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CP7212 CASE STUDY OPERATING SYSTEMS DESIGN

OBJECTIVES:
1. To develop capabilities to work at systems level
2. To learn about issues in designing and implementing modern operating systems
3. To understand team formation, team issues, allocating roles and responsibilities
4. To make effective presentations on the work done
5. To develop effective written communication skills
LAB EXERCISES:
A team of three or four students will work on assigned case study / mini-project. Case Study /
Mini-project can be designed on the following lines:
1. Development of a reasonably sized dynamically loadable kernel module for Linux
kernel
2. Study educational operating systems such as Minix (http://www.minix3.org/), Weenix
(http://weenix.cs.brown.edu/mediawiki/index.php/Weenix) and develop reasonably sized
interesting modules for them
3. Study the Android open source operating system for mobile devices
(http://source.android.com/) and develop / modify some modules.
4. Study any embedded and real-time operating system such as eCos
(http://ecos.sourceware.org/) and develop / modify some modules.
OUTCOMES:
Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to
1. Develop assigned modules of operating systems design carrying out coding, testing, and
documentation work involved.
2. Describe team issuses and apply suitable methods to resolve the same.
3. Demonstrate individual competence in building medium size operating system components.
4. Demonstrate ethical and professional attributes of a computer engineer.
5. Prepare suitable plan with clear statements of deliverables, and track the same.
6. Make individual presentation of the work carried out.
7. Prepare well-organized written documents to communicate individual work accomplished.
REFERENCES:
1. Watts S. Humphrey, Introduction to Team Software Process, Addison-Wesley, SEI Series in
Software Engineering, 1999.
2. Mukesh Singhal and Niranjan G. Shivaratri, Advanced Concepts in Operating Systems
Distributed, Database, and Multiprocessor Operating Systems, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2001.
3. T. W. Doeppner, Operating Systems in Depth: Design and Programming, Wiley, 2010.

CASE STUDY 1 :The Linux System


History

Linux is a modern, free operating system based on UNIX standards


First developed as a small but self-contained kernel in 1991 by Linus Torvalds, with
the major design goal of UNIX compatibility, released as open source
Its history has been one of collaboration by many users from all around the world,
corresponding almost exclusively over the Internet
It has been designed to run efficiently and reliably on common PC hardware, but also
runs on a variety of other platforms
The core Linux operating system kernel is entirely original, but it can run much
existing free UNIX software, resulting in an entire UNIX-compatible operating
system free from proprietary code
Linux system has many, varying Linux distributions including the kernel,
applications, and management tools
The Linux Kernel
Version 0.01 (May 1991) had no networking, ran only on 80386-compatible Intel
processors and on PC hardware, had extremely limited device-drive support, and
supported only the Minix file system
Linux 1.0 (March 1994) included these new features:
o Support for UNIXs standard TCP/IP networking protocols
o BSD-compatible socket interface for networking programming
o Device-driver support for running IP over an Ethernet
o Enhanced file system
o Support for a range of SCSI controllers for
high-performance disk access
o Extra hardware support
Version 1.2 (March 1995) was the final PC-only Linux kernel
Kernels with odd version numbers are development kernels, those with even numbers
are production kernels
Linux 2.0
Released in June 1996, 2.0 added two major new capabilities:
o Support for multiple architectures, including a fully 64-bit native Alpha port
o Support for multiprocessor architectures
Other new features included:
o Improved memory-management code
o Improved TCP/IP performance
o Support for internal kernel threads, for handling dependencies between loadable
modules, and for automatic loading of modules on demand
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o Standardized configuration interface


Available for Motorola 68000-series processors, Sun Sparc systems, and for PC and
PowerMac systems
2.4 and 2.6 increased SMP support, added journaling file system, preemptive kernel, 64bit memory support
3.0 released in 2011, 20th anniversary of Linux, improved virtualization support, new
page write-back facility, improved memory management, new Completely Fair Scheduler
The Linux System
Linux uses many tools developed as part of Berkeleys BSD operating system, MITs X
Window System, and the Free Software Foundation's GNU project
The main system libraries were started by the GNU project, with improvements provided
by the Linux community
Linux networking-administration tools were derived from 4.3BSD code; recent BSD
derivatives such as Free BSD have borrowed code from Linux in return
The Linux system is maintained by a loose network of developers collaborating over the
Internet, with a small number of public ftp sites acting as de facto standard repositories
File System Hierarchy Standard document maintained by the Linux community to
ensure compatibility across the various system components
o Specifies overall layout of a standard Linux file system, determines under which
directory names configuration files, libraries, system binaries, and run-time data
files should be stored
Linux Distributions
Standard, precompiled sets of packages, or distributions, include the basic Linux system,
system installation and management utilities, and ready-to-install packages of common
UNIX tools
The first distributions managed these packages by simply providing a means of
unpacking all the files into the appropriate places; modern distributions include advanced
package management
Early distributions included SLS and Slackware
o Red Hat and Debian are popular distributions from commercial and
noncommercial sources, respectively, others include Canonical and SuSE
The RPM Package file format permits compatibility among the various Linux
distributions
Linux Licensing
The Linux kernel is distributed under the GNU General Public License (GPL), the terms
of which are set out by the Free Software Foundation
o Not public domain, in that not all rights are waived

