. However,
some terminals require the shore line contents to be displaced with water, in which case a cargo
pump will have to be used.
Due to the added risk of pollution, this practice should only be undertaken if it is essential and the
operation must be carefully planned and executed. Prior to commencing the displacement, the
ship and terminal should reach agreement on the procedures to be adopted, particularly the
amount to be pumped, and the pumping rate. Particular attention must be paid to venting the
cargo pumps and guaranteeing that no outflow of oil occurs when opening the sea valve. The
cargo pump must be running and delivery valve fully open before the sea valve is opened.
Cargo manifolds and arms or hoses should be securely blanked after being disconnected. The
contents of portable or fixed drip trays should be transferred to a slop tank or other safe
receptacle.

3.13

Stern Loading and Discharge

3.13.1 Establishing a Gas-Hazardous Area


Before berthing at a terminal where cargo operations are to be carried out over the stern, a gashazardous area extending over the entire area of the poop deck, and at least 3 metres from the
stern manifold must be established. The area must be clearly marked and the notice CCR50 Stern Cargo Operations must be posted.
Entrance into, and exit from, any doors within these areas should be avoided where possible, and
controlled if access is necessary. The notice CCR51 - Stern Cargo Operations - Door must be
placed on the inside of each door which leads onto the gas-hazardous area.
When a volatile cargo is being handled, electrical equipment in the area must be carefully
checked to ensure that it is Ex rated and fit for purpose.
3.13.2 Cargo Operations through a Stern Line
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to:

The maintaining of a watch at the stern;


The provision of fire fighting equipment;
The prevention of pollution, including the securing of all deck scuppers and the provision
of pollution clean-up equipment on the poop.

Under no circumstances are products defined as toxic in the IBC Code allowed to be loaded or
discharged through a stern line.

3.14

Use of Chemical Additives

3.14.1 General
Additives are routinely added to cargoes in an activity often described as either 'dosing' or 'doping'.
This is usually undertaken ashore in well controlled and defined conditions. There are, however,
occasions when it is necessary for this to be performed on board.
This must be considered a non-standard and potentially hazardous activity, and a risk assessment
must be carried out prior to dosing taking place.
Additives for cargoes are frequently placed on board tankers in small containers, for delivery with
the cargo. In order that these products can be stowed correctly, they should be accompanied by the
appropriate MSDS.
3.14.2 Procedure for Dosing
Dosing should normally be carried out by the terminal or cargo supplier representative. A 'cargo
dosing plan' should be drawn up, as a supplement to the Chief Officers cargo plan, by the terminal
representative and discussed and agreed with the Chief Officer.
If necessary a risk assessment should be completed and all relevant issues addressed to reduce the
risks to as low a level as reasonably practicable. These measures may require the use of additional
personal protective equipment if tank hatches have to be opened, and measures to mitigate static
risks.
If crew members are involved in the stowage and handling of the additive, they must be aware of
its hazards and handling requirements, and they must comply with the recommendations of the
MSDS. If there is no MSDS then the vessel should refuse to handle the additive and if necessary
seek company advice.

3.15

Over the Tide Cargo Operations

3.15.1 General
An over the tide operation is one where there is insufficient water for the vessel to remain afloat
at all stages of the tide.
Discharging over the tide is where the vessel is required to discharge enough cargo before
low water in order that the company minimum UKC clearance of 10% of the draft is
maintained;
Loading over the tide is where the vessel loads the final part of the cargo on a rising tide
and departs the berth either at high water or at some point after it before the UKC reduces
to 10% of the draft.
Before carrying out an over the tide operation, the company must be informed and the procedure
discussed in detail.

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Whenever a vessel is required to load or discharge a cargo over the tide, then a risk assessment
must be carried out. The risk assessment must include the provision for the vessel leaving the
berth if the actual planned operation is not proceeding according to the cargo plan in order to
avoid the vessel touching the bottom. Further, the UKC at the critical points of the operation
must be calculated and sent to the office for approval.
Terminals with draft limitations and significant tidal variations should have procedures in place if
discharging or loading over-the-tide operations are to be permitted. These procedures should be
agreed by all parties involved, prior to the arrival of the vessel. It should be noted that some
port authorities do not permit over the tide cargo operations.
In considering whether to agree to an over the tide operation, the Master must consult with the
company, and must also take the following into account:
For both loading and discharging:
Provided the planned operation goes ahead according to plan, a minimum UKC of 10% of
the draft can be maintained throughout the operation;
The information regarding the depth of the water at the berth is sufficiently reliable;
The tidal height is at least equal to that forecast at both high and low water;
The need to inform the port authorities that an over the tide operation is being carried
out;
The need to take soundings when first arriving alongside in order to check the accuracy of
the supplied or charted information;
The need to take soundings during the course of the operation to ensure that the
calculated UKC is being maintained;
The effects of squat if there is a tidal flow;
The operational condition of all equipment required to complete the operation
successfully.
And if

discharging:
The availability of deeper water off the berth, and the amount of time required to reach it;
The time the terminal will require to stop operations and disconnect cargo lines;
The availability of tugs to assist in leaving the berth if necessary;
The availability of shore watermen to let go mooring lines;
The availability of a pilot.

If at any time there is doubt that the required 10% UKC can be maintained, then the situation
must be carefully reviewed again.
If discharging then it may be necessary to evacuate the berth before the UKC reduces to 10%.
The vessel should then return after low water.
If loading then the decision is somewhat simplified, as the vessel will not have to leave the berth,
but merely stop loading at a suitable point to ensure that 10% UKC is maintained.

3.16

Open Water Ship to Ship Transfer Operations

The procedures for open water ship to ship transfer operations are now incorporated in the STS
Operations Plan (Tankers).

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4.

Cargo Heating and Cooling

4.1

Cargo Heating - General

The maximum temperature to which a coated cargo tank may be subjected to in order to avoid
excessive thermal stress or damage to the coating will be provided by the coating manufacturer.
Under no circumstances must this maximum temperature be exceeded. No cargo may be heated
above 600C without permission from the company. For those vessels with coated tanks the
maximum temperature that the coating manufacturers recommend a tank may be heated to
should be recorded on the form CCR29 - Cargo System Maximum Capacities and kept in the
CCR Information File.
Cargo heating is to be carried out strictly in accordance with the voyage orders. Over heating may
damage the cargo and will inevitably result in wasted energy. If the Master is in any doubt as to
exactly what is required he should contact the operator.
The Chief Officer should plan heating requirements, discuss the plan with the Master, and he should
liaise closely with the Chief Engineer to ensure that the cargo heating system is tested prior to
being required, there are no leaks, and will be available at the required time.
The cargo should be heated only to the temperature required in the voyage orders. Rapid changes
of temperature, which may also adversely affect the quality of the cargo, must be avoided.

4.2

Segregation of Heated Cargoes

Heated cargoes should, where possible, be stowed in blocks in order to both economise on heating,
but also to avoid the heating of other cargo which does not require it.
The following should also be complied with:
The boiling point of an unheated cargo should be at least 50C higher than the maximum
carriage temperature of an adjacent heated cargo. This restriction is not necessary when
such tanks are separated from each other by cofferdam;
In no circumstances should heated cargo be stowed adjacent to cargo which is self-reactive
unless separated from such tanks by a cofferdam. Note that heat may be transferred
through an empty cofferdam if the temperature of the heated cargo is high.
The
temperature of tanks containing a self-reactive cargo is to be closely monitored when in the
vicinity of a heated cargo;
In order to minimise the risk of the evolution of gas, a heated cargo should not to be stowed
adjacent to toxic products;
Cargoes with a melting temperature above 150C should preferably not be stowed directly
adjacent to the hull.

4.3

Monitoring Cargo Temperature

The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that whenever cargo is being heated the cargo
temperature must be monitored as frequently as necessary to ensure that it is maintained at the
right temperature, but at least daily, weather permitting. The form CCR92 - Heating Log must
be completed.
Where the heating is turned off on a cargo required to be heated, the temperature must be
monitored at least daily. Accurately calibrated closed temperature monitoring systems should be
used wherever possible. However, if hand measurement of temperature is necessary on voyage,
personnel must be aware of, and take steps to avoid, the following:
The escape of toxic gas;
The ingress of water into a tank;

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Pressure in the tank resulting in the expulsion of toxic or corrosive cargo droplets from the
aperture being used to monitor the temperature;
Injury due to the vessel shipping seas on deck in adverse weather.

PPE should be worn as required.

4.4

Heating Fuel and Crude Oil Slops

4.5

Draining Heated Cargoes

Fuel oil slops may be heated to a temperature not exceeding 60OC but crude oil slops must not be
heated above 430C as severe waxing can occur after cooling from temperatures in excess of that.

During discharge, heating should normally continue until the cargo is at the level of the coils in
order to assist with draining, but must be discontinued before the bottom coils are exposed.
It is important with heated cargoes that the tanks are stripped as dry as possible immediately
after the heating is discontinued. The number of tanks which are drained at one time should
therefore be kept to a minimum to allow an adequate degree of control.

4.6

Steam Heated Systems

Steam inlet valves must be opened very gradually to avoid rapid thermal expansion of the heating
coil and subsequent risk of damage. The return drains should be opened to allow any entrapped
water to escape on deck and then closed when steam appears.
If oil leakage is detected then the affected heating coil must be blanked off and the coil repaired
at the earliest opportunity. Wherever possible the tank loop is to be blanked off. Leakage after
heating has commenced would be indicated by a heavy consumption of water, or an unexpected
increase in a tank volume.
An indication of leakage with a steam heater system is oil on the surface on the water in the
observation tank. A few drops of oil are acceptable but any more than that and remedial action will
be required.

4.7

Other Cargo Heating Systems

Other cargo heating systems include hot water and thermal oil. They operate on the same basic
principle, although some are individual units for each tank and the cargo is circulated through a
heater by the individual tank cargo pump.
The same principles of operation with respect to the monitoring of temperatures apply.
If any part of a thermal oil heating system has been isolated for any reason, a record of which part
has been isolated should be maintained.

4.8

Cargo Cooling

No company vessel is fitted with a cargo cooling system. If cargo cooling becomes necessary for
any reason, care must be taken to ensure that the use of water will not induce a reaction with the
cargo involved. Water on deck should, under normal circumstances, not cause any problems.

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4.8.1

Methods of Cargo Cooling

4.8.1.1
Water Spraying
One of the most effective ways of cooling a cargo, particularly in hotter climates, is by spraying
sea water on the deck using hoses or hydrants. The temperature of the cargo can be quite
significantly reduced by this method providing of course that the sea temperature is lower than
that of the cargo.
4.8.1.2
Use of Heating Coils
A further method is to pass colder water through the heating coils.
Only fresh water should be used, either from the ships fresh water system or from a source such
as river water. If sea water has to be used in an emergency then the heating coils must be
thoroughly flushed afterwards.
4.8.1.3
Adjacent Ballast and Cargo Tanks
The filing of adjacent ballast or cargo tanks with water, provided the sea temperature is less than
that of the cargo, can achieve satisfactory results.

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5.

Cargo Tank Ventilation and Gas Freeing

5.1

Venting Capacity

The venting capacity of every tank is required by SOLAS to be 125% of the maximum loading
rate of that tank - the additional 25% is to allow for gas evolution. However, this allowance can
be exceeded when loading high vapour pressure cargoes, and it should be noted that vapour
growth increases when the liquid levels in the tank are above 80%.
Venting systems must allow vapours to be released to the atmosphere either:
At a low velocity, high above the deck from a vent riser; or
At high velocity from a high velocity valve closer to the deck.
Both facilitate dilution of the vapours in the atmosphere well clear of the deck. Vents are sited so
as to prevent the accumulation of an explosive atmosphere on the tank deck or around the
accommodation or engine room housings.

5.2

Primary and Secondary Venting Systems

The primary venting system will normally either be the common vapour line with a mast riser,
which is usually also the inert gas main, or on smaller vessels individual cargo tank p/v valves.
Every vessel is required to have a secondary venting system. The secondary venting system
should be completely separate from the primary system, and have the same venting capacity as
the primary system. Such secondary systems are usually either independent p/v valves on each
tank, or a cargo tank pressure monitoring system.
If the primary system is a mast riser then the secondary system will either be p/v valves or cargo
tank pressure sensors. If the primary system is p/v valves, the secondary system will invariably
be cargo tank pressure sensors.
Cargo tank vents are sited so as to avoid accumulations of gas and flammable atmospheres either
on or around the cargo tank deck, the accommodation, or the engine room. There are two basic
types of vents:
A mast riser where the gas exits the vent high above the deck at a low velocity;
Pressure vacuum valves.
The venting system must be in use during all cargo operations, and when possible during the
venting of cargo tanks. It is therefore extremely important that both the primary and secondary
venting systems are maintained in good order. If there is a failure of any part of either the
company must be immediately informed.
On occasion, particularly with chemical carriers, vapour return is required by the terminal.
Vapour recovery is discussed in more detail below.

5.3

Operation and Maintenance of the Venting System

At the commencement of any cargo operation it is important that the venting arrangements are
checked to ensure that valves and lines are correctly set and that there is nothing amiss which
might result in tank pressurisation or a vacuum developing. This is particularly important on
vessels where each tank is fitted with independent arrangements.
Mast risers should be fitted with flame screens and these should be regularly inspected at least
every 3 months to ensure that they are in good condition and have not become blocked or
partially blocked. The record ECF83 - Mast Riser Flame Screen Check should be maintained.

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There shall be a system established to control the setting of the ventilation system. The
procedure should include:
A method of recording the status of all valves and preventing them from being incorrectly
or casually operated;
Setting the valves in the correct position for each operation and monitoring that they
remain correctly set;
Restricting the operation of vent system valves to authorised personnel only.
The vapour system may be made common for those tanks carrying the same product, but must
remain completely separate under the following circumstances:
Where a different product is being carried;
Where both volatile and non-volatile cargo is being carried;
Where cross contamination of the vapour will result in contamination of any part of the
cargo;
Where some tanks are remaining empty.
However, when isolating any part of the venting system, due care must be taken to ensure that
those parts which are isolated are still connected to both primary and secondary venting systems
if cargo operations are to take place.
Care should be taken to avoid air entering those tanks which are inerted.
During freezing weather conditions it is particularly important that vent lines, valves and pressure
indicating devices are regularly checked for correct operation.
Where over or under-pressurisation of a tank is suspected immediate corrective action must be
taken. The most prudent course of action will be to stop the operation until the matter has been
satisfactorily investigated.
The cargo plan must contain clear, unambiguous operating procedures for the proper
management and control of the venting system for the Watch Officers

5.4

Prevention of Tank Over-Pressurisation and Under-Pressurisation

Over pressurisation of cargo and ballast tanks is caused by compression of the ullage space due
to the inadequate release of vapour, or by the overfilling of the tank. Under pressurisation is
caused by the failure to replace the space left by the discharge of the liquid in the tank. Over and
under pressurisation may result in serious deformation or catastrophic failure of the tank
structure which can seriously affect the structural integrity of the vessel and lead to fire,
explosion, and pollution.
The pressure in cargo tanks both during cargo operations and on sea passage must be monitored.
During cargo operations, if necessary the loading rate must be decreased to avoid overpressurisation, or the discharging rate reduced to avoid under-pressurisation.
Over and under pressurisation only occurs during cargo or ballast operations, including internal
transfer. It can be caused by the following:
Overfilling of the tank with liquid;
Carrying out operations with the tank vent line valve closed;
Mechanical failure of any part of the vent system;
Blocked flame screens;
Restrictions in the vapour and vent lines caused by wax, residues, scale or foreign objects;
Loading or ballasting at a rate which exceeds the maximum venting capacity;

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5.5

Ice forming on vents, or the freezing of p/v valves, during cold weather;
Ice on the surface of ballast.

Pressure/Vacuum Valves

Some vessels in the fleet are fitted with individual p/v valves on each cargo tank. On such
vessels the notice CCR29 Cargo System Maximum Capacities must be completed and kept
in the CCR Information File. The manufacturers instructions should detail the opening and
closing pressures.
During loading the operation of p/v valves should be monitored. If a valve shows any sign of
leakage the cause must be investigated and the leakage stopped as soon as possible.
The pressure valve of a high velocity p/v valve is designed to open at a pre-calculated pressure
which results in an exit velocity of the gas being ejected of at least 30 metres per second. The
design of the cone is such that the gas is ejected in a vertical stream upwards. There is no flame
screen fitted in the pressure valve, and it is therefore important that the valve operates correctly
in order to provide protection against the passage of flame, which travels at approximately 7
metres/second.
The valve should open smoothly, fully and instantaneously at a pre-calculated pressure, and
should fully snap shut at a second pre-calculated lower pressure. When a pressure valve is
chattering or hammering i.e. bouncing rapidly up and down, the required exit velocity of the
gas stream is not being achieved and should there be an ignition source close to the pressure
valve the possibility exists that such a source might ignite the hydrocarbons and possibly enter
the tank with disastrous consequences.
It therefore follows that this must not, under any circumstances, be allowed to happen. There
will basically be two causes of pressure valve chatter:
The loading rate is excessive and is resulting in a rapid build of pressure within the tank so
that no sooner has the valve closed than it needs to open again. This is more likely to
occur when the tank is nearly full, because of the lack of vapour space. Under these
circumstances it is likely that the designed loading rate is being exceeded, but in any case
it must be immediately reduced;
The pressure valve is either dirty or faulty, and it should therefore be investigated and
either cleaned or repaired.
Chattering of the vacuum valve of a p/v valve where the tanks are not pressurised with inert gas
is quite normal during discharging operations and is not a matter of concern.
It is important that:
The smooth operation of both the pressure and vacuum valve is manually checked prior to
any cargo operation taking place and the results recorded;
Pressure valves open completely in one movement they must not partially lift because
this will result in a significantly reduced exit velocity of the gas;
Pressure valves must snap shut and seal the vent when the tank reaches a lower predetermined pressure level. The valves must operate freely with no signs of sticking;
Where p/v valves are the primary system, during loading operations the pressure at
which each pressure valve lifts and shuts should be monitored to ensure that it complies
with design requirements;
Pressure and vacuum valves must be regularly checked for leakage during cargo
operations, and any signs of leakage must be dealt with;
The flame screens of vacuum valves must be regularly checked to ensure that they are in
good condition and intact.

