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IRC:37-2012

VENKATS PRESENTATION on
DESIGN of FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

V. VENKATA NARAYANA
DEPUTY EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (R&B),
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IRC:37 2012 vis-a-vis IRC:37-2001


First 4 slides are for the Engineers well versed with IRC:37:2001.
Amateur can skip the first 4 slides.
1) DESIGN PRINCIPLE ::
i. IRC:37-2012 ::
APPROACH of DESIGN :- MECHANISTIC EMPIRICAL .
Traffic 2-30 msa :- Design Life Lasts till which ever following takes place earlier.
FATIGUE CRACKING in Bituminous surfacing limited to 20% of pavement area or
RUTTING in Pavement reached terminal rutting (20 mm) in 20% of length.
Traffic 30-150 msa :- Design Life Lasts till which ever following takes place earlier.
FATIGUE CRACKING in Bituminous surfacing limited to 10% of pavement area or
RUTTING in Pavement reached terminal rutting (20 mm) in 10% of length.

ii. IRC:37-2001 ::
APPROACH of DESIGN :- MECHANISTIC EMPIRICAL .
Traffic 1-150 msa :- Design Life Lasts till which ever following takes place earlier.
FATIGUE CRACKING in Bituminous surfacing limited to 20% of pavement area or
RUTTING in Pavement reached terminal rutting (20 mm) in 20% of length.
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IRC:37 2012 vis-a-vis IRC:37-2001


2) PAVEMENT COMBINATIONS ::
IRC:37-2012 :- FIVE different COMBINATIONS ::
Surfacing with Bitumen and
Bases and Sub-Bases with un-bound and bound materials ( Cementitious) .
IRC:37-2001 :- ONLY ONE COMBINATION ::
Surfacing with Bitumen and
Bases and Sub-Bases with un-bound materials.

3) SYSTEM of UNITS ::
IRC:37-2012 :- IS SYSTEM.
IRC:37-2001 :- CGS SYSTEM .

4) PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURES ::


IRC:37-2012 :- TWO Procedures 1) Using IITPAVE & 2) Design Charts &Catalogues.
IRC:37-2001 :- ONE Procedures Using Design Charts & Catalogues .

5) ANNUAL TRAFFIC GROWTH RATE ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 5.0 %.
IRC:37-2001 :- 7.5 % .
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IRC:37 2012 vis-a-vis IRC:37-2001


6) CBR The SUBGRADE Strength ::
i. CBR for DESIGN ::
IRC:37-2012 :- EFFECTIVE CBR -> Obtained by combining Subgrade CBR & Embankment CBR.
IRC:37-2001 :- CBR of SUBGRADE Only .

ii. CBR Minimum for SUBGRADE ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 8 % CBR of SUBGRADE.
IRC:37-2001 :- 2 % CBR of SUBGRADE .

iii. CBR Minimum Maximum for Design ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 3-15 % EFFECTIVE CBR .
IRC:37-2001 :- 2-10 % CBR of SUBGRADE.

7) BITUMINOUS GRADING ::
IRC:37-2012 :- VISCOSITY GRADING.
IRC:37-2001 :- PENETRATION GRADING.

8) NAMING PAVEMENT LAYERS ::


IRC:37-2012 :- Wearing Course, Layer below Wearing Course, Base Layer, Sub-base Layer.
IRC:37-2001 :- Wearing Course, Binding Course, Base Course, Sub-base Course.
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IRC:37 2012 vis-a-vis IRC:37-2001


9) PAVEMENT LAYER THICKNESS in Base & Sub- base layer combinations ::
i. TOTAL THICKNESSES ::
IRC:37-2012 :- Min:380+(20) mm to Max: 850 mm ( Arithmetic sum of all layers) .
IRC:37-2001 :- Min:375+(20) mm to Max: 975 mm (Clearly given in the Code).

ii. GSB THICKNESSES ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 100 380 mm.
IRC:37-2001 :- 150 460 mm.

iii. WMM THICKNESSES :: No change.


IRC:37-2012 :- 225 250 mm.
IRC:37-2001 :- 225 250 mm.

iv. LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE THICKNESSES ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 30-170 mm. (Only DBM).
IRC:37-2001 :- 0 215 mm. ( BM or DBM).

v. WEARING COURSE THICKNESSES ::


IRC:37-2012 :- 20 -- 50 mm . (, SDBC, of BC).
IRC:37-2001 :- 20 -- 50 mm . (PC, SDBC, of BC).
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COMPONENTS OF ROAD
ROAD WAY
FORMATION

CARRIAGEWAY

SHOULDER
PAVEMENT
SUBGRADE
EMBANKMENT

G.L

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PAVEMENTS
Pavement : Pavement is a structure.
1. It consists of superimposed layers of selected and
processed materials.
2. It is placed on a Sub grade.
3. It supports the applied traffic loads and distributes them
to the soil foundation.

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ESSENTIL REQUIEMENT OF PAVEMENTS

1) STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE
A PAVEMENT SHOULD BE
(i) STRONG enough to resist the stresses imposed on it and
(ii) THICK enough to distribute the external loads on the
earthen subgrade.

2) FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE
A PAVEMENT SHOULD HAVE

(i) Riding quality,


(ii) Surface friction for skid resistance,
(iii) Low noise and
(iv) Good Geometrics.
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TYPES OF PAVEMENTS
1) FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS,
2) RIGID PAVEMENTS,
3) COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS,
i.

