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Roasting and Tasting


Fundamentals CRTF1

Roasting, Tasting and


crafting quality at
Quality Expertise CRTF2 origin
Theaspectsof advanced coffeeroasting
and tasting protocols, importing,
and other coffee quality evaluation
techniques.

Variety of short lectures and lessons


which have been recorded at farms and
processing stations in coffee producing
countries all around the world.

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The essential and elementary aspects


of coffee roasting, coffee quality
evaluation through cupping and tasting
protocols.

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COURSE BOOKLET
Articles by: Willem Boot
Texts by: Willem Boot, Jodi Dowel, Valerian Hrala,
Marlee Benefield
Design and Layout: Valerian Hrala
www.coffeeis.me
Photos: Willem Boot, Valerian Hrala, Marlee
Benefield
Boot Coffee Inc
Reproduction is not permitted without the written
permission of the authors.
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COFFEE ROASTING
COFFEE BEAN IN THE ROASTER
ROASTING

HEAT TRANSFER
The heat that is produced by the
combustion of natural gas, propane gas
or whatever energy source is used, can be
transmitted in various ways to the coffee
beans being roasted.
The carrier of this heat is a fuel gas
mixture, that is developed in the flame of
the burner.
This mixture, depending on the energy

source, will consist mainly of hydrogen


and hydrocarbons that are combusted
with the supplied air.
The result of the combustion, the exhaust
gas, will contain water vapor, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur and
nitrogen. The flame temperature of
the different burner configurations lies
between 1200 and 1900 C (2192 and 3272
F). This depends on the type of fuel being

used.
Propane gas flames burn at appr. 1900
C, whereas natural gas burns at lower
temperatures.
Most small and medium sized coffee
roasters combine the principles of
conduction, and to a smaller extent,
convection heating. Most larger roasting
machines utilize the use of convection
heat.

PHOTO TITTLE

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DEVELOPMENT OF
THE COFFEE BEAN
DURING ROASTING
During the first stage of roasting, the
chemical reactions inside the coffee bean
are endothermic in character, they are
mainly caused by the heat that is supplied
from the outside.
The green coffee is fed into the roasting
chamber at a temperature of about 20 C
(68 F). At 100C (212 F) water inside the
beans starts evaporating, at 130C (266 F)
the color of the bean starts turning yellow
and the volume of the bean expands. At
appr. 140 C (284 F) carbon dioxide, carbon
monoxide and other gases are liberated
(mainly as a result of the decomposition
of carbohydrates, proteins and fats).
At appr. 182 C (360 F), the first crack
occurs.
The development of aroma and flavor will
start in the exothermic phase of roasting.
The beans start turning from dark yellow
to light brown to a darker brown color.
The pressure inside the coffee bean is
increasing, due to the forces of the carbon
dioxide gases. This can result in a bluish
exhaust smoke.
Beyond 200 C (392 F) the exothermic and

the aromatic and flavor developments


occur very fast and must be controlled by
reducing the heat supply.
Beyond 220 C (428 F) uncontrolled
carbonization starts to take place and will
finally spoil the taste of the coffee beans.
By now, the beans have begun to sweat,
fats are being released and spread all over
the bean surface.

LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
ROASTING 101, ROASTING 201 (CRTF2) and PRODUCTION ROASTING (CRTF1 and CRTF-2).

ROASTING

Willem Boot
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RULING THE ROAST


To develop the proper skills of controlling your roaster consistently, it is important to understand how parameters like moisture content and bean density influence the roasting process

In the roasting process, coffee beans are


first loaded with energy until the heatabsorption capacity of the beans is nearly
exhausted. Right before spontaneous
combustion becomes inevitable, the
roaster operator reduces heat input and
allows for a gradual increase in bean
temperature. Finally, at the end of the
roasting process, the bean temperature
needs to drop about 350 degrees as quickly

as possible during the cooling process.


Outsiders might think that roasting is
like the ultimate balancing act: risky and
hazardous.
However, with the proper amount of
control, coffee roasting can be as safe as
toasting bread or barbecuing a burger.
Despite all these modern controls, many
roasters are still confused about how to
use their roaster with different bean types

and how to design time temperature


profiles to get the best possible outcome
in the cup. To develop the proper skills of
controlling your roaster consistently, it is
important to understand how parameters
like moisture content and bean density
influence the roasting process.

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Many roasters are still confused about how to use their roaster with different
bean types and how to design time temperature profiles to get the best possible
outcome in the cup.

MOISTURE CONTENT
In roasting, the moisture content of the
green bean plays an important role. Under
normal conditions, green coffee beans
have a moisture content of 1012 percent.
The moisture content will fluctuate freely
with the relative humidity content of the
ambient air. In cities like Amsterdam and
San Francisco, relative humidity levels
throughout the year are nearly perfect for
storing green beans over a length of time,
and for slowing down the aging process
of green coffee. This also reduces the
likelihood that the roaster operator has
to change roast profiles to compensate
for possible variances in green coffee
moisture.
The moisture inside the green beans is
partially free or is present as bound
moisture and contained in the
carbohydrate
molecules.
We
can
summarize the roasting process as a
three-stage cycle:
The drying phase is when the moisture
content of the coffee is reduced to about
two percent. During this phase, the free
moisturethe residue of the process
from cherry to green beanevaporates.
Free moisture also plays a role in the heat
transfer during roasting. As soon as the

beans are energized with heat, the beans


moisture conducts this heat throughout
the bean. When the internal bean
temperature approaches 212 degrees F.,
the free moisture starts evaporating.
In the second phase, from the first crack
to the second crack, coffee beans develop
their specific aromas and flavors, which,
as coffee tasters know, can produce a
very complex taste profile. At the end of
the second phase, all free moisture has
evaporated. The length of the second
phase depends on the roasting degree,
which can vary from region to region and
from product to product.
With very dark roasts, there is also a third
phase which starts when the second crack
is almost completed. During this phase,
carbonization takes place and the bound
moisture is destroyed. Beans with a
moisture content of less than 10 percent
have a sharply reduced free moisture
level and will tend to roast much faster,
especially in the first phase. In this case,
the roaster operator needs to change the
roasting profile by initiating the roasting
process at a lower heat level and by
maintaining a lower amount of energy
supply (less BTUs) during the first roasting
phase.
Beans with a high moisture content (fresh

crop coffees can have a moisture content


in excess of 14 percent) often require that
the roaster operator includes a pre-drying
phase before starting the first phase of
the process. During pre-drying, it is
recommended that the roaster maintains
a drum temperature of 300 degrees F. with
the objective to slowly remove the excess
free moisture. The actual phase one of the
roasting process can begin as soon as the
beans start losing their deep green color.