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P/V valves are to be considered critical equipment the function of which needs to be continuously
controlled.
It is not permitted under any circumstances to inhibit the operation of a p/v valve on a
cargo tank or to fit any modifications of any sort.
If, during periods of heavy weather and associated rolling in a seaway, traces of product escape
from a p/v valve the company is to be informed. The matter will be reviewed in order for
corrective action to be implemented.

5.6

Cargo Tank High and Low Pressure Alarms

For cargo tank high and low pressure alarms to be effective they must be set to give warning
should the primary venting arrangement more often than not individual p/v valves fail. This
means that they must be set to operate at pressures above (for pressure valves) and below (for
vacuum valves) the design relieving pressure of those p/v valves. There will then be an alarm if
the p/v valve should fail to operate correctly.
In order to ensure that high and low pressure alarms are correctly set, the design operating
pressures of the p/v valves must be determined. These are the pressures which must be used
for the setting of the pressure and vacuum sensor alarms.
On vessels with an inert gas system and a p/v breaker on the inert gas main, the high or low
pressure alarms must be set to operate before the p/v breaker design pressure or vacuum is
reached.
5.6.1
The Setting of High Pressure Alarms
The pressure at which the high pressure alarm operates should be set to a maximum of 110% of
the design pressure of the p/v pressure valve (i.e. a maximum of 10% above the p/v pressure
valve setting) on all vessels, whether operating with tanks inerted or not.
5.6.2
The Setting of Low Pressure Alarms
On vessels fitted with an inert gas system and operating with tanks inerted, the low pressure
alarm should be set to about half the pressure that the inert gas low low pressure alarm operates
at (i.e. if the inert gas low low pressure alarm operates at 150 mmwg then the cargo tank low
pressure alarm should be set to about 75 mmwg to give warning of when the cargo tank pressure
is approaching zero). Inerted tanks must be maintained at a positive pressure at all times to
both prevent the ingress of air and the low inert gas pressure alarm shutting down the cargo
pumps.
On vessels not fitted with an inert gas system, or vessels fitted with an inert gas system but
operating with non-inerted tanks, the low pressure alarm should be set to a maximum of 110% of
the design pressure release of the p/v vacuum valve (i.e. a maximum of 10% below the vacuum
valve setting). However, if in practice it is found that at this setting the alarm constantly sounds
when discharging then a setting of greater than 10% may be used, but in no case should it be set
at more than 125% of the setting of the vacuum valve.
On those vessels which are fitted with an inert gas system but occasionally carry cargoes in noninert tanks, the vacuum setting will have to be changed as required in accordance with these
procedures.

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5.6.3
Action to be Taken if a High or Low Pressure Alarm is Activated
The sounding of a cargo tank high or low pressure alarm during cargo operations means that
there is a risk that the cargo tank may shortly approach the maximum pressure or vacuum that
the structure is designed to withstand. The risk of structural damage and all the associated risks
of explosion, pollution, cargo reaction etc. that may subsequently occur, becomes significant.
The activation of a cargo tank high or low pressure alarm must be considered as a
critical event and one which requires immediate action to be taken. Unless the cause can be
very quickly determined and dealt with, cargo operations involving that tank must be immediately
stopped until the reason for the activation of the alarms has been determined.
5.6.4
Frequent Activation of High or Low Pressure Alarms
Experience has shown that the main reason for the regular activation of high and low pressure
alarms is because of the incorrect operation of the p/v valve or the incorrect setting of the
pressure sensor. If, in practice, it is found that an alarm regularly activates during normal cargo
operations, then the first action to be taken is to ensure that the alarm settings are correct.
The pressure and vacuum at which p/v valves operate should, during normal regular equipment
checks, be monitored against the cargo tank pressure monitoring equipment readings. If it is
found that the p/v valves are not operating at the correct settings then action should be taken to
restore the original settings in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
If there is any doubt as to what action should be taken, or if the equipment is correctly set but
frequent activation of the alarms still occurs, then the company must be informed.

5.7

Vapour Recovery

Where vapour recovery is fitted the vessel will have been supplied with a Vapour Recovery
System Manual. The Chief Officer should be conversant with the existence and content of this
manual, and should follow its requirements. Should there be any errors in the manual then the
Marine Department must be informed, and action will be taken to correct it.
Where vapour recovery is fitted there will be an independent pressure alarm fitted in the vapour
return line. This must be set to operate before the p/v valve design pressures.
The USCG requires the high pressure alarm to be set to 90% of the p/v pressure valve rated
release pressure, and low pressure alarms to be set at not less than four inches wg (0.144 psig or
10 mbar) for an inerted vessel, or the lowest vacuum relief valve setting in the cargo tank
venting system for a non-inerted vessel.
(USCG Title 46Shipping, Part 39Vapour Control Systems, Subpart 39.20-Design and Equipment, Sec.
39.20-13 High and low vapour pressure protection for tank ships).

Vapour recovery systems must be tested as follows:


The entire piping system should be tested annually for tightness, applying 150 % of the
maximum operating pressure;
A record of the test must be completed on form ECF84 - Vapour Recovery System;
The piping system should be marked with the date of the test and pressure.
Prior to cargo operations utilising vapour return a discussion must be held with the terminal
representative including, but not limited to, the following:
The maximum cargo transfer rate;
The maximum permissible pressure drop in the vapour return system;
The opening pressure of a non-return valve, if fitted, which should be less than that of the
p/v valves;

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Alarm and shutdown procedures.

It should be understood by all Deck Officers that pressures within the vessels cargo tanks and
vapour line are directly influenced by any changes in the terminals system and that it is
extremely important that the pressure in the cargo tanks is closely monitored at all times when
using vapour recovery.
Drain cocks at low points in the vapour recovery system should be occasionally monitored for
liquid build up.
5.7.1
Vapour Return Manifolds
To guard against the possible misconnection of a terminal liquid loading line to the vessels
vapour manifold, the vapour connection must be clearly identified by painting the outboard one
metre section with yellow and red bands and by stencilling the word VAPOUR in black letters
upon it.
In addition, a cylindrical stud should be permanently attached to each flange face at the 12
oclock position on the flange bolt circle. The stud should project 25.4mm (1 inch) perpendicular
to the flange face, and should be 12.7mm ( inch) in diameter, in order to prevent the
connection of standard liquid transfer hoses. Vapour manifold blank flanges, inboard ends of
vapour system reducers, and vapour hoses will all have an extra hole to accommodate the stud
on the presentation flange.

5.8

Minimising Hazards from Vented Gas

Atmospheric conditions usually calm hot weather - may result in significant accumulations of
gas on deck and around the accommodation. This is a dangerous situation, particularly if
handling toxic products and if loading, consideration should be given to stopping cargo operations
until the situation improves.
Where toxic cargoes are, or have been, carried adequate precautions must be taken to protect
personnel.
5.8.1
Atmosphere Checks of Non-Cargo Spaces
Non-cargo and other compartments such as the accommodation, deck stores, service spaces,
void spaces, cofferdams etc. not served by a fixed gas detection system need only be checked by
portable analyser as and when required. If significant gas accumulations are suspected then the
areas affected must be monitored and the ECF30 - Atmosphere Check Cargo and Other
Spaces should be completed.
5.8.2
Management of Cargo Tank Pressure on Loaded Passages
During the loaded passage, particularly on crude carriers, it is likely that the cargo tank vapour
pressure will increase, and it is also likely that some of the vapour will have to be vented to
prevent the p/v valve/s lifting.
It is important that the release of the vapour is properly managed and the following must be
taken into account:
Vapour vented to the atmosphere is environmentally damaging and must be kept to a
minimum;
The more the cargo tank pressure is reduced, the more cargo vapour will be generated;
Care should be taken to ensure that during cooler periods, such as at night, sufficient
pressure remains in the system to avoid having to top up the inert gas.

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The vapour pressure in the cargo tanks must therefore be maintained at as high a level as
practicably possible, consistent with avoiding an uncontrolled release through the p/v valve/s.
Care should also be taken to avoid the release of gas into accommodation areas and the course
must be altered if necessary to avoid that.

5.9

Gas Freeing

5.9.1
General Provisions
It is generally recognised that gas freeing is one of the most hazardous of tanker operations.
There are significant risks from the toxic effect of petroleum gas during gas freeing and also the
risks of an incendive spark from electrostatic generation. It is therefore essential that the care is
exercised in all operations connected with gas freeing.
Before commencing to gas free a single tank, the tank should be isolated from other tanks. Care
should be taken when setting up a tank or tanks for gas freeing that the ventilation and inert gas
systems are closed on the tanks which are not being gas freed.
If during gas freeing at sea significant accumulations of gas are evident on deck then an
alteration of course to carry the gas away from the deck and accommodation should be
considered. If this is not possible then consideration should be given to stopping gas freeing
operations.
During gas freeing through local tank apertures, a temporary standpipe at least 2 metres in
height should be rigged where practicable to disperse vapours above deck level.
The Chief Officer must supervise all gas freeing operations and the following should be observed:
All personnel on board should be notified that gas freeing is about to begin;
Appropriate No smoking regulations should be enforced;
Instruments to be used for gas measurement should be checked in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions before starting operations;
All openings should be kept closed until actual ventilation of the individual compartment is
about to commence;
Venting of flammable gas should be by the vessels approved method. Where gas freeing
involves the escape of gas at deck level or through hatch openings, the degree of
ventilation and number of openings should be controlled to produce an exit velocity
sufficient to carry the gas clear of the deck;
Gas vent riser drains should be cleared of water, and any steam smothering connections
tested and proven satisfactory;
If the tanks to be gas freed are connected by a common venting system, each tank
should be isolated to prevent the transfer of gas to or from other tanks;
If wind conditions cause funnel sparks to fall on deck, gas freeing should be stopped;
If necessary, intakes of central air conditioning or mechanical ventilation systems should
be adjusted to prevent the entry of petroleum gas, if possible, by recirculation of air
within the spaces.
If at any time it is suspected that gas is being drawn into the accommodation, central air
conditioning and mechanical ventilation systems should be stopped and the intakes
covered or closed.

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5.9.2
Purging and Gas Freeing Multiple Tanks
When purging or gas freeing multiple tanks using the inert gas system or fixed gas freeing
equipment, the amount of time required will be significantly reduced if tanks can be purged or
vented one into the other. The most efficient method, particularly the number of tanks vented at
the same time, will vary from vessel to vessel.
5.9.3
Gas Freeing
If the cargo tank is inerted, the tank must be purged with inert gas until the hydrocarbon
concentration is 2% by volume or less. Under no circumstances must the atmosphere be
allowed to come within the flammable range at any time. Refer to the flammability
diagram in Chapter 3.
If the cargo tank is not inerted, then as soon as gas freeing is commenced some part of the tank
will immediately come with the flammable range. It is therefore extremely important that
the requirements of Chapter 4 on Static Electricity are followed.
Where flammable or toxic vapours are present, gas freeing should be carried out using the
venting system in order that the vapours are carried clear of the deck whenever possible.
Purging of inerted tanks must always be carried out through the venting system.
5.9.4
Gas Freeing in Port
In addition to the above, if it is necessary to undertake gas freeing operations in port, it should
not be carried out concurrently with cargo handling. However, if this is unavoidable there should
be close consultation with, and agreement by, the terminal or port authority.
If other craft are alongside, their personnel should also be notified and their compliance with all
appropriate safety measures should be checked.
5.9.5
Removal of H2S in Cargo Tanks in Crude Carriers
After the carriage of a crude cargo high in H2S content it may be necessary to reduce the H2S
content in the cargo tanks prior to loading the next cargo. The H2S may be removed either by
purging alone, or by a combination of either flushing the bottom and purging, or a limited bottom
wash and purging. However, before any of these methods are utilised the company should be
contacted to discuss the matter.
Usually purging will be sufficient and should be used in the first instance. Inert gas should be
introduced into the tank via the bottom cargo lines and vented through the vapour system. If
after a period of about 24 hours the H2S content has not been significantly reduced then
consideration will have to be given to either flushing the bottom of the tank with water, or to a
limited water bottom wash using fixed tank washing machines, and draining the water to a slop
tank before continuing purging.
However, with some crude oils which have a very high H2S content such initial purging will be
ineffective and a limited bottom wash will need to be used before purging.
5.9.6
Fixed Gas Freeing and Air Drying Equipment
Fixed gas freeing and drying equipment may be used to gas free more than one tank
simultaneously, but not if the system is being used to ventilate another tank in which washing is
in progress.
Such systems require the physical connection of the system to each cargo tank utilising portable
hoses. It is important that connection is only made when the tank is about to be gas freed or
dried, and that the connection is removed immediately upon completion.

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The manufacturers operating instructions must be strictly adhered to and the recommended
maintenance plan followed.
5.9.7
Portable Fans
Portable fans or blowers should only be used if they are water, hydraulically or pneumatically
driven. Their construction materials should be such that no hazard of incendiary sparking arises
if, for any reason, the impeller touches the inside of the casing.
To assist in gas freeing deep cargo tanks and tanks with deep structural members in the tank
bottom, the use of extension tubes for the fans can be effective. Where these extension tubes
incorporate synthetic materials, care should be taken to ensure that they are effectively bonded
to the ships structure.
Portable fans should be placed in such positions, and the ventilation openings so arranged, that
all parts of the tank being ventilated are equally and effectively gas freed.
Ventilation outlets should generally be as remote as possible from the fans.
Portable fans should be so connected to the deck that an effective electrical bond exists between
the fan and the deck.

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6.

Inert Gas

Columbia Inert Gas Policy MARPOL Annex I Cargoes


It is Columbia policy that:
Every vessel, regardless of size, fitted with an inert gas system and carrying an Annex I
cargo, is to operate inerted unless specifically instructed to the contrary by the company.
The following shall apply:
The Oxygen content in the cargo tanks shall not exceed 8%, or any lower limit set by
the charterer. No cargo tank may be loaded or discharged unless the Oxygen content is
8% or below;
The Oxygen content of the inert gas delivery shall not exceed 5%;
The cargo tanks must be maintained at a positive pressure at all times;
Inert gas low low pressure alarm cargo pump trips must never be over-ridden.
If the vessel is unable to maintain the cargo tanks inerted with an Oxygen content
below 8%, and at a positive pressure, the cargo operation must be stopped and the
company must be immediately informed.

6.1

General

The inert gas system is to be considered key equipment in accordance with the CCR22 - List
of Key Equipment in the CCR Information File.

6.2

Inert Gas Manual

Every tanker which operates with an inert gas system is provided with a class approved Inert
Gas System Operation Manual giving detailed instructions covering the operation and
maintenance requirements.
Officers involved in the operation and maintenance of the inert gas system must be fully
familiar with the Inert Gas System Operation Manual and the procedures and requirements
it contains. If it is considered that there any errors in, or omissions to, the manual, then the
company must be advised.

6.3

Inert Gas System Operation

Tankers fitted with an inert gas system:


Should maintain cargo tanks containing Annex I cargoes in an inert condition at all
times;
On vessels carrying solely Annex I cargoes, cargo tanks must be maintained inerted at
all times except when it is necessary for them to be gas free for inspection or work;
The Oxygen content should be maintained at not more than 8% by volume, but
preferably at 5% or less where possible;
Maintain a positive pressure in inerted cargo tanks to prevent the ingress of fresh air;
If a negative pressure develops then the system must be re-pressurised and the
atmosphere in all cargo tanks involved must be checked and if necessary purged back
down to a maximum of 8% Oxygen by volume;
The atmosphere within a tank should make the transition from the inert condition to
gas free without passing through the flammable range. In practice, this means that
before any tank is gas freed, it should be purged with inert gas until the hydrocarbon
content of the tank atmosphere is below the critical dilution line. The company requires
tanks to be purged until the hydrocarbon content is below 2% by volume in order that a

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flammable condition cannot occur. Refer to the diagram in the section Basic properties
of petroleum cargoes.
Inert gas systems shall be capable of delivering inert gas with an Oxygen content in the inert
gas main of not more than 5% by volume at any required rate of flow. The capacity of inert
gas systems should be 125% of the maximum cargo pump discharge capacity.
When using flue gas from a main or auxiliary boiler, the Oxygen level will depend upon the
quality of the combustion control and the load on the boiler, but should, nevertheless, be
below 5% Oxygen. However, decreasing the Oxygen content below 3.0% to 3.5% should be
avoided as excessive soot might be present in flue gas. Upon start up the inert gas system the
flue gas should be vented through the mast riser and checked for cleanliness prior to it being
introduced into cargo compartments.
When an independent inert gas generator is fitted, the Oxygen content can be automatically
controlled within finer limits, usually within the range of 1.5% to 2.5% by volume.
Some terminals require a maximum Oxygen content of
or less before permitting crude oil washing operations.
a level to be maintained wherever possible regardless
limitations are required, the vessel should be advised in

the inert gas in the cargo tanks at 5%


For this reason Columbia prefers such
of the terminal. Where such terminal
the pre-arrival information exchange.

Efficient scrubbing of inert gas is essential, particularly for the reduction of the Sulphur Dioxide
content. High levels of Sulphur Dioxide increase the acidic characteristic of the inert gas,
which is harmful for personnel and may cause accelerated corrosion to the tank structure.
On vessels fitted with a flue gas inert gas system, the scrubber pump, and, if not already
running, the deck seal pump, must be turned on at least six hours before the vessel arrives in
port, to prevent any soot which might have accumulated in the systems being discharged
overboard in the harbour.
6.3.1
Calibration of the Oxygen Analyser and Comparison of Readouts
Prior to being put into operation, the inert gas system Oxygen analyser should be calibrated
with Nitrogen. At that time the readouts on the Cargo Control Room and on the Bridge should
be checked to ensure that they all read the same. The record ECF24 - Analyser - Inert Gas
Oxygen Analyser Indicators should be completed on each occasion.

6.4

Management of Inert Gas Main Cargo Tank Valves

Where stop valves are fitted, they must be provided with locking arrangements, which are
usually either padlocks or key-operated securing. The keys for these locking arrangements
must be kept under the control of the Chief Officer. However, the keys should be available to
the officer in charge of the cargo operation in case of need in an emergency when the Chief
Officer is not immediately available, and they should therefore be kept in the Cargo Control
Room. The locking arrangements must be maintained in good order at all times, in case of the
need to operate the valves in an emergency.
A clear visual indication of the operational status of the valves shall be available in the Cargo
Control Room. The notice CCR43a - Operational Status of Inert Gas System Tank Valves
Wing and Centre Tanks and CCR43b - Operational Status of Inert Gas System Tank
Valves Wing Tanks Only may be used for this purpose.