Anyone using Linux, or creating their own derivative of Linux, may not make the derived
product proprietary; software released under the GPL may not be redistributed as a
binary-only product
o Can sell distributions, but must offer the source code too

Design Principles
Linux is a multiuser, multitasking system with a full set of UNIX-compatible tools
Its file system adheres to traditional UNIX semantics, and it fully implements the
standard UNIX networking model
Main design goals are speed, efficiency, and standardization
Linux is designed to be compliant with the relevant POSIX documents; at least two Linux
distributions have achieved official POSIX certification
o Supports Pthreads and a subset of POSIX real-time process control
The Linux programming interface adheres to the SVR4 UNIX semantics, rather than to
BSD behavior
Components of a Linux System

Like most UNIX implementations, Linux is composed of three main bodies of code; the
most important distinction between the kernel and all other components.
The kernel is responsible for maintaining the important abstractions of the operating
system
o Kernel code executes in kernel mode with full access to all the physical resources
of the computer
o All kernel code and data structures are kept in the same single address space
The system libraries define a standard set of functions through which applications
interact with the kernel, and which implement much of the operating-system functionality
that does not need the full privileges of kernel code
The system utilities perform individual specialized management tasks
User-mode programs rich and varied, including multiple shells like the bourne-again
(bash)
Kernel Modules
Sections of kernel code that can be compiled, loaded, and unloaded independent of the
rest of the kernel.
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A kernel module may typically implement a device driver, a file system, or a networking
protocol
The module interface allows third parties to write and distribute, on their own terms,
device drivers or file systems that could not be distributed under the GPL.
Kernel modules allow a Linux system to be set up with a standard, minimal kernel,
without any extra device drivers built in.

Four components to Linux module support:


o module-management system
o module loader and unloader
o driver-registration system
o conflict-resolution mechanism
Module Management
Supports loading modules into memory and letting them talk to the rest of the kernel
Module loading is split into two separate sections:
o Managing sections of module code in kernel memory
o Handling symbols that modules are allowed to reference
The module requestor manages loading requested, but currently unloaded, modules; it
also regularly queries the kernel to see whether a dynamically loaded module is still in
use, and will unload it when it is no longer actively needed
Driver Registration
Allows modules to tell the rest of the kernel that a new driver has become available
The kernel maintains dynamic tables of all known drivers, and provides a set of routines
to allow drivers to be added to or removed from these tables at any time
Registration tables include the following items:
o Device drivers
o File systems
o Network protocols
o Binary format
Conflict Resolution
A mechanism that allows different device drivers to reserve hardware resources and to
protect those resources from accidental use by another driver.
The conflict resolution module aims to:
o Prevent modules from clashing over access to hardware resources
o Prevent autoprobes from interfering with existing device drivers
o Resolve conflicts with multiple drivers trying to access the same hardware:
1. Kernel maintains list of allocated HW resources
2. Driver reserves resources with kernel database first
3. Reservation request rejected if resource not available
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Process Management
UNIX process management separates the creation of processes and the running of a new
program into two distinct operations.
o The fork() system call creates a new process
o A new program is run after a call to exec()
Under UNIX, a process encompasses all the information that the operating system must
maintain to track the context of a single execution of a single program
Under Linux, process properties fall into three groups: the processs identity,
environment, and context
Process Identity
Process ID (PID) - The unique identifier for the process; used to specify processes to the
operating system when an application makes a system call to signal, modify, or wait for
another process
Credentials - Each process must have an associated user ID and one or more group IDs
that determine the processs rights to access system resources and files
Personality - Not traditionally found on UNIX systems, but under Linux each process
has an associated personality identifier that can slightly modify the semantics of certain
system calls
o Used primarily by emulation libraries to request that system calls be compatible
with certain specific flavors of UNIX
Namespace Specific view of file system hierarchy
o Most processes share common namespace and operate on a shared file-system
hierarchy
o But each can have unique file-system hierarchy with its own root directory and set
of mounted file systems
Process Environment
The processs environment is inherited from its parent, and is composed of two nullterminated vectors:
o The argument vector lists the command-line arguments used to invoke the
running program; conventionally starts with the name of the program itself.
o The environment vector is a list of NAME=VALUE pairs that associates
named environment variables with arbitrary textual values.
Passing environment variables among processes and inheriting variables by a processs
children are flexible means of passing information to components of the user-mode
system software.
The environment-variable mechanism provides a customization of the operating system
that can be set on a per-process basis, rather than being configured for the system as a
whole.
Process Context
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The (constantly changing) state of a running program at any point in time


The scheduling context is the most important part of the process context; it is the
information that the scheduler needs to suspend and restart the process
The kernel maintains accounting information about the resources currently being
consumed by each process, and the total resources consumed by the process in its lifetime
so far
The file table is an array of pointers to kernel file structures
o When making file I/O system calls, processes refer to files by their index
into this table, the file descriptor (fd)
Whereas the file table lists the existing open files, the
file-system context applies to requests to open new files
The current root and default directories to be used for new file searches are stored here
The signal-handler table defines the routine in the processs address space to be called
when specific signals arrive
The virtual-memory context of a process describes the full contents of the its private
address space
Processes and Threads
Linux uses the same internal representation for processes and threads; a thread is simply a
new process that happens to share the same address space as its parent
o Both are called tasks by Linux
A distinction is only made when a new thread is created by the clone() system call
o fork() creates a new task with its own entirely new task context
o clone() creates a new task with its own identity, but that is allowed to share the
data structures of its parent
Using clone() gives an application fine-grained control over exactly what is shared
between two threads