Surface course is Bituminous & Base Layer is RIGID (PCC).

ii. Surface course is RIGID (PCC) & Base Layer is Bituminous.

4) SEMISEMI-RIGID PAVEMENTS and


5) PRECAST PREPRE-STRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.

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ELEMENTS of FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS as per MoRT&H

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ELEMENTS of CONCRETE PAVEMENTS as per MoRT&H

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1) FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
1. Consists THREE Layers.
2. It has low FLEXURAL strength.
3. Transfers the traffic loads by DISPERSION.

Bituminous Wearing Course


Layer below Wearing Course

BITUMINOUS
SURFACINGS

BASE LAYER
SUB-BASE LAYER
SUB GRADE (FOUNDATION)
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FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS- LOADS & STRESS


STRESSESS ON DIFFERENT LAYERS

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2) RIGID PAVEMENTS

1. These consist of only TWO Layers.


2. Transfers the traffic loads by FLEXURE.

CC WEARING COURSE

SUB-BASE LAYER
SUB GRADE

Sub-base may be

DLC/ PCC/ WMM/WBM

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3) COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS
Surface course is BITUMINOUS.

Surface course RIGID (PCC)

Base/ Sub-base is RIGID (PCC).

Base/ Sub-base is BITUMINOUS.

BITUMINOUS WEARING COURSE

RIGID (CC) WEARING COURSE

RIGID BASE LAYER

BITUMINOUS BASE LAYER

SUB GRADE

SUB GRADE

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4) SEMI-RIGID PAVEMENTS

COMPOSITE PAVEMENT MATERIAL includes CONSISTING OF


Porous asphalt concrete (PA) with air voids between 25-30%
(by Marshall mix design volume).
Filled or flooded by special formulated high performance
polymer modified cement mortar material in to above Porous
asphalt concrete wearing course.
SEMI-RIGID WEARING COURSE

BASE LAYER
SUB GRADE
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5) PRECAST PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.

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DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

TWO CODES for DESIGN


Village Roads and Rural Roads ::
Traffic Less than 450 CVPD).
IRC:SP:20-2002 (Rural Road Manual).
IRC :SP72-2007 (Guide lines for the design of flexible
pavements for low volume Rural Roads ).

Expressways, NH, SH, MDR::


Traffic Greater than 450 CVPD (2 msa to 150 msa).
IRC:37-2012 (Guide lines for the design of flexible
pavements).
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IRC:37-2012
GUIDELENES FOR THE DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

This code is based on MECHANISTIC EMPERICAL Approach.


Design life of pavement to last till the earliest of the following happening.
A. Up to 30 msa.
I.
FATIGUE CRACKING in Bituminous surfacing limited to 20% of
pavement area or
II. RUTTING in Pavement reached terminal rutting (20 mm) in 20% length.
B.
Up to 150 msa.
I.
FATIGUE CRACKING in Bituminous surfacing extended to 10% of
pavement area or
II.
RUTTING in Pavement reached terminal rutting (20 mm) in 10% length

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DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS


Design of FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS involves the
interplay of several variables like
Wheel Loads.
Traffic.
Climate.
Terrain.
Subgrade condition.

MAIN PARAMETERS FOR DESIGN .


DESIGN TRAFFIC .- (STRESS)
Cumulative number of Standard Axles.

CBR value of Subgrade.-(STRENGTH).


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TRAFFIC TERMS - Definition in code.

IRC:37 Considers traffic in terms of ::


STANDARD AXLE
= 80 KN
DESIGN LIFE
= Period in which the cumulative
number of standard axles
carried by the pavement.
CVPD :: Commercial Vehicles Per Day
Vehicle having LADEN weight more than 30 KN.

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PARAMETERS for DESIGN TRAFFIC


For estimating the DESIGN TRAFFIC, information required ::
i. INTIAL TRAFFIC :: After construction (before the road is
opened to traffic) in terms of CVPD.
ii. TRAFFIC GROWRT RATE :: % of Annual increment in traffic.
iii. DESIGN LIFE :: in number of years.
iv. VEHICLE DAMAGE VACTOR :: Due to deviation from Standard
Axle loads
v. DISTRIBUTION of commercial traffic over the carriageway.

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TRAFFIC
I) INITIAL TRAFFIC ::
Only the number of commercials (W>30 KN) and
The Axle-Loading of Commercial Vehicles are considered.
The initial daily average traffic flow based 7 days X 24 hours classified
counts.
II ) TRAFFIC GROWTH RATE ::
Traffic growth rate is estimated ::
By studying the past trends of traffic growth and
By establishing economic models as per procedure out lined in
IRC:108.
The code recommends average annual growth rate as 5.0 % (In case
adequate data is not available).
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iii) DESIGN LIFE


Definition ::
Design life of a pavement is the CUMULATIVE
NUMBER of standard axles that can be carried
before strengthening of pavement is necessary.
DESIG LIFE for ::
Express ways & Urban Roads. -- -- -- 20 yrs.
National Highways & State Highways 15 yrs.
Other category of roads -- -- -- -- 10 to 15 yrs.

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iv) VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR

Definition ::
It is an equivalent number of STANDARD AXLE per
COMMERCIAL VEHICLES.
STANDARD AXLE = 80 KN.

It is a multiplier to convert COMMERCIAL VEHICLES


of different axle loads and configuration to
STANDAD AXLE.
COMMERCILA VEHICLE * VDF = STANDARD AXLE.
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iv) VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR


The following equations used for computing equivalency
factors for
Single, Tandem and Tridem axles.