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6.5

Maintaining Inert Gas Quality

Inert gas quality degradation within cargo tanks as a result of air being drawn into the tanks
due to inappropriate operation of the inert gas or cargo systems must be avoided. This may
occur, for example, by:
Failure to top up the inert gas promptly if the pressure in the system falls, for example,
due to temperature changes at night.
Prolonged opening of tank apertures for tank gauging, sampling and dipping;
The draining of a non-inert tank into an inerted slop tank, particularly if an eductor is
used.
CCR87 - Inert Gas Log in the Cargo Forms Module should be completed each time the
inert gas plant is started and stopped.
An hourly log is to be maintained should the pressure or Oxygen content recorder become out
of order. The Oxygen content of a different cargo tank should be monitored on each occasion.

6.6

Failure of the Inert Gas System

In the event that the inert gas system fails to deliver the required quality of inert gas, or
maintain a positive pressure in the cargo tanks, immediate action must be taken to prevent air
being drawn into the tanks.
If there is any doubt as to whether the inert gas system is operating correctly the cargo
operation must be suspended until the matter is resolved and the system is operating
satisfactorily. All cargo discharge must be stopped and the inert gas deck isolating valve
closed. Masters are reminded that national and local regulations may require the failure of an
inert gas system to be reported to the harbour authority or terminal operator and to the port
and flag state administrations. It is essential that the company is immediately informed of
such a failure.
In the case of crude oil tankers, it is essential that the tanks be maintained in the inerted
condition to avoid the danger of Pyrophoric Iron Sulphide ignition. If it is assessed that the
tanks cannot be maintained in an inerted condition before the inert gas system can be
repaired, then the company must be immediately informed. Consideration will be given to the
provision of an external supply of inert gas. Cargo discharge can only be resumed when the
inert gas system has been made operational, or an external supply of inert gas is provided.
In the case of product tankers, if it is considered totally impracticable to effect a repair of the
inert gas system, cargo operations may only be resumed if an external supply of inert gas is
connected, or if the precautions outlined in the section on static electricity for cargo operations
in a non-inert tank are strictly followed. However, the company must be informed prior to this
taking place.

6.7

Inert Gas Low Pressure Alarm

6.8

Management of Inert Gas on the Loaded Passage

The inert gas low pressure alarm is occasionally fitted with an over-ride device, normally a key
switch. Under no circumstances must this alarm be over-ridden. If it is over-ridden the cargo
pump automatic shut down will not operate in case of inert gas low pressure and cargo tank
under-pressurisation may result with the possibility of subsequent structural damage.

A positive pressure of inert gas should be maintained in the ullage space at all times during the
loaded passage in order to prevent the possible ingress of air. If the pressure falls below the

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low pressure alarm level the inert gas system must be operated in order to restore an
adequate pressure in the system.
Loss of pressure is normally associated with leakages from tank openings and falling air and
sea temperatures. It is important to ensure that all parts of the cargo system, including the
inert gas and venting systems, are gas tight. Gas leaks are usually easily detected, either by
their shadow in sunlight, the sound of escaping gas, or by the smell of the vapour.
Leaks that cannot be eliminated must be dealt with on the next ballast passage.

6.9

Management of Inert Gas on the Ballast Passage

6.10

Specific Flue Gas System Equipment

During the ballast passage tanks other than those required to be gas free, should remain in an
inert condition and under positive pressure to prevent the ingress of air.

6.10.1 Management of the Inert Gas Main Vent Valve


On a flue gas inert gas system, as an additional measure to prevent the accidental back-flow
of cargo vapours from the cargo side of the inert gas main, a vent valve is fitted on the inert
gas line aft of the deck seal. This valve should be opened whenever the inert gas is closed
down, and closed immediately before the inert gas is put into use. Where the inert gas is only
temporarily shut down, the valve may remain closed.
The status of the valve must be recorded on the CCR Notice CCR44 - Current Status of the
Inert Gas Main Vent Valve.
6.10.2 Deck Water Seal and Associated Non-Return Valve
The deck water seal and the non-return valve ensure that the cargo tank atmosphere cannot
leak back into the engine room or the inert gas generator. During the carriage of flammable
cargoes the deck seal water pump must be kept running in order to ensure that the seal
remains full up to the level of the weir.
It is essential that the deck seal and non-return valve are maintained in good order and the
periodic maintenance required by the planned maintenance system must be adhered to. They
must be opened regularly to inspect internal parts.
Deck water seals are fitted with heating coils and these coils must be maintained in good
working order, tested regularly and put into operation as necessary in order to prevent the
seal freezing in cold weather.
It is particularly important to ensure that non-return barriers function correctly, especially the
deck water seal or block and bleed valves so that there is no possibility of petroleum gas or
liquid petroleum passing back to the machinery spaces.
6.10.3 Pressure/Vacuum Breaker
Inert gas p/v breakers are a mechanical device designed to protect cargo tanks against
excessive pressure or vacuum. They are normally liquid filled and it is therefore important to
ensure that the correct liquid level is maintained in the breaker at all times.
The pressure and vacuum at which the breaker will operate should be determined from the
manufacturers documentation and marked on the p/v breaker casing, as well as the minimum
designed operating temperature.

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Should a p/v breaker operate whilst handling cargo then the only course of action will be to
vent the cargo tanks to reduce the pressure and then restore the liquid level. Cargo
operations must be stopped whilst the breaker is not operational.
The gauge glass and shut-off valves, where fitted, must be kept in good order so that the level
can be easily seen and checked.
The level of the liquid visible in the sight glass depends on the pressure within the cargo tanks.
The correct level of liquid in the p/v breaker at atmospheric pressure must be established and
marked on the breaker casing adjacent to the level indicator. In order to avoid requiring the
inert gas system to be depressurised each time the liquid level in the p/v breaker is checked,
p/v breakers should be marked, on the casing and adjacent to the sight glass, the level at
various pressures within the range of the sight glass length. This will vary from vessel to
vessel depending on the size and type of p/v breaker and the sight glass fitted, but 250, 500
and 750 mmwg should be appropriate.
If it is considered that the sight glass fitted is inadequate for its purpose, for example it is too
short to give indications at a suitable number of pressures, then the advice of Marine/Technical
superintendent should be sought. It should be a simple matter to fit a longer sight glass.
P/V breakers are filled with a water and glycol mixture of a density which should be defined in
the manufacturers instructions. It is important that the density of the liquid within the
breaker is both correct and regularly checked, as both the density and the level will affect the
pressure at which the breaker operates. There will normally be a tendency for the liquid to
require topping up; a reduced amount of liquid or a lower density than that for which the
breaker is designed will result in the breaker operating at a lower pressure.
When operating in sub-zero conditions it is important that the contents of the p/v breaker are
not allowed to freeze. The manufacturers instructions may define different densities for
different operating temperatures, and these instructions should be adhered to.

6.11

Inerting a Contaminated Ballast Tank

In the event of a leak of flammable cargo into a double hull space, the space should be inerted
before any further action is taken. However, the complexity of the structure in double hull and
double bottom tanks makes them much more difficult to inert than conventional tanks.
6.11.1
Development of a Procedure
A ship-specific procedure must be developed on each vessel, recorded on the form CCR27 Procedure for Dealing with a Contaminated Ballast Tank and lodged in the CCR
Information File.
The procedure must include the following, according to the type of vessel and the equipment
fitted. On all vessels:
Which openings and vents must be closed and sealed, and how to achieve it;
The arrangements for the provision of ventilation, if inert gas is not fitted;
The arrangements for the dispersal of the ventilated gas;
The pumps and lines which are to be utilised in the cleaning of a contaminated
segregated ballast tank.
And in addition on vessels fitted with an inert gas system:
How to connect the inert gas system to the tank.

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In some vessels inert gas may be designed to be supplied through the ballast tank suction, in
which case the procedure should include how the inert gas supply is to be connected to the
ballast system pipework. In other vessels a portable inerting hose is supplied which connects
the inert gas main to a connection on a ballast tank vent.
6.11.2
General Provisions
Because there may be a flammable atmosphere in certain areas within the tank it is essential
that electrostatic precautions are complied with throughout the inerting process and for 30
minutes thereafter.
In order to minimise the further transfer of hydrocarbon vapour from the cargo system to a
ballast tank, all inert gas valves must be temporarily closed. If portable hoses are used prior
to connecting them the inert gas line should be purged with inert gas and the hoses should not
be connected until required.
Once inerted the tank should be kept topped up as necessary to ensure that a positive
pressure is maintained and the Oxygen content does not exceed 8% by volume.
6.11.3
Gas Outlet Pipe
The gas outlet pipe should be positioned as far as practicable from the ventilation inlet. The
outlet should be at least two metres above the deck in order to assist in the dispersal of
hydrocarbons and each vessel should have a portable standpipe to facilitate this.
6.11.4
Ballast Tank Inerting Equipment
If the vessel is equipped with portable hoses for inerting ballast tanks, the flanges on the inert
gas main and the arrangements where the hose is connected on the individual ballast tanks
which facilitate their inerting, must be maintained in good order, with all securing
arrangements well greased and gaskets in good condition.
Flexible hoses used for inerting double hull tanks should be clearly identified, be dedicated
solely to this use, and should be properly stowed to avoid damage. The hose string should be
electrically continuous, and this should be regularly checked. The following should be checked
at 3 monthly intervals:
The condition of each inerting hose, and the continuity which should be less than 0.75
per metre;
The condition of flanges and bolts on the inert gas main and, where applicable, the
segregated ballast tanks;
The condition of the 2 metre portable stand pipe, if supplied.
The ballast tank inerting equipment should be checked at 3 monthly intervals and the ECF101
- Ballast Tank Inerting Equipment completed.
6.11.5
Ballast Tank Vents
In view of the fact that it may be necessary to inert a ballast tank at short notice if cargo
contamination has occurred, it is important that the bolts securing the vent to its stand are
free to be easily removed.
The bolts securing ballast tank vents should be checked every 6 six months, and at the same
time the vent should be serviced to ensure that, where fitted:
The internal float is free to move correctly;
Any protective screen fitted to the inlet is in good condition; and
The bolts securing the inlet cover are in good condition, well greased and free to move.
The ECF102 - Ballast Tank Vents should be completed.

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Where fitted the blanks of the flanges on the inert gas line to which the portable hose should
be connected should all be checked as free at 6 monthly intervals.

6.12 Additional Precautions for Inerting with Nitrogen

When inerting or purging with Nitrogen it is important to recognise that only one breath of
pure Nitrogen is enough to lose conscious and can be fatal;
6.12.1 Labelling of Cargo Tanks Filled with Nitrogen
The notice CCR80 - Nitrogen must be placed on the access hatch of every cargo tank which
has been purged, padded or blanketed with Nitrogen, in port and whilst carrying out cargo
operations at sea.

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7.
7.1

Crude Oil Washing


General Provisions

The purpose of crude oil washing is to remove excessive crude oil deposits from the tank
structure and bottom. There are both advantages and disadvantages. The advantages are that
less cargo remains on board after discharge, and there will also be less oil residues if a tank has
to be water washed. Disadvantages are the additional fuel consumption in carrying out crude oil
washing and the fact that when crude oil washing, particularly lighter cargoes, there will be gas
generation which will both reduce the gains made in oil recovery and increase hydrocarbon
vapour.
An increasing number of terminals are refusing to allow crude oil washing to take place because
of the issue with the generation of hydrocarbon vapour.
Crude oil washing is most frequently carried out whilst the vessel is discharging cargo, although it
may occasionally be carried out between two discharge ports in order to save time at the first.
However, crude oil washing must be completed before the vessel leaves the final discharge port.
All crude oil washing operations must be performed under the personal supervision of the Chief
Officer.

7.2

Minimum COW Requirements for Heavy Weather Ballast and Sludge


Control

MARPOL Annex I and the IMO Crude Oil Washing Systems require crude oil washing to be
carried out for both heavy weather ballast and sludge control before departure on a ballast
voyage and after the complete discharge of cargo.
When carrying out such washing a full crude oil wash must be carried out it is not sufficient
merely to complete a bottom wash.
7.2.1
Washing for Heavy Weather Ballast
The segregated ballast capacity is sufficient to comply with MARPOL Annex I in respect of
minimum draft, trim and propeller immersion requirements. However, additional ballast may
need to be taken in heavy weather and the COW Operations and Equipment Manual defines
which cargo tanks are to be used for heavy weather ballast. Such ballast should not be put into
tanks which have not been crude oil washed.
Where crude oil washing is not required by the charterer then the company requires, where
permitted by the terminal, all vessels to crude oil wash the heavy weather ballast tanks unless
the Master decides that during the forthcoming ballast voyage heavy weather sufficiently severe
to require heavy weather ballast cannot be experienced, such as for example when sailing in very
sheltered waters to the next loading port.
Such crude oil washing for heavy weather ballast must include both top and bottom washes.
Bottom washes only are not acceptable.
If the vessel is not permitted for any reason to crude oil wash in accordance with these
instructions, then the company must be immediately advised.
7.2.2
Washing for Sludge Control
Approximately one quarter of the remaining cargo tanks should be crude oil washed for sludge
control purposes on a rotational basis. However, no tank need be washed more than once every
four months.

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7.3

Crude Oil Washing Manual

Every tanker which operates with crude oil washing is provided with a Crude Oil Washing
Operations and Equipment Manual approved by the administration. The Manual is in an IMO
standard format and it describes the system fitted to the vessel and specifies operational
procedures.
Crude oil washing operations shall be performed strictly in accordance with requirements of the
Manual.
Officers involved in crude oil washing must be fully familiar with the existence of the Crude Oil
Washing Operations and Equipment Manual and the procedures and requirements it
contains. If it is considered that there are any errors in, or omissions to, the manual then the
company must be advised.

7.4

Qualifications of Personnel

The Officer in Charge of a crude oil washing operation shall:


Have at least one years experience on oil tankers where his duties have included the
discharge of cargo and associated crude oil washing; or
Where such duties have not included crude oil washing he has completed an authorised
crude oil washing training programme.
And, in addition:
Have participated in at least two crude oil washing programmes one of which shall be on
the particular ship for which he is required to undertake the responsibility of cargo
discharge; or alternatively
The above participation may be accepted if completed on a vessel that is similar in all
relevant respects.
If the Chief Officer does not have such qualifications and experience then the Master should take
charge of the operation.

7.5

Inert Gas and the Control of Vapour Discharge

Crude oil washing can only be carried out with an inert gas system which is fully operational.
Columbia requires that any tank which is to be crude oil washed must not have an Oxygen
content of more than 8%.
However, there are some terminals, particularly in Italy, which require a maximum Oxygen
content of 5% when crude oil washing and the vessel must, if necessary, purge tanks to 5%
Oxygen content prior to arrival. It is therefore prudent to maintain an Oxygen content of less
than 5% as a matter of normal practice in order to avoid having to purge cargo tanks.
Prior to washing, the Oxygen content must be measured at a point 1 metre below the deck and at
the middle of the ullage space, and must not exceed 8% by volume.
During washing, if the inert gas is in use, the Oxygen content of the delivery must be constantly
monitored in order to ensure that it does not exceed 8%, or 5% where necessary due to terminal
requirements. The Oxygen content of the delivery must be recorded. If the inert gas is not in
use then the Oxygen content of each individual cargo tank being washed must be taken at least
hourly and recorded.

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During crude oil washing significant quantities of cargo may vapourise, generating a pressure
build up of hydrocarbon vapour in the tanks. Every effort should be made to try to avoid having
to vent vapour to the atmosphere, consistent with safe operations.
Therefore the cargo tank pressure should be managed prior to crude oil washing to ensure that it
is as low as possible when crude oil washing commences, and sufficient for ensuring that if
discharging is taking place at the same time then the pressure in the cargo tanks does not fall
below 250 mmwg.
If during washing, the Oxygen level in the tank exceeds 8%, (or 5% if applicable), or the
pressure of the atmosphere in the system falls below 250 mmwg, washing must be stopped until
satisfactory conditions are restored.
The inert gas delivery Oxygen content must be recorded in CCR86 - Crude Oil Washing Log in
the Cargo Forms Module. If the inert gas is not in use then the Oxygen content of each tank
being crude oil washed must be individually taken and recorded hourly.

7.6

Precautions against Electrostatic Generation

In order to avoid excessive electrostatic generation due to the presence of water, prior to crude
oil washing, 1 metre of cargo must be discharged from the bottom of the tank to be used as the
source of crude oil.
If the source tank was used as a slop tank on the previous ballast voyage it must be completely
discharged and refilled with dry crude.

7.7

Tank Washing Machines and Lines

Only fixed tank washing machines may be used for crude oil washing. Under no circumstances
must crude oil washing be carried out with portable machines or hoses.
Before arriving in a port where it is intended to crude oil wash, the tank washing system should
be pressure tested to normal working pressure and examined for leaks. Crude oil washing is
normally carried out with a pressure of 10 kg/cm2 on the washing line; the line should therefore
be tested to 12.5 kg/cm2.
The system should be drained down after testing to avoid the risk of thermal expansion of the oil
over-pressurising the line and causing leaks. Under no circumstances must crude oil washing
take place if there is any doubt about the integrity of the COW line.
Positive displacement pumps should not be used for testing crude oil washing lines.
During testing of the crude oil washing line the valves will be closed to the washing machines and
the opportunity should be taken to detect leakage through those valves whilst the line is
pressurised.
During crude oil washing the deck must be constantly monitored to ensure that should there be a
leak it is detected in good time. If a leak develops washing is to immediately cease and must not
be resumed until the leak has been repaired. In exceptional circumstances and with the
permission of the Master, a temporary repair may be effected but such a repair must be adequate
and secure and must not permit further leakage or present any risk of pollution.

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When tanks for crude oil washing are being changed-over, the pressure in the COW line should be
reduced before any valves are opened or shut on the system, thereby minimising the potential for
damage due to surge pressure.
The notice CCR42 - COW Lines should be prominently displayed in the cargo and engine control
rooms, on the bridge and on the notice boards of ships that have crude oil washing systems fitted
to the effect that tank washing lines may contain crude oil.