CELL STRUCTURE DENSITY


Lower grown beans generally have a less
solid bean structure than higher grown
beans. The density of the bean structure is
revealed by the shape and the position of
the center cut. Picture A shows a bean from
Kenya, which was grown at an altitude of
at least 5,500 feet. The center cut is tightly
closed and almost seems to be floating
in the upper layer of the bean. In sharp
contrast, Picture B displays arobusta bean,
grown at almost sea level. In this case, the
center cut is widely opened and draws like
a deep crevasse through the coffee bean.
See also page 35.
What is the relationship between bean
density and roasting? High-density beans
have a denser cell structure and more cells
per cubic millimeter than low-density
6

CELL STRUCTURE

Cell structure of a coffee


bean. Magnification 419X

beans. As a result, high-density beans


are more resistance to heat, which will
be especially noticeable during the first
phase of roasting.
After the evaporation of free moisture, the
color of the coffee beans starts changing
from (light) green to yellow to light brown.
During this color change, the bean starts
expanding. With lower-density beans,
the center cut will open more quickly,
allowing for a faster transfer of heat, which
will accelerate the process even further.

GREEN BEAN TYPES


To develop an effective roast protocol,
I recommend dividing green coffee

SUMATRA

KENYA

Robusta from Sumatra as an exaple of a


soft bean.

beans into the following four categories:


I). Hard bean types: Roast these coffees
with high initial heat and moderate heat
in the final stage of the roast process.
Examples: Kenya AA, Guatemala SHB and
almost any coffee grown higher than 5,000
feet.
II). Medium hard bean types: Roast these
coffees with moderate initial heat and
moderate heat in the final stage. Examples:
Brazil, Sumatra, Java and most Latin
American coffees grown lower then 5,000
feet.
III). Soft bean types: These coffees should
be roasted with low to moderate heat
during the entire process. Example:

Arabica coffee from


Kenya as an example
of a hard bean

Hawaiian coffees, Caribbean types and


beans grown lower than 3,500 feet.
IV). Fresh-crop coffees: These coffees
normally have a bean structure that is
not settled or hardened yet, especially
if the coffee did not have its required
resting or curing time. During the first 35
minutes, the operator should maintain
a moderate roasting temperature, after
which the roasting cycle can be continued
according to the category indication that
was described before.
Download the full article at
http://www.bootcampcoffee.com

LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
PRODUCTION ROASTING (CRTF-1 and
CRTF-2).
MOISTURE ANALYSER

Shore 930 is an example of a


moisture analyzer. This model
can also read the density of the
bean.

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LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
ROASTING 101, ROASTING 201,
PRODUCTION ROASTING (CRTF-1 and
CRTF-2).

GREEN COFFEE PROPERTIES AND THE ROAST


PROFILES
The TIME TEMPERATURE PROFILE of a coffee is a time/temperature relationship of the
bean temperature measured in the drum and the exhaust temperature measured close
to the loading funnel of a traditional coffee roaster. The HEAT SUPPLY PROFILE is a time/
heat relation represented in percentages of the potential heat output of the burners on
the roaster.

HARD BEAN ROAST PROFILE

SOFT BEAN ROAST PROFILE

High initial heat, lower heat at the completion of baking

Medium level initial heat, lower the heat before the first crack

Example of a roast profile for harder bean


types:

bread stage and slightly increase slightly again to bring the


roasting to a controlled finish.

Example of a roast profile for softer types


of beans:
to 35% and then after 1st crack lower again to 20%.

AROMATIC
MILESTONES

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AROMATIC MILESTONES CAN HELP YOU UNDERSTAND WHAT IS


HAPPENING IN THE ROASTER BEFORE THE FIRST CRACK.

1. WET GRASS
200-240 F (93-116 C) Water is changing from its liquid state to gas. It is the
first indication that the applied heat is affecting the coffee bean. Water wapor is
leaving the beans.

2. HAY
290-320 F (143-160 C) Maillard reaction starts while the color changes from
green to the first shade of brown. This
indicates that the sugars start caramellizing.

4. A-POINT
330-355 F (165-180 C) At the onset of the
A-point aromatic properties of the coffee can
be smelled for the first time.The A-point occurs
right before the first crack and it indicates that
more complex chemical reactions are about to
start.

3. BAKING BREAD
330-355 F (165-180 C) Maillard reaction continues as the color changes to
darker shades of brown and almost all free moisture is evaporated.

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ROAST COLOR

THE ROAST COLOR OF THE COFFEE CAN BE


MEASURED USING THE INVERSED AGTRON SCALE
WHICH RANGES FROM 95-25 WHERE 95 IS THE
LIGHTEST AND 25 IS THE DARKEST COLOR.

95

65

LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
PRODUCTION ROASTING (CRTF-1 and
CRTF-2).

85

75

55

45

CUPPING COLOR

PLEASE NOTE

We did our best to match the


colors but ...
The Agtron color disks on this page are
only an approximation of the real disks.
They are not intended to replace the real

35

25

disks, but will help you to visualize the


Agtron scale and the color changes that
occur during roasting.

10

CUPPING

CUPPING COFFEE
THE PROFESSIONAL TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATING THE COFFEES
FRAGRANCE, AROMA, FLAVOR, AFTERTASTE, ACIDITY AND MOUTHFEEL IS
CALLED CUPPING.
ROASTING THE SAMPLE
The sample should be roasted within 24
hours of cupping and allowed to rest for

Determine the volume of water in the


selected cupping glass and adjust weight
of coffee to this ratio within+/- .25 grams.

at least 8 hours.
Roast profile should be a light to lightmedium roast, measured via the M- Basic
(Gourmet) Agtron scale of approximately
58 on whole bean and 63 on ground, +/1 point (55-60 on the standard scale or
Agtron/SCAA Roast tile #55).
The roast should be completed in no
less than 8 minutes and no more than 12
minutes. Scorching or tipping should not
be apparent.
Sample should be immediately air-cooled
(no water quenching).
When they reach room temperature (app.
75 F or 20 C), completed samples should
then be stored in airtight containers or
non-permeable bags until cupping to
minimize exposure to air and prevent
contamination.
Samples should be stored in a cool dark
place, but not refrigerated or frozen.

MEASUREMENTS
The optimum ratio is 10 grams per 150
to 160 cc of water, as this conforms to the
mid-point of the optimum balance recipes
for the Golden Cup.

PREPARATION
Sample should be ground immediately
prior to cupping, no more than 15 minutes
before infusion with water. If this is not
possible, samples should be covered and
infused not more than 30 minutes after
grinding.
Samples should be weighed out AS
WHOLE BEANS to the predetermined ratio
(see above for ratio) for the appropriate
cup fluid volume.
Grind particle size should be slightly
coarser than typically used for paper
filter drip brewing, with 70% to 75% of the
particles passing through a U.S. Standard
size 20 mesh sieve. At least 5 cups from each
sample should be prepared to evaluate
sample uniformity.
Each cup of sample should be ground
by running a cleansing quantity of the
sample through the grinder, and then
grinding each cups batch individually
into the cupping glasses, ensuring that the
whole and consistent quantity of sample
gets deposited into each cup. A lid should
be placed on each cup immediately after
grinding.
11

WATER
Water used for cupping should be clean
and odor free, but not distilled or softened.
Ideal Total Dissolve Solids are 125-175
ppm, but should not be less than 100 ppm
or more than 250 ppm.
The water should be freshly drawn and
brought to approximately 200 F (93C)
at the time it is poured onto the ground
coffee.
The hot water should be poured directly
onto the measured grounds in the cup to
the rim of the cup, making sure to wet all
of the grounds.
Allow the grinds to steep undisturbed
for 3-5 minutes before evaluation.

