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Bathing

Hot springs at Aachen, Germany, 1682

Bathing is the washing of the body with a uid, usually


water or an aqueous solution, or the immersion of the
body in water. It may be practised for personal hygiene,
religious ritual or therapeutic purposes. By analogy, especially as a recreational activity, the term is also applied
to sun bathing and sea bathing.
Bathing can take place in any situation where there is water, ranging from warm to cold. It can take place in a
bathtub or shower, or it can be in a river, lake, water
hole, pool or the sea, or any other water receptacle. The
term for the act can vary. For example, a ritual religious
bath is sometimes referred to as immersion, the use of
water for therapeutic purposes can be called water treatment or hydrotherapy, and two recreational water activities are known as swimming and paddling. The city of
Bath (known during ancient Roman times as Aquae Sulis)
is famous for its public baths fed by hydrothermal springs.

1
1.1

Three young women bathing. Side B from an Ancient Greek Attic red-gure stamnos, 440430 BC. Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany.

Ancient Rome developed a network of aqueducts to supply water to all large towns and population centres and had
indoor plumbing, with pipes that terminated in homes and
at public wells and fountains. The Roman public baths
were called thermae. With the fall of the Roman Empire the aqueduct network fell into disrepair and most of
it ceased to be used.

History

1.2 Medieval Japan

Ancient world

Before the 7th century, the Japanese probably mostly


Throughout history, societies devised systems to enable bathed in the many springs in the open, because there is
water to be brought to population centres.
no evidence of closed rooms. In the 6th to 8th centuries
Ancient Greece utilized small bathtubs, wash basins, and (in the Asuka and Nara periods) the Japanese took the refoot baths for personal cleanliness. The earliest ndings ligion of Buddhism from China, which had a strong imof baths date from the mid-2nd millennium BC in the pact on the entire culture of the country. For every Budpalace complex at Knossos, Crete, and the luxurious al- dhist temple traditionally included a bathhouse (yuya) for
abaster bathtubs excavated in Akrotiri, Santorini. The the monks. These baths were opened in time for the rest
Greeks established public baths and showers within gym- of the population, because the principle of purity in Budnasiums for relaxation and personal hygiene. In fact, the dhism plays a major role. Only the wealthy had private
word gymnasium comes from the Greek word gymnos, baths.
meaning naked.

The rst public bathhouse was mentioned in 1266. In


1

Tokyo, the rst sento was established in 1591. The early


steam baths or steam baths were called iwaburo (rock
pools) or kamaburo (furnace baths). It was natural or articial caves or stone vaults. In iwaburo along the coast,
the rocks were heated by burning wood, then sea water
was poured over the rocks producing steam. The entrance to these Bath Houses was very small, so that the
steam escaped. There were no windows, so it was very
dark inside and the user constantly coughed or cleared
their throats in order to signal to new entrants which seats
were already occupied. The darkness could be also used
for sexual contact. Because there were no gender distinction, these baths came into disrepute. They were nally
abolished in 1870 on hygienic and moral grounds. Author John Gallagher says bathing was segregated in the
1870s as a concession to outraged Western tourists.[1]

noon.... Bathing was not restricted to the elite, but was


practised by all people; the cronist Toms Lpez Medel
wrote after a journey to Central America that Bathing
and the custom of washing oneself is so quotidian (common) amongst the Indians, both of cold and hot lands, as
is eating, and this is done in fountains and rivers and other
water to which they have access, without anything other
than pure water... [3]
The Mesoamerican bath; known as temazcal in Spanish,
from the Nahuatl word temazcalli, a compound of temaz
(steam) and calli (house), consists of a room, often
in the form of a small dome, with an exterior rebox
known as texictle (teict e) that heats a small portion of
the rooms wall made of volcanic rocks; after this wall
has been heated, water is poured on it to produce steam,
an action known as tlasas, a person in charge then directs
the steam, that accumulates on the upper portion of the
room, to the bathers who are lying on the ground using a
bough, with which he later gives them a massage, then the
bathers scrub themselves with a small at river stone and
nally the person in charge introduces buckets with water
with soap and grass used to rinse. This bath had also ritual importance, and was vinculated to the goddess Toci;
it is also therapeutical, when medicinal herbs are used in
the water for the tlasas. It is still used in Mexico.[3][4]