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iv) VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR- Example

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iv) VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR- Example

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iv) VEHICLE DAMAGE FACTOR- Default Values


THE DEFAULT VALUES of V.D.F. Stipulated in code
Where Sufficient information on axle loads is not available and
The small of the project does not warrant axle load survey.

Examples
100 CVPD = 150 Standard Axles.
1000 CVPD = 3500 Standard Axles.
2000 CVPD = 9000 Standard Axles.

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v) LANE DISTRIBUTION FACTOR


Distribution of commercial traffic by
LANE.
DIRECTION.
Necessary in arriving realistic total equivalent standard axle load used in design.

Types of Carriageways
Single Lane carriageway ( No median of divider).
Dual lane carriageway ( With Median or Divider).

Types of Lanes
Single - Lane (only in single carriageway).
Two Lane.
Three Lane (only in dual carriageway).
Four Lane .

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v) LANE DISTRIBUTION FACTOR


SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY ROADS

DUEL CARRIAGEWAY ROADS

100 %

75 %

75 %

60 %

40 %

45 %

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v) LANE DISTRIBUTION FACTOR


SINGLE CARRIAGEWAY ROAD
Sno

Number of Lanes

Width

L.D.F. (%)

Single Lane

3.75 m

100

Two Lane

7.00 m

75

Four Lane

14.0 /15.0

40

7.0 + 7.0

75

DUAL CARRIAGEWAY ROAD


1

Two Lane

Three Lane

10.5 + 10.5

60

Four Lane

14.0 + 14.0

45

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Estimation of TRAFFIC- Initial

Suppose TRAFFIC in the year of CENSUS is (CVPD) - - - - - - - -

P (1 + r )

TRAFFIC after ONE year (CVPD) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TRAFFIC after TWO years (CVPD) -TRAFFIC after THREE years (CVPD) - - -

P (1 + r )(1 + r ) = P (1 + r ) 2
P (1 + r )(1 + r )(1 + r ) = P (1 + r ) 3

----- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - --------------- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - TRAFFIC after x years (CVPD) - - -

P(1+ r)(1+ r)(1+ r) x = P(1+ r)x = A

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Estimation of TRAFFIC- Cumulative


Suppose TRAFFIC in the year of COMPLETION is (CVPD) - - - - - TOTAL number of vehicles in FIRST year (CVPD) -- - TOTAL number of vehicles in SECOND year (CVPD)
TOTAL number of vehicles in THIRD year (CVPD)

365

A
* A

365 * A * (1 + r )
365 * A * (1 + r ) 2

=== === === === === === === === === === === ====

TOTAL number of vehicles in n th year (CVPD)


CUMULATIVE TRAFFIC for

n years (CVPD)

(By adding the TRAFFIC from FIRST to n th year)

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365 * A * (1 + r ) ( n 1 )

365 * A * (1 + r ) n 1
r

]
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Estimation of TRAFFIC ABSTRACT FORMULA


CUMULATIVE NUMBER OF STANDARD AXLES TO BE
CARRIED IN THE DESIGN PERIOD IN TERMS OF
msa (Millian Standard Axles)

N =

365 * ( 1 + r ) n 1
r *1000000

]* A * D * F

A = Initial Traffic.
r = Growth Rate.
D = Lane distribution factor.
n = Design life in years.
F = Vehicle Damage Factor.
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SUBGRADE
Definition ::
It is the top 500 mm of FORMATION and is FOUNDATION to the
pavement.
The Subgrade is in infinite layer in contact with the ground.
It should be well compacted.
The Subgrade is constructed with Local materials
Without stabilization or
With stabilization using stabilizers. .

Density :: The DRY DENSITY not less than 1.75 gm/cc.


Strength ::
The STRENGTH of subgrade is assessed in terms of CBR ( California Bearing Ratio).

Minimum = 8%
The CBR should be found on remolded samples in the lab at the weakest condition
under the road after construction.
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SUBGRADE

Compaction ::
97.0 % of Dry density achieved with heavy compaction
(MODIFIED proctor density).
For Expressways,
National Highways,
State Highways,
Major District Roads,
Other Heavy trafficked roads.

97.0 % of Dry density achieved with normal compaction


(STANDARD proctor density).
Rural roads .
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CBR- California Bearing Ratio


The California Bearing Ratio test is a penetration test meant for the
evaluation of SUBGRADE strength of roads and pavements. It is an
EMPIRICAL test.
One CBR value is equal to average of three specimen tests.
The test should be performed on remoulded samples in the laboratory.
The sample should be remoulded at placement density & moisture
content.
The moisture content should be
Ascertained from compaction curve at lab or
Can be based on field data of existing in-service pavements.