SCORING
The purpose of this cupping protocol is the
determination of the cuppers preference.
The quality of specific flavor attributes
is analyzed, and then drawing on the
cuppers previous experience, samples

are rated on a numeric scale. The scores

end of the scale (0 to 6) is applicable to

between samples can then be compared.

lower grade commercial coffees and for

Coffees that receive higher scores should

that reason we only focus on the 6 to 10

be noticeably better than coffees that

range of the scale.

receive lower scores.

The middle of the 6 to 10 range is the

The Cupping Form provides a means of

score of 8 points. A coffee that consistently

recording 11 important flavor attributes

scores at this level for the various quality

for coffee:

categories will generally end up with a

Aftertaste,

Fragrance/Aroma, Flavor,
Acidity,

Body,

Balance,

Uniformity, Clean Cup, Sweetness, Defects,

85+ total score, which earns the coffee the


classification of true specialty.

and Overall. The specific flavor attributes


are positive scores of quality reflecting a

WHY TO CUP?

judgment rating of the cupper; the defects

To determine the actual sensory

are negative scores denoting unpleasant

differences

flavor sensations; the Overall Score is

To describe the flavor of samples .

based on the flavor experience of the

To determine preference of products .

between

samples.

individual cupper as a personal appraisal.


These are rated on a 16-point scale
representing levels of quality in quarter
point increments
Theoretically the quality scale should
range between a minimum value of 0 to
a maximum value of 10 points. The lower

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LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
CUPPING (CRTF-1 and CRTF-2).

12

CUSTOM
CUPPING FORM

SCAA
CUPPING FORM

BOOT COFFEE
CUPPING FORM

CUSTOM DESIGN

SCAA/SCAE

BOOT COFFEE

This is an example of a simple but effective

The SCAA cupping form is more technical

The Boot Coffee cupping form is based on

cupping form designed a long time ago

and is focused on numerical expression

the SCAA Tasting and Cupping protocol

by Willems dad in their micro roasting

of the coffee quality. It focuses on scoring

but it is amended by aroma and taste

company in Holland: The Golden Coffee

the coffee rather then describing the

descriptors. The form has set values which

Box. It is an example of a custom in-house

aromatic and taste impressions. It is a

represent the most widely used categories

cupping form design, which helped the

part of the SCAA cupping protocol and is

in coffee cupping. This way the cuppers

business to record the quality finding in

the most widely used form and protocol

have a better understanding of what they

the coffee samples received and the coffee

in the coffee industry.

are talking about when discribing aromas

in the warehouse. The design is very basic,

Download it at http://www.scaa.org

and tastes of the coffee. Similarly as on the

Example of in-house custom


designed cupping form

Technical, score based


cupping form

SCAA protocol based cupping


form

but it is a good example that evaluating

SCAA form, you assign scores to evaluate

and knowing the quality of your products

the quality.

was, is and will be essential for any serious


coffee business.

Download it at http://www.bootcoffee.com

LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video module
CUPPING (CRTF-2).
13

Coffee Tasters Wheel

The Coffee Flavor Wheel has been used


more than 15 years. It is a tool that serves
as a framework for professional tasters to
identify aromas and tastes of a coffee. It
helps to unify language around a coffees

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unique taste and aromatics. It is divided

Learn more in our video module


CUPPING (CRTF-2).

there it helps the taster to reveal and

into 2 parts Tastes and Aromas and from


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specify his/her findings in the coffee.

14

THE STRUGGLE
SAMPLE ROASTING

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MANY PROFESSIONALS IN THE COFFEE


INDUSTRY STRUGGLE WITH THEIR SAMPLE
ROASTING TECHNIQUES

I have been informally surveying the

noticed that throughout the industry,

sample roasting practices of coffee

coffee professionals do a poor job in

professionals around the world. During

roast consistency; rarely do I see sample

my travels to coffee laboratories in Africa,

roaster operators utilize a master sample

Latin America, Europe, and especially

to assure that roast colors of samples

the United States, I have witnessed the

are consistent. Few professionals use

various protocols used by different

adequate lighting, like incandescent full

sample roaster operators. From this, I

spectrum bulbs, which can assure an

must conclude that many professionals

objective inspection of roast colors. I have

in the coffee industry struggle with their

also seen unacceptable conditions at the

sample roasting techniques. At the offices

offices of coffee producers and exporters

of coffee importers in North America,

who dont make the effort to synchronize

coffee roasting degrees are often too

their roasting and cupping protocols with

dark, which makes it virtually impossible

those utilized by their clients.

to detect coffee taints or defects and

Sample roasts are more important in the

at least as importantdark roasting

quality inspection protocol than many

colors will generally mask the natural

roasters realize. Often, the sample itself

flavors of the coffee, which prohibits the

can represent a large quantity of coffee,

coffee taster to evaluate the true flavors

sometimes as much as an entire container,

of the coffee beans. Additionally, I have

which is about 37,500 pounds of green

Willem Boot
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15

SAMPLE ROASTING

COFFEE IMPORTERS IN NORTH AMERICA USE COFFEE ROASTING


DEGREES THAT ARE OFTEN TOO DARK, WHICH MAKES IT VIRTUALLY
IMPOSSIBLE TO DETECT COFFEE TAINTS OR DEFECTS AND WILL
GENERALLY MASK THE NATURAL FLAVORS OF THE COFFEE,

coffee beans. Thats a lot of coffee to make a

the flame levels too high. This causes the

suited to do sample roasting for product

decision about, especially if youre basing

beans to build up a high volume of heat,

development. The only criticism I would

that decision on a poorly roasted sample.

which becomes exothermic when the first

have is the fact that the sample trier is

Roasting samples is at least as challenging

crack occurs, resulting in a roast process

too small which creates some challenges

as operating larger industrial roasting

that accelerates too fast, leaving hardly

while inspecting the roast.

machines. Generally, sample roasting

any time for the beans to develop the true

Last but not least, there are various

machines are not equipped with automatic

coffee flavors.

sample roasters that have emerged on

time-temperature profilers. This puts

Other companies use the more modern

the (Northern American) market during

a higher emphasis on the skills of the

Probat sample roasters, which have a solid

the last years like the machines made by

operator, who has to assure that roast

drum and utilize a high volume of airflow.