At the beginning of the Edo period (16031867) there


were two dierent types of baths. In Tokyo (then called
Edo) hot-water baths (yuya) were common, while in Osaka, steam baths (mushiburo) were common. At that
time shared bathrooms for men and women were the
rule. These bathhouses were very popular, especially for
men. Bathing girls (Yuna), were employed to scrub the
guests backs and wash their hair, etc. Some guests apparently oered to pay but the yuna also provided favors.
In 1841, the employment of Yuna was generally prohibited, as well as mixed bathing. The segregation of the
sexes, however, was often ignored by operators of bath1.4
houses, or areas for men and women were separated only
by a symbolic line. The ocial removed to the prohibitions. Today, sento baths have separate rooms for men
and women.[2]

1.3

HISTORY

Medieval & Early Modern Europe

Mesoamerica

Codex Magliabecchiano from the Loubat collection, 1904

Spanish chronicles describe the bathing habits of the


peoples of Mesoamerica during and after the conquest.
Bernal Daz del Castillo describes Moctezuma (the Mexica, or Aztec, king at the arrival of Corts) in his Historia
verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva Espaa as being A sweat bath: illumination from Peter of Eboli, De Balneis Pute"...Very neat and cleanly, bathing every day each after- olanis (The Baths of Pozzuoli"), written in the early 13th century

1.5

Modern era

In the Middle Ages, bathing commonly took place in


public bathhouses. However, public nudity was frowned
upon by the church authorities of the period. Public baths
were also havens for prostitution, which created opposition to the public baths. Rich people bathed at home,
most likely in their bedroom, as 'bath' rooms were not
common. Bathing was done in large, wooden tubs with
a linen cloth laid in it to protect the bather from splinters. Additionally, during the Renaissance and Protestant
Reformation, the quality and condition of the clothing (as
opposed to the actual cleanliness of the body itself) were
thought to reect the soul of an individual. Clean clothing
also reected ones social status; clothes made the man or
woman.
Additionally, from the late Middle Ages through to the
end of the 18th century, etiquette and medical manuals
advised people to only wash the parts of the body that
were visible to the public; for example, the ears, hands,
feet, and face and neck. This did away with the public
baths and left the cleaning of oneself to the privacy of
ones home.
The switch from woolen to linen clothing by the 16th
century also accompanied the decline in bathing. Linen
clothing is much easier to clean and maintain - and
such clothing was becoming commonplace at the time
in Western Europe. Clean linen shirts or blouses allowed people who had not bathed to appear clean and
well groomed. The possession of a large quantity of
clean linen clothing was a sign of social status. Thus, appearance became more important than personal hygiene.
Medical opinion supported this claim. Physicians of the
period believed that odors, or miasma, such as that which
would be found in soiled linens, caused disease. A person could therefore change ones shirt every few days, but
avoid baths - which might let the 'bad air' into the body
through the pores. Consequently, in an age in which there
were very few personal bathtubs, laundry was an important and weekly chore which were commonly undertaken
by laundresses of the time.

Hydropathic applications according to Claridges Hydropathy


book.

Cold Water, Inwardly and Outwardly Applied, as Proved


by Experience, published in 1738.[6]

The other work was a 1797 publication by Dr James Currie of Liverpool on the use of hot and cold water in the
treatment of fever and other illness, with a fourth edition published in 1805, not long before his death.[7] It
was also translated into German by Michaelis (1801) and
Hegewisch (1807). It was highly popular and rst placed
the subject on a scientic basis. Hahns writings had
meanwhile created much enthusiasm among his country1.5 Modern era
men, societies having been everywhere formed to promote the medicinal and dietetic use of water; and in 1804
1.5.1 Therapeutic bathing
Professor E.F.C. Oertel of Anspach republished them and
Public opinion about bathing began to shift in the middle quickened the popular movement by unqualied comof water drinking as a remedy for all diseases.
and late 18th century, when writers argued that frequent mendation
[8]
bathing might lead to better health. Two English works
on the medical uses of water were published in the 18th A popular revival followed the application of hydrothercentury that inaugurated the new fashion for therapeutic apy around 1829, by Vincenz Priessnitz, a peasant farmer
bathing. One of these was by Sir John Floyer, a physician in Grfenberg, then part of the Austrian Empire.[9] [10]
of Licheld, who, struck by the remedial use of certain This revival was continued by a Bavarian priest, Sebastian
springs by the neighbouring peasantry, investigated the Kneipp (18211897), an able and enthusiastic follower
history of cold bathing and published a book on the sub- of Priessnitz, whose work he took up where Priessnitz
ject in 1702. [5] The book ran through six editions within left it, after he read a treatise on the cold water cure.[11]
a few years and the translation of this book into German In Wrishofen (south Germany), Kneipp developed the
was largely drawn upon by Dr J. S. Hahn of Silesia as systematic and controlled application of hydrotherapy for
the basis for his book called On the Healing Virtues of the support of medical treatment that was delivered only