Scheduling
The job of allocating CPU time to different tasks within an operating system
While scheduling is normally thought of as the running and interrupting of processes, in
Linux, scheduling also includes the running of the various kernel tasks

Running kernel tasks encompasses both tasks that are requested by a running process and
tasks that execute internally on behalf of a device driver
As of 2.5, new scheduling algorithm preemptive, priority-based, known as O(1)
o Real-time range
o nice value
o Had challenges with interactive performance
2.6 introduced Completely Fair Scheduler (CFS)

CFS

Eliminates traditional, common idea of time slice


Instead all tasks allocated portion of processors time
CFS calculates how long a process should run as a function of total number of tasks
N runnable tasks means each gets 1/N of processors time
Then weights each task with its nice value
o Smaller nice value -> higher weight (higher priority)
Then each task run with for time proportional to tasks weight divided by total weight of
all runnable tasks
Configurable variable target latency is desired interval during which each task should
run at least once
o Consider simple case of 2 runnable tasks with equal weight and target latency of
10ms each then runs for 5ms
If 10 runnable tasks, each runs for 1ms
Minimum granularity ensures each run has reasonable amount of time
(which actually violates fairness idea)
Kernel Synchronization
A request for kernel-mode execution can occur in two ways:
o A running program may request an operating system service, either explicitly via
a system call, or implicitly, for example, when a page fault occurs
o A device driver may deliver a hardware interrupt that causes the CPU to start
executing a kernel-defined handler for that interrupt
Kernel synchronization requires a framework that will allow the kernels critical sections
to run without interruption by another critical section
Linux uses two techniques to protect critical sections:
1. Normal kernel code is non preemptible (until 2.6) when a time interrupt is received while a
process is executing a kernel system service routine, the kernels need_resched flag is set so

that the scheduler will run once the system call has completed and control is
about to be
returned to user mode
2. The second technique applies to critical sections that occur in interrupt service routines By
using the processors interrupt control hardware to disable interrupts during a critical section, the
kernel guarantees that it can proceed without the risk of concurrent access of shared data
structures
o Provides spin locks, semaphores, and reader-writer versions of both
Behavior modified if on single processor or multi:

To avoid performance penalties, Linuxs kernel uses a synchronization architecture


that allows long critical sections to run without having interrupts disabled for the
critical sections entire duration
Interrupt service routines are separated into a top half and a bottom half
o The top half is a normal interrupt service routine, and runs with recursive
interrupts disabled
o The bottom half is run, with all interrupts enabled, by a miniature scheduler
that ensures that bottom halves never interrupt themselves
o This architecture is completed by a mechanism for disabling selected bottom
halves while executing normal, foreground kernel code
Interrupt Protection Levels

Each level may be interrupted by code running at a higher level, but will never be
interrupted by code running at the same or a lower level
User processes can always be preempted by another process when a time-sharing
scheduling interrupt occurs
Symmetric Multiprocessing
Linux 2.0 was the first Linux kernel to support SMP hardware; separate processes or
threads can execute in parallel on separate processors
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Until version 2.2, to preserve the kernels nonpreemptible synchronization requirements,


SMP imposes the restriction, via a single kernel spinlock, that only one processor at a
time may execute kernel-mode code
Later releases implement more scalability by splitting single spinlock into multiple locks,
each protecting a small subset of kernel data structures
Version 3.0 adds even more fine-grained locking, processor affinity, and load-balancing
Memory Management
Linuxs physical memory-management system deals with allocating and freeing pages,
groups of pages, and small blocks of memory
It has additional mechanisms for handling virtual memory, memory mapped into the
address space of running processes
Splits memory into four different zones due to hardware characteristics
o Architecture specific, for example on x86:

Managing Physical Memory


The page allocator allocates and frees all physical pages; it can allocate ranges of
physically-contiguous pages on request
The allocator uses a buddy-heap algorithm to keep track of available physical pages
o Each allocatable memory region is paired with an adjacent partner
o Whenever two allocated partner regions are both freed up they are combined to
form a larger region
o If a small memory request cannot be satisfied by allocating an existing small free
region, then a larger free region will be subdivided into two partners to satisfy the
request
Memory allocations in the Linux kernel occur either statically (drivers reserve a
contiguous area of memory during system boot time) or dynamically (via the page
allocator)
Also uses slab allocator for kernel memory
Page cache and virtual memory system also manage physical memory
o Page cache is kernels main cache for files and main mechanism for I/O to
block devices
o Page cache stores entire pages of file contents for local and network file I/O
Splitting of Memory in a Buddy Heap