Qantik (Colombia), Sta Impianti (Italy),

colors are consistent and that roasting

Most operators of Probat sample roasters

Penagos (Costa Rica) and for sure- I

times are within a consistent range.

use the air damper to increase or decrease

am forgetting to mention a number of

So, lets review some of the important

the air and heat volume in the drum, which

roasters that recently came out or will be

factors that can influence the outcome of

allows the operator to gradually control

introduced soon.

the sample roasting process.

the drum temperature. While the solid

In my coffee laboratory, I utilize three

drum of the Probat generally guarantees a

different sample roasters: a electrically

more even coffee bean development, these

heated Golden Coffee Box, manufactured

Most sample roasters generally resemble

machines can be difficult to use as few

by my dad in the 1980s, a San Franciscan

the larger industrial roasting machines.

operators understand the real function of

one-pounder and a refurbished Gothot

Capacities range between four ounces

the air damper and therefore I have seen

three-barrel roaster from the 1950s.

to one pound per batch. The heating is

that operators often roast simply too fast,

normally done with gas fired atmospheric

resulting in roast times of sometimes-

nozzles or with electric heating elements.

less than six minutes!

EQUIPMENT

ROASTING DEGREE
During a visit to the laboratory of a wellknown importer of specialty coffee, I

Many companies in the USA still use


the good old Burns sample roasters,

In addition there is the San Francican

observed their roasting degree, which

which are the dinosaurs of roasters and

sample roaster, which has probably the

was around Agtron 50, right at the start

preferred by many for their simplicity and

most complete design of all sample roasters.

of the second crack. Despite the fact that

durability. The Burns machines have a

Besides the standard analog thermometer,

many roasting companies use degrees of

perforated drum and operate with ample

this machine can be equipped with a digital

roast well beyond this point, I feel that

airflow, but normally lack the option to

bean probe and a gas pressure meter,

samples roasting should be done at a

incrementally adjust the flame or airflow

which will be described more in detail

much lighter degree. At a lighter degree of

level, which can make these machines

later in this article. The San Franciscan

roast, the coffee will reveal its true flavors

somewhat difficult to use. As a result,

resembles most the design of an industrial

and the beans have developed a minimum

many inexperienced operators tend to set

roasting machine and is therefore best

of caramelized flavors which generally


16

WILLIAM OF ORANGE

Custom made sample roaster


with very precise heat supply
and airlfow controll. Produced
by Primo Roasters,

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occur as a result of the roasting process.

A second observation I made while

factors that facilitate a consistent sample

Pictures A. and B. illustrate a desired roast

surveying sample roasting practices

roasting protocol?

color for High Grown Central American

around the world is the lack of roasting

First, turn on the light! Install one or more

coffees. Instead of roasting the beans

consistency. At the highest podium of

100150 watt full spectrum incandescent

to a dark brown color with a smooth

specialty coffee, during the recent SCAA

lights above the sample roaster with

and even surface, these lighter roasted

show in Atlanta, I was surprised by the

a clearance of about 2 feet above the

beans are not fully expanded and stills

roast-inconsistency of samples that were

sample roaster. Full spectrum lights give

has wrinkles. At this point in the roasting

presented at the cupping pavilion. The

the operator nearly perfect conditions for

process, the transformation of sugars

lightest sample had a color of Agtron #62

inspecting the color of the coffee beans

the caramelizationhas just begun and

and the darkest sample was at least 20

during and after the roasting process.

the coffee will still taste as it was meant

points darker! The cupping session that

Second, make sure that your sample

by Mother Nature, without the sweet

followed proved how big the impact of

roaster is equipped with the right

aftertaste which is generally a trait of

roasting can be on the flavor of coffee.

hardware. The sample roaster should

darker roasted beans.

The lightest samples had distinct citric

have a reliable probe that measures drum

Besides the aspect of roasting light

flavor notes, while the darkest samples

temperatures.

enough to taste true coffee flavor, there

tasted sweet with a berry-like aftertaste.

Furthermore, it is extremely helpful to

is the issue of tasting defects. Roasting

Unfortunately, the cupping session had an

utilize a gas pressure meter that displays

samples to a degree of Agtron 58 (beans)

inconclusive outcome, since the cuppers

every adjustment in gas flow to the

or even lighter makes the detection of

could not sense at all if the differences

burners, so that the operator at any time

defects much easier. How comfortable

in flavor were the result of the coffee

can monitor the indicatory BTU-output

do you feel with an importer who roasts

or of the sample roasting protocol.

of the burners. This device provides the

all samples too dark, which inevitably

This exactly illustrates the importance

operator with an accurate indication

masks taints like fruity, moldy and dirty?

of roasting consistently in color and in

what the heat supply level is to the roaster.

time-temperature profiles.

Additionally, the sample roaster should

So, what are some of the important

be able to cool the samples quickly.

CONSISTENCY

17

Unfortunately, most older sample roasters


do not cool the beans fast enough, which
can reduce the acidity of the coffee in the
cup.

TIME
A third important factor in sample
roasting is time. I have observed many

LEARN MORE

roast masters roasting their samples too


fast, which can change the flavor profile

Learn more in our video modules


ROASTING 101 and ROASTING 201
(CRTF1 and CRTF2).

of the coffee dramatically. Try roasting


a SHB Central American sample, first for
five minutes and then for 10 minutes to
the same degree. The samples will taste
very different.
Overall, I recommend roasting samples for
cupping in consistent time-temperature
profiles. Ideally, roasting times should
never be faster than eight minutes.
During the Cup of Excellence competition
in Honduras, a team of two roast masters
was responsible for sample roasting. Each
sample was compared against a master

GIESEN W1

sample during roasting and checked again

Modern, high airflow, 1kg sample


roaster with cast iron drum made
in Holland.

on a specially designed inspection table.


If roast colors were too light or too dark,
then the sample would be roasted again.

THE GOLDEN COFFEE BOX

Home made electric sample roaster.

J. BURNS ROASTER

.Antique but still very popular


sample roaster.

SAN FRANCISCAN

San Franciscan single drum 1lb


sample roaster

18

QUALITY
WWW.BOOTCAMPCOFFEE.COM

QUALITY

EXPLORING

CONSECUTIVE STEPS IN THE SENSORY EVALUATION OF COFFEE, ALSO


CALLED THE PROCESS OF CUPPNG COFFEE.

FRAGRANCE/AROMA
The aromatic aspects include Fragrance
(smell of the ground coffee when still dry)
and Aroma (the smell of the coffee when
infused with hot water). One can evaluate
this at three distinct steps in the cupping
process: (1) sniffing the grounds placed
into the cup before pouring water onto
the coffee; (2) sniffing the aromas released
while breaking the crust; and (3) sniffing
the aromas released as the coffee steeps.
Specific aromas can be noted under qualities and the intensity of the dry, break, and
wet aroma aspects noted on the 5-point
vertical scales. The score finally given

FLAVOR

AFTERTASTE

Flavor represents the coffee's principal

Aftertaste is defined as the length

character, the "mid-range" notes, in be-

of positive flavor (taste and aroma)

tween the first impressions given by the

qualities emanating from the back of

coffee's first aroma and acidity to its final

the palate and remaining after the cof-

aftertaste. It is a combined impression of

fee is expectorated or swallowed.

all the gustatory (taste bud) sensations

the aftertaste were short or unpleas-

and retro nasal aromas that go from the

ant, a lower score would be given.

mouth to nose. The score given for Flavor


should account for the intensity, quality
and complexity of its combined taste and
aroma, experienced when the coffee is
slurped into the mouth vigorously so as to
involve the entire palate in the evaluation.