HISTORY

by doctors at that time. Kneipps own book My Water In Birmingham, around ten private baths were available in
Cure was published in 1886 with many subsequent edi- the 1830s. Whilst the dimensions of the baths were small,
tions, and translated into many languages.
they provided a range of services.[19] A major proprietor
who
Captain R. T. Claridge was responsible for introducing of bath houses in Birmingham was a Mr. Monro
[20]
had
had
premises
in
Lady
Well
and
Snow
Hill.
Private
and promoting hydropathy in Britain, rst in London in
1842, then with lecture tours in Ireland and Scotland baths were advertised as having healing qualities and beof diabetes, gout and all skin disin 1843. His 10 week tour in Ireland included Limer- ing able to cure people[20]
On 19 November 1844, it was
eases,
amongst
others.
[12]
ick, Cork, Wexford, Dublin and Belfast,
over June,
decided that the working class members of society should
July and August 1843, with two subsequent lectures in
have the opportunity to access baths, in an attempt to adGlasgow.[13]
dress the health problems of the public. On 22 April and
23 April 1845, two lectures were delivered in the town
hall urging the provision of public baths in Birmingham
1.5.2 Public baths
and other towns and cities.
After a period of campaigning by many committees, the
Public Baths and Wash-houses Act received royal assent
on 26 August 1846. The Act empowered local authorities
across the country to incur expenditure in constructing
public swimming baths out of its own funds.[21]
The rst London public baths was opened at Goulston
Square, Whitechapel, in 1847 with the Prince consort laying the foundation stone.[22][23]
1.5.3 Hot public baths

Interior of Liverpool wash house, the rst public wash house in


England.

Large public baths such as those found in the ancient


world and the Ottoman Empire were revived during the
19th century. The rst modern public baths were opened
in Liverpool in 1829. The rst known warm fresh-water
public wash house was opened in May 1842.[14][15]
The popularity of wash-houses was spurred by the newspaper interest in Kitty Wilkinson, an Irish immigrant
wife of a labourer who became known as the Saint
of the Slums.[16] In 1832, during a cholera epidemic,
Wilkinson took the initiative to oer the use of her
house and yard to neighbours to wash their clothes, at a
charge of a penny per week,[14] and showed them how
to use a chloride of lime (bleach) to get them clean.
She was supported by the District Provident Society and
William Rathbone. In 1842 Wilkinson was appointed
baths superintendent.[17][18]

Baigneuses, oil on canvas, Jean-Lon Grme (1824-1904).

Traditional Turkish baths (a variant of the Roman bath)


were introduced to Britain by David Urquhart, diplomat
and sometime Member of Parliament for Staord, who
for political and personal reasons wished to popularize
Turkish culture. In 1850 he wrote The Pillars of Her-

5
cules, a book about his travels in 1848 through Spain and
Morocco. He described the system of dry hot-air baths
used there and in the Ottoman Empire which had changed
little since Roman times. In 1856 Richard Barter read
Urquharts book and worked with him to construct a bath.
They opened the rst modern hot water bath at St Anns
Hydropathic Establishment near Blarney, County Cork,
Ireland.[24]
The following year, the rst public bath of its type to be
built in mainland Britain since Roman times was opened
in Manchester, and the idea spread rapidly. It reached
London in July 1860, when Roger Evans, a member of
one of Urquharts Foreign Aairs Committees, opened a
Turkish bath at 5 Bell Street, near Marble Arch. During
the following 150 years, over 600 Turkish baths opened
in Britain, including those built by municipal authorities
as part of swimming pool complexes, taking advantage of
the fact that water-heating boilers were already on site.
Similar baths opened in other parts of the British Empire. Dr. John Le Gay Brereton opened a Turkish
bath in Sydney, Australia in 1859, Canada had one by
1869, and the rst in New Zealand was opened in 1874.
Urquharts inuence was also felt outside the Empire
when in 1861, Dr Charles H Shepard opened the rst
Turkish baths in the United States at 63 Columbia Street,
Brooklyn Heights, New York, most probably on 3 October 1863.[25][26]