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Slab Allocator in Linux

Virtual Memory
The VM system maintains the address space visible to each process: It creates pages of
virtual memory on demand, and manages the loading of those pages from disk or their
swapping back out to disk as required.
The VM manager maintains two separate views of a processs address space:
o A logical view describing instructions concerning the layout of the address space
The address space consists of a set of non-overlapping regions, each
representing a continuous, page-aligned subset of the address space
o A physical view of each address space which is stored in the hardware page tables
for the process
Virtual memory regions are characterized by:
o The backing store, which describes from where the pages for a region come;
regions are usually backed by a file or by nothing (demand-zero memory)
o The regions reaction to writes (page sharing or copy-on-write
The kernel creates a new virtual address space
When a process runs a new program with the exec() system call
Upon creation of a new process by the fork() system call
On executing a new program, the process is given a new, completely empty virtualaddress space; the program-loading routines populate the address space with virtualmemory regions
Creating a new process with fork() involves creating a complete copy of the existing
processs virtual address space
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o The kernel copies the parent processs VMA descriptors, then creates a new set of
page tables for the child
o The parents page tables are copied directly into the childs, with the reference
count of each page covered being incremented
o After the fork, the parent and child share the same physical pages of memory in
their address spaces
Swapping and Paging The VM paging system relocates pages of memory from physical
memory out to disk when the memory is needed for something else
The VM paging system can be divided into two sections:
o The pageout-policy algorithm decides which pages to write out to disk, and when
o The paging mechanism actually carries out the transfer, and pages data back into
physical memory as needed
o Can page out to either swap device or normal files
o Bitmap used to track used blocks in swap space kept in physical memory
o Allocator uses next-fit algorithm to try to write contiguous runs
Kernel Virtual Memory
The Linux kernel reserves a constant, architecture-dependent region of the virtual
address space of every process for its own internal use
This kernel virtual-memory area contains two regions:
o A static area that contains page table references to every available physical
page of memory in the system, so that there is a simple translation from
physical to virtual addresses when running kernel code
o The reminder of the reserved section is not reserved for any specific purpose;
its page-table entries can be modified to point to any other areas of memory
Executing and Loading User Programs
Linux maintains a table of functions for loading programs; it gives each function the
opportunity to try loading the given file when an exec system call is made
The registration of multiple loader routines allows Linux to support both the ELF and
a.out binary formats
Initially, binary-file pages are mapped into virtual memory
o Only when a program tries to access a given page will a page fault result in that
page being loaded into physical memory
An ELF-format binary file consists of a header followed by several page-aligned sections
o The ELF loader works by reading the header and mapping the sections of the file
into separate regions of virtual memory
Memory Layout for ELF Programs

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Static and Dynamic Linking


A program whose necessary library functions are embedded directly in the programs
executable binary file is statically linked to its libraries
The main disadvantage of static linkage is that every program generated must contain
copies of exactly the same common system library functions
Dynamic linking is more efficient in terms of both physical memory and disk-space usage
because it loads the system libraries into memory only once
Linux implements dynamic linking in user mode through special linker library
o Every dynamically linked program contains small statically linked function called
when process starts
o Maps the link library into memory
o Link library determines dynamic libraries required by process and names of
variables and functions needed
o Maps libraries into middle of virtual memory and resolves references to symbols
contained in the libraries
o Shared libraries compiled to be position-independent code (PIC) so can be
loaded anywhere
File Systems
To the user, Linuxs file system appears as a hierarchical directory tree obeying UNIX
semantics
Internally, the kernel hides implementation details and manages the multiple different file
systems via an abstraction layer, that is, the virtual file system (VFS)
The Linux VFS is designed around object-oriented principles and is composed of four
components:
o A set of definitions that define what a file object is allowed to look like
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The inode object structure represent an individual file


The file object represents an open file
The superblock object represents an entire file system
A dentry object represents an individual directory entry

To the user, Linuxs file system appears as a hierarchical directory tree obeying UNIX
semantics
Internally, the kernel hides implementation details and manages the multiple different file
systems via an abstraction layer, that is, the virtual file system (VFS)
The Linux VFS is designed around object-oriented principles and layer of software to
manipulate those objects with a set of operations on the objects
o For example for the file object operations include (from struct file_operations
in /usr/include/linux/fs.h
int open(. . .) Open a file
ssize t read(. . .) Read from a file
ssize t write(. . .) Write to a file
int mmap(. . .) Memory-map a file
The Linux ext3 File System
ext3 is standard on disk file system for Linux
o Uses a mechanism similar to that of BSD Fast File System (FFS) for locating data
blocks belonging to a specific file
o Supersedes older extfs, ext2 file systems
o Work underway on ext4 adding features like extents
o Of course, many other file system choices with Linux distros
The main differences between ext2fs and FFS concern their disk allocation policies
o In ffs, the disk is allocated to files in blocks of 8Kb, with blocks being subdivided
into fragments of 1Kb to store small files or partially filled blocks at the end of a
file
o ext3 does not use fragments; it performs its allocations in smaller units
The default block size on ext3 varies as a function of total size of file
system with support for 1, 2, 4 and 8 KB blocks
o ext3 uses cluster allocation policies designed to place logically adjacent blocks of
a file into physically adjacent blocks on disk, so that it can submit an I/O request
for several disk blocks as a single operation on a block group
o Maintains bit map of free blocks in a block group, searches for free byte to
allocate at least 8 blocks at a time
Ext2fs Block-Allocation Policies