should reflect the preference of all three


aspects of a samples Fragrance/Aroma.
19

If

ACIDITY

BODY

BALANCE

Acidity is often described as brightness

The quality of Body is based upon the

How all the various aspects of Flavor, Af-

when

when

tactile feeling of the liquid in the mouth,

tertaste, Acidity and Body of the sample

unfavorable. Acidity contributes to a

especially as perceived between the

work together and complement or con-

coffees liveliness, sweetness, and fresh-

tongue and roof of the mouth. Most sam-

trast to each other is Balance. If the sample

fruit character and is almost immediately

ples with heavy Body may also receive a

is lacking in certain aroma or taste attrib-

experienced and evaluated when the

high score in terms of quality due to the

utes or if some attributes are overpower-

coffee is first slurped into the mouth. The

presence of brew colloids. Some sam-

ing, the Balance score would be reduced.

final score marked on the horizontal tick-

ples with lighter Body may also have a

mark scale should reflect the panelists

pleasant feeling in the mouth, however.

favorable

or

sour

preference for the Acidity relative to the


expected flavor profile based on origin
characteristics.

SWEETNESS

CLEAN CUP

UNIFORMITY

Sweetness refers to a pleasing fullness of

Clean Cup refers to a lack of interfering

Uniformity refers to consistency of flavor

flavor as well as any obvious sweetness and

negative impressions from first inges-

of the different cups of the sample tast-

its perception is the result of the presence

tion to final aftertaste, a transparency

ed. If the cups taste different, the rat-

of certain carbohydrates. The opposite of

of cup. In evaluating this attribute, notice

ing of this aspect would not be as high.

sweetness in this context is sour, astrin-

the total flavor experience from the time

2 points are awarded for each cup dis-

gency or green flavors. This quality may

of the initial ingestion to final swallow-

playing this attribute, with a maximum

not be directly perceived as in sucrose-lad-

ing or expectoration. Any non-coffee like

of 10 points if all 5 cups are the same.

en products such as soft drinks, but will

tastes or aromas will disqualify an indi-

affect other flavor attributes. 2 points are

vidual cup. 2 points are awarded for each

awarded for each cup displaying this at-

cup displaying the attribute of Clean Cup.

tribute for a maximum score of 10 points.

OVERAL
The overall scoring aspect is meant to

would receive a lower rating. A coffee that

reflect the holistically integrated rating of

met expectations as to its character and

the sample as perceived by the individual

reflected particular origin flavor qualities

panelist. A sample with many highly pleas-

would receive a high score. An exemplary

ant aspects, but not quite measuring up

example of preferred characteristics not

fully reflected in the individual score of the


individual attributes might receive an even
higher score. This is the step where the
panelists make their personal appraisal.

20

EQUIPMENT

LAB EQUIPMENT
BELOW IS A LIST OF EQUIPMENT THAT WILL HELP YOU IMPROVE THE
QUALITY OF YOUR COFFEE

ROAST SAMPLES

ANALYSE THE COLOR

KNOW YOUR BEAN

SAMPLE ROASTER

COLOR METER

MOISTURE ANALYZER

A reliable, finely controlled sample roaster

There are many ways to measure the

Moisture analyzer helps you determine

will not only help you roast coffee samples

roasting color of a sample, from an

the moisture content of green coffee

for quality inspection, but also experiment

expensive professional color reader to

beans, which is needed when adjusting

with roast profiles. Choose one with gas

Agtron disks; no matter what you choose

your roasting strategy. Some models also

heating, because they are more responsive

you definitely need a tool to analyze your

measure the density of green coffee beans.

to temperature adjustments, thereby

roast colors.

allowing more precise roast profiling.

21

GRINDER

TRAYS

LIGHT

A precise professional grinder with sharp

Used to hold the roasted whole bean

Full spectrum daylight lamps (25 to 150W).

blades is absolutely required; preferably

coffee for each sample, as well as green,

There are many brands for example Verilux

one with a lower RPM motor.

unroasted coffee beans.

and GE, which makes one that is almost


full spectrum lamp.

CUPPING TABLE

CUPPING CUPS

CUPPING SPOONS

Ideally it is round, 4 ft. (120 cm) tall,

Typically 5-6 oz glass cups or professional

Preferably silver-plated or stainless steel

with enough space around and, most

ceramic or porcelain bowls are used;

with a deep, round bowl. An additional set

importantly, a dedicated area for quality

however, if you want to save money,

of round shallow-bowl spoons are ideal to

control as shown in the picture.

use 7 oz bouillon bowls available from

clean the crust.

professional chef supply stores.

22

11

10

12

SPITTOONS

WATER FILTRATION

ELECTRIC KETTLES

Your imagination is the limit, since

Clean, odorless water is critical for coffee

Use a large capacity water kettle or, even

anything that holds liquid will do, but after

cupping and for coffee preparation.

better, use several. It is very annoying, as

a long day of cupping you may appreciate

According to the SCAA the ideal water for

well as unprofessional, to run out of water

something that is very light weight; in the

cupping coffee should be 125-175 ppm, so

before the last samples are poured and

picture, Graciano Cruz is using a simple

perform your filtration accordingly.

always use a thermometer to measure the

plastic cup.

13

water temperature.

14

15

CUPPING FORMS

TIMERS

SIZE SCREENERS

Cupping forms are the best tools to keep

You need several, since they are a

Sizing screens for green coffee beans

records about your findings. There are

requirement when roasting, cupping,

ranging from screen 15 to screen 20.

many different cupping forms and you

brewing, etc. they dont have to be the

will find more information about them on

most expensive, but they do need to be

page 13.

accurate, so you may find that digital work


best.

23

BLENDING

BLENDING
Whether your business is a small mom and pop retail store, a local coffee
roasting caf or a regional roasting operation, your coffee blends create that
unique edge for your business and they can ultimately be an excellent tool to
maintain customer loyalty.

My personal experiences with coffee


started many years ago in The Netherlands.
In my home country, like in most other
Northern European countries, consumers
were traditionally accustomed to
standardized (read booring) blends that
would have a major component from Brazil,
some Central American beans, usually
some Indonesian coffee, complemented

by Robusta beans from West-Africa. My


dad became our towns messiah of single
origin coffee and preached the purity
of the essential flavours of single origin
coffees from countries around the world
Without a proper strategy it will be very
challenging to develop coffee blends and
you might end up applying a hit and miss
approach which only in rare cases results

in the creation of successful blends. I


recommend to follow a comprehensive
three step product development protocol
that will enable you to plan and execute
a program of product development that
usuallly results in the creation of at least
three succesful blends for your business.

24

PLANNING THE PROCESS

CREATING A
BLEND

In this stage it is wise to ask some fundamental questions like: For which type of client is the blend? For home consumers, restaurants or
should the blend have a versatile application? The essential task in this phase is to describe the required flavor profile of the blend with
the preferred degree of roast. The roastmaster or the responsible coffee person should know which flavor attributes to look for. Will the
blend be refreshing with a medium acidity or chocolate-like and nutty with a dry aftertaste? Obviously these are fundamental questions
that need to be asked beforehand.