MINIMUM value of CBR for


Subgrade = 8%
Embankment below Subgrade = 1.5%.
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EFFECTIVE CBR
In case there is significant
difference between the
CBRs of the select
SUBGRADE
and
EMBANKMENT
below
Subgrade
soils,
the
Design should be based
on EFFECTIVE DBR.
The EFFECTIVE CBR of
subgrade
can
be
determined from the
adjacent figure.
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EFFECTIVE CBR - EXAMPLES


EXAMPLE 1
CBR of Subgrade = 20 %
CBR of Embankment = 7%
Effective CBR = 15.0 %
EXAMPLE 2
CBR of Subgrade = 10 %
CBR of Embankment = 3%
Effective CBR = 7.0 %

15.0%

7.0%

EFFECTIVE CBR
MINIMUM = 3 %
MAXIMUM = 15%
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EFFECTIVE CBR - VALUES

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PRINCIPLES of PAVEMENT DESIGN


PAVEMENT MODEL
A Flexible pavement is modeled as
an elastic multilayer structure.
CRITICAL PARAMETERS FOR
PAVEMENT DESIGN.
i. Tensile strain at the bottom of
bituminous layer-> CRACKING.
ii. Vertical subgrade strain on the
top of subgrade -> RUTTING

Deciding Limits.
CRACKING in Bituminous Layers.
RUTTING in Non-Bituminous Layers
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FATIGUE

Definition ::
Fatigue is the weakening of a material caused by repeatedly
applied loads.
It is the progressive and localized structural damage that
occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading.
The nominal maximum stress values that cause such damage
may be much less than the strength of the material.
Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated
loading and unloading.(Temperature also is a load).

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FATIGUE in BOTTOM Layer of Bituminous Pavement


and Fatigue Life

FATIGUE
With every load repetition, the tensile strain developed at the
bottom of Bituminous Layer develops micro cracks.
These MICRO CRACKS widen and propagate to surface
beyond the following acceptable limits.
The phenomenon known as FATIGUE (or fracture) of the
bituminous layer.
LIMITS
20 % of Area for traffic up 2 to 30 msa.
10 % of Area for traffic 30 to 150 msa.
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RUTTING in PAVEMENT

RUTTING
RUTTING is the permanent deformation in pavement usually
occurring longitudinally along the wheel path.
It may partly be caused by deformation in the subgrade and
other non-bituminous layers. The Bituminous layers may
undergo rutting due to secondary compaction.
Excessive rutting greatly reduces the serviceability of the
pavement.
LIMITS
20 mm in 20 % of the length for traffic up to 30 msa.
20mm in 10 % of Length for traffic 30 to 150 msa.
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Design
To limit the RUTTING and the CRACKING, the pavement is designed
based on elastic behavior of component layers.
1. Resilient Modulus is the measure of elastic behaviour of
Subgrade and Granular bases.
Resilient Modulus of Subgrade estimated from CBR of Subgrade.
Resilient Modulus of Granular bases is determined from Resilient
Modulus of Subgrade.

2. Elastic Modulus is the measure of strength of Bound Sub-bases.


Elastic Modulus of Bound Sub-bases is determined from the unconfined
compressive strength of the material.

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Design
3. Flexural strength is the measure of strength of Bound Bases.
Flexural strength of Bound Bases is determined from the unconfined
compressive strength of the material.

4. Resilient Modulus if the measure of elastic behaviour of


Bituminous Layers.
Resilient Modulus of any Bituminous mix controlled by the
I. Grade of bitumen used and
II. Air temperature.
Design catalogues giving pavement compositions are prepared at 350C
temperature.

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Design
1. The parameters to addressed in design of Pavement are
i. FATIGUE leading to CRACKING and
ii. RUTTING.

2. FATIGUE LIFE.
i. Sub-Base --- Thickness
ii. Base
--- Thickness
iii. Bituminous Surfacings - Thickness.

3. RUTTING.
i. Sub-Base --- Thickness
ii. Base
--- Thickness
iii. Bituminous Surfacings - Thickness and Mix Design using
higher viscosity grade Bitumen or Modified Bitumen.
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FATIGUE LIGFE

The Fatigue Life of Pavement increased THREE


TIMES if
i. The Bitumen content increased by 0.5 % to 0.6% above
optimum bitumen content given by Marshal test,
ii. Air void is reduced to the minimum acceptable level of
3 % and
iii. Volume of Bitumen increased to the level of 13 %.

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PAVEMENT COMPOSITION
THE COMPONENTS of FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS ARE
1)
BITUMINOUS SURFACING ::
Wearing Course and/or
Layer Below Wearing Course.

2)

AGGREGATE INTERLAYER ::
Only for Cement Base.
Aggregate Layer -- (WMM 100 mm) or
SAMI

3)

BASE LAYER ::
Unbound Base layer -- Granular.
Bound Base layer -- Cemented or Stabilized

4)

SUB-BASE LAYER ::
Unbound Sub-base layer Granular.
Bound Sub-base layer -- Cemented or
Stabilized

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BITUMINOUS SURFACING Wearing Course.

WEARING COURSES ::
Catalogue of design are worked out at 350C of Bitumen.
At 350C , Poissons ratio of Bitumen is 0.35.
I. SDBC--- Semi-Dense Bituminous Concrete ::
1. Specification No :- 508 of MoRT&H (4 th Revision)
2. Traffic :- up to 5 msa.
3. Thickness :- 25, 30, 40 mm.
4. Bitumen :- VG 30 grade.
II. BC--- Bituminous Concrete ::
1. Specification No :- 507 of MoRT&H (5 th Revision) / 509 of MoRT&H
(4 th Revision
2. Traffic :- Above 5 msa.
3. Thickness :- 25, 30, 40, 50 mm
4. Bitumen :- VG 30 grade up to 30 msa & VG 40 grade above 30 msa.
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BITUMINOUS SURFACING Layer below Wearing Course.

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE ::


Catalogue of design are worked out at 350C of Bitumen.
At 350C , Poissons ratio of Bitumen is 0.35.