7.8

Crude Oil Washing Planning

When it is required to carry out crude oil washing during cargo discharge, the Master should
inform the terminal (or when carrying out STS, the other vessel) at least 24 hours in advance
where possible. Crude oil washing should only proceed when their approval is received.
Each crude oil washing operation must be properly pre-planned. Form CCR85 - Crude Oil
Washing Programme and Check Lists in the Cargo Forms Module should be completed and
this must be supplemented as necessary by additional instructions in the Chief Officers Standing
Orders.
In planning crude oil washing, consideration should be given to trying, as far as is possible, to
carrying out the washing whilst discharging. This will assist in the control of excessive pressure
building up in the cargo tanks and the consequent risk of having to ventilate to atmosphere.
The Crude Oil Washing Check Lists contained in form CCR85 in the Cargo Forms Module
must be fully and accurately completed for each crude oil washing operation. These are:
Pre-Arrival Checks at Discharge Port;
Before Crude Oil Wash Operation;
During Crude Oil Wash Operation;
After Crude Oil Wash Operation.
7.8.1
Top and Middle Tank Washing
Top and middle tank washing may be carried out before the tank has been fully discharged.
Bottom washing should not be carried out until the tank has been drained.
In practice the only effective method to ensure that stripping is effective whilst bottom washing is
by manual dipping. If manual dipping is employed then care should be taken to avoid the release
of significant quantities of vapour.
Manual dipping is not permitted with cargoes containing H2S.

7.9

Dipping after Crude Oil Washing

Wherever possible the vapour locks should be used for dipping after crude oil washing. However,
if there is a need to dip at other points then every precaution must be taken to prevent the
escape of cargo vapours by reducing the vapour pressure in the cargo tanks.
Dipping at other points must not be carried out where the H2S content of the cargo is more than
5 ppm.

7.10

Tank Cleaning Heaters

Where the tank washing system is fitted with a heater for use when water washing, the heater
must be effectively isolated during crude oil washing either by double shut-off valves or by clearly
identifiable blanks on both the inlet and outlet sides of the heater.

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8.

Tank Cleaning

8.1

General Provisions

The Chief Officer must supervise all tank cleaning operations and must not pass control of the
operation to another Deck Officer unless he is completely satisfied that the officer understands
exactly what is required of him, and the hazards associated with what can be a dangerous
operation unless properly handled. All crew involved in tank cleaning must be fully briefed prior
to the operation commencing.
In general tank cleaning should not take place whilst cargo handling is taking place. Both before
and during tank washing operations, the Chief Officer should be satisfied that all the appropriate
precautions are being observed. If another craft is alongside, its personnel should be notified and
their compliance with all appropriate safety measures should be confirmed.
Before starting to tank wash alongside a terminal, the appropriate personnel ashore should be
consulted to ascertain that conditions on the jetty do not present a hazard and to obtain
agreement that operations can start.

8.2

Cleaning Methods

There are two basic methods of tank cleaning:


Evaporation of the residues in the tank;
Washing the tank with a suitable liquid, most often sea water using tank cleaning machines.
Each of these procedures is described in detail in the section.

8.3

Planning

Cargo tank cleaning can present a significant risk of fire or explosion, and it is therefore of the
utmost importance that any tank cleaning operation is carefully planned, managed and
documented. Potential hazards should be systematically identified, their risk assessed and
preventive measures put in place.
Before any tank cleaning operation is commenced, the Chief Officer shall prepare a detailed tankcleaning plan using form CCR88 Tank Cleaning Log in the Cargo Forms Module. A precleaning discussion should be held with all crew members involved in the tank cleaning operation.
The following items should be covered:
Which tanks should be cleaned and in which order;
What type of product is to be cleaned and the typical characteristics;
The major hazards with the product(s) to be cleaned - flammability, toxicity, reactivity
etc.;
Safety equipment and personnel protective equipment to be available and ready for use
throughout the operation and during connecting and disconnecting of hoses at the cargo
manifold;
Cleaning method to be used;
The disposal of tank washing water.
Where the tank cleaning plan is particularly complicated or unusual procedures are required then
the Marine Superintendent should be advised in order that a further opinion on the plan can be
obtained.
The recommendations of the CCR24 - Product Carrier Tank Cleaning Guide should be
followed unless instructed to the contrary by the operator.

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Each tank cleaning operation must be logged and recorded.


In planning tank washing operations, the prime risk is of fire or explosion arising from the
simultaneous presence of a flammable atmosphere and a source of ignition. The focus therefore
should be to eliminate the hazards that contribute to that risk.
Whilst the Chief Officer is responsible for all gas freeing and tank cleaning operations, detailed
work on deck may be under the control of a Deck Officer or a responsible crew member. At sea,
when the Chief Officer is not on deck, a work programme is to be available on the bridge for the
guidance of the Officer of the Watch.

8.4

Cleaning after the Carriage of Annex I Cargoes in Inerted Tanks

The company requires all tankers fitted with an inert gas system and carrying Annex I cargoes to
operate inerted unless specific instructions to the contrary and written company approval have
been given.
Before tank cleaning operations commence the Oxygen content must be determined and should
not exceed 8% by volume. The Oxygen content must be monitored and if, during washing, it
exceeds 8% by volume, washing must be stopped until satisfactory conditions are restored.
Washing must also be carried out with the tanks under positive inert gas pressure, and washing
must be stopped if this cannot be maintained.

8.5

Cleaning after the Carriage of Volatile Annex I Cargoes in Non-Inert


Tanks

A non-inert atmosphere is one in which the Oxygen content is more than 8% by volume, or
where the Oxygen content has not been determined. The cleaning of non-inert tanks after the
carriage of flammable Annex I cargoes is considered to present an increased risk and additional
control measures are required.
Before commencement of tank washing the tank bottom, piping system, including cargo pumps,
crossovers, and discharge lines should be drained and then flushed with water. The drained
cargo and the flushing water should be drained to the designated slop tank.
The tank should be ventilated to reduce the gas concentration to 10% or less of the LEL. During
washing the concentration should be monitored; if the gas concentration reaches 35% LEL or
more, washing must be stopped and the tank again ventilated to 10% LEL or less. The records of
such tests and periods of ventilation should be recorded in CCR88 Tank Cleaning Log.
Mechanical ventilation should, whenever possible, be continued during washing.
In addition to the monitoring of gas concentrations static electricity precautions must be observed
for static accumulator cargoes. If portable tank cleaning hoses are used they should be provided
with bonding wires to ensure electrical continuity. Portable washing machines should not be
introduced into the tank until the LEL level is 10% or less, and should also be connected to the
washing main before being introduced. Metallic tapes and sounding line weights should not be
used, nor should synthetic fibre ropes for ullaging or dipping. Such precautions should be clearly
indicated in the tank cleaning plan.
8.5.1
Before Washing
The following procedure must be followed:

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The tank bottom should be flushed with water, so that all parts are covered, and then
stripped. This flush should not be undertaken using the tank washing machines;
The piping system, including cargo pumps, crossovers and discharge lines, should also be
flushed with water. The flushing water should be drained to a slop tank;
The tank should be ventilated to reduce the gas concentration of the atmosphere to 10%
or less of the LFL. Gas tests must be made at various levels and due consideration should
be given to the possible existence of pockets of flammable gas;
Tank washing may only commence once the tank atmosphere reaches 10% or less of the
LFL.

8.5.2
During Washing
The following procedure must be followed:
Atmosphere testing should be frequent and taken at various levels inside the tank during
washing to monitor the LFL percentage;
Consideration should be given to the possible effect of water on the efficiency of the gas
measuring equipment and therefore to the suspension of washing in order to take
readings;
Mechanical ventilation should, whenever possible, be continued during washing and
provide a free flow of air from one end of the tank to the other;
Where concurrent mechanical ventilation is not possible, the monitoring of the tank
atmosphere should be frequent as the likelihood of rapid gas build-up is increased;
The tank atmosphere should be maintained at a level not exceeding 35% LFL. Should the
gas level reach 35% LFL at any measured location, tank washing operations in that
individual tank MUST cease immediately;
Washing may be resumed when continued ventilation has reduced and is able to maintain
the gas concentration at 10% or less of the LFL.
8.5.3
Control of Ignition Sources during Washing
In addition to the monitoring of gas concentrations, atmosphere static electricity precautions
must be observed for static accumulator cargoes.
The following procedure must be followed:
Portable tank cleaning hoses must be checked to ensure that the bonding is in good
order;
Portable washing machines must not be introduced into the tank until the LEL level is
10% or less;
All hose connections should be made, including to the washing main, before the machine
is introduced into the tank. Connections must not be broken until the machine has been
removed from the tank;
Synthetic fibre ropes or metallic tapes must not be used for ullaging, dipping or
supporting tank cleaning machines;
Sounding line weights must only be introduced through a sounding pipe reaching close to
the bottom of the tank and earthed to it;
Re-circulated wash water must not be used;
A hot wash for a low flashpoint cargo should only be used after a full cold wash has been
carried out;
Chemical additives must not be used without office permission;
The tank must be kept well drained water must not be allowed to build up;
The discharge into the slop tank must be below the level of liquid in that tank.
These precautions must be clearly indicated in the tank cleaning plan.

8.6

Washing in an Over-Rich or Undefined Atmosphere

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Columbia does not permit the washing tanks which have previously contained flammable cargoes
to be washed in an over-rich or undefined atmosphere on vessels carrying MARPOL Annex I
cargoes.

8.7

Steaming of Cargo Tanks

Occasionally tanks, particularly those with zinc coatings, can only be adequately cleaned by
steaming after the carriage of certain chemical products.
Steaming of cargo tanks can present significant risks with respect to the generation of
electrostatic charges and must under no circumstances be carried out in any compartment which
has carried an Annex 1 cargo without the company first being consulted. If steaming should be
required then the procedures for steaming cargo tanks below must be complied with.
Steaming may only be carried out in tanks that have either been inerted, or water
washed and gas freed, or where the previous cargo in the compartment was non
flammable. The concentration of flammable gas should not exceed 1% of the LFL,
measured immediately prior to steaming.
8.7.1
Steaming
To
To
To

Methods of Steaming
is carried out for several reasons:
evaporate volatile residues;
remove smell;
reduce chlorides.

If steaming is required to remove residues then the higher the temperature the better, consistent
with the manufacturers or class recommendations with respect to the maximum temperature
that the cargo tank coating may be subjected to. Such steaming is enhanced if adjacent tanks
are empty.
If steaming is utilised to remove chlorides, then the compartment bulkheads should be cool to
increase condensation in order to wash the chlorides away.
Precautions must be taken to avoid the build-up of steam pressure within the tank. A hatch or
tank lid must remain at least partially open when steaming a cargo tank. Care must also be
taken to ensure the increase in temperature in the compartment being steamed does not affect
adjacent compartments.
8.7.2
Monitoring of the Atmosphere
Steaming can produce mist clouds which may be electrostatically charged. The effects and
possible hazards from such clouds are similar to those described for the mists created by water
washing, but levels of charging are much higher. The time required to reach maximum charge
levels is also very much less. Furthermore, although a tank may be almost free of hydrocarbon
gas at the start of steaming, the heat and disturbance will often release gases and pockets of
flammability may build-up.
A record must be maintained of the monitoring of tank atmospheres during steaming and the
form ECF31 - Atmosphere Check Steaming should be used.

8.8

Ventilation

The cleaning of cargo tanks by ventilation after the carriage of Annex I cargoes must under no
circumstances be carried out without prior company approval, and after discussing the procedure
with a Marine Superintendent.

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If so approved, ventilation in accordance with the procedures below may be used to remove
cargo residues from a tank:
Prior to commencing ventilation, the bottom of the tank must be flushed with water to
remove liquid cargo residues from pump wells and suctions;
Pipework must be well drained, and further cleared of product using ventilation;
List and trim should be adjusted as necessary to enhance the evaporation of residues;
Ventilation fans which produce an air jet which can reach the tank bottom should be used;
Ventilation equipment should be placed in the tank opening closest to the tank suction well
and, where practicable, be positioned so that the air jet is directed at the tank suction
well. Impingement of the air jet on tank structural members is to be avoided as much as
possible;
Ventilation must continue until no visible liquid remains;
The atmosphere of the tank is then to be checked, and again 10 minutes after all ventilation has
stopped. If there is any evidence of the product ventilation is to be resumed.
Port authorities may also have regulations on the ventilation of cargo tanks.
Throughout any cleaning by ventilation the precautions outlined in Part A Cargo Operations
General Chapter 4 Static Electricity and Part B Cargo Operations Petroleum Chapter
5 Gas Freeing section 5.9 must be strictly adhered to.

8.9

Temperature of Tank Washing Water

8.10

Removal of Sludge, Scale and Sediment

When heated water is used for tank washing, care must be taken not to exceed the maximum
temperature of the cargo tank coating, or that of the tank cleaning equipment, whichever is the
lower. For most vessels the maximum temperature will be 600C.

Before the removal by hand of sludge, scale and sediment, the tank atmosphere must be
confirmed as safe for entry, with appropriate control measures implemented to protect the safety
and health of personnel entering the space. The company procedures with respect to enclosed
space entry must be followed, including the requirement that personnel within the compartment
must carry with them a personal analyser.
Equipment to be used for sediment removal should be constructed of materials that do not present
risk of ignition.

8.11

Tank Mopping

Whenever tank mopping has to be carried out, the company requirements with respect to enclosed
space entry must be strictly complied with, including the requirement that personnel within the
compartment must carry with them a personal analyser.
Personnel should be aware that mopping itself may cause the generation of gas with an associated
deterioration of the atmosphere within the compartment. Prior to mopping, the Chief Officer must
ensure as far as is possible that all flammable, toxic or corrosive cargo residues have been
removed from the compartment.

8.12

Cleaning of Contaminated Segregated Ballast Spaces

Where leakage has occurred from a cargo or oil fuel tank into a segregated ballast tank, it will be
necessary to clean the tank for both MARPOL compliance and to effect repairs.

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Cleaning of a contaminated segregated ballast tank is difficult because of the significant amount
of structure, particularly if the contamination is from crude or black oil.
8.12.1
Planning Cleaning of a Contaminated Segregated Ballast Tank
The cleaning of a contaminated segregated ballast tank can present a significant risk of fire or
explosion, and it is therefore of the utmost importance that any ballast tank cleaning operation is
carefully planned, managed and documented.
A risk assessment must be carried out, and potential hazards should be systematically identified,
their risk assessed and preventive measures put in place to reduce the risk to as low as possible.
The risk assessment must also address the matter of the disposal of the polluted cleaning water.
Each vessel undertaking a tank cleaning operation should prepare a detailed tank cleaning plan
with a full description of the washing process and such safety precautions as are deemed
necessary. Each tank cleaning operation must be logged and recorded. The cleaning plan must
include the procedure for the disposal of the cleaning water, including a description of which
valves and lines are to be used.
In planning tank washing operations, the prime risk is of fire or explosion arising from the
simultaneous presence of a flammable atmosphere and a source of ignition. The focus therefore
should be to eliminate one or more of the hazards that contribute to that risk.
As far as possible, tank cleaning, particularly in the initial stages, should be carried out by
methods other than hand hosing. Such methods may include, but not be limited to, the use of
portable machines and detergents.
Hand hosing should only be permitted for small areas of contamination or for final cleaning.
Whichever method is used, the tank washings must always be handled in accordance with
MARPOL regulations. Where detergents have been used care must be taken if the water base is
decanted to ensure that the detergent can be disposed of overboard.
After the contamination of a segregated ballast tank, pockets of gas must always be suspected
regardless of the amount of washing and ventilation. The most stringent precautions, including a
risk assessment, must be made prior to entry. The company enclosed space entry procedures
should be closely followed.
8.12.2
Vessels Fitted with an Inert Gas System
The tank should be purged with inert gas until the Oxygen content is less than 8% and the
provisions of the section in this Chapter Cleaning after the Carriage of Annex I Cargoes in
Inerted Tanks complied with.
The inert gas supply should be maintained throughout the cleaning operation in order to ensure
that the atmosphere in any part of the tank does not come within an explosive range.
8.12.3
Vessels Not Fitted with an Inert Gas System
If the vessel is not fitted with an inert gas system, and the contamination is by a volatile product,
then cleaning will have to be carried out in accordance with the procedure above for tank washing
in a non-inert atmosphere, except that it will not be necessary flush the tank bottom and
pipework.

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9.

Sampling and Ullaging

9.1

Sampling - General Provisions

The purpose of sampling is to be able to demonstrate at a later date the condition and quality of
the cargo at key stages of the loading operation, and prior to discharge. Unless an adequate
selection of samples is available the vessel will not be able to present a defence against
accusations of contamination. Failure to take a full set of samples will prejudice the companys
case that any contamination was not caused on board.
Samples will generally be taken jointly by the vessel and the shippers representative, who should
then provide sealed samples for both the receiver and the vessel. If the representative does not
supply samples for the vessels own retention, then the Master should request him to do so.
Cargo surveyors must be offered full co-operation in completing their work. They must be
accompanied by an officer or a competent senior rating. Unsafe practices must not be permitted
and the company requirements with respect to vapour release must be complied with.
Open sampling is not permitted without a risk assessment having been completed,
submitted to the company and their approval obtained. Refer to section 9.4
Occasionally the company will employ an independent organisation to take samples both of the
shore tanks and the vessels tanks in order to protect the companys interests.
9.1.1
Responsibility
The Chief Officer is responsible for ensuring that apart from any samples placed on board for
handing on to shippers or taken by shippers for their own tests, a full set of cargo samples is
taken, labelled, adequately stored, recorded, and disposed of in accordance with company
requirements, for retention by the ship, for use in the event of a dispute over cargo quality.
9.1.2
General Procedures
Where the same shore line or loading arm or hose is used for two products it is important that a
manifold sample is taken immediately upon commencement of loading the second parcel. The
draining of the line by the terminal may not have been sufficient to prevent the residues of the
first product putting the second off-specification. It cannot be over-emphasised that the sample
must be taken immediately loading is resumed a few seconds later and the sample will be of no
value.
Samples should be taken as follows:
At the manifold at the start of loading each grade immediately the cargo starts to arrive.
This is the time when any contamination is most likely to be detected;
A second manifold sample should be taken after about 5 minutes of loading;
Additional manifold samples must be taken after any interruption in loading, a change of
shore tank, or any other circumstance where cargo contamination may be suspected;
Immediately upon commencement of loading a second product through the same line as
another product was loaded;
Bottom, or first foot samples, when there is between 30 to 50 cms of cargo in the tank;
Upon completion of loading, composite samples 1 metre from the top, 1 metre from the
bottom, and the middle of each tank;
Immediately before discharge, composite samples 1 metre from the top, 1 metre from the
bottom, and the middle of each tank;
At the manifold at the commencement of discharge.
Samples should be taken whenever possible in conjunction with the shippers, charterers or
receivers representative. The shippers and the vessels samples must be thoroughly mixed to
ensure that both are the same.
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If the shippers, charterers, or receivers representative refuses to participate in sampling at any


time then a Letter of Protest must be issued. The Chief Officer must nevertheless continue and
take samples for the owners purposes whether or not the shippers, charterers or receivers
representative participates.
The Chief Officer must visually inspect each sample and if there is any reason to suspect from
such a visual inspection that the cargo may be contaminated or is otherwise not within
specification, the master must immediately notify the office to seek advice. In particular if any
apparent problem is visible in the manifold samples taken at loading the master must seek
instructions from the office before signing Bills of Lading or authorising agents to sign Bills of
Lading.
9.1.3
Sample Containers
Only appropriate glass sample containers should be used for the storage of samples. Containers
should be obtained from the cargo surveyors or from the terminal. They must be spotlessly clean
and must have an adequate method of sealing.
The use of plastic containers for samples should be avoided.
9.1.4
Crude Oil Carriers
On crude carriers composite samples are usually taken by the shippers, charterers or receivers
representative and a single container is given to the vessel.
If samples are not taken by the shore then the vessel should not take any further action.