1.5.4

Cleanliness

By the mid-19th century, the English urbanised middle


classes had formed an ideology of cleanliness that ranked
alongside typical Victorian concepts, such as Christianity,
respectability and social progress.[27] The cleanliness of
the individual became associated with his or her moral
and social standing within the community and domestic
life became increasingly regulated by concerns regarding
the presentation of domestic sobriety and cleanliness. [28]

The order of the bath"; Pears soap advertisement. Soap reached


a mass market with the new middle class obsession with cleanliness.

developed a water collection and distribution network.


London water supply infrastructure developed through
major 19th-century treatment works built in response to
cholera threats, to modern large scale reservoirs. By the
end of the century, private baths with running hot water
were increasingly common in auent homes in America
and Britain.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a weekly Saturday night bath had become common custom for most of
the population. A half days work on Saturday for factory workers allowed them some leisure to prepare for
the Sunday day of rest. The half day o allowed time for
the considerable labor of drawing, carrying, and heating
water, lling the bath and then afterward emptying it. To
economize, bath water was shared by all family members.
Indoor plumbing became more common in the 20th century and commercial advertising campaigns pushing new
William Gossage produced low-priced, good-quality
bath products began to inuence public ideas about cleansoap from the 1850s. William Hesketh Lever and his
liness, promoting the idea of a daily shower or bath.
brother, James, bought a small soap works in Warrington
in 1886 and founded what is still one of the largest
soap businesses, formerly called Lever Brothers and now
called Unilever. These soap businesses were among the 2 Purpose
rst to employ large-scale advertising campaigns.
The industry of soapmaking began on a small scale in the
1780s, with the establishment of a soap manufactory at
Tipton by James Keir and the marketing of high-quality,
transparent soap in 1789 by Andrew Pears of London. It
was in the mid-19th century, though, that the large-scale
consumption of soap by the middle classes, anxious to
prove their social standing, drove forward the mass production and marketing of soap.

Before the late 19th century, water to individual places One purpose of bathing is for personal hygiene. It is a
of residence was rare.[29] Many countries in Europe means of achieving cleanliness by washing away dead skin

3 TYPES OF BATHS

cells, dirt and soil, and a preventative measure to reduce pool of water. The quality of water used for bathing purthe incidence and spread of disease. It also reduces body poses varies considerably. Normally bathing involves use
odors.
of soap or a soap-like substance, such as shower gel. In
Bathing creates a feeling of well-being and the physical southern India people more commonly use aromatic oil
and other home-made body scrubs.
appearance of cleanliness.
Bathing may also be practised for religious ritual or ther- Bathing occasions can also be occasions of social interactions, such as in public, Turkish, banya, sauna or
apeutic purposes[30] or as a recreational activity.
whirlpool baths.
Therapeutic use of bathing includes hydrotherapy, healing, rehabilitation from injury or addiction, and relaxation.
3.1 Sponge bath
The use of a bath in religious ritual or ceremonial rites
include immersion during baptism in Christianity and to
achieve a state of ritual cleanliness in a mikvah in Judaism. It is referred to as Ghusl in Arabic to attain ceremonial purity (Taahir) in Islam. All major religions place
an emphasis on ceremonial purity, and bathing is one of
the primary means of attaining outward purity. In Hindu
households, any acts of delement are countered by undergoing a bath and Hindus also immerse in Sarovar as
part of religious rites. In the Sikh religion, there is a place
at Golden Temple where the leprosy of Rajni's husband
was cured by immersion into the holy sacred pool, and
many pilgrims bathe in the sacred pool believing it will
cure their illness as well.

When water is in short supply or a person is not t to have


a standing bath, a wet cloth or sponge can be used, or the
person can wash by splashing water over their body. A
sponge bath is usually conducted in hospitals, which involves one person washing another with a sponge, while
the person being washed remains lying in bed. It is sometimes also used when water is limited.