I. DBM --- Dense Bituminous Macadam ::.


1. Specification No :- 505 of MoRT&H (5 th Revision) / 507
of MoRT&H (4 th Revision).
2. Traffic :-2- 150 msa (Every traffic).
3. Thickness :- 30, 40 , 50 80, 85, 90 170 mm.
4. Bitumen :- VG 30 grade up to 30 msa & VG 40 grade
above 30 msa.
5. Note :- Bitumen used for DBM should be same as used
for wearing course laid over DBM.
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AGGREGATE INTERLAYER Aggregate Layer

1)

Cementitious base normally crack due to Shrinkage and


Temperature changes even before pavement being loaded.
The cracks developed in the Cementitious base reflect in
Bituminous Course laid on it.
To delay propagation of cracks in the Bituminous course, a
crack relief layer provided between the bituminous course
and Cement Base.
Aggregate layer consists any one of the following

2)
3)

4)
1)
2)

Crushed aggregate 100 mm of WMM conforming to MoRT&H.


Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer (SAMI) of elastic modified
binder.
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BASE LAYER Unbound Base Layer -GRANULAR


I. FUNCTIONS :- It serves TWO Functions.
1. Provides strength and support to the
overlying pavement.
2. Protect the Subgrade from over stressing.
II. MATERIALS :- Wet Mix Macadam(406),
Water bound macadam, Crusher run
macadam, reclaimed concrete.
III.PROPERTIES of WMM :1. Gradation as per Table 400-13 of
MoRT&H.
2. AIV less than 30%.
3. Flakiness Index+ Elongation Index < 35 %

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BASE LAYER Bound Base Layer CEMENT TREATED


I. FUNCTIONS :- It serves TWO Functions.
1. Provides strength and support to the
overlying pavement.
2. Protect the Subgrade from over stressing.

II. MATERIALS(403 of MoRT&H) :1. Aggregates stabilized with Cement.


2. 7 day minimum strength 4.5 Mpa.
3. 28 day minimum strength 7.0 Mpa.
III.PROPERTIES of Cement treated BASE :1. Gradation as per Table 400-4 of MoRT&H.
2. Data as per 4.6 of MoRT&H Standard Data
Book (First Revision).
3. Ratios of (37.5-9.5):(9.5-4.75):(4.75-0.75) is
(32.5) % : (5) % : (62.5) %
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SUB-BASE LAYER Unbound Sub-base Layer- GRANULAR


I. FUNCTIONS :- It serves THREE Functions.
1. Protect the Subgrade from over stressing.
2. Provides platform for construction traffic.
3. Serves as drainage and filter layer.

II. MATERIALS (GSB-401 of MoRT&H) :Crushed stone, Sand,


Reclaimed Crushed
concrete, reclaimed asphalt Pavement , Crushed
slag or combinations there of

III.PROPERTIES of Granular Sub-base :1. Gradation as per Table 400-1 of MoRT&H.


2. AIV less than 40%.
3. Material passing 425 micron should have
Liquid Limit not more than 25 and Plasticity
index not more than 6.

IV. COMPOSITION :1. LOWER LAYER serves as SEPARATION/ FILTER Layer -- Gradings III and IV.
2. UPPER LAYER serves as Drainage Layer -- Gradings V and VI.

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BASE LAYER Bound Sub-Base Layer CEMENT TREATED


I. FUNCTIONS :- It serves THREE Functions.
1. Protect the Subgrade from over stressing.
2. Provides platform for construction traffic.
3. Serves as drainage and filter layer.

II. MATERIALS(403 of MoRT&H) :1. Aggregates modified with Cement.


III.PROPERTIES of Cement treated Sub-Base :1. Gradation as per Table 400-4 of MoRT&H.
2. Data as per 4.6 of MoRT&H Standard Data Book
(First Revision).
3. Ratios of (37.5-9.5) : (9.5-4.75) : (4.75-0.75) is
(55) % : (20) % : (25) %

IV. COMPOSITION :1. LOWER LAYER serves as SEPARATION/ FILTER Layer.


2. UPPER 100mm LAYER serves as Drainage Layer -bound with 2-3 % cement.
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PAVEMENT DESIGN PROCEDURE

The FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS can designed


USING IITPAVE.
Any combination of traffic and pavement layer composition can
be tried using IITPAVE.
The strength of materials used and the stresses from traffic are
the parameters.

USING DESIGN CATALOGUES.


These Guide lines provide a design Catalogue giving pavement
compositions for various combination of
TRAFFIC.
LAYER CONFIGURATION and
ASSUMED MATERIAL PROPERTIES.
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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES

FIVE different combinations .


In cement
bases for the
cases 2, 3 & 4
the top 100
mm of
sub-base
is to be
porous
and act as
DRAINAGE LAYER.
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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES -1


BITUMINOUS SURFACING with
GRANULAR BASE and GRANULAR Sub-BASE.

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Bituminous composition with Granular Bases

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Bituminous composition with Granular Bases

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Bituminous composition with Granular Bases


ABSTRACT- ( 400 to 850 mm)
SUSURFACE LAYER BITUMINOUS :: 50-220 mm thick.
WEARING COURSE :MIX SEAL
-> 20 mm thick up to 2 msa of traffic.
SDBC
-> 25 mm thick up to 5 msa of traffic.
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) -> 40 to 50 mm 5 to 150 msa

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE :DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM) -> 30 to 170 mm.

BITUMEN :- VG 40 grade for BC and DBM for traffic > 30 msa.

INTER LAYER. NOT NECESSARY.