9.2

Failure of First Foot Samples

If the first foot sample fails, the vessel must not agree to add more cargo in order to dilute any
suspected contamination without the operators being advised first and their approval to do so
being obtained.
Cargo testing methods are now extremely accurate and any contamination can be readily
detected regardless of the concentration. The receiver may then decline to accept the product at
the discharge port.

9.3

Storage and Disposal of Cargo Samples

Cargo tank samples will indicate whether the cargo quality has been preserved during the
passage, and any samples taken during loading must be retained.
9.3.1
Labelling Samples
All samples must be fully labelled with the following:
The name of the vessel;
The port of loading;
The seal number, if any;
The name of the product;
The date and time the sample was taken;
The tank number or manifold from which the sample was taken;
The sample type first foot, top, middle, bottom etc.;
The names and company of those who witnessed the sample being taken;
Any particular hazards associated with the product, such toxicity, flammability, and
incompatibility with other products;

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The date the sample must be retained to (normally 12 months from the date the sample
was taken).

Material Safety Data Sheets must be retained on board for the period the samples are retained
on board.
9.3.2
Sample Lockers
Cargo samples must be safely stowed in such a way that they cannot be damaged either in heavy
weather, or accidentally by personnel working in the area in which they are stowed.
Non-toxic petroleum samples may be stowed in the paint locker provided the fire-fighting
arrangements comply with SOLAS requirements.
The stowage for samples whether on deck or in the paint locker should be:
Cell-divided in order to avoid shifting of the bottles at sea;
Constructed of stainless steel, including the cell divisions;
Equipped with adequate ventilation arrangements.
9.3.3
Retention and Disposal of Samples
Samples should be retained for twelve months or, in cases where there is a cargo quality dispute,
until instructed by the company to dispose of the samples. If there is no claim against the vessel
with respect to cargo quality after a twelve month period has lapsed, the samples are to be
disposed of in accordance with the following procedures. In all cases care must be taken that if
mixing of products occurs, they are compatible.
When samples are no longer required they should be disposed of either to the vessels residual or
slop tank, but only if the slop tank already contains slops and they are compatible, or a terminals
waste oil system, via the terminal representative. Alternatively, samples may be disposed of via
the local agents;
The Chief Officer shall keep a record of all samples which are taken and stored on board. The
form ECF41 - Cargo Sample Log must be maintained. When a cargo sample is landed ashore a
receipt should be obtained and the form ECF42 - Cargo Sample Disposal completed.
Whenever samples are disposed of, the product and estimated quantity should be recorded in an
Oil Record Book as follows:
Petroleum cargo samples in Section O of the Oil Record Book Part 2;
Bunker samples in Section I of the Oil Record Book Part 1.
If the receivers have made a claim then the company will instruct the vessel either to land their
samples ashore or retain them on board, duly labelled, until further advice is received from the
company.
Where there are secure company approved reception facilities available for the storage of
samples the vessel may land them in order to reduce the amount of samples stored on board, but
they must be clearly labelled as to how long they should be retained for.

9.4

Control of the Release of Vapour during Gauging and Sampling

9.4.1
General Procedures
Sampling is a potentially hazardous operation. The extraction, storage and disposal of samples
should always be performed having regard to the possible inflammable, toxic or noxious
properties of the products.

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Release of vapour from the cargo tank ullage space during measurement and sampling operations
should be prevented by the use of closed gauging and sampling equipment. Closed gauging or
sampling should be undertaken using the fixed gauging system or by using portable equipment
passed through a vapour lock. Such equipment will enable ullages, temperatures, water cuts and
interface measurements to be obtained with a minimum of cargo vapours being released.
When using vapour locks, the valves should not be opened until the instrument is properly
attached to the standpipe.
If it is considered essential to obtain clean samples for quality purposes, the use of closed
sampling equipment may cause cross contamination of product samples and where this is the
case, the terminal representative may request to undertake open sampling. It may also on
occasion not be possible to undertake closed gauging or sampling in which case open gauging or
sampling will need to be employed. This will involve the use of equipment passed into the tank
via a port or hatch and crew members may as a consequence be exposed to concentrations of
cargo vapour. As cargo compartments may be in a pressurised condition, the opening of vapour
lock valves, ullage ports, hatches or covers and the controlled release of any pressure should be
undertaken only under the supervision of the Chief Officer.
When measuring or sampling, care must be taken to avoid inhaling gas. Personnel engaged in
measuring or sampling should therefore keep their heads well away from the issuing gas and
stand at right angles to the direction of the wind. Standing immediately upwind of the ullage port
might create a back eddy of vapour towards the crew member.
Under normal circumstances open sampling is not permitted. However, should a terminal insist
on it, open sampling can be accepted as a non-routine activity, providing a risk assessment is
completed and company approval to perform open sampling is obtained. A Letter of Protest must
be issued to the terminal in this regard.
When open gauging procedures are being employed, the tank opening should only be uncovered
long enough to complete the operation.
9.4.2
Measuring and Sampling Inerted Tanks
Ships equipped with a vapour lock on each cargo tank can measure and sample cargo without
reducing the inert gas pressure. Care should be taken to ensure that there is no blow-back of
vapour.
When it is necessary to reduce the pressure in any tank for the purposes of measuring and
sampling, the following precautions should be taken:
A minimum positive inert gas pressure should be maintained during measurement and
sampling;
Care should therefore be taken to avoid standing in the path of vented gas during
measurement and sampling;
Only one access point should be opened at a time and for as short a period as possible;
Measuring and sampling which require the inert gas pressure to be reduced and cargo
tank access points opened, should not be conducted during mooring and unmooring
operations or while tugs are alongside;
The inert gas pressure must be topped up before cargo operations commence or resume.
If the vessel is at anchor or moored in an open roadstead, any swell may result in the tanks
breathing. To minimise this risk, care should be taken to maintain sufficient positive pressure
within the tank being measured or sampled.

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If it is necessary to sound the tanks when approaching the completion of discharge, the inert gas
pressure can again be reduced to a minimum safe operational level to permit sounding through
sighting ports or sounding pipes. Care should be taken to avoid the ingress of air or an excessive
release of inert gas.
9.4.3 Measuring and Sampling Non-Inerted Tanks
There is a possibility of electrostatic discharges whenever equipment is lowered into non-inerted
cargo tanks containing static accumulator cargoes. The discharges may come from charges on
the equipment itself or charges already present in the tank, such as in the liquid contents, or in
water or oil mists. If there is any possibility of the presence of a flammable mixture of
hydrocarbon gas and air mixture, precautions must be taken to avoid incendive discharges
throughout the system.
Precautions are necessary to deal with two distinct types of hazard:
The introduction of equipment that may act as a spark promoter into a tank that already
contains charged materials;
The introduction of a charged object into a tank.
Each requires different mitigation measures and relevant precautions against electrostatic
hazards when ullaging and sampling non-Inerted tanks must be taken. These are fully discussed
in the section on Static Electricity, and state that whenever UTI tapes or sampling devices are
used with vapour locks the tape must be bonded to the vapour lock.
Bonding may be achieved in two ways:
The UTI tape may be of a design which incorporates internal bonding;
An external bonding wire may be supplied which should be properly connected before the
tape or sampler is introduced into the tank.
Where internal bonding is provided the continuity of such internal bonding must be checked at
periods in accordance with the manufacturers instructions but in any case at intervals not
exceeding 6 months. The results must be recorded.

9.5

Ullaging

9.5.1
Failure of the Fixed Tank Level Gauging System
Fixed tank level gauging equipment is considered critical equipment and any failure must be
immediately reported to the company. It is imperative that measures are taken to repair
defective equipment at the earliest opportunity.
9.5.1.1
During Loading
In the event of a failure of the fixed tank level gauging system during loading, portable gauging
equipment may be used, subject to any closed or restricted gauging requirements, but only
closed gauging with UTI tapes on vapour locks. All vessels in the fleet are fitted with full-depth
sounding pipes below the vapour locks.
The bonding wire of the UTI tapes must be correctly attached to the vapour lock, unless the tapes
are of a type with internal bonding fitted.
9.5.1.2
During Discharging
In the event of a failure of the fixed tank level gauging system during discharging, closed ullaging
through vapour locks utilising UTI tapes should be used.

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9.6

Vapour Locks and UTI Tapes

9.6.1
Number of UTI Tapes to be Carried
Every vessel fitted with a remote ullaging system shall carry at least two UTI tapes as back-up in
case of failure of the ullaging system.
Vessels shall be equipped with at least one closed sampler.
9.6.2
General Provisions
Vapour locks allow the ullaging and sampling of cargoes with the minimum release of cargo into
the atmosphere. All vessels should have a special purpose cap to fit onto vapour locks or other
measuring apertures in order that the atmosphere within the tank can be determined using an
analyser without gas escaping.
Certificates of calibration should be provided for each instrument upon delivery to the vessel.
9.6.3
Calibration of UTI Tapes
There is no requirement for the regular shore calibration of UTI tapes. However, the temperature
sensor of each UTI tape must be checked against a reference thermometer annually. The
reference thermometer must itself be calibrated ashore on an annual basis. Therefore if a UTI
tape is used as a reference thermometer, it must be calibrated ashore annually. The calibrations
and checks of UTI tapes must be recorded in the record ECF63 - UTI Tape Condition and
Bonding.
It should be noted that the temperature calibration curve is stored in the UTI sensor and it cannot
be modified. Any unit which is found to be inaccurate should be returned for service to an
approved service organisation.
9.6.4
Use and Maintenance of UTI Tapes
The Chief Officer is responsible for the maintenance and care of vapour locks and UTI tapes, but
may delegate this responsibility to an experienced crew member.
The Chief Officer shall ensure that following is complied with:
Always clean the unit after use, inside and out. This will prolong the life of the tape,
especially when measuring chemical products. Warm water & soap are sufficient for this
task. The tape, sensor and electronic display are the most fragile components of the
instrument;
Never walk with the sensor in one hand and the chassis of the unit in the other, leaving
the tape in a loop;
Where external bonding is fitted, this must be in good condition. If the cable or clip are
damaged, the instrument must be removed from service;
Never let the sensor free fall to the bottom of a tank. This will result in damage to the
sensor;
Always check the unit away from the deck area before using it;
The protective rubber switch caps must be kept in good condition. If the caps are not
sealing correctly water will enter the unit and the electronics will be damaged;
Each instrument should be checked in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
Records of checking and maintenance of UTI tapes must be maintained in the record ECF63 UTI Tape Condition and Bonding.

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9.7

Interface Detector

MARPOL Annex I Regulation 15(3)(b) requires every tanker to have on board an effective
oil/water interface detector.
Interface detectors should be checked at least every 3 months for condition and satisfactory
operation and the record ECF64 - UTI Interface Tape maintained.
There is no requirement for a shore calibration of interface tapes. According to MEPC.5(XIII) 3.6 the interface tapes should be calibrated on board in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions.
If the interface detector is not operating correctly it should be repaired or replaced.

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10.

Cargo and Ballast Handling and Monitoring Equipment

10.1

Emergency Stops

Columbia Shipmanagement does not permit the overriding of safety devices, trips and
alarms during normal operations.
Where an overriding switch is operated by a key, the key must be kept under the control of the
Chief Officer. The Masters permission must be obtained before any safety device or trip is
overridden.

10.2

Records of Equipment Tests and Checks

The Equipment Check File (Tankers) contains a series of records which should be completed
according to the schedule in the front of the file. The purpose of these records is to:
Provide a record of what equipment requires checks and maintenance;
Provide brief notes on what checks and maintenance should be carried out, and at what
periods;
Ensure that the requirements of the CDI SIR and SIRE VIQ are complied with;
Provide a quick reference for inspectors during such inspections.
It is therefore important that the checks are carried out when due, and that the check lists and
records, as applicable to the vessel type, are fully and correctly completed.
Chief Officers should record all equipment defects on the forms, and the action taken to rectify
them. Continuous use of satisfactory or ok should be avoided a brief explanation of the
condition of equipment is significantly more useful.
The planned maintenance system should also be updated as necessary.

10.3 Portable Submersible (Emergency) Cargo Pump


Portable submersible pumps are provided on those vessels fitted with submerged pumps for
discharging a tank in the event of failure of the cargo pump. The pumps are normally
hydraulically driven and are lowered directly into the tank generally through a hatch.
In the case of failure of a submerged pump the company must be informed prior to using an
emergency pump. The terminal should also be informed.
In view of the fact that it is likely that the cargo will either be volatile, toxic, or both, safety
precautions will have to be carefully evaluated and implemented when using a portable cargo
pump. These precautions should include the completion of a risk assessment. The number of
personnel involved in rigging the emergency pump must be kept to a minimum, and they must
use appropriate protective equipment, including full chemical suits if necessary.
When introducing an emergency cargo pump into a tank it is important that static electricity
precautions are observed.
The portable emergency cargo pump must be stored in a secure location and all the equipment
required for its operation, including any lifting and deployment equipment, stored with it. The
portable emergency cargo pump is to be considered critical equipment and included in the Critical
Equipment List. It should be tested at least once every six months to ensure that it is ready for
immediate service if required, and the record ECF61 - Emergency Cargo Pump maintained.
The equipment necessary for its operation must also be checked, including the hydraulic drive
connections on the main deck hydraulic line and that required for lifting and deploying the pump.

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The emergency cargo pump discharge hose should be pressure tested annually to 150% of the
maximum working pressure. The maximum working pressure is the maximum pressure the
pump normally operates to. It is NOT the design pressure which will be higher.

10.4

Cargo and Ballast Pump Operation

10.4.1
Starting and Stopping Pumps
Whenever a cargo pump is started, the pump room and deck area are to be checked to ensure
that there are no cargo leaks.
When dealing with centrifugal pumps the duty engineer should, if necessary, be given adequate
notice of starting or stopping cargo pumps. The pump casing may require to be vented of air or
gas and primed full of liquid before starting the pump. Centrifugal pumps must be started
against a closed discharge valve, and once the pump is turning the valve should be opened
gradually as the pump is brought slowly up to the desired operating speed.
Cargo pumps should be stopped without any load on the prime mover. If the tank has been
drained then the load will be minimal, if there is still liquid in the pump then the discharge valve
should be shut to minimise the load. Before stopping steam turbine pumps the engine room
must be informed.
10.4.2
Emergency Stopping of Pumps
In an emergency the stopping of cargo pumps must be able to be carried out without delay,
which is the reason for the regular testing to ensure that emergency stops are operational.
All personnel involved in the cargo operations must be aware of the location of cargo pump
emergency stops.
Regular testing of the emergency trips must be carried out, and recorded in ECF60 - Cargo
Pump Emergency Stops.
The automatic cargo pump shut down in case of an Inert Gas Low Low Pressure alarm must under
no circumstances be overridden. The automatic shut down prevents the cargo tanks from
continuing to be discharged if the event that the inert gas pressure drops below a minimum safe
level.
10.4.3
Overloading Pumps
Overloading is usually caused where there is a very low back pressure and the pump speed is
incorrectly increased in an effort to increase the manifold pressure. This often achieves little in
volumetric throughput, but the effect on turbine prime movers may be a substantial increase of
torque which in turn may result in damage.
To avoid damage the pump must always be operated within the manufacturers designed
permissible operational limits. This should be achieved by the careful use of throttling of the
pump discharge valve to create an imposed discharge head.
All pumps should be started with closed or partially open discharge valves to avoid immediate
overloading. This is most critical with diesel and electrically driven pumps; with turbine driven
pumps the speed of the pump is gradually increased in a controlled fashion.
Particular problems of overloading can occur with ballast pumps. If the pumps are used to fill
double bottoms from empty, or to empty top wing tanks from full, then the pumps can easily be
overloaded, causing damage to the prime mover and other components. Careful manipulation of

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the pump discharge throttle valves is necessary with these pumps. Double bottom tanks should
only be filled from empty by gravity, and similarly top wing tanks should be emptied from full by
gravity to pumping level.
10.4.4
Cargo Pump Under Loading
Under loading is a problem with high back pressures from the shore facility. It results in
overheating of pump casings and damage to pump components due to the energy developed by
the pump mover being converted into heat rather than in pumping the cargo. Pump balance is at
its most critical when high back pressure from the shore facility is experienced.
10.4.5
Pump Characteristic Diagrams
The manufacturers Pump Characteristic Diagrams show the pump operational parameters,
including volumetric output against rpm, discharge head, power, steam consumption, etc., and
allow the operator to ensure that a pump is not overloaded.
Each type of pump will have its own characteristic diagram and the form CCR26 - Cargo Pump
Performance Curves must be completed for each type of cargo or ballast pump on board. A
copy should be posted in the Cargo Control Room and a copy retained in the CCR Information
File.
10.4.6
Balancing Discharging Using More Than One Pump
When more than one pump is discharging to a common shore line it is essential that the pumps
are correctly balanced in order to avoid over or under loading.
Balancing the pumps is best achieved by the monitoring of the pump discharge pressures, since
pumps are usually not fitted with remote indicators in the Cargo Control Room to show whether
the pump non return valves are open, and consequently each pump is actually pumping cargo.
The rpm in itself cannot be relied upon, as different pumps may be operating with different
suction pressures. It is therefore important that the pump discharge pressure gauges and
transmitters are working correctly and are properly calibrated at all times.
During the balance process the pumps should be monitored locally to ensure that heating of
casings is not occurring; if it is then swift action should be taken to prevent a pump shutdown by
one of the safety devices.
If this balancing is correctly achieved it can be assumed that each pump will be delivering its own
proportion of the total volume of cargo being delivered ashore, and therefore a check can be
made to ensure that the pumps are operating within their characteristic envelopes. If this is not
the case then the pump discharge throttle valves should be adjusted until the discharge pressure
on the pump is correctly within design limits.
Occasionally the use of an additional pump achieves little improvement in the discharge rate and
the increased costs in fuel consumption running the additional pump and the additional wear and
tear are not justified. When the decision is made to increase the number of pumps in use on a
common line then the discharge rate should be monitored to determine whether or not any
significant increase is being achieved.
10.4.7
Electrically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
The manufacturers instructions with respect to the maintenance of electrically driven cargo
pumps must be complied with.
In particular, the electrical continuity must be regularly checked and the electrical cabling, local
pump stop and start switches and cable glands should be inspected before each cargo operation.