SELECTING THE COMPONENTS


Second comes the important task of selecting the coffee components. In my opinion, the coffees should be chosen for their individual
quality attributes; each component must be able to stand on its own as a single-origin product. Some companies create blends for
the wrong reasons by trying to mask mediocre coffee components in the blend. I believe this is a foolish strategy and the short-term
benefitshigher profit marginsdo not weigh up against the long-term consequences of losing dissatisfied clients.

DETERMINE THE ROAST LEVEL


Third, determine the roast level for each of the coffee components that will be utilized for the design of the blend. This
step is very crucial and must be explored extensively for each of the components of your blend. I have noticed too many
roasting companies skip this step and, as a result, companies settle too quickly for the specific roasting style for each coffee
component. Remember, optimum roast levels are different for each coffee and most coffee types have more than one
optimum roast degree. As a result, the roasting process and the seemingly infinite number of roasting degrees can make
your job as blender an endless nightmare. In general, I recommend exploring the medium light (Agtron 60-64), medium
(Agtron 55-59) and well-done (Agtron 50-54) roast styles.

25

BLENDING

WHY BLEND
THERE ARE MANY REASONS FOR CREATING COFFEE BLENDS. HERE ARE A
FEW CONCEPTS.

BLENDS FOR THE WALLET


CREATING ACCEPTABLE CUP
FOR LOW PRICE

BLENDS FOR EVERYDAY TASTE


CREATING BLENDS FOR AQUIRED
TASTES

UNIQUE FLAVOR PROFILES


CREATING NEW INTERESTING
FLAVORS

PRICE

CONSISTENCY

FLAVOR CHARACTER

The practice of blending and the resulting

All coffees are seasonal and certainly

Another reason for blending coffee

cost consequences can stir up quite a

perishable, thus, creating a blend where

is to create a combination of taste

conversation with roasting companies

the ingredients and proportions change

characteristics that cannot be found in a

and retailers. The goal is to achieve certain

during the year to keep the blend vibrant

single coffee. This

flavor characteristics by picking cheaper

and fresh without veering away from its

is blending as an art form rather than as a

green coffees on the market. Blending for

essential character can be a good way to

pragmatic tool. It is fascinating to me

cost management is more typical for mass

achieve year-long consistency

how different sets of flavors and cup traits

market budget coffees.

can interact in unexpected ways. More


often than not, 1+1 does not equal 2, or 11
26

BLENDING FOR
ESPRESSO

ESPRESSO
THE KING OF BLENDS

While you blend for Flavor


Character, blending for espresso is
slightly different given the nature of
the beveradge. Espresso is a highly
concentrated coffee beverage
with emulsified oils. This means that
most of the flavor characteristics
are expressed much more loudly.
When creating blends for espresso
one must think about these
parameters all the time.

3C BLEND
Willem Boot writes
about this blend in
his article Yikes Those Prices. This is an
example of a very high end blend.
REGULAR BLEND

*40% Sumatra Lake Tawar


*35% Kenya Giakanja
*25% Guatemala Finca Santa Ana
The Kenya Giakanja (winey acidity) and
Sumatra Lake Tawar (clean, earthy body)
act as balancing counter parts and the
Guatemala Finca Santa Ana acts as a
bridge unifying the high bright notes of
the Kenya with the low peat moss flavor
notes of the Sumatra by connecting these
flavors a rich, chocolate flavor . The 3C
blend, was preferred by the cuppers for
the bright, winey sweetness, mediumintense chocolate tones with a subtle
floral aftertaste and a slightly drying
endnote. Our panel rated the blend at a
SCAA cupping score of 87 to 88 points.

3C BLEND - Budget version


It is an exaple of a
blend redesign in order to save costs.
BUDGET BLEND

*35% Ethiopia Washed Sidama G2


*25% Guatemala Finca Santa Ana
*20% Sumatra Lake Tawar
*20% Brasil Yellow Bourbon Pulped
Natural
Features a substitute for the high note
Kenya component (replaced by the
Ethiopian Sidama) and a substitute for
the low note Sumatra, which has been
partially replaced by the Brazil pulped
natural. This blend displayed good
structure in the base flavor notes with

a lingering acidity, which appeared to


resonate in different layers. was praised
the superior sweetness and very good
mouthfeel.

2013 ESPRESSO BLEND


Espresso blend
developed by the Green Plantation
Coffee, Slovakia.
ESPRESSO BLEND

coffee. Brazilian water processed decaf


has a milder taste and lacks body, as do
most decafs, but it provides a good basis
for creating interesting 50/50 blends.
In this case the washed Yirgacheffe adds
chocolate tones and possibly hints of
jasmine if you are lucky. You can replace
Yirgacheffe with an Ethiopia Sidama
sundried natural to achieve a fruity tone.

* 25% Ethiopia Limmu Washed


* 75% Brazilia Veloso Natural
Espresso blend was developed by Green
Plantation Coffee, Slovakia and it is an
example of a two component espresso
blend. It was created as a blend that reflects
the espresso flavor expectations of the
average Slovak customer, i.e., performs
well as espresso, can be roasted lighter
colors, is affordable and is made exclusively
from specialty grade coffees. The Veloso
natural has incredible body, very nice Learn more in our video modules
natural sweetness and a mildly rustic taste
PROCESSING (soon available for Coffee
familiar to most Slovak customers from
mass blends, but without the bitterness PRO).
and off flavors; it also makes a good crema.
The Ethiopian Limmu was chosen to cut
the candy-like sweetness of the Brazilian
Veloso, while adding a clean, but gentle
brightness, dark chocolate overtones and
a very mild, flowery aroma.

PROCESSING

50/50 BLEND
Blend with lower
caffeine content but with the taste of a
real coffee.
* 50% Decaf Brazil Santos (Water
Processed)
Learn more in our video modules ART
* 50% Ethiopia Yirgacheffe
An example of blending for lower caffeine OF BLENDING. (soon avalable for Coffee
content, but with the true taste of real PRO)
DECAF BLEND

ART OF BLENDING

27

PROCESSING

Willem Boot
Download full article:
www.bootcampcoffee.com
(Members only)

e
h
T
-

PROCESS
THE WORLD OF COFFEE HAS BEEN DOMINATED FOR MANY YEARS BY
PARADIGMS WHICH STEM FROM THE EARLY PART OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Traditionally,

traders

and

production

environment

and

a clean and unique flavor profile with

experiencing

an adequate level of sweetness, ideally

importers have dictated the rules of the

as

trade and the specific requirements of

quality. With the proliferation of modern

awareness of the essence of coffee quality.

result

coffee

we

are

renaissance

with

new

communication technologies, specialty

complemented

by

desirable

flavor

attributes. As in all processes, the outcome


depends on the success of each individual

roasters and producers have started to

PROCESSING FOR QUALITY

step in the chain. If for any reason the

embrace concepts like transparency

The post harvest process of coffee beans

outcome of an intermediate step is not

and traceability; current conventions in

involves a critical cycle that starts with

successful, it will have a critical impact

the global coffee industry are changing.