BASE LAYER GRANULAR :: 225 & 250 mm thick.
WET MIX MACADAM or (WBM, CRUAHER RUN MACADAM, RECLAIME CONCRETE)
225 mm thick up to 2 msa of traffic.
250 mm thick 2 to 150 msa of traffic.

SUB-BASE LAYER GRANULAR:: 100-380 mm thick.


GSB as per MoRTH.
100 to 380 mm 2 to 150 msa of traffic.

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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES -2


BITUMINOUS PAVEMENT with CEMENT TREATED BASE and
CEMENT TREARED SUB-BASE.

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Bituminous composition with Cement treated base & sub-base

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Bituminous composition with Cement treated base & sub-base

ABSTRACT- ( 410 to 590 mm)


SUSURFACE LAYER BITUMINOUS :: 30-100 mm thick.
WEARING COURSE :SDBC
-> 30 to 40 mm thick up to 5 msa of traffic.
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) -> 40 to 50 mm 5 to 150 msa

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE :DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM) -> 50 mm for traffic 50 -150 msa.

BITUMEN :- VG 40 grade for BC and DBM for traffic > 30 msa.

INTER LAYER -- AGGREGATE :: 100 mm thick.


BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 30- 140 mm thick.
AGGREGATE STABLISED WITH CEMENT.
Minimum Strength 4.5 MPa @ 7days and 7.0 MPa @ 28 days.

SUB-BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 250 mm.


AGGREGATE /SOIL modified with stabilizers.
DRAINAGE LAYER -> Top 100 mm Coarse Aggregate with 2-3% Cement.
FILTER LAYER
-> Bottom 150 mm Stabilized Aggregate/ Soil.

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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES -3


BITUMINOUS SURFACING with CEMENT TREATED BASE and
CEMENT TREARED SUB-BASE with SAMI.

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Bituminous Surfacing with cement treated base and


cement treated sub-base with SAMI.

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SAMI-Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer


SAMI- It is a layer which is laid on cracked pavement surface before laying
Bituminous Surfacings, i.e., sandwiched layer between cracked layer and
Bituminous layer.
MATERIALS ::
Modified Binder 8-10 kg per 10 sqm
Aggregate Chips of 5.6 mm size 0.100 cum per 10 sqm.

METHODOLOGY ::
Modified Binder heated to 160-1700C and sprayed on
prepared Base layer using pressure sprayer.
Aggregate Chips 10 mm size are spread within 2 minutes using mechanical spreader.
Rolling carried out within 5-10 minutes using pneumatic/ steel tire self propelled roller
and continued till all cover aggregate particles are firmly embedded in Bituminous
material.
Sweeping is carried out to remove all excess chippings.
MEASUREMENTS :: Finished work in square meters.
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Bituminous Surfacing with cement treated base and


cement treated sub-base with SAMI.

ABSTRACT- ( 360 to 530 mm)


SUSURFACE LAYER BITUMINOUS :: 30-100 mm thick.
WEARING COURSE :SDBC
-> 30 mm thick up to 5 msa of traffic.
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) -> 40 to 50 mm 5 to 150 msa

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE :DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM)

-> 50 mm for traffic 30 -150 msa

BITUMEN :- VG 40 grade for BC and DBM for traffic > 30 msa.

INTER LAYER -- SAMI (Stress Absorbing Membrane Interlayer).


BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 80- 180 mm thick.
AGGREGATE STABILIZED WITH CEMENT.
Minimum Strength 4.5 MPa @ 7days and 7.0 MPa @ 28 days.

SUB-BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 250 mm.


AGGREGATE /SOIL modified with stabilizers.
DRAINAGE LAYER -> Top 100 mm Coarse Aggregate with 2-3% Cement.
FILTER LAYER
-> Bottom 150 mm Stabilized Aggregate/ Soil.

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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES -4


BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS with BITUMEN TREATED RAP/
AGGREGATE OVER CEMENT TREATED SUB-BASE.

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Bituminous Surfacing with Bitumen treated RAP /AGGREGATE


over cement treated sub-base.

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RAP : RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT


RAP : RECYCLED ASPHALT PAVEMENT ::
Asphalt pavement reclaiming/recycling involves reusing the in-place
pavement material to rehabilitate and/or strengthen the asphalt pavement
structure.
The recycling process involves removing the asphalt pavement materials of
the pavement structure, usually by cold milling.
After adding new materials, reheating the recycled mixture and placing it
with the same methods as used for conventional virgin asphalt concrete.
Minimal adaptation of existing pavement construction equipment or new
equipment purchases are required for hot-mix recycling.
The proportions of old material to new material in the blending process will
be governed by the material properties of the old asphalt concrete and the
specification requirements for the recycled mix.
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Bituminous Surfacing with Bitumen treated RAP


/AGGREGATE over cement treated sub-base.

ABSTRACT- ( 255 to 600 mm)


SUSURFACE LAYER BITUMINOUS :: 25 to100 mm thick.
WEARING COURSE :SDBC
-> 25 mm thick up to 10 msa of traffic.
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) -> 40 to 50 mm 10 to 150 msa

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE :DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM) -> 50 mm for traffic 50 -150 msa.

BITUMEN :- VG 40 grade for BC and DBM for traffic > 30 msa.

INTER LAYER -- NOT NECESSARY.


BASE LAYER Bitumen treated RAP /AGGREGATE :: 30- 250 mm thick.
RAP- Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement.

SUB-BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 200 to 250 mm.