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Journaling
ext3 implements journaling, with file system updates first written to a log file in the
form of transactions
o Once in log file, considered committed
o Over time, log file transactions replayed over file system to put changes in place
On system crash, some transactions might be in journal but not yet placed into file system
o Must be completed once system recovers
o No other consistency checking is needed after a crash (much faster than older
methods)
Improves write performance on hard disks by turning random I/O into sequential I/O
The Linux Proc File System
The proc file system does not store data, rather, its contents are computed on demand
according to user file I/O requests
proc must implement a directory structure, and the file contents within; it must then
define a unique and persistent inode number for each directory and files it contains
o It uses this inode number to identify just what operation is required when a user
tries to read from a particular file inode or perform a lookup in a particular
directory inode
o When data is read from one of these files, proc collects the appropriate
information, formats it into text form and places it into the requesting processs
read buffer
Input and Output
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The Linux device-oriented file system accesses disk storage through two caches:
o Data is cached in the page cache, which is unified with the virtual memory system
o Metadata is cached in the buffer cache, a separate cache indexed by the physical
disk block
Linux splits all devices into three classes:
o block devices allow random access to completely independent, fixed size blocks
of data
o character devices include most other devices; they dont need to support the
functionality of regular files
o network devices are interfaced via the kernels networking subsystem
Block Devices
Provide the main interface to all disk devices in a system
The block buffer cache serves two main purposes:
o it acts as a pool of buffers for active I/O
o it serves as a cache for completed I/O
The request manager manages the reading and writing of buffer contents to and from a
block device driver
Kernel 2.6 introduced Completely Fair Queueing (CFQ)
o Now the default scheduler
o Fundamentally different from elevator algorithms
o Maintains set of lists, one for each process by default
o Uses C-SCAN algorithm, with round robin between all outstanding I/O from all
processes
o Four blocks from each process put on at once

Device-Driver Block Structure

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Character Devices
A device driver which does not offer random access to fixed blocks of data
A character device driver must register a set of functions which implement the drivers
various file I/O operations
The kernel performs almost no preprocessing of a file read or write request to a character
device, but simply passes on the request to the device
The main exception to this rule is the special subset of character device drivers which
implement terminal devices, for which the kernel maintains a standard interface
Line discipline is an interpreter for the information from the terminal device
o The most common line discipline is tty discipline, which glues the terminals data
stream onto standard input and output streams of users running processes,
allowing processes to communicate directly with the users terminal
o Several processes may be running simultaneously, tty line discipline responsible
for attaching and detaching terminals input and output from various processes
connected to it as processes are suspended or awakened by user
o Other line disciplines also are implemented have nothing to do with I/O to user
process i.e. PPP and SLIP networking protocols
Interprocess Communication
Like UNIX, Linux informs processes that an event has occurred via signals
There is a limited number of signals, and they cannot carry information: Only the fact
that a signal occurred is available to a process
The Linux kernel does not use signals to communicate with processes with are running in
kernel mode, rather, communication within the kernel is accomplished via scheduling
states and wait_queue structures
Also implements System V Unix semaphores
o Process can wait for a signal or a semaphore
o Semaphores scale better
o Operations on multiple semaphores can be atomic
Passing Data Between Processes
The pipe mechanism allows a child process to inherit a communication channel to its
parent, data written to one end of the pipe can be read a the other
Shared memory offers an extremely fast way of communicating; any data written by
one process to a shared memory region can be read immediately by any other process
that has mapped that region into its address space
To obtain synchronization, however, shared memory must be used in conjunction
with another Interprocess-communication mechanism
Network Structure
Networking is a key area of functionality for Linux
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o It supports the standard Internet protocols for UNIX to UNIX communications


o It also implements protocols native to non-UNIX operating systems, in particular,
protocols used on PC networks, such as Appletalk and IPX
Internally, networking in the Linux kernel is implemented by three layers of software:
o The socket interface
o Protocol drivers
o Network device drivers
Most important set of protocols in the Linux networking system is the internet protocol
suite
o It implements routing between different hosts anywhere on the network
o On top of the routing protocol are built the UDP, TCP and ICMP protocols
Packets also pass to firewall management for filtering based on firewall chains of rules
Security
The pluggable authentication modules (PAM) system is available under Linux
PAM is based on a shared library that can be used by any system component that needs to
authenticate users
Access control under UNIX systems, including Linux, is performed through the use of
unique numeric identifiers (uid and gid)
Access control is performed by assigning objects a protections mask, which specifies
which access modesread, write, or executeare to be granted to processes with owner,
group, or world access
Linux augments the standard UNIX setuid mechanism in two ways:
o It implements the POSIX specifications saved user-id mechanism, which allows
a process to repeatedly drop and reacquire its effective uid
o It has added a process characteristic that grants just a subset of the rights of the
effective uid
Linux provides another mechanism that allows a client to selectively pass access to a
single file to some server process without granting it any other privileges

Loadable Kernel Module (LKM)


Simpler hello.c
Lkmpg gives an example of the world's simplest LKM, hello-1.c. But it is not as simple
as it could be and depends on your having kernel messaging set up a certain way on your system
to see it work. Finally, the program requires you to include -D options on your compile command

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to work, because it does not define some macros in the source code, where the definitions
belong.
Here is an improved world's simplest LKM, hello.c.
/* hello.c
* "Hello, world" - the loadable kernel module version.
* Compile this with
* gcc -c hello.c -Wall
*/
/* Declare what kind of code we want from the header files */
#define __KERNEL__
/* We're part of the kernel */
#define MODULE
/* Not a permanent part, though. */
/* Standard headers for LKMs */
#include <linux/modversions.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/tty.h>
/* console_print() interface */
/* Initialize the LKM */
int init_module()
{
console_print("Hello, world - this is the kernel speaking\n");
/* More normal is printk(), but there's less that can go wrong with
console_print(), so let's start simple.
*/
/* If we return a non zero value, it means that
* init_module failed and the LKM can't be loaded
*/
return 0;
}
/* Cleanup - undo whatever init_module did */
void cleanup_module()
{
console_print("Short is the life of an LKM\n");
}