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10.4.8
Hydraulically Driven Deep Well Cargo Pumps
The manufacturers instructions with respect to the maintenance of electrically driven cargo
pumps must be complied with.
The cofferdam purging routines in Chapter 10.8 must be strictly followed.
The cargo pump hydraulic tank should only be maintained at a level adequate to run the pumps,
with a small reserve. Less oil in the tank will result in less oil on deck in case of a failure in any
part of the system, and thus less environmental risk.
It is important that the pressure and temperature of the hydraulic system is monitored and
recorded hourly.

10.5

Remote Ullaging System

Calibration checks of the ullaging system are of the utmost important to charterers.
A
comparison should be made monthly between the remote ullaging system and the reference
height.
The reference height is as follows:
For a radar gauge it is the reading when the tank is empty;
For a float gauge it is the reading when the float is in the grounded position, and on top of
the valve;
For systems using pressure sensor technology, the calibration check of the reference
height is usually carried out by resetting the system to zero at ambient air pressure.
Calibration checks, as well as the testing of alarm settings, are about demonstrating with
documented records that instrument readings are reliable and remain stable through time.
When local and remote readings are available all readings should be reported in the records.
Calibration check records must always include the reading of the reference instrument.
Where there is a difference of 1 cm or more, the remote ullaging system is to be corrected in
accordance with the manufacturers instructions.
A comparison of a level gauge against a manual tape reading is not sufficiently accurate and is
not accepted by clients. Such a method always generates measurement errors:
It is comparing different types of measurement systems with different physical and
technical characteristics;
The measuring points are taken at different position on the cargo tank, requiring a reading
correction;
Measurements are carried out in loaded or part-loaded tanks and therefore list, trim and
cargo movement induces measurement errors;
Measurements are generally carried out when the tanks are full; the measured distance
being small, any reading discrepancy between the tape and the level gauge is therefore
not conclusive (for example a 3 cm difference in reading on a 1.5 metre ullage is 2%).
The record ECF53 - Remote Ullaging System should be maintained.

10.6

High Level and Overfill Alarms

For various reasons much reliance is placed on fixed closed gauging systems. It is therefore
important that high level and overfill alarm systems are fully operational. The alarms should
provide audible and visual indication.

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Under normal operations, the cargo tank should not be filled higher than the level at which the
overfill alarm is set. Individual high level and overfill alarms must be tested at the tank to ensure
their proper operation prior to each cargo operation, unless the system is provided with an
electronic self-testing capability which monitors the condition of the alarm circuitry and sensor
and confirms the instruments set point.
Tank high level and overfill alarms must be switched on and operational during all cargo
operations, including:
Loading;
Discharging;
Tank cleaning into a slop tank.
The high level alarm should be set to approximately 95%, and the overfill alarm must not be set
higher than 98%.
High level and overfill alarms must be properly set and tested according to the manufacturers
instructions prior to each cargo operation, whether loading or discharging or at least once per
month, whichever occurs first. The form ECF52 - High Level and Overfill Alarms must be
completed on each occasion. 95% high level alarms can also be checked each time a cargo tank
is loaded to that level.

10.7

Fixed Temperature Measuring Equipment

Cargo tank fixed temperature measuring readouts must be compared against a UTI tape
thermometer at least every 6 months. The UTI tape must itself have been checked against a
reference thermometer immediately beforehand. If more than one readout per tank is fitted, the
checks should preferably be carried out when the temperature throughout the tank is essentially
uniform.
Records must be maintained of each temperature sensor in each cargo tank. Recording the
average temperature is not sufficient, nor is a statement to the effect that checks have been
carried out the individual temperatures must be recorded. In addition, if there are remote
readouts in more than one location, for example the cargo control room and the bridge, then the
readouts for each location must be recorded.
The record ECF54 Remote Temperature Measuring System should be maintained.

10.8

Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System and Alarms

10.8.1
Cargo Tank Pressure Monitoring System
A comparison should be made at 3 monthly intervals between the remote pressure system and
the pressure obtained from the reference pressure gauge. Where there is a difference of 10
mbars or more, the remote pressure system should be reset or recalibrated in accordance with
the manufacturers instructions. Records must show the reading of the reference pressure gauge
and each individual cargo tank pressure readout. The checks should be carried out when the
cargo tanks are under positive pressure checks should not be carried out with the tanks at zero
pressure. In addition, if there are remote readouts in more than one location, for example the
cargo control room and the bridge, then the readouts for each location must be recorded.
The record ECF50 - Remote Pressure Monitoring System should be maintained.

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10.8.2
Cargo Tank High Pressure Alarms
Cargo tank high pressure alarms are designed to give warning when the primary venting system
has not operated correctly and to warn of a danger of over or under-pressurising a tank.
The setting and operation of cargo tank pressure alarms is fully described in the section on tank
ventilation.
Cargo tank pressure alarms, where fitted, should be tested in accordance with the manufacturers
instructions at least every 6 months, provided the manufacturer has issued such instructions.
The record ECF51 High and Low Pressure Alarms should be maintained.
If the manufacturer has not provided instructions then it may prove difficult to test the operation
of the alarm, but nevertheless the pressure alarms should be tested if possible.
10.8.3
Spare Cargo Tank Pressure Alarm Sensors
Cargo tank pressure alarms are considered to be critical equipment and it is strongly
recommended that each vessel should carry a two spare cargo tank pressure alarm sensors.

10.9

Manifolds

10.9.1
Flange Connections
The flange faces, gaskets and seals of all manifold connections, whether used or not, should be
maintained in good condition and clean. Whenever a cargo or bunker line is connected to a
manifold by bolts, all bolt holes must be used.
At the commencement of cargo operations, connections must be checked to ensure that there is
no leakage.
All bolts must be long enough to extend through both flanges, and right through the nut.
Toothed washers should be used in order to provide electrical continuity.
10.9.2
Blanks
Blanks on cargo, bunker and other oil service manifolds should be of the same thickness as the
flanges to which they are attached. Larger, heavy blanks should either be fitted with lifting
handles or should be hinged.
All mild steel blanks fitted to manifolds, regardless of the service, must be regularly maintained,
the bolts kept free to remove easily, the flanges greased and the gaskets replaced as necessary.
Such maintenance is unnecessary with stainless steel cargo manifold flanges and blanks, such as
those fitted on chemical tankers, and grease should not be applied as this may lead to cargo
contamination. Nevertheless, the securing bolts must be moved regularly to ensure that they
remain free, the flanges checked for cleanliness and the gaskets for condition.
10.9.3
Removal of Blank Flanges
Precautions should be taken to ensure that, prior to the removal of blanks the section between
the last valve and blank is not pressurised it is prudent to assume that the section of line is
pressurised. Drain plugs and valves should be opened and the bottom bolts should be loosened
first to release any pressure downwards.
If hazardous products might be present, suitable protective equipment must be used, including, if
toxic cargoes products are suspected, full chemical protective suits. Decontamination showers
must be pressurised, tested and in all aspects ready for use prior to the removal of blank flanges.
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Precautions must also be taken to prevent any spillage should there be any oil present.
10.9.4
Reducers
Reducers and spools should be made of steel and be fitted with flanges that conform to ANSI
B16.5, Class 150 or equivalent. Ordinary cast iron must not be used.
Prior to arrival at a terminal there should be an exchange of information with the terminal as to
the size of manifold connection required and the vessel should fit appropriate reducers.
It is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to keep a record of which reducers are on board, and to
ensure that they are maintained in good condition. Each reducer must be numbered in order that
it can be readily and easily identified. The flanges of all cargo reducers on board must be kept
clean and well greased.
10.9.5
Manifold Savealls
Permanent savealls, marked with the capacity, must be provided under each manifold connection.
The savealls should be kept clean and dry. There should be means to quickly and easily transfer
any spilled liquid from the saveall to a slop or residual tank, preferably by a hard-piped
connection and dedicated, permanently rigged spill pump.
Any cargo spillages must be drained at the earliest opportunity, but in any case before the vessel
sails from the port, in order to avoid any possibility of pollution overside.
On chemical tankers, and subject to compliance with MARPOL Annex II, the contents of
manifold savealls may be disposed of overside.
If the height of a manifold saveall is 2 metres or more above the deck, a portable guard rail must
be fitted around the perimeter to provide protection for personnel working on the saveall. Only
the sections required for the deployment of cargo hoses or arms should be removed during cargo
operations, the remainder should remain in place. The guardrail should be removed whilst the
vessel is at sea.
10.9.6
Pressure Gauge Cocks and Drains
Each manifold should be fitted with a valved connection for fitting a pressure gauge and with a
drain. Drains must either be fitted with double valves or a valve and a cap.
In addition to pressure gauges being fitted on each discharge manifold outboard of the manifold
valve, pressure gauges must also be fitted to the same crossover on the opposite side to that
from which discharge is taking place. There should be no pressure being indicated on these
gauges at the commencement of discharge. The gauges must be regularly monitored throughout
the cargo operation and if at any time pressure begins to build then leakage must be suspected.
This can be caused either by sediment or particles preventing a proper seal, or by damage to the
seal itself. The cause must be investigated and rectified as soon as possible.
All cargo system manifold pressure gauges should be calibrated annually. Gauges should read to
within +/- 10% of the reference pressure gauge, and should be disposed of if there is a greater
error. The record ECF55 - Manifold Pressure Gauges must be maintained.
10.9.7
Gaskets
Each vessel must maintain sufficient stocks of gaskets for all manifolds and reducers on board. It
is the responsibility of the Chief Officer to ensure that gaskets are of the correct type for the
service.

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Chemical tankers are required to carry various different types of gaskets for the various cargoes
carried.
Gaskets must be stored so that they are not subject to damage. They must be clearly marked as
to their service in order that an incorrect gasket is not used where specific gaskets are required.
Upon completion of cargo operations, gaskets must be visually checked to ensure they remain in
good condition. Where there is doubt about the condition of a gasket it should be disposed of.

10.10 Testing of Cargo Lines, Vapour Lines and Heating Coils


Whenever work, including testing, is carried out on pipework, a Work Permit must be
completed.
10.10.1 Cargo and Ballast Lines
The condition and integrity of cargo and ballast system pipework can be affected by several
factors, amongst which are:
Erosion caused by turbulence in the flow, which is often the result of poor pipe system
design;
The regular use of excessive flow rates;
The effects of hogging and sagging, particularly in the centre areas of the vessel;
Abrasion caused by solids within a cargo;
Corrosion, particularly in lines used occasionally for sea water service;
The handling of aggressive cargoes, such as spiked crude oils and chemicals, which can
damage pipework.
Defects in piping systems can be detected by periodic testing.
Each cargo line should be sequentially numbered or colour coded to aid identification.
10.10.2 Testing the Discharge Side of Cargo Piping Systems
The discharge side of the cargo piping system should be pressure tested annually, using cargo
pumps, to 150% of the maximum working pressure. The maximum working pressure is the
maximum pressure the vessel normally operates to. It is NOT the design pressure which will be
higher - i.e. if maximum working pressure is 150 psi it will require an annual test to 225 psi.
The lines should be marked with the date of the test and the test pressure.
Positive displacement pumps should not be used for conducting cargo and crude oil wash line
pressure tests.
At the same time as the cargo lines are pressure tested, they should, where practicable, be
visually inspected as far as possible, with particular attention being paid to the condition of:
The coating, and any areas of corrosion, particularly the underside of the pipework at
stands;
The flange nuts and bolts;
VJ couplings, and the underside plugs;
Retaining brackets and U-bolts;
Bulkhead penetrations.
The record ECF70 - Cargo System Pipework should be maintained. The record must also
include full details of the results of the visual inspection, including any areas of concern.

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10.10.3 Testing of Bottom Cargo Lines


Cargo lines on the suction side of the system should normally be subject to a maximum pressure
of about 4 bars (60 psi). The suction side of the cargo piping system should therefore be
pressure tested to 125% of this pressure - i.e. up to about 5 bars (70 psi) annually, using a cargo
pump.
The record ECF70 - Cargo System Pipework should be maintained.
Cargo system valves will be tested at the same time as the cargo pipelines.
10.10.4 Testing of Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces and Reducers
Each portable bend, distance piece, Y piece and reducer must be individually identified and is to
be tested at the same time as the cargo discharge pipework is tested and to the same pressure.
Each unit is to be marked with the date of test and test pressure. They should also be visually
inspected for signs of corrosion, particularly internally.
If there is any doubt about the integrity of a reducer or distance piece then it must be withdrawn
from service and either replaced or repaired in accordance with instructions from a Technical
Superintendent.
The record ECF70a - Cargo System Portable Bends, Distance Pieces, Y Pieces and
Reducers should be maintained.
10.10.5 Testing of Ballast Lines and Valves
Ballast lines should normally be subject to a maximum pressure of about 4 bars (60 psi). The
ballast lines and valves should be pressure tested to 125% of this pressure i.e. up to about 5 bars
(70 psi) annually, using a ballast pump.
The most effective way to test ballast tank lines is during the 12 monthly ballast tank inspection
routine. The ballast lines should be pressurised throughout the tank inspections and any leakage
noted and immediately dealt with.
The records ECF103 - Ballast System Pipework and ECF104 Ballast System Valves
Check should be maintained.
Ballast

tanks vents should be dismantled every 6 months to ensure that, where fitted:
The internal float is free to move correctly;
Any protective screen fitted to the inlet is in good condition;
The bolts securing the inlet cover are in good condition and well greased;
The bolts securing the vent head to the deck flange are in good condition and well greased.

Record ECF102 Ballast tank Vents is to be completed.


10.10.6 Vapour Lines
Cargo tank ventilation pipework can normally only be visually inspected or checked for leakage
during cargo operations. Such checks should be carried out at least every six months, and the
record ECF74 - Cargo Tank Ventilation Pipework should be maintained.
10.10.7 Annual Cargo System Vapour Test
Each vessel must carry out an annual vapour tightness test of the cargo system. There are two
methods by which a vapour test may be carried out.

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10.10.7.1 Vessels Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System


The test should be carried out when carrying a homogenous cargo to allow the whole vapour
system to be tested as one unit. Form ECF85 Cargo System Vapour Test.
The procedure is as follows:
Fit an accurate pressure gauge to a suitable cock on the vapour system. It must be
possible to read the gauge to the nearest whole millibar;
Pressurise all cargo tanks with inert gas to not less than 1 psi, but to a pressure less than
the lowest relief valve pressure setting;
Stop the inert gas supply and close the delivery valve;
Note the pressure reading P1;
After 30 minutes note the pressure reading again P2;
Record the difference in pressure: DP = P1 P2, and convert to inchwg.
Note:

1
1
1
1

psi = 70 mbars = 0.07 bars = 700 mmwg = 6.895 KPa


mbar = 0.3937 inchwg = 0.0145 psi = 0.1 KPa = 10.2 mmwg
inchwg = 25.4 mmwg = 2.5 mbars = 0.036 psi
mmwg = 0.039 inchwg = 0.098 mbars = 0.0001 psi

Calculate the Maximum Allowable Pressure Change (DPM) using the formula:
DPM = 0.861 x P1 x L / V
Where: P1 = The pressure in the tank when the gas source is shut off in psi;
L = The maximum permitted loading rate of the vessel, in bbls/hr;
V = The total volume of the cargo tanks, in bbls.
If DP < DPM, then the vessel can be considered vapour tight;
If DP > DPM, then the vessel is not vapour tight and the source of the leak must be identified,
dealt with, and the vessel then tested once again for vapour tightness.
10.10.7.2 Vessels Not Fitted with a Flue Gas Inert Gas System
This procedure applies to vessels not fitted with an inert gas system, and to vessels fitted a
nitrogen generator inert gas system. It is not possible on these vessels to adopt the method
detailed above.
In order to carry out a check of the vapour tightness of the cargo system, it will be necessary to
carry out a leak test. The test will also have to be carried out whilst loading a cargo to which a
hydrocarbon analyser will be sensitive. It is very unlikely that all cargo tanks and all parts of the
cargo system will be able to be checked at the same time. However, all the area and equipment
above all compartments must be checked at least annually.
The external areas of each compartment and its associated equipment should be checked after
the level 80% and during the final 20% loading of each compartment. The procedure is to check
all hatches, apertures, flanges on vapour and cargo lines, vapour locks, valve stems and drain
cocks and valves with a hydrocarbon analyser.
Should a leak be detected then it should be dealt with. If the precise location of leak cannot be
determined then the use of soapy water should be considered. Bubbles will form at the leak.
Form ECF85a - Cargo System Vapour Test Non IG must be completed on each occasion a
leak test is carried out.

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10.10.8 Mast Riser


The mast riser flame screen is to be visually inspected every 3 months. It should be clean, in
good order, and correctly fitted. Should there be any damage then the screen should be
replaced. The record ECF83 - Mast Riser Flame Screen should be maintained.
10.10.9 Heating Coils
Heating coils must be tested as follows:
Before each use;
After repairs have been carried out;
When changing from a dirty to a clean cargo;
When changing from a low flash point cargo.
Where heating coils are not used for cargo heating they must be tested at least once every 12
months. The record ECF75 - Cargo Tank Heating Coils should be maintained.

10.11 Emergency Hydraulic Valve Hand Pump


For those fitted with an emergency hand pump, the equipment should be checked at 3 monthly
intervals for correct operation and the record ECF62 - Emergency Hydraulic Valve Hand Pump
should be maintained.
It is essential that this pump is maintained in good order in case of failure of the hydraulic valve
system. The hand pump is considered critical equipment.