AGGREGATE /SOIL modified with stabilizers.
DRAINAGE LAYER -> Top 100 mm Coarse Aggregate with 2-3% Cement.
FILTER LAYER
-> Bottom 100-150 mm Stabilized Aggregate/ Soil.

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PAVEMENT DESIGN CATALOGUES -5


BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS with CEMENT TREATED BASE and
GRANULAR SUB-BASE with AGGREGATE INTERLAYER.

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Bituminous composition with cement treated base and


GRANULAR sub-base.

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BITUMINOUS SURFACINGS with CEMENT TREATED BASE


and GRANULAR SUB-BASE with AGGREGATE INTERLAYER.

ABSTRACT- ( 520 to 680 mm)


SUSURFACE LAYER BITUMINOUS :: 30 to100 mm thick.
WEARING COURSE :SDBC
-> 30 mm thick up to 5 msa of traffic.
BITUMINOUS CONCRETE (BC) -> 40 to 50 mm 5 to 150 msa

LAYER BELOW WEARING COURSE :DENSE BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM) -> 50 mm for traffic 50 -150 msa.

BITUMEN :- VG 30 up to 30 msa & VG40 for traffic > 30 msa.

INTER LAYER -- 100 mm thick (of Wet Mix Macadam) .


BASE LAYER CEMENTED :: 140- 230 mm thick.
AGGREGATE STABLISED WITH CEMENT.
Minimum Strength 4.5 MPa @ 7days and 7.0 MPa @ 28 days.

SUB-BASE LAYER GRANULAR :: 250 mm thick.


GSB retained from existing Highway.
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USES .
FOR RECONSTRUCTION
OF EXISTING HIGHWAYS.
G. S. B. of EXISTING
HIGHWAYS is retained.
77

BITUMEN - CLASSIFICATION
Based GRADATION values STRAIGHT RUN BITUMEN is classified in 3 ways.
1. PENETRATION GRADING (Adopted 1950-2006) ::
Penetration of needle loaded with 100 gm
for 5 seconds at temperature of 250 C.
Penetration is expressed in units of 0.10 mm.
80/100 means Penetration of needle 8 to 10 mm.
It is an ARBITRARY & EMPIRICAL test not SCINTIFIC.
It does not involve the measurement of any fundamental engineering parameters.
250 C is an average Annual temperature which is a low service temperature.

S90 (80/100), S65 (60/70), S55 (50/60) and S35 (30/40) are 4 types
penetration grades for Highways from softer to stiffer grade.
Penetration graded bitumens can be more prone to rutting than
viscosity graded bitumens.
2. VISCISITY GRADING ::
3. PERFORMANCE GRADING (Superpave performance Grading) ::
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BITUMEN - CLASSIFICATION
2. VISCISITY GRADING (Adopted from 2006) ::
Viscosity (degree of fluidity) denotes the fluid property of bituminous material.
It is a measure of resistance to flow when a shearing stress is imposed on it.
Viscosity is typically calculated from the time required for the bitumen binder to flow
between two successive marks.
Viscosity of bitumen is measured at 600C temp. which is a service temperature for Pavement.
Viscosity also measured at 1350C and retain penetration grading system at 250C.
It is expressed in units of POISES (grams per cm per second).
It is a SCINTIFIC and FUNDAMENTAL test .
This system had an excellent performance history .
Based on Viscosity at 60OC Bitumen is Classified as VG-10,
VG-20, VG-30 and VG-40 grades.
VG-10 minimum Absolute viscosity 800 Poise at 600C.
VG-20 minimum Absolute viscosity 1600 Poise at 600C
VG-10 minimum Absolute viscosity 2400 Poise at 600C
VG-10 minimum Absolute viscosity 3200 Poise at 600C
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VISCOSITY of fluids in Poise


Water
- 1
Blood
- 10
Caster oil - 350
Honey
- 3500
79

BITUMEN - CLASSIFICATION

3. PERFORMANCE GRADING (Not Adopted in INDIA) ::


Aimed at addressing:
Physical properties measured are directly related to field performance
by engineering principles.
Climatic effects from complete range of pavement service
temperatures.
Construction.
Aging during construction and in-service.
Traffic speed.
Traffic volume.
Site condition.

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BITUMEN, DIFFERENT GRADINGS & PROPERTIES


Bitumen is a thermoplastic material,
Its stiffness is dependent on its temperature.
A.
B.
C.
D.

-100, -150 :: Minimum pavement temperature.


Thermal cracking.
250C :: Average annual temperature.
Pavement raveling and/or Fatigue cracking.
600C :: High Service temperature, critical performance temperature.
Deformation, Rutting.
1350C :: Mixing, Transportation and Compacting temperature.

1) Penetration grading addresses Bituminous property B only.


2) Viscosity grading addresses Bituminous properties B, C and D.
3) Performance grading addresses Bituminous properties all A, B, C and
D. This grading also addresses real properties during service period.
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BITUMEN GRADATION, MoRT&H GUIDE LINES

MoRT&H Guide lines in selection of


appropriate grade of Bitumen based on VISCOSITY GRADE.
I. VG-10 Grade may be used in place of :
80-100 penetration grade Bitumen.

II. VG-20 Grade may be considered for :


Special cases only.

III. VG-30 Grade may be used in place of :


60-70 penetration grade Bitumen.

IV. VG-40 Grade may be used in place of :


30-40/ 40-50 penetration grade Bitumen.