Compile this with the simple command


$ gcc -c -Wall -nostdinc -I /usr/src/linux/include hello.c
The -I above assumes that you have the source code from which your base kernel (the
base kernel of the kernel into which you hope to load hello.c) was built in the conventional
spot, /usr/src/linux. If you're masochistic enough to be using symbol versioning in your base
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kernel, then you better have run 'make dep' on that kernel source too, because that's what builds
the .ver files that change the names of all your symbols.
But note that it's reasonably common not to have the kernel headers installed there, and
often, the wrong headers are installed there. When you use a kernel that you loaded from a
distribution CD, you often have to separately load the headers for it. To be safe, if you're playing
with compiling LKMs, you really should compile your own kernel, so you know exactly what
you're working with and can be absolutely sure you're working with matching header files.
The -nostdinc option isn't strictly necessary, but is the right thing to do. It will keep you
out of trouble and also remind you that the services of the standard C library, which you may
have melded in your mind with C itself, are not available to kernel code. -nostdinc says not to
include "standard" directories in the include file search path. This means, most
notably, /usr/include.
The -c option says you just want to create an object (.o) file, as opposed to gcc's default
which is to create the object file, then link it with a few other standard object files to create
something suitable for exec'ing in a user process. As you will not be exec'ing this module but
rather adding it to the kernel, that link phase would be entirely inappropriate.
-Wall (which makes the compiler warn you about lots of kinds of questionable code) is
obviously not necessary, but this program should not generate any warnings. If it does, you need
to fix something.

Using the Kernel Build System


Lkmpg contains fine instructions for building (compiling) an LKM (except that the
__KERNEL__ macro and usually the MODULE macro should be defined in the source code
instead of with -D compiler options as Lkmpg suggests). But it deserves mention that some
Linux kernel programmers believe that the only right way to build an LKM is to add it to a copy
of the complete Linux source tree and build it with the existing Linux make files just like the
LKMs that are part of Linux.
There are advantages to this. The biggest one is that when Linux programmers change the
way LKMs interface with the rest of the kernel in a way that affects how you build an LKM,
you're covered.

The Essential Bits and Pieces


There's a shopping list of what you'll need on your system, and here it is: The version of
your currently running kernel, available via uname -r, as in:
$ uname -r
2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64
$
20

(Actually, you don't technically need that bit of information, so much as you just need to know
what command to run to get it. You'll see why shortly.)

The standard development packages such as gcc, binutils, and so on.

The package of module utilities containing insmod, rmmod, and so on

A kernel source tree to build against, and this might require a bit more explanation. So let's
do that.

This part's important so let's spend a couple minutes here. In order to compile a kernel
module, you need at least part of a kernel source tree against which to compile. That's because
when you write your module, all of the preprocessor #include statements you use do not refer to
your normal user space header files. Rather, they refer to the kernel space header files found in
the kernel source tree so, one way or another, you have to have the relevant portion of some
kernel tree available to build against.
While you can get fancy and download your own kernel source tree for this, a simpler
and easier solution (for now) is to install the official kernel development package that matches
your running kernel. That kernel development package normally installs, under /usr/src/kernels,
just enough of the source tree to contain the necessary header files and build infrastructure, and
little else. (In Fedora, this would be the kernel-devel package. Under other distros, your mileage
may vary, as they say.)
Finally, once that package is installed, you'll have to pass its directory location to your
build step. You can either make a note of the actual directory name, or you can take advantage of
the fact that it's normally available under the /lib/modules directory, by way of a symlink. On this
Fedora 11 system:
$ ls -l /lib/modules/`uname -r`
... build ->
../../../usr/src/kernels/2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64
In other words, if that symlink exists, any time I need the location of the kernel source
tree corresponding to the currently running kernel, I can always use the expression
/lib/modules/`uname -r`/build, knowing it will keep up with any kernel upgrades. And that's
exactly what we're going to do.
And now that we have our building blocks in place, on to writing our first module.

"Hello, Kernel!"
And without further ado, your first loadable module:
/* Module source file 'hi.c'. */
#include <linux/module.h>
// for all modules
#include <linux/init.h>
// for entry/exit macros
#include <linux/kernel.h>
// for printk priority macros
21

#include <asm/current.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>

// process information, just for fun


// for "struct task_struct"

static int hi(void)


{
printk(KERN_INFO "hi module being loaded.\n");
printk(KERN_INFO "User space process is '%s'\n", current->comm);
printk(KERN_INFO "User space PID is %i\n", current->pid);
return 0;
// to show a successful load
}
static void bye(void)
{
printk(KERN_INFO "hi module being unloaded.\n");
}
module_init(hi); // what's called upon loading
module_exit(bye); // what's called upon unloading
MODULE_AUTHOR("Robert P. J. Day");
MODULE_LICENSE("Dual BSD/GPL");
MODULE_DESCRIPTION("You have to start somewhere.");
Some notes about the above:

Technically, I didn't need to print anything upon module insertion or removal but, without
some feedback, loading and unloading that module would be stultifyingly boring.

Always return zero from the init routine to signify a successful load.

Pick a valid license for your module, or you'll end up "tainting" the kernel--something we'll
get into in the next article.