the carefully produced coffee cherry.

on the outcome of the entire process. For

Direct trade linkages between industry

Once the selection and harvesting of the

example,

stakeholders have begun to dictate the

cherries has been completed, a series of

cherries will jeopardize the crucial goal of

rules

events starts that is aimed at creating

sweetness in the cup. Without an adequate

for

new

coffee

28

harvesting

partially

unripe

SPACE HERE FOR


OTHER DETAILS

level of sugars in the cherries, even

honey processing style, often resulting

the

sophisticated

in an array of tastes which had never

compensate.

before been associated with coffee. The

most

process

will

not

debates about the pros and cons of


PICKING

washing

versus

alternative

processing

Producing quality coffee is impossible

styles are often fascinating. The resulting

without a proper strategy for selective

discussions frequently revolve around the

harvesting of coffee cherries. Despite

true meaning of terroir and how the

widespread awareness of the need for

flavor of coffee can best be extracted

good quality ripe cherries to produce

from the cherries when it is processed.

specialty coffee, producers around the

Purists generally point out that the

world continue

washing process produces a cleaner flavor

key

to struggle with this

task.

Debate

is

ongoing

profile with taste attributes that are

the

benefits

of

selective

clearly displayed in the cup. Cuppers often

ripe

cherries

identify this as the manifestation of a

versus the advantages of strip-picking.

higher level of transparency, providing

Some specialty coffee gurus claim that

more opportunities for the genetics of

all coffee destined for the specialty market

the tree and the characteristics of the soil

should be harvested selectively and

to

about

harvesting

of

only

filter

into

the

SUN DRIED NATURAL

Sun dried mummyfied cherries, ready to be milled.

cup..

that only ripe cherries should be picked.


On the other hand, many vendors of
processing

and

machinery

proclaim

benefits

of

the

NATURAL SUN DRIED

harvesting

(also called Dry Process or Unwashed

economic

Process)

strip

picking.

HONEY PROCESS

Honey coffee drying on African


beds in Panama

In the natural sundried method, the


cherries are rinsed and the floaters removed

PROCESSING

before drying either on a patio or on a

Style and method of coffee processing

raised drying bed. The first three days

are usually determined by tradition and

are critical for the final quality of the

general preferences of coffee buyers. Until

coffee. Intense sunlight is required to skin

recently, the sundried natural method

dry the cherries in order to start the

was only used in a few countries, including

final drying process that should take less

Yemen, Ethiopia and Brazil. During

than fifteen days. During the first three

the past years, coffee processors in several

days the moisture content of the cherries

Latin American countries have been

must reach 35% or less. Frequent rotation

experimenting with natural sundried

and

methods and hybrid methods like the

drying. The drying cherries must be

honey

most

protected against rain and condensation in

the

order to prevent flavor taints, with special

Many

attention to prevention of molds and

coffee buyers prefer the washed method

fungi. The flavor profiles of natural sun

for all or most of their purchased beans.

dried coffee are intense, with potential

They prefer the pure, clean and transparent

attributes

of

dried

flavor profiles of the washed method.

blueberry,

fig

and

of

the

bean

process,
mucilage
after

in
is

which
left

washing.

on

Other buyers take a distinct interest in


the flavor profiles of the sundried and

movement

facilitates

uniform

fruit,

leather,

other

notes.....

WASHED COFFEE

Washed coffee drying in


parchent on the pateo.

29

WASHED METHOD

versus machine washed (below), (Panama)).

than 300 years, named the dry process

Some

remove

O.I.B. (Oost Indische Bereiding), which

The cherries are rinsed and floaters

a small part of the mucilage using a so

can be translated as the East Indian

are removed prior to depulping. The

called de-mucilager which washes and

Process. The dry process is well suited

depulped cherries are then fermented

rubs off the mucilage. The drying process

to areas with extended dry periods after

for up to 72 hours when the remaining

is key to the success of this method.

the harvest. These favorable conditions

mucilage is washed off. The washed beans

The possible flavor notes include honey,

prevail in the coffee growing areas of

are density-sorted in washing canals

sugar cane, molasses, chocolate and an

countries where large amounts of coffee

before

array

were first produced: Brazil, parts of

(Fully Washed Method)

drying

patios,
on

in

static

either

mechanical
drying

beds

on

producers

of

additional

driers,
or

by

prefer

to

taste

subtleties.

MACHINE WASHED

Congo, some parts of Indonesia, and Angola.

(Demucilaged Technique)

When coffee was introduced to the West

depulping,

parchment

Indies and the Caribbean region, the

mechanically

beverage enjoyed a growing popularity

demucilager.

among consumers in the western world.

using a combination of these methods.

After

The cleanliness of the system is critical:

beans

contamination from previous batches

washed

may lead to the formation of acetic acids

Due

to

and ultimately result in putrefied stinker

this

process,

beans. This is one of the most potent

have sufficient capacity to immediately

efficient and faster processing methods,

processing defects: the smell and taste

continue with the drying process of the

including the washed or wet process.

are truly undesirable. The flavor profiles

parchment

With the newly developed protocols,

the

are
with
the

the
continuous
the

nature

producer

of

must

beans.

The increasing demand for coffee spurred


coffee

producers

to

develop

more

of traditional washed beans can feature

DRY VS WET METHOD

producers could now process the coffee and

the aromatic notes of flowers (e.g. rose),

From an historical perspective, the first

dry the parchment beans in significantly

an array of stone fruit (e.g. apricot, peach)

commercial coffee harvests in countries

less time. In the wet or washed process,

and the taste is often bright, clean,

like Yemen and Indonesia were dry

the bean is mechanically separated from

transparent and with possible notes of

processed. In the dry process, the coffee

the rest of the cherry before drying.

green apple, citrus and other intricate

cherries are first dried, normally by natural

Wet processing of coffee uses more

traces of the terroir of the coffee.

sun drying, and then the dried product

technical inputs than dry processing and

DEPULPED NATURAL

is hulled in a single step process to produce

requires the use of resources like water

The depulped natural process begins in

green beans. The dried cherry may be

and electricity. Machinery for depulping,

a manner similar to the traditional fully

stored before hulling. The freshly picked

cleaning and drying forms an integral part

washed method. Upon depulping, however,

coffee cherry is highly perishable and

of every beneficio or washing station.

the parchment beans (still covered

under most conditions requires processing

The use of machinery makes the process

with mucilage) are directly diverted to

within 24 hours to prevent spoilage

faster and to a certain degree more

the patios or drying tables. The essential

and rotting. Dry processing requires

controllable. There are limits to the extent

features of depulped natural processing

extended periods of sunshine and a dry

of control, however, especially if the

and a comparison with the machine

climate. For this reason it is no surprise

washing station is running at full capacity

washed process are provided in detail

that coffee was first cultivated and

(which typically occurs at the peak of

in Table 2. Depulped natural beans are

processed in countries with very dry

the harvest) and the quality of the

covered with the slimy, sticky mucilage

climates like Ethiopia and Yemen. The

green beans can be in serious peril.