3.2 Ladling water from a container

Types of baths

Carl Larsson, Summer Morning, 1908

Where bathing is for personal hygiene, bathing in a


bathtub or shower is the most common form of bathing
in Western, and many Eastern, countries. Bathrooms usually have a tap, and a shower if it is a modern home, and
a huge water heating pot. People take water from the
tap or the water-heating pot into a large bucket and use
a mug to pour water on themselves. A soap and loofah
is used to clean the body after, and then rinsed again using the mug. People most commonly bathe in their home
or use a private bath in a public bathhouse. In some so- Eadweard Muybridge, 187285 (photographed); 1887 (images
cieties, bathing can take place in rivers, creeks, lakes or published); 2012 (animated), Nude woman washing face, aniwater holes, or any other place where there is an adequate mated from Animal locomotion, Vol. IV, Plate 413

6.2

Public baths

This method involves using a small container to scoop water out of a large container and pour water over the body,
in such a way that this water does not go back into the
large container.
In Indonesia and Malaysia, this is a traditional method
referred to as mandi.
In the Indonesian language, mandi is the verb for this
process, bak mandi is the large container, and kamar
mandi is the place in which this is done.[31][32] Travel
guides[33][34][35] often use the word mandi, on its own, in
various ways such as for the large container, and for the
process of bathing.
In the Philippines timba (pail) and tabo (dipper) are two
essentials in every bathroom.
Home bathing (1900s), by Kusakabe Kimbei

Clothing

medical literature, 47 C is considered bearable.[38] The


heat is considered a prerequisite for complete relaxation.
The custom is to thoroughly clean oneself with soap and
rinse before entering the tub, so as not to contaminate the
bath water. Until the 19th century, the Japanese did not
use soap, but rubbed the skin with certain herbs, or rice
bran, which was also a natural exfoliant.

When bathing for cleanliness, normally, people bathe


completely naked, so as to make cleaning every part of
their body possible. This is the case in private baths,
whether in ones home or a private bath in a public bathhouse. In public bathing situations, the social norms of
the community are followed, and some people wear a
swimsuit or underwear. For example, when a shower is 6.2
provided in a non-sex segregated area of a public swimming pool, users of the shower commonly wear their
swimsuit. The customs can vary depending on the age of
a person, and whether the bathing is in a sex segregated
situation. In some societies, some communal bathing is
also done without clothing.

Public baths

When swimming, not wearing clothing is sometimes


called skinny dipping.

Bathing babies

Babies can be washed in a kitchen sink or a small plastic


baby bath, instead of using a standard bath which oers
little control of the infants movements and requires the
parent to lean awkwardly or kneel.[36] Bathing infants too
often has been linked to the development of asthma or
severe eczema according to some researchers, including
Michael Welch, chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics' section on allergy and immunology.[37]

6
6.1

Japanese bathing culture


Private baths

Today, most homes in Japan have a bathroom (ofuro),


which was often not the case about 30 years ago. Bath
water in Japan is much hotter than what is usual in Central
Europe. The temperature is usually well above 40 C. In

Sento bathing scene. Japanese woman bathing in a wooden tub


(woodcut by Torii Kiyomitsu, late 18th century)[39]

In public baths, there is a distinction between those with


natural hot springs called, onsen (hot), and the other, the
sento. Since Japan is located in a volcanically active region, there are many hot springs, of which about 2000
are swimming pools. Most onsen are in the open countryside, but they are also found in cities. In Tokyo, for
example, there are about 25 onsen baths. Locations of
known mineral springs spas are on the Western model.
An onsen, consists mostly of outdoor pools (rotenburo),
which are sometimes at dierent temperatures. Extremely hot springs, where even experienced or frequent
hot-spring bathers can only stay a few minutes, are called
jigoku (hell). Many onsen also have saunas, spa treatments and therapy centers. The same rules apply in public baths as in private baths, with bathers required to wash