10.12 Portable Cargo Hoses


10.12.1 General
Oil cargo hose should conform to recognised standard specifications, as laid down by a national
authority, such as the British Standards Institution. The hose should be of a grade and type
suitable for the service and operating conditions in which it is to be used.
10.12.2 Number of Cargo Hoses to be Carried
Where vessels are required by the company or charterer to carry portable cargo hoses, these are
normally either 4 or 6 and 6 metres in length. All types of hose may be supplied as either
electrically continuous or electrically discontinuous.
Hose is classified according to its rated pressure and this pressure should not be exceeded in
service. Hoses for which the rated pressure has been exceeded must be removed and re-tested
before further use. A record should be kept of the service history of each hose.
10.12.3 Marking
Each length of hose should be marked by the manufacturer with:
The manufacturer's name or trademark;
Identification with the standard specification for manufacture;
Factory test pressure;
Month and year of manufacture;
Manufacturer's serial number;
Indication that the hose is electrically continuous or electrically discontinuous.
This is often not the case and the Chief Officer must ensure that each hose when it is received on
board is permanently marked with:
An individual sequential number;
Its rated working pressure;
After each pressure test, the date of the test;
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The maximum cargo temperature for which it is rated.

Hoses to be used for the transfer of Propylene Oxide must be marked For Alkylene Oxide
Transfer Only in accordance with the IBC Code.
The certificate of manufacture must be retained, and it is important that a record is maintained of
the service history of each hose.
10.12.4 Inspection Prior to Each Use
Each length of cargo hose should be visually checked for condition prior to being put into use. If
there is any doubt about the condition then the hose should not be used until it has been proved
to be satisfactory by a more detailed examination and pressure test according to the guidelines
below.
10.12.5 Annual Inspection
Cargo hoses in service should be thoroughly inspected at least annually to confirm their suitability
for continued use. The inspection should include:
A thorough visual check of the hose for deterioration or damage.
This includes
irregularities in the outside diameter such as caused by kinking, deformation of the
external casing wire, or damage to the casing;
A visual examination of the end fittings to ensure that there is no slippage or
misalignment;
A hydrostatic pressure test according to the instructions below;
An electrical continuity test.
If there is any evidence of leakage, slippage of the end flanges, kinking, damage to the casing,
distortion or displacement of the wire binding, or any other significant damage, the hose must be
retired from use and immediately marked to identify the fact that it has been withdrawn from
service. Certification and records must be updated. The hose should then be landed for service
and the service agency will determine whether it is to be repaired or disposed of.
10.12.6 Pressure Testing
Cargo hoses should be hydrostatically tested at least annually to check their integrity. They must
also be tested whenever there is cause for concern about their condition. Testing intervals should
be shortened for hoses continually in use, handling particularly aggressive products, or products
at elevated temperatures.
The procedure for testing a cargo hose is as follows:
Lay out the hose straight on level supports which allow free movement of the hose when
the test pressure is applied;
Blank the hose at each end. One blank to be fitted with a valve to allow the release of air
and also a connection for the hose to be filled with water and the pressure test applied;
Measure and record the length of the hose before pressure is applied;
Lay the hose flat but with one end higher than the rest of the hose and fill fully with water;
Pressurise the hose to the rated working pressure. The method of applying the required
pressure may vary from vessel to vessel and may be a high pressure device such as a
Graco pump or by another method;
Hold the pressure for at least 5 minutes and check for leaks, distortion, or movement of
the end fittings;
Re-measure and record the length whilst the hose is still under pressure;
Increase the pressure to 150% of the rated working pressure and recheck for leaks,
distortion or movement of the end fittings;
Conduct an electrical continuity test;
Release the pressure, drain the hose and recheck the electrical continuity;

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Visually check the hose internally for signs of blisters, bulges or separation of the lining.

If, whilst under test pressure, a hose exhibits significant distortion, it should either be scrapped or
landed ashore to be checked by a service agency. If excessive elongation is noted, again the
hose should be landed to be checked by a service agency. Excessive elongation should be
considered to be 5% more than the unpressurised length.
The company does not have a withdrawal policy for cargo hoses, as most are rarely used. As
long as the hose continues to pass the pressure test procedure then it may continue to be used.
The record ECF73 Portable Cargo Hose Pressure and Integrity must be completed on each
occasion of inspection and testing.
10.12.7 Electrical Insulation when Using Hose Strings
When using flexible hose strings, either an electrically discontinuous hose (a hose without
bonding), or an insulating flange must be used. If an electrically discontinuous hose is used, all
other hoses in the hose string should be electrically bonded.
Electrically discontinuous hose should have a resistance of not less than 25,000 ohms measured
between the end flanges. The testing of electrically discontinuous hoses should be carried out
using a 500V tester in a non-gas hazardous area.
Electrically continuous hoses (bonded hoses) should not have a resistance higher than 0.75
ohms/meter measured between the end flanges.
10.12.8 Extended Storage
New hoses in storage before use, or hoses removed from service for a period of two months or
more, should, as far as practicable, be kept in a cool, dark, dry store in which air can circulate
freely. They should be drained and washed out with fresh water and laid out horizontally on solid
supports spaced when stored to keep the hose as straight as possible and with no small radius
bends. No oil should be allowed to come into contact with the outside of the hose.
If a hose is stored outside, it is preferable to provide protection from sunlight.
10.12.9 Hose Handling, Lifting and Suspending
Hoses should always be handled with care and should not be dragged over a surface or rolled in a
manner that twists the body of the hose. They should not be allowed to come into contact with a
hot surface such as a steam pipe. Protection should be provided at any point where chafing or
rubbing can occur.
Where hose are suspended from lifting equipment, adequate protection for the hose must be
provided to prevent kinking. Wires in direct contact with the hose cover are not permitted.
Hoses should not be lifted at a single point with ends hanging down, but should be supported at a
number of places so that they are not bent to a radius less than that recommended by the
manufacturer.

10.13 Vapour Hoses


Each vapour hose must be individually marked to allow for identification.
Vapour hoses should be visually checked for condition at least every 6 months. If there is any
doubt as to the integrity of a vapour hose it should be removed from service and pressure tested
to at least 150% of its maximum rated pressure.

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The record ECF120 - Cargo Vapour Hose should be maintained.

10.14 Pressure/Vacuum Valves

Cargo tank pressure vacuum valves must be checked for satisfactory operation prior to each use by
manually lifting the cone and vacuum breaker.
Planned maintenance procedures must be followed and records kept of all maintenance and test
activities. Each p/v valve is to be dismantled, thoroughly cleaned and checked for correct
operation at least once every six months and the record ECF81 - P/V Valve Cleaning and
Operation maintained.
At the same time the vacuum valve should also be disassembled and both it and the flame screen
checked for condition and satisfactory operation. The record ECF82 - P/V Valve Flame Screens
should be maintained.
For vessels fitted with cargo tank pressure monitoring it is a relatively simple job to check the
pressures at which the p/v valve operates. Where there are significant differences between the
actual release pressure and the designed release pressure, the cause must be investigated.
It is preferable if p/v valves are serviced ashore at each repair period.

10.15 Inert Gas System


The maintenance of the inert gas system is fully covered by the planned maintenance system.

10.16 Tank Cleaning Equipment


The Chief Officer is responsible for the maintenance and care of tank cleaning equipment. He
shall ensure that any maintenance which is required is carried out in accordance with the planned
maintenance system and the manufacturers instructions.
10.16.1 Fixed Tank Cleaning Machines
When tank cleaning using fixed tank washing machines it is essential that at the commencement
of washing and at periodical intervals during washing each machine is checked to ensure that it is
operating correctly.
The following instructions apply to fixed tank washing machines:
The manufacturers operating instructions must be strictly adhered to, including the
maximum pressure to which the machines may be subjected;
The manufacturers recommended maintenance and lubricating intervals for drive units
must be complied with;
The performance of each individual machine should be monitored and parts replaced when
required to ensure optimum performance;
A stock of critical spare parts is to be maintained on board. The level of stock required will
depend largely on experience with the particular type of equipment and usage rate of
parts.
10.16.2 Portable Tank Cleaning Machines and Hoses
When using portable tank cleaning machines the company instructions with respect to their use in
flammable atmospheres, bonding and the testing of continuity must be strictly adhered to. The
maximum working pressure of portable tank cleaning hoses must not be exceeded.
The continuity of tank cleaning hoses must be checked at least every 6 months, but at least
monthly if they are in continuous use. The record ECF80 - Tank Cleaning Hose Condition and

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Continuity should be maintained. Hoses should be checked in a dry condition and in no case
should the resistance exceed 6 ohms per metre length.
Portable tank cleaning hoses must always be used and stored so as to avoid kinks and damage to
the couplings.
10.16.3 Tank Cleaning Pump and Heat Exchanger
The following instructions apply to tank cleaning pumps and heat exchangers:
The manufacturers operating instructions must be strictly adhered to;
The manufacturers recommended maintenance procedures must be complied with,
including de-scaling of the heat exchanger as required;
The performance should be monitored, taking into account the sea water temperature,
pressure and flow, steam pressure and washing water output temperature and parts
replaced when required to ensure optimum performance;
A stock of critical spare parts is to be maintained on board. The level of stock required will
depend largely on experience with the particular type of machine and usage rate of parts.

10.17 Other Portable Equipment


Other equipment such as portable gas freeing fans, ejectors, barrel pumps, diaphragm pumps,
high pressure spraying equipment, air, water and steam hoses should be properly stored when
not in use, and maintained or serviced as applicable in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.
The records ECF65 - Portable Ventilation Fans, and ECF66 - Portable Thermometers
should be maintained.

10.18 International Ship to Shore Connection

The purpose of the International Ship to Shore Connection is to enable the connection of differing
fire fighting line connections, either between a vessel and a terminal, or between two vessels.
The flanges of the International Ship to Shore Connection on the vessel, and that of the terminal
or other vessel, are bolted together. The vessels International Ship to Shore Connection is
connected to the vessels fire main by fire hoses. Similarly, the connection from the terminal or
other vessel is connected to their fire service line or fire main by fire hoses with their type of
connection. All personnel must be familiar with how an International Ship to Shore Connection
should be connected.
Each connection should consist of:
A flange, fitted on one side with the same hose connection as the vessels fire main;
Four bolts, 16mm in diameter, 50mm in length, with four 16mm nuts;
Eight washers;
One gasket;
A spanner suitable for the size of nuts and bolts.
The International Ship to Shore Connection must be available for immediate use, at a position
close to the gangway, whilst the vessel is alongside a terminal or another vessel, and must be
clearly marked.
Note: The requirements for International Ship to Shore Connections are contained in the FSS Code,
Chapter 2.

The International Ship to Shore Connection should be checked at least every 3 months and the
record ECF67 - International Ship to Shore Connection Check should be maintained.

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DECK and CARGO


OPERATIONS
MANUAL
Part C
Cargo Operations
Chemical

Part C - Chemical Section


DCO (Tankers) - Cargo Operations

1st January 2009

Page 1 of 1

1.

Cargo Related Hazards

1.1

Hazard awareness

Chemical carriers handle a large number of different noxious substances, each with their own
characteristics and inherent hazards. Further, a number of different products are often carried at
the same time, products which may react with one another. It is therefore important that all
personnel who are involved in cargo operations, or who may come into contact with a product
such as if required to deal with a spill, are fully conversant with any hazards that may be
encountered.

1.2

Exposure Limits

The toxic hazards to which personnel are exposed in tanker operations arise almost entirely from
exposure to gases of various kinds. With chemical carriers exposure to toxic chemical vapours
can have an extremely damaging effect.
The term TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) is used. Because they are averages, TWAs assume
short-term excursions above the TLV-TWA that are not sufficiently high to cause injury to health
and are therefore compensated by equivalent excursions below the TLV-TWA during the
conventional 8-hour working day.
It is the responsibility of the Master and the Chief Officer to ensure that the crew are made aware
of any work situation concerning operations involving toxic substances that may impose a risk to
their health. They should be informed of any relevant safety precautions prior to cargo
operations.
1.2.1
Threshold Limit Value
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) is the airborne concentration of a substance under which it is
believed that most workers may be exposed day after day with no adverse effect. TLVs are
advisory exposure guidelines, not legal standards, and are based on industrial experience.
There are three different types of TLV:
Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) - The airborne concentration of a toxic substance
averaged over an 8 hour period, usually expressed in ppm;
Short Term Exposure Limit (TLV-STEL) - The airborne concentration of a toxic
substance averaged over any 15 minute period, usually expressed in ppm;
Ceiling (TLV-C) - The concentration that should not be exceeded during any part of the
working exposure.
1.2.2
Monitoring Atmosphere Quality
During cargo operations involving products which have harmful properties the Chief Officer must
verify the effectiveness of the closed loading system in order to ensure that concentrations of
vapour around the working area are minimised.
This will involve surveys to determine the potential for exposure of personnel to vapour, and to
ascertain whether there are significant vapour concentrations when loading, discharging and tank
cleaning. Spot checks of the cargo area, associated compartments and if necessary the area
around the accommodation should be made to ensure that TLV-TWAs are not being exceeded. If
so action will be required to be taken and personal protective equipment should be worn by
personnel working on deck. If there is a significant concentration around the accommodation
block consideration must be given to stopping cargo operations.
During the loading, carriage and after the discharge of chemical products, the presence of vapour
should always be suspected in enclosed spaces for the following reasons:

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1.3

Cargo may have leaked into compartments, including pump rooms, cofferdams,
permanent ballast tanks and other tanks adjacent to those that have carried cargo;
Cargo residues may remain on the internal surfaces of tanks, even after cleaning and
ventilation;
Residues may remain in cargo or ballast pipelines and pumps;
Vapour might transfer from one tank to another through the vapour return line system.
Only tanks containing the same product should be connected to a common vapour line tanks not in use or containing other products should never be connected to a common
vapour system;
Cargo vapours may be present in compartments within the cargo area;
Sludge, sediment or scale in a tank that has been declared gas free may give off further
vapour if disturbed or subjected to a rise in temperature.

Nitrogen

Nitrogen is lighter than both air and inert gas. It is an extremely dangerous gas because it
cannot be detected by human senses. It is not toxic, but one single breath of pure, or almost
pure Nitrogen, can cause immediate death. One deep breath of 100% Nitrogen can be fatal.
100% Nitrogen will displace Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen completely and, in the absence of a
Carbon Dioxide signal to the brain, the stimulus to breathe no longer exists. Breathing is
stimulated and controlled by the Carbon Dioxide present in the lungs. As the Carbon Dioxide
level increases, the brain sends a message to increase respiration. When the Carbon Dioxide
level drops, the rate of respiration will also decrease in order to maintain the proper balance.
Immediate death results, even when the person has been removed from the source and is in
clean air.
Where a tank has been inerted with Nitrogen, the notice CCR80 - Nitrogen must be placed on
the tank access hatch, and on each other aperture which is opened, throughout the time the tank
remains inerted with Nitrogen whilst in port and when carrying out cargo operations at sea.
Care must be taken when opening the lids and hatches of a tank which has been inerted with
Nitrogen. Only the Master may give permission for any tank aperture to be opened on a tank
which has been inerted, padded or purged with Nitrogen.

1.4

Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide (CO) may be present in a cargo tank after the carriage of Vegetable Oil. Large
concentrations may be found in tanks which are in the final stages of discharge and particularly
where heating has continued to the end.
It is sinister in its attack, which is to restrict Oxygen uptake by the blood, causing a chemically
induced form of asphyxiation. It is toxic by inhalation, can cause serious damage to health by
prolonged exposure, and high concentrations can prove fatal. The maximum exposure level to
CO over an 8 hour period is 30 ppm, although for short term exposure not exceeding 15 minutes
concentrations of up to 200 ppm can be allowed.
The atmosphere must be continuously checked for the presence of Carbon Monoxide whilst
personnel are in cargo tanks carrying out squeezing operations.

1.5

Oxygen Depleting Substances

Some chemical products and Vegetable Oils, even in very small quantities, may deplete the
Oxygen in a cargo tank. Other substances may have vapours that do not dissolve in oxygen and
they may form "pockets" of toxic vapour or areas with a lack of oxygen within a tank.

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Personnel entering cargo tanks must not assume that apparently harmless products such as
vegetable oil do not present hazards, and enclosed space entry procedures must always be fully
complied with.

1.6

Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a substance or mixture of substances can harm humans. Even
very small periods of exposure to, or contact with, toxic products can be fatal. Noxious
substances may be harmful if the liquid comes in contact with the skin, if their vapours are
inhaled or if the liquid is swallowed.
The degree to which humans can be affected by contact with a product depends upon the toxicity
of the product, the length of time of exposure, and the tolerance of the person involved, which
can vary widely.
It should not be assumed that because conditions can be tolerated the gas concentration is within
safe limits. The smell of chemical products is highly variable and in some cases the gases may
dull the sense of smell. It should never be assumed that the absence of smell indicates
the absence of gas.
Regardless of the route by which a substance may enter the body, prevention from exposure can
be achieved by preventing toxic fumes or liquid to contaminate the work place, in combination
with use of the proper personnel protective equipment.
Toxic substances can harm humans in three main ways:
1.6.1
Ingestion
Chemical products can have an extremely high toxicity if swallowed and can be immediately fatal.
Ingestion of chemical products is a very rare occurrence, but nevertheless all personnel involved
in handling chemical products should know whether or not a particular antidote is required, and
how to use it.
Food and drink should not be permitted on deck. Personnel must also ensure that upon leaving
the deck at the end of an operation or watch, or proceed to public spaces, they adopt good
personal hygiene and wash their hands, and change out of working clothes.
1.6.2
Skin Contact
Many chemical products when they come into contact with the skin cause burns or irritation. The
chemical can also be absorbed into the body and result in either immediate or long-term effects.
Benzene, a carcinogenic, is an example where there may be no immediately obvious effects of
skin contact but absorption into the body is cumulative and takes many years to dissipate.
Direct contact with chemical products must be avoided by wearing the appropriate protective
equipment, especially impermeable gloves and goggles.
Working clothes must be regularly washed, and immediately if they have come into contact with
chemicals. They must never be stored in the accommodation if contaminated with chemicals.
1.6.3
Inhalation
Comparatively small quantities of some chemical products, when inhaled, can be fatal. It is
therefore critically important that when handling toxic products the control of the release of toxic
vapour is managed such that personnel are not exposed to it.