No, there is no comma after the log level in a printk statement. That's a common mistake.
Don't make it.

So there's our first module. Let's build it.

The Makefile
Once again, let's get right at the Makefile we'll use to compile our module:
ifeq ($(KERNELRELEASE),)
KERNELDIR ?= /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build
PWD := $(shell pwd)
22

.PHONY: build clean


build:
$(MAKE) -C $(KERNELDIR) M=$(PWD) modules
clean:
rm -rf *.o *~ core .depend .*.cmd *.ko *.mod.c
else
$(info Building with KERNELRELEASE = ${KERNELRELEASE})
obj-m := hi.o
endif
For now, don't ask--just run it and see the results:
$ make build
make -C /lib/modules/2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64/build M=/home/rpjday/lf/1
modules
make[1]: Entering directory `/usr/src/kernels/2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64'
Building with KERNELRELEASE = 2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64
CC [M] /home/rpjday/lf/1/hi.o
Building modules, stage 2.
Building with KERNELRELEASE = 2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64
MODPOST 1 modules
CC
/home/rpjday/lf/1/hi.mod.o
LD [M] /home/rpjday/lf/1/hi.ko
make[1]: Leaving directory `/usr/src/kernels/2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64'
$ ls -l hi.ko
-rw-rw-r--. 1 rpjday rpjday 126716 2009-06-24 19:18 hi.ko
$
And there it is--our loadable module hi.ko, ready to be loaded. But what was that
Makefile all about?
To make a long story very short, that's a two-part Makefile. When you run make to
compile your module, the Makefile immediately realizes that you're still in your source directory,
at which point the make wanders off to the kernel source tree that you've identified, where it
finds all of the necessary build infrastructure and kernel headers and so on, which it then uses to
come back to compile your module.
We might come back some day and take a closer look at that. For now, take my word for
it. If you got a hi.ko module out of it, you're good. And we're almost done here. But first ...
Poking at that Module
If you want to examine your newly-built module while it's just sitting there, no sweat-there's the modinfo command:
23

$ modinfo hi.ko
filename:
hi.ko
description: You have to start somewhere.
license:
Dual BSD/GPL
author:
Robert P. J. Day
srcversion: 658D8123B9EE52CF16981C4
depends:
vermagic:
2.6.29.4-167.fc11.x86_64 SMP mod_unload
Which, mercifully, brings us to...
Loading and Unloading the Module
And assuming you managed to score root privilege, away we go:
# insmod hi.ko
# lsmod
Module
hi
... snip ...
# rmmod hi
#

Size
1792 0

Used by
<--- oh, look!

But where did all your printk output go? Kernel programming rule one: you don't
normally interact with user space, so don't expect to see print output coming back to your
terminal. Instead, our output would have been directed to the standard syslog messages log file
(in our case, /var/log/messages), so if we'd been keeping an eye on that file we would have seen:
Jun 24 19:33:01 localhost kernel: hi module being loaded.
Jun 24 19:33:01 localhost kernel: User space process is 'insmod'
Jun 24 19:33:01 localhost kernel: User space PID is 15359
Jun 24 19:33:03 localhost kernel: hi module being unloaded.
Cleaning Up the Mess and Starting Over
If you take one last look at that Makefile, you'll notice that it defines the clean target for
removing the results of your build, so toss it all if you want to start over:
$ make clean

Suppose we want to add some extra functionality in the Linux kernel.So the first idea that
strikes the mind is to enhance the kernel by adding more code to it, compiling the code and
getting the new kernel up. But this process has the following drawbacks among several others:

The added code adds to the size of kernel permanently.


24

The whole kernel needs to be compiled again for the changes to get compiled.

This means that machine needs to be rebooted for changes to take affect.

The solution to above problems is the concept of LKMs.

LKM stands for Loadable kernel modules (LKM). As the name suggests LKMs are the
modules that can be directly loaded in kernel at run time.

The loadable kernel module overcomes all the above mentioned shortcomings.

The module can be compiled separately

The module can be loaded onto kernel at run time without having the machine to reboot.

The module can be unloaded anytime and hence no permanent affect on kernel size.

How to Create LKMs


Lets create a basic loadable kernel module.
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
int init_module(void)
{
printk(KERN_INFO "Welcome.....\n");
return 0;
}
void cleanup_module(void)
{
printk(KERN_INFO "Bye....\n");
}
So we see that the above code is a basic LKM.
The names init_module and cleanup_module are standard names for an LKM.
If you see closely then you will find that we have used printk instead of printf. This is
because it is not a normal C programming, its a kernel level programming which is a bit
different from normal user level programming.
The headers module.h and kernel.h has to be included to get the code compiled.
How to Compile LKMs
To compile the above LKM, I used the following Makefile :
obj-m += lkm.o
all:
25