ART MOTIF

and clean themselves before entering the water. In gen- observations. During the Renaissance and Baroque perieral, the Japanese bathe naked in bathhouses; bathing ods, the gods and nymphs of Greek mythology were desuits are not permissible.
picted bathing in allegorical paintings by artists such as
Titian and Franois Boucher, both of whom painted the
goddess Diana bathing. Artists continued to paint Biblical characters bathing, and also sometimes depicted con7 Art motif
temporary women bathing in the river, an example being
Rembrandt's Woman Bathing.
In the 19th century, the use of the bathing scene reached
its high point in classicism, realism and impressionism.
Oriental themes and harem and turkish baths scenes became popular. These scenes were based on the artists
imagination, because access by men to Islamic women
was not generally permitted.[40] In the second half of
the century, artists increasingly eschewed the pretexts
of mythology and exoticism, and painted contemporary
western women bathing. Edgar Degas, for example,
painted over 100 paintings with a bathing theme. The
subject of Bathers remained popular in avant-garde circles at the outset of the 20th century.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Grandes Baigneuses, 1887

Notable artists who have represented bathing scenes:


Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Pierre Bonnard
William-Adolphe Bouguereau
Franois Boucher
Paul Czanne
Gustave Courbet
Lucas Cranach the Younger
Edgar Degas
Albrecht Drer
Anthony van Dyck
Roger de La Fresnaye
Paul Gauguin

Albrecht Drer, Womans Bath, 1496

Jean-Lon Grme

Bathing scenes were already in the Middle Ages a popular subject of painters. Most of the subjects were women
shown nude, but the interest was probably less to the
bathing itself rather than to provide the context for representing the nude gure. From the Middle Ages, illustrated books of the time contained such bathing scenes.
Biblical and mythological themes which featured bathing
were depicted by numerous painters. Especially popular themes included Bathsheba in the bath, in which she
is observed by King David, and Susanna in the sight of
lecherous old men.

Albert Gleizes

In the High Middle Ages, public baths were a popular


subject of painting, with rather clear depictions of sexual advances, which probably were not based on actual

Pablo Picasso

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Boris Kustodiev
Max Liebermann
douard Manet
Jean Metzinger

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

9
Sebastiano Ricci

8 See also

Zinaida Serebriakova

Balneotherapy

Joaqun Sorolla y Bastida

Destination spa

Domenico Tintoretto

Navy shower

Titian

Sent

Anders Zorn

Spas
Thermae

Lucas Cranach, The Golden Age, 1530


Titian, Actaeon Surprises Diana in Her Bath, 1559
Wolfgang Heimbach, People Bathing, 1640
Franois Boucher, Diana Leaving Her Bath, 1742
Torii Kiyomitsu, Bathing Woman, 1750
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, The Turkish Bath,
1862
Jean-Lon Grme, The Bath, ca. 1880
Edgar Degas, After the Bath, ca. 1890
Paul Gauguin, By the Sea, 1892
Paul Czanne, The Large Bathers (detail)
Lawrence Alma-Tadema, The Baths at Caracalla,
1899
Max Liebermann, Bathing Boys, 1900
Joaqun Sorolla y Bastida, Sad Inheritance, 1900.
Crippled children bathing at the sea in Valencia
Anders Zorn, Girls from Dalarna Having a Bath,
1906
Jean Metzinger, Baigneuse, Deux nus dans un jardin
exotique (Two Nudes in an Exotic Landscape),
190506
Albert Gleizes, Les Baigneuses (The Bathers), 1912,
Muse d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris
Zinaida Serebriakova, Banya, 1913
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, The Soldier Bath, 1915
Boris Kustodiev, Russian Venus, 1926
Pablo Picasso, Quatre baigneuses (Four Bathers),
1922, Collection Paul Allen