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BITUMEN SELECTION for BITUMINOUS LAYERS

PMB :: Polymer Modified Bitumen.


NRMB :: Natural Rubber Modified Bitumen.
CRMB :: Crumbed Rubber Modified Bitumen.

When CVPD exceeds 2000 per Lane and Daily Mean temperature exceeds 400C
VG-40 Bitumen or Modified Bitumen of Equivalent stiffness may be used for Wearing Course.
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EQUIVALENCE OF THICKNESSES of BITUMEN MIXES

IRC:37-2012 :: Considers Elastic Modulus (E)of Bitumen for Equivalence.


Pavement design Charts are prepared at 350C air Temperature.
At 350C Resilient Modulus
DBM for VG 10 bitumen -- 1000.
DBM for VG 30 bitumen -- 1700.
DBM for VG 40 bitumen -- 3000.
DBM for Modified bitumen -- 1650.
BM for VG 10 bitumen -- 500.
BM for VG 30 bitumen -- 700.

The thickness are related .


3
E 1 H 1 =
H

3
E 2 H 2

E
E

1
2

1 / 3

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LINEAR INTERPOLATION
1
x
---x
****
1 1
y x

2
y

1
y

yyyy

2
x

1
y
1
x

2
x

2
y

y2

1
x
---x

1
y
---y

(
+
(

* ( x x1)

1
x

1
y

* ( x x1)

1
x

2
x

1
x

x
****
1 1
y x

2
y

(
+
(

1
y

At any intermediate Value x , value of

yyyy

Second PAIR (x2, y2)

1
y

First PAIR (x1, y1)

2
x

2
y

x2

2
x

x1

(
y = y1 +
(

2
y

y1

(
( y y 1) =
(

) (
=
) (

PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE

Effective CBR

LDF

A&
VDF

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PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE

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PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE

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PAVEMENT DESIGN EXAMPLE

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Bituminous composition with Granular Base & Granular Sub-bases

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Bituminous composition with Granular Base & Granular Sub-bases

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Bituminous composition with Cementitious Base & Granular Sub-bases

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Bituminous composition with Cementitious Base & Granular Sub-bases

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Bituminous composition with Cementitious Base & Granular Sub-bases

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Bituminous composition with Cementitious Base & Granular Sub-bases

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DISPARITIES NOTICED in IRC:37-2012

1. Page no. 8, Para 4.5.1 (II) ::


50 percent of total
As per IRC:37-2001 Page No. 13, Para 3.3.5.1 (II) it is 75 %.
In this Presentation 75 % is adopted.

2. Page No. 26 to28 , Plate No. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 & 7::


Wearing Course is given as 2O mm thickness of SDBC.
SDBC Specification is discarded in MoRT&H ( 5th Revision).
In MoRT&H ( 4th revision) Table 500-15 grading 2 Layer thickness is given as 25-30 mm.

3. Page No. 36 & 37 , Plate No. 17, 18, 19 &20 ::


For traffic 10 msa Wearing Course is given as 25 mm thickness.
In the legends of the same charts it is given as BC/SDBC ( upto 5 msa).
In MoRT&H ( 5th revision) Table 500-17 of Bituminous Concrete , grading 2 Layer
thickness is given as 30-40 mm.
Doubt? Whether 25 mm is treated as SDBC of BC ?
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References
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

IRC : 37-2012 Guidelines for the design of Flexible Pavements ( 3rd Revision).
IRC : 37-2001 Guidelines for the design of Flexible Pavements ( 2nd Revision).
IRC:111-2009 Specifications for Dense Graded Mixes for Bituminous Mixes.
IS:73-2013 -Indian Standard PAVING BITUMEN SPECIFICATION (4th revision).
MORT&H Specifications for Road and Bridge works ( 5th Revision).
MORT&H Specifications for Road and Bridge works ( 4th Revision).
MoRT&H Manual for construction and supervision of Bituminous Works.
MoRT&H STANDARD DATA BOOK FOR ANALYSIS OF RATES ( 1st Revision).
Principles and practices of Highway Engineering. -L.R. Kadiyali.
Introduction to Transportation Engineering - Prof K Sudhakar Reddy.
An Overview of the Viscosity Grading System Adopted in India for Paving Bitumen -Prof. Prithvi Singh Kandhal.
Handbook of Road Technology, Fourth Edition M. G. Lay
MoRT&H Circular on Viscosity grade bitumen.
Some sites in Internet.
MS office 2010.

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acknowledgements
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

Sri P. Ravindar Rao, EinC (R&B) Govt. of Telangana.


Sri K. Bikshapathi EinC (R&B) Govt. of Telangana.
NAC :: National Academy of Construction, Hyderabad.
Sri S. Jaswant Kumar, C.E.(D&P), R&B Dept.(Retired).
Sri D.V. Bhavanna Rao C.E. (QC), (R&B) Dept. Retired.
Sri L. Mallaiah, J.D. Research station, HYD.
Sri M. Balanarsiah, E.E (R&B), Sangareddy.
Master V. Sraman,
Sri M. Kishan, AEE (R&B), ZAHEERABAD.

10) Sri Md. Waseem Aqthar AEE(R&B), ZAHEERAABAD.

11) Smt I. Shantisree, NAC.


V. VENKATA NARAYANA
Dy. Executive Engineer,
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THANK YOU
V. VENKATA NARAYANA,
DEPUTY EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (R&B),

9440818440, 07799139399,

vvn.randb@gmail.com
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