(Figure 4, Depulped natural (above)

Dutch, who colonized Indonesia for more

LEARN MORE
SUN DRIED NATURAL

Example of sun dried natural


coffee. Color is a bit yellowish.

WASHED

Example of a washed coffee.


Dark green color.

Learn more in our package CRAFTING


QUALITY AT ORIGIN (Coffee PRO)
30

READ
THE BEAN

WWW.BOOTCAMPCOFFEE.COM

TTHE DENSITY OF THE BEAN STRUCTURE IS REVEALED BY THE SHAPE AND


POSITION OF THE CENTER CUT.

Closed Center Cut


Open Center Cut

Picture shows a bean from Panama, which was


grown at an altitude of at least 5500 feet (1700m).
The center cut is tightly closed and almost seems to
be floating in the upper layer of the bean. High-density beans are more resistance to heat, which will be
especially noticeable during the first phase
of roasting.

In sharp contrast, this picture displays a soft bean


type from Mexico, grown at almost sea level. In this
case, the center cut is widely opened and draws
like a deep crevasse through the coffee bean. With
lower- density beans, the center cut will open more
quickly, allowing for a faster transfer of heat, which
will accelerate the process.

31

WASHED

The wet method requires the use of


specific equipment and substantial
quantities of water. The coffee cherries
are sorted by immersion in water. Bad
or unripe fruit will float. The skin of the
cherry and some of the pulp is removed
by pressing the fruit by machine in water through a screen. The pulp clinging to
the seed needs to be removed either by
the classic ferment-and-wash method
or mechanical demucilaging.

THE APPROACH TO
QUALITY RECOGNIZES
THAT EACH STEP IN
THE PRODUCTION
SYSTEM WILL AFFECT
THE OUTPUT OF
THE PRODUCTION
PROCESS AND EACH
INDIVIDUAL STEP
WILL INFLUENCE ALL
NEXT STEPS IN THE
PRODUCTION CYCLE.

PULP NATURAL

SEMI WASHED

The cherry is pulped with a slightly different pulper as in the wet process.
Instead of removing the mucilage after pulping, it is dried together with the
parchment. During the final step, the dry
parchment is hulled and graded.

Also known as Giling Basah, wet


hulled or semi dried, it is typical of
most Indonesian coffees. In this unique
process farmers remove the outer skin
from the cherries mechanically using
locally built pulping machines, then store
the beans, still coated with mucilage, for
up to 24 hours. Following the waiting period, the mucilage is washed off and the
parchment coffee is partially dried for
sale (30% to 35% moisture content).

HONEY

Pulping process can be done with almost any standard pulping machine.
Some honey producers prefer not to
use any water at all, leaving all mucilage
on the exterior surface of the parchment bean. Other honey producers
prefer to remove part of the mucilage,
which generally enables more controllable drying practices and more consistent cup profiles.

SUNDRIED NATURAL

The sun-dried process is generally


used in areas with little or no access
to water and countries like Brazil
and Ethiopia rely heavily on this
processing style. In this processing style
the entire cherry is dried, sometimes on
elevated African beds in the sun
and often on the open soil. Once
sufficiently dried, the entire hull is
removed mechanically to reveal the
green beans.

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BOURBON

JAVA

MOKKA

WASHED BOURBON,El Optimismo, EL SALVADOR

WASHED JAVA, Frres du Noun, CAMEROUN

WASHED MOKKA

CATURRA

NATURAL CATURRA, Elida Estate, PANAMA

THE COFFEE VARIETY,


WITH ITS PROFOUND
IMPACT ON THE FLAVOR
PROFILE, CAN BE A
CRUCIAL PARAMETER
FOR QUALITY
DIFFERENTIATION
AND FOR THE MARKET
SUCCESS OF A SINGLE
PRODUCER OR AN
ENTIRE COFFEE ORIGIN.

GEISHA

WASHED GEISHA, Finca Hartmann, PANAMA

TIPICA AND MOKKA

TIPICA

WASHED TIPICA AND WASHED MOKKA

WASHED TIPICA FROM KONA, HAWAII

33

BREWING FOR
QUALITY CONTROL

WWW.BOOTCAMPCOFFEE.COM

COMPARING POPULAR BREWING METHODS


WILL HELP YOU BETTER UNDERESTAND YOUR
COFFEE

IIn this module Daniel guides you through

the variables that can alter the results.

the importance of analysing your coffee

Daniel will focus on the most common

with different brewing methods. While

brewing styles, which are

cupping coffee is essential to deciding


which coffee to purchase for your

* full immersion brewing,

warehouse, comparing popular brewing

* pour over brewing,

methods provides you with more detailed

* automatic drip coffee brewing, and

information about the coffee lots and

* espresso.

helps you arrive at the final decision.


There are many reasons why is it important

For this exercise Daniel chose very

to analyse coffee through various brewing

different coffees and two different roast

methods. One of the most important is to

levels. His goal is to explore whether

understand which preparation suits each

each coffee delivers the same quality he

coffee best and also how the coffee will

experienced during cupping.

perform in consumer homes. Although

guide you through the brewing process

most consumers do not use precision

step-by-step and show you what to focus

brewing, it is very important for you to

on during this exploration.

He will

be aware of the different results of each.


In order to provide the best guidance to
your customers, you need to eliminate all
34

FULL-IMMERSION

POUR-OVER

ESPRESSO

Full immersion brewing means the water is in constant contact with the coffee
grounds during the entire extraction.

Pour-over brewing means hot water is


allowed to flow freely through the coffee
grounds.

Espresso is the extraction of coffee


achieved by 9 bar pressure. Emulsification of oils is an added benefit of this kind
of extraction.

1. Weigh coffee (for example 14:1

1. Weigh coffee (for example, 15:1 ratio of

17g or your in-house standard double shot

water:coffee ratio)

water:coffee)

of finely ground coffee extracted under

2. Set the grinder to a coarser setting

2. Set the grinder to medium setting for

9 bars of pressure within a 20-30 second

than the medium you used for filter

filtered coffee.

time frame results in 50-70 ml of a syrupy,

coffee but not fully coarse.

3. Flush (clean) the grinder with a small

and balanced flavor beverage.

3. Flush (clean) the grinder with a small

amount of the same coffee you intend to

amount of the coffee you intend to use.

use.

4. Prepare the brewing equipment by

4. Prepare the brewing equipment by

preheating the French press with 200F

running 200F (94C) hot water through

(94C) hot water.

the filter to get rid of the paper taste and

5. Add ground coffee to the tank; add

to preheat the brewing system.

1/3 of the water and start the timer.

5. Add the ground coffee to the filter

6. After 30 seconds stir the coffee and

and pre-steep (bloom) the coffee with

add the rest of the water, cover with

approximately 30g of water for 30

the top (do NOT plunge) and steep for 4

seconds.

minutes total (an additional 3.5 minutes).

6. Finish brewing with the remaining

FRENCH PRESS, CLEVER

CHEMEX, HARIO

water.

Pressurized brewing

LEARN MORE
Learn more in our video modules
BREWING FOR QUALITY (CRTF-2)

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