9 References
[1] Gallagher, J. (2003). Geisha: A Unique World of Tradition, Elegance, and Art. London: PRC Pub. p. 87. ISBN
1856486974
[2] Badehuser, Schwitzbder, Heisse Quellen. Katalog der
Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin, Berlin 1997.
[3] Hernndez, J. C. (n.d.).
www.izt.uam.mx.
Retrieved December 18, 2012, from http://148.206.53.231/
UAMI11028.PDF
[4] Temazcal. (2012, 25 de agosto). Wikipedia, La enciclopedia libre. Fecha de consulta: 08:24, diciembre 18, 2012 desde http://es.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?
title=Temazcal&oldid=59102538.
[5] John Floyer & Edward Batnard (1715. First version
published 1702). Psychrolousia. Or, the History of
Cold Bathing: Both Ancient and Modern. In Two
Parts. The First, written by Sir John Floyer, of Litcheld. The Second, treating the genuine life of Hot and
Cold Baths..(exceedingly long subtitles) by Dr. Edward
Batnard. London: William Innys. Fourth Edition, with
Appendix. Retrieved 2009-10-22. Check date values in:
|date= (help) Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
[6] Hahn, J.S. (1738). On the Power and Eect of Cold Water. Cited in Richard Metcalfe (1898), pp.56. Per Encyclopdia Britannica, this was also titled On the Healing
Virtues of Cold Water, Inwardly and Outwardly applied,
as proved by Experience
[7] Currie, James (1805). Medical Reports, on the Eects
of Water, Cold and Warm, as a remedy in Fever and Other
Diseases, Whether applied to the Surface of the Body, or
used Internally. Including an Inquiry into the Circumstances that render Cold Drink, or the Cold Bath, Dangerous in Health, to which are added; Observations on the Nature of Fever; and on the eects of Opium, Alcohol, and
Inanition. Vol.1 (4th, Corrected and Enlarged ed.). London: T. Cadell and W. Davies. Retrieved 2 December
2009. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org)
[8] Claridge, Capt. R.T. (1843, 8th ed), pp.14 49, 54, 57, 68,
322, 335. Note: Pagination in online eld does not match
book pagination. Type Oertel into search eld to nd
citations.

10

[9] Claridge, Capt. R.T. (1843). Hydropathy; or The Cold


Water Cure, as practiced by Vincent Priessnitz, at Graefenberg, Silesia, Austria. (8th ed.). London: James Madden and Co. Retrieved 2009-10-29. Full text at Internet
Archive (archive.org). Note: The Advertisement, pp.vxi, appears from the 5th ed onwards, so references to time
pertain to time as at 5th edition.
[10] Bradley, James (2003). Cold cure: Hydrotherapy had exotic origins, but became a rm favourite of the Victorian
elite. Wellcome Trust: News and Features. Retrieved 17
November 2009.
[11] Kneipp, Sebastian (1891). My Water Cure, As Tested
Through More than Thirty Years, and Described for the
Healing of Diseases and the Preservation of Health. Edinburgh & London: William Blackwood & Sons. Retrieved
3 December 2009. translation from the 30th German edition. Full text at Internet Archive (archive.org).
[12] Beirne, Peter. The Ennis Turkish Baths 18691878.
County Cork Library. p. see note 11. Retrieved 30 October 2009. Originally published in The Other Clare vol.
32 (2008) pp 12-17
[13] Anon. (1843). Hydropathy, or the Cold Water Cure. The
Substance of Two Lectures, delivered by Captain Claridge, F.S.A., at the Queens Concert Rooms, Glasgow. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
[14] Ashpitel, Arthur (1851), Observations on baths and washhouses, p. 214, JSTOR 60239734, OCLC 501833155
[15] Metcalfe, Richard (1877), Sanitas Sanitatum et Omnia
Sanitas 1, Co-operative printing company, p. 3
[16] "'Slum Saint' honoured with statue. BBC News. 4 February 2010.
[17] Wohl, Anthony S. (1984), Endangered lives: public health
in Victorian Britain, Taylor & Francis, p. 73, ISBN 9780-416-37950-1
[18] Rathbone, Herbert R. (1927), Memoir of Kitty Wilkinson
of Liverpool, 1786-1860: with a short account of Thomas
Wilkinson, her husband, H. Young & Sons
[19] Topography of Warwickshire, William West, 1830
[20] The Birmingham Journal: Private Bath Advertisements,
17 May 1851
[21] Baths and Wash-Houses. The Times. 22 July 1846. p.
6. Yesterday the bill, as amended by the committee, for
promoting the voluntary establishment in boroughs and
parishes in England and Wales of public baths and washhouses was printed.
[22] Classied Advertising. The Times. 26 July 1847. p. 1.
Model Public Baths, Goulston-square, Whitechapel. The
BATHS for men and boys are now OPEN from 5 in the
morning till 10 at night. Charges - rst-class (two towels),
cold bath 5d., warm bath 6d.; second-class (one towel),
cold bath 1d, warm bath 2d. Every bath is in a private
room.
[23] Metcalfe, Richard (1877), Sanitas Sanitatum et Omnia
Sanitas 1, Co-operative printing company, p. 7