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Where there is any reason to suspect that toxic vapour is present in a working area, immediate
action must be taken to deal with it. Personnel must be moved to a safer position, and the area
should be checked using chemical detector tubes by personnel wearing appropriate personal
safety or protective equipment. Consideration must be given to stopping cargo operations.
1.6.4
Other Effects
Toxic substances can also have local effects, such as eye irritation, but can also affect other,
more distant parts of the body and these are referred to as systemic effects.
Although not strictly a matter of toxicity, Oxygen deficiency can also result in harm to humans.

1.7

Corrosive Substances

1.7.1
General Precautions
Corrosive products such as acids, anhydrides and alkalis present particular hazards they can
produce combustible or toxic gases, they can destroy human tissue causing permanent damage,
or they may react violently with other products, including water.
Some products react together to form salts and water, often with a violent emission of heat. An
example of this is Sodium Hydroxide and Sulphuric Acid, which react to form Sodium Sulphate
and water.
It is therefore extremely important when dealing with any cargo, but particularly corrosive
substances, that the properties and hazards of the cargo are carefully researched, identified, and
discussed with all personnel before cargo operations commence.
In order to mitigate such hazards, the following procedures should be adhered to:
Prior to loading such cargoes, the heating coils are to be tested. Leaks in the coils may
lead to serious corrosion in the heating system. Pressure in the heating coils should be
maintained above that exerted by the cargo on them;
All gaskets and joints in the cargo system must be of corrosion resistant material;
Splash shields should be fitted on manifold flanges and on the flanges of portable cargo
hoses when loading or discharging corrosive substances;
Personal protective equipment must be used, including splash suits and full face
protection, when opening equipment or tanks which may contain acids, ullaging and
sampling, connecting and disconnecting hoses, working in the manifold area, or
investigating leaks or dealing with spillages.
1.7.2
Caustic Soda (Sodium Hydroxide)
Caustic Soda is a strong alkali and is therefore a corrosive substance. It can destroy human
tissue causing permanent damage and may react violently with other products, including water.
In order to mitigate any hazards, the following procedures should be adhered to:
Prior to loading such cargoes, the heating coils are to be tested. Leaks in the coils may
lead to serious corrosion in the heating system. Pressure in the heating coils should be
maintained above that exerted by the cargo on them;
All gaskets and joints in the cargo system must be of corrosion resistant material;
Splash shields should be fitted on manifold flanges and on the flanges of portable cargo
hoses when loading or discharging corrosive substances;
Personal protective equipment must be used, including splash suits and full face
protection, when opening equipment or tanks which may contain Caustic Soda, ullaging
and sampling, connecting and disconnecting hoses, working in the manifold area, or
investigating leaks or dealing with spillages.
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Sodium Hydroxide is corrosive to aluminium, zinc, galvanised steel and mercury and may react
with them to produce toxic gas including Hydrogen. It may react with Sulphuric Acid with a
violent emission of heat to form Sodium Sulphate and water.
1.7.3
Acids
The most corrosive concentrated acid cargoes include Nitric, Sulphuric, Chlorosulphonic and
Chloropropionic Acid, and Formic and Acetic Acid in concentrations above 90%. However, many
mineral, or inorganic, acids in high concentrations passivate mild steel rather than corrode it. It
is only when the acid is diluted that rapid corrosion will occur.
Some acids may give off large quantities of corrosive vapours. Some, such as Chlorosulphonic,
Dichlorosulphonic and Hydrochloric Acid, and Oleum, are toxic as well as corrosive. Acetic Acid
and Acetic Anhydride are flammable, but most other acids are non-flammable. However, in
general acids react with metals to evolve Hydrogen, which is in itself highly flammable.
Some acids, such as Acetic and Super-Phosphoric Acid and Oleum, have high freezing points and
require heating during transport to prevent solidification.
Some grades of Phosphoric Acid require recirculation during the voyage in order to prevent hard
sediments from collecting on the tank bottom or in lines and valves.
1.7.4
Basic or Alkaline Substances
Some common inorganic products such as Potassium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide are
corrosive to aluminium, zinc, galvanised steel and mercury.
Other corrosive alkalis are aliphatic and alicyclic amines, pyridines, Sodium Sulphate solutions
and Ammonium Sulphide solutions, which have corrosiveness as either the primary risk, or the
secondary risk after flammability.

1.8

Reactivity

Chemical products may undergo a chemical or physical reaction during handling or carriage in a
number of ways. Common reactions are with water or moisture, air, other substances or
materials and with itself. Officers must be conversant with products which are reactive and must
ensure that adequate precautions are taken.
Reactive chemicals are divided into:
Unstable or self reacting chemicals, either polymerising or decomposing;
Chemicals which react with water to emit dangerous gases;
Chemicals capable of reacting with Oxygen in the air, either forming peroxides or liable to
putrefaction;
Incompatible chemicals, which react dangerously if mixed together.
1.8.1
Self-Reactivity and Polymerisation
Self-reactivity means that the properties of a substance are such that under certain conditions it
will undergo a self-reaction under certain conditions. The most commonly known form is
polymerisation and is usually caused by the product being exposed to heat, or being stored over
a long period. Self-reactive cargoes react to heat and they must not be stowed adjacent to
heated cargoes. However, in many cases polymerisation is a slow and natural process and does
not pose a safety hazard.
Prior to loading a self-reactive cargo it is essential to ensure that cargo lines and tanks do not
contain any product or material which are identified on the MSDS as being unsuitable or likely to
promote a reaction.
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If the precautions required for handling or carrying such cargoes are not complied with, run-off
polymerisation may result. There may be an exothermic reaction with a rapid build-up of heat
and toxic gases.
Polymerisation is exothermic and results in the generation of heat. If left unchecked the result
may be over pressurisation of the tank. If there is an unexpected increase in cargo temperature
an exothermic reaction should be suspected and immediate steps taken to reduce the
temperature. Further, as polymerisation proceeds it produces heavier and more viscous liquids,
or even solids, that may block vents and suctions.
The cargo temperature must be monitored daily in order to detect any unexpected rise as early
as possible. If a rise in temperature is observed which cannot be explained by normal changes in
the air or seawater temperature the office must be immediately and urgently informed.
The pre-loading cargo plan must clearly show the procedure to be followed if a cargo starts to
self-react. This information should be taken from the MSDS or from the shipper.
Substances that are self-reactive are inhibited. The Master or Chief Officer must ensure that an
Inhibitor Certificate is provided prior to the carriage of such products. The manufacturer should
provide the certificate specifying:
The name and amount of additive present;
Whether the additive is Oxygen-dependent, and if so the minimum Oxygen content
required;
The date the additive was added to the product and the duration of its effectiveness;
Any temperature limitations qualifying the additives effective lifetime;
The action to be taken should the length of the voyage exceed the effective lifetime of the
additive.
Note that the inhibitor may be added either to the shore tanks prior to loading or to the vessels
tanks either during or after loading.
1.8.2
Decomposition
Substances that decompose do so into lighter and more volatile substances. Whilst doing so they
generate heat and evolve toxic and flammable gases. The decomposition is often initiated by
carriage at too high a temperature, or by contact with small amounts of other chemicals, or
impurities acting as catalysts. A catalyst accelerates the reaction without taking part in it. The
most common decomposition catalysts are acids, alkalis and metals, and decomposition can be
prevented by the addition of a stabiliser.
The main hazards with such reactions are the generation of heat and the production of polymers.
Where such cargoes are carried the charterers requirements with respect to the carriage
temperature of the cargo must be strictly adhered to and the temperature must be carefully
monitored. If there is an unexpected increase in cargo temperature an exothermic reaction
should be suspected and immediate steps taken to reduce the temperature.
1.8.3
Reactivity with Water
Some products react with water or moisture. Most typical of these are Isocyanides (TDI, MDI,
and PAPI) and Propylene Oxide. Such reactions may generate gases which are flammable or
toxic, or both, and which pose a danger to the vessel and personnel.
These substances must not be loaded into a cargo tank unless the tank has been thoroughly
purged with Nitrogen, and a positive pressure Nitrogen blanket must be maintained throughout
carriage.

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Such products must also never be heated with water as the heating medium. Adjacent cargo
tanks should either be empty or loaded with a compatible cargo. Adjacent ballast tanks must be
drained and free from any ballast.
For Propylene Oxide all adjacent spaces should either be loaded with a compatible cargo or be
fully inerted.
Other substances that react with water are acids when diluted. Dilution with water may not only
evolve toxic gases, but may also make the product extremely corrosive and cause damage to the
cargo tank and associated fittings.
1.8.4
Reactivity with Air
Some products react with air, either in the liquid or the vapour phase, and may form Oxygen
compounds whereby the Oxygen dissolves in the product to gradually form unstable peroxides.
Organic peroxides are thermally unstable and may be liable to exothermic, self-accelerating
decomposition.
In another group, mainly natural products, putrefaction can occur if the product is exposed to
Oxygen, usually by the action of bacteria. When a cargo has suffered putrefaction foul odours are
evolved which can ultimately be toxic. Carbon Monoxide can be produced. However, the main
hazard is that the Oxygen in the compartment will no longer be sufficient to support life and
death when entering such compartments can be virtually instant.
Some of these reactions will pose a danger to the vessel, others simply cause a deterioration in
the quality of the product. The key to the prevention of such reactions is the exclusion of air and
the control of temperature. Therefore all such substances are carried either padded or inerted,
although some are inhibited to stabilise them.
1.8.5
Reactivity with Other Products
Many substances are subject to a dangerous reaction if they come in contact with each other.
Such substances are called incompatible substances.
Such reactions can be hazardous, and include the generation of toxic gases, heating of the liquids
with subsequent overflow or rupture of the tanks. There may also be the possibility in extreme
cases of fire and explosion.
Care should be taken that residues of substances or mixtures containing substances which react
in hazardous manner with other substances are segregated from products which they will react
with. This includes not only cargo tanks and lines, but also in savealls and residue and slop
tanks.
CCR70 - USCG Compatibility Chart, CCR71 - USCG Compatibility Chart Dangerously
Reactive Exceptions and CCR72 - USCG Compatibility Chart - Non-Dangerous Exceptions
must be consulted to determine whether substances are compatible or incompatible. Both charts
are contained in the CCR Information File.
1.8.6
Reactivity with Other Materials
Some substances react with materials used in the construction of cargo handling equipment. All
materials used in the cargo handling systems must therefore be of a compatible material.
Care must be taken that no incompatible material is introduced during maintenance, repair or
renewal of equipment.

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1.9

Inhibitor Certificates

If the cargo is inhibited the Master or Chief Officer must ensure that an Inhibitor Certificate is
provided prior to the carriage of such products. The manufacturer should provide the certificate
specifying:
The name and amount of additive present;
Whether the additive is Oxygen-dependent;
The date the additive was added to the product and the duration of its effectiveness;
Any temperature limitations qualifying the additives effective lifetime;
The action to be taken should the length of the voyage exceed the effective lifetime of the
additive.
Occasionally a terminal will not issue an inhibitor certificate prior to the commencement of cargo.
This may be because the amount of inhibitor to be added is only decided after the
commencement of loading. On such occasions the Master should seek a guarantee that an
inhibitor certificate will be supplied either during or at the completion of loading, and should also,
at the same time, issue a Note of Protest. If the Master is not satisfied that an inhibitor
certificate will be issued, then he should contact the Company for further advice before allowing
loading of inhibited cargoes to commence.
Note that the inhibitor may be added either to the shore tanks prior to loading or to the vessels
tanks either during or after loading.

1.10 Benzene
1.10.1 General Precautions
Benzene is known to be carcinogenic. It is absorbed into the blood and the effect is cumulative,
but whereas Benzene is readily absorbed it can take many years for it to be released. Thus
repeated, short term exposure can be dangerous.
1.10.2 Occupational Exposure Limits
Personnel exposure to airborne concentrations of Benzene vapours should be within the following
limits:
A Time Weighted Average (TWA) of 1 ppm, over an eight-hour period;
A Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) of 5 ppm, over any 15-minute period.
The airborne concentration of Benzene vapour should be measured and properly documented by
the Chief Officer on the form ECF30 - Atmosphere Check - Cargo and Other Spaces before
any crew member is authorised to work in a given area. Such measuring should be continued
whilst there is a risk of exposure to Benzene vapours taking into consideration gas measuring
equipment on board will only provide spot readings and that personnel may experience
concentrations of vapour in excess of the reading obtained.
Whenever direct or representative measurements indicate that exposure limits are being
exceeded during normal cargo handling operations, the personnel required to work in the affected
area should wear breathing apparatus.

1.11

Mercaptans

Mercaptans are colourless, odorous gases generated naturally by the degradation of natural
organisms. Their smell has been likened to rotting cabbage. Mercaptans may occur on ships
where seawater has remained beneath an oil cargo or where oil residues are left in tanks that
contain water, such as in a dirty ballast tank after it has been incompletely drained. They are
also found in water treatment plants and ballast treatment facilities.
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Mercaptans may be present in the vapours of Pentane Plus cargoes and in some crude oils. They
are used as an odourising agent in natural gas. They can be detected by smell at concentrations
below 0.5ppm, although health effects are not experienced until the concentration is several
times higher than this.
The initial effects of Mercaptans on people are similar to those caused by H2S exposure, i.e.
irritation to the lungs, eyes, nose and throat. Headaches, nausea, vomiting, and unconsciousness
may result from exposure to Mercaptans.
Little is known about the dangers of Mercaptans, but it would be prudent to avoid prolonged
exposure above concentrations of 0.5ppm. The presence of Mercaptans can only be measured by
toxic gas detector tube.
All the current industry guidance indicates that the risk Mercaptans pose to personnel is minimal,
if any, in the quantities which might be found on chemical tankers. The Company has therefore
decided that the provision of Mercaptan detector tubes is unnecessary unless the vessel has
specific information that the cargo to be carried contains significant quantities of Mercaptans. If
this is the case Mercaptan detector tubes should be arranged to be on board prior to loading the
cargo.

1.12

Inert Gas

1.12.1 The Toxic Constituents of Inert Gas


The main hazard associated with inert gas is its low Oxygen content. However, inert gas
produced by combustion, either in a steam raising boiler or in an inert gas generator, will contain
trace amounts of various toxic gases such as Nitrogen Oxide, Sulphur Dioxide and Carbon
Monoxide that may increase the hazard to personnel exposed to it.
However, in gas-freeing a previously inerted cargo tank the toxic constituents of inert gas will be
removed.

1.13

Carcinogenic Products

CCR73 List of Carcinogenic Products contains information as to which substances are


currently known or considered to be carcinogenic.

1.14

Personnel Exposure to Toxic Products

If a seafarer should come into accidental contact with a toxic product then the Master must
ensure that medical advice is sought immediately, and the Company informed. If so advised, the
Master should arrange for a blood test as soon as possible after the event.

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2.

Cargo Operation Planning, Preparation and Management

2.1

Over-Riding of Switch and Key-Operated Alarms

Columbia Shipmanagement categorically does not allow the overriding of safety


devices, trips and alarms during normal operations.
Where an overriding switch is operated by a key, the key must be kept under the control of the
Chief Officer. The Masters permission must be obtained before any safety device or trip is
overridden.

2.2

Procedure for Handling New Chemicals

Where a cargo has not previously been carried then the following should be checked, following
the guidance below:
Whether a MARPOL Annex I or Annex II cargo. If Annex II then:
Whether the cargo is listed in the IBC Code or MEPC 2/Circ. If so, then:
Whether the product is listed on the Certificate of Fitness. If so, then:
Complete the CCR97 - Chemical Cargo Data Sheet. Determine the specific carriage
requirements (heating, cooling, purging, blanketing, monitoring) and ensure that the
vessel is able to comply;
Confirm that the cargo tank coating or stainless steel is resistant to the product;
Determine the physical restrictions (maximum density, minimum or maximum
temperature, vapour pressure) and whether the tank design is suitable;
Obtain information on any specific cargo hazards;
Determine what PPE and antidote is required, and ensure availability;
Check CCR70 - USCG Compatibility Chart, CCR71 - USCG Compatibility Chart
Dangerously Reactive Exceptions and CCR72 - USCG Compatibility Chart NonDangerous Exceptions.
If any of the above cannot be answered in the affirmative, or if there any issues of concern then
the advice of the company must be sought.
The IMO annually issues at the beginning of the year MEPC.2 Circ.x Provisional
Categorisation of Liquid Substances. This document supplements Chapters 17 and 18 of the
IBC Code. An electronic version of the current edition should be retained with the CCR
Information File as form CCR78 - MEPC.2 Circ.x Provisional Categorisation of Liquid
Substances.

2.3

Cargo Planning

2.3.1
Responsibility
The Chief Officer is responsible for the planning and execution of all cargo, ballasting and tank
cleaning operations. Planning should be carried out as far in advance as possible. The Master
must review and approve each cargo plan.
No cargo operation should take place unless it has been adequately planned, the Master and
Chief Officer are completely satisfied that it is safe to do so, and that all relevant considerations
have been taken into account, discussed on board, and that all involved personnel have been
updated.
It is acknowledged that on some trades, particularly those of the chemical tankers, that there are
frequent changes to cargo plans. Nevertheless, adequate planning is essential in ensuring that
each operation is completed safely.

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Communication with the company, operator, and terminal prior to arrival at the loading and
discharge ports is important in ensuring adequate preparation and thus preventing delays.
After each cargo plan has been approved by the Master a meeting should be held with the Deck
Officers to discuss the content. Deck Officers shall initial the plan to indicate that they have read
and understood it. The Chief Officer must ensure that the MSDS of the cargoes being handled
are also discussed. Additionally, the basic details of each plan must be discussed with the deck
watch ratings to the extent that it affects their work.
Whenever possible, the Chief Officer should involve Junior Officers, particularly the Second
Officer, in the preparation of cargo plans. Their involvement will have the following benefits:
They will have a better understanding of the current plan being developed;
They will provide input, which may in itself improve the plan;
They will learn the process of developing cargo plans.
Where modifications to a plan are required these must be carefully and fully documented before
the cargo operation takes place, and must be approved by the Master. The changes must be
discussed with the Deck Officers and the fact that changes to the original plan have been made
and discussed with the Deck Officers must be recorded on the plan.
2.3.2
Cargo Plans
A cargo plan must be completed for every cargo operation.
Operation Plan in the Cargo Forms Module must be used.

The form CCR81 - Cargo

The cargo plan should cover step by step all stages of the transfer operation.
Cargo

plans should include, but not be limited to, the following details:
The quantity and grade of each parcel;
Density, temperature and other relevant properties;
A plan of the cargo and ballast tanks, lines and pumps to be used;
Details of which manifolds are to be used;
The sequence of transfer of both cargo and ballast;
The procedure w