REFERENCES

[24] Shifrin, Malcolm (3 October 2008), St Anns Hydropathic Establishment, Blarney, Co. Cork, Victorian Turkish Baths: Their origin, development, and gradual decline,
retrieved 12 December 2009
[25] The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 3 October 1863
[26] To Philadelphians on behalf of the Natatorium & Physical
Institute. p. 11. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
[27] Eveleigh, Bogs (2002). Baths and Basins: The Story of
Domestic Sanitation. Stroud, England: Sutton.
[28] http://museumvictoria.com.au/collections/themes/1615/
health-hygiene-in-nineteenth-century-england. Missing
or empty |title= (help)
[29] The Western Heritage (2004) by Donald Kagan, Steven E
Ozment, and Frank M Turner. ISBN 0-13-182839-8
[30] Shove, Elizabeth (2004). Comfort, Cleanliness and Convenience The Social Organization of Normality (New Technologies/New Cultures). New York: Berg. ISBN 978-185973-630-2.
[31] From the Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, fourth edition:
mandi
v.
to wash ones
body with water
and soap (by
pouring
water
over or soaking
ones body, etc.)
[membersihkan
tubuh dng air dan
sabun dng cara
menyiramkan,
merendamkan diri
ke air, dsb.] p.871
bak mandi n.
something used
to hold water for
bathing
[kolam
tempat air untuk
mandi], p. 121
kamar mandi
n.
place for
bathing
[bilik
tempat mandi], p.
611
[32] http://en.allexperts.com/q/Indonesia-193/
2011-03-08.
Indonesian-culture.htm Accessed:
(Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/
5x2cjVbxL)
[33] Lonely Planet website - Indonesia: Cheaper hotels, where
they exist, may not have running water or showers. Washing facilities are likely to be Indonesian mandi style, something with which travellers who have been o the beaten
track in Indonesia will be familiar. A mandi is a large water tank, from which you scoop water with a ladle, jug or
what looks like a plastic saucepan. Once wet, you soap

11

yourself down and then rinse the soap o with more water from the mandi. You certainly do not climb into the
mandi. Accessed: 2011-03-08. (Archived by WebCite
at )
[34] Rough Guide website - Malaysia - Accommodation: Instead of showers, a few older places, usually in rural areas, sometimes have a mandi a large basin of cold water
which you throw over yourself with a bucket or ladle.
[35] http://www.tactileint.com/seasia/Indonesia.html
Accessed: 2011-03-08.
(Archived by WebCite at
http://www.webcitation.org/5x2caStUE)
[36] Bathing your baby, babycentre.co.uk. Retrieved May 4,
2014.
[37] "Too Many Baths?", parenting.com. Retrieved May 4,
2014.
[38] K.Kubota, K.Tamura, H.Take, H.Kurabayashi, M.Mori,
T.Shirakura: Dependence on very hot hot-spring bathing
in a refractory case of atopic dermatitis. in: Journal of
medicine. 25.1994, 5,333-336. ISSN 0025-7850
[39] Photo from Sketches of Japanese Manners and Customs, by J. M. W. Silver. ISBN 978-1-4346-9833-9.
[40] Alev Lytle Croutier: Wasser. Elixier des Lebens. Heyne,
Mnchen 1992, S. 187 . ISBN 3-453-05924-7

10

External links

Russian baths
Japanese Bath- Photographs of Willy Puchner
The Japanese bathing ritual
The Straight Dope: Is good personal hygiene a recent invention?
Bathing Your Baby
History of soap and bathing
A virtual exhibition about bathing in art, from
Cranach to Fellini
Tales of Torontos rst Jewish shvitz

12

11

11

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

11.1

Text

Bathing Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathing?oldid=631757001 Contributors: Alex.tan, Hajhouse, SimonP, Daniel C. Boyer,


Patrick, Kchishol1970, Pgunn, Sannse, Delirium, Pcb21, CamTarn, Ahoerstemeier, Mac, Arteitle, Technopilgrim, Fuzheado, SEWilco,
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11.2

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File:Albrecht_Drer_-_The_Women{}s_Bath_-_WGA7041.jpg
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11.3

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