sudo make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) modules


clean:
sudo make -C /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build M=$(PWD) clean
Note that the commands beginning with the keyword sudo above should have one tab space
from the left. So, when the above command is run, the following output is observed :
make: Entering directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.32-21-generic'
CC [M] /home/himanshu/practice/lkm.o
Building modules, stage 2.
MODPOST 1 modules
CC
/home/himanshu/practice/lkm.mod.o
LD [M] /home/himanshu/practice/lkm.ko
make: Leaving directory `/usr/src/linux-headers-2.6.32-21-generic'
After the above successful compilation you will find a .ko file in the same directory
where the compilation took place. This .ko file is the module that will be loaded in the kernel.
modinfo utility can be used to fetch the information about this module :
$ modinfo lkm.ko
filename:
lkm.ko
srcversion: 19967CB3EAB7B31E643E006
depends:
vermagic:
2.6.32.11+drm33.2 SMP mod_unload modversions
So we see that the utility modinfo provides some information about this module.
How LKM is Loaded
After a successful compilation and creation of the module, now is the time to insert it in
the kernel so that it gets loaded on run time. The insertion of the module can be achieved using
the following two utilities :
modprobe
insmod
The difference between the two lies in the fact that modprobe take care of the fact that if
the module in dependent on some other module then that module is loaded first and then the
main module is loaded. While the insmod utility just inserts the module (whose name is
specified) into the kernel.
So modprobe is a better utility but since our module is not dependent on any other
module so we will use insmod only. So, to insert the module, the following command is used :
$ sudo insmod ./lkm.ko
26

if this command does not give any error then that means the LKM is loaded successfully
in the kernel. To unload the LKM, the following command is used :
$ sudo rmmod lkm.ko
Again, if this command does not give any error then that means the LKM is un-loaded
successfully in the kernel. To check that the module was loaded and unloaded correctly we can
use the dmesg utilitywhich gives the last set of logs as logged by the kernel. Youll see the
following two lines among all the other logs :
....
....
[ 4048.333756] Welcome.....
[ 4084.205143] Bye....
If you go back to the code and see then you will realize that these are the logs from the
two functions in the code. So we see that one function was called when the insmod was called
and the other function was called when the rmmod was called.This was just a dummy LKM. In
this way many working LKM (that carry out meaningful tasks) work inside Linux kernel.

RESULT:
Thus the case study has been analyzed and built a loadable module.

CASE STUDY 2: MINIX 3


The MINIX 3 operating system
27

Agenda

Introduction
Minix 3 Features
Design Goals
Minix 3 Architecture
Minix 3 Drivers and Servers
Reliability and security
Installation
Conclusion
References

Introduction
MINIX 3 is a new open-source operating system designed to be highly reliable, flexible,
and secure. It is loosely based somewhat on previous versions of MINIX, but is fundamentally
different in many key ways. MINIX 1 and 2 were intended as teaching tools; MINIX 3 adds the
new goal of being usable as a serious system on resource-limited and embedded computers and
for applications requiring high reliability. This new OS is extremely small, with the part that runs
in kernel mode under 6000 lines of executable code. The parts that run in user mode are divided
into small modules, well insulated from one another.
For example, each device driver runs as a separate user-mode process so a bug in a driver
(by far the biggest source of bugs in any operating system), cannot bring down the entire OS. In
fact, most of the time when a driver crashes it is automatically replaced without requiring any
user intervention, without requiring rebooting, and without affecting running programs. These
features, the tiny amount of kernel code, and other aspects greatly enhance system reliability.
MINIX 3 Features
POSIX compliant, Networking with TCP/IP
X Window System, Languages: cc, gcc, g++, perl, python, etc.
Over 650 UNIX programs, Many improvements since V2
Full multiuser and multiprogramming, Device drivers run as user processes
High degree of fault tolerance, Full C source code supplied
Design Goals
The approach that MINIX 3 uses to achieve high reliability is fault isolation. In
particular, unlike traditional OSes, where all the code is linked into a single huge binary running
in kernel mode, in MINIX 3, only a tiny bit of code runs in kernel mode--about 4000 lines in all
(Minix 2). This code handles interrupts, process scheduling, and interprocess communication.
The rest of the operating system runs as a collection of user-mode processes, each one
28

encapsulated by the MMU hardware and none of them running as superuser. One of these
processes, dubbed thereincarnation server, keeps tabs on all the others and when one of them
begins acting sick or crashes, it automatically replaces it by a fresh version. Since many bugs are
transient, triggered by unusual timing, in most cases, restarting the faulty component solves the
problem and allows the system to repair itself without a reboot and without the user even
noticing it. This property is called self healing, and traditional systems do not have it.
Minix 3 Architecture
MINIX 3 is a microkernel based POSIX compliant operating system designed to be highly
reliable, flexible, and secure. The approach is based on the ideas of modularity and fault isolation
by breaking the system into many self-contained modules. In general the MINIX design is
guided by the following principles:
Simplicity: Keep the system as simple as possible so that it is easy to understand and
thus more likely to be correct.
Modularity: Split the system into a collection of small, independent modules and
therefore prevent failures in one module from indirectly affecting another module.
Least authorization: Reduce privileges of all modules as far as it is possible.
Fault tolerance: Design the system in a way that it withstands failures. De-tect the
faulty component and replace it, while the system continues running the entire time.
The operating system is structured as follows. A minimal kernel provides interrupt
handlers, a mechanism for starting and stopping processes, a scheduler, and interprocess
communication. Standard operating system functionality that is usually present in a monolithic
kernel is moved to user space, and no longer runs at the highest privilege level. Device drivers,
the file system, the network server and high-level memory management run as separate user
processes that are encapsulated in their private address space.

Although from the kernels point of view the server and driver processes are also just
user-mode processes, logically they can be structured into three layers. The lowest level of
user-mode processes are the device drivers, each one control-ling some device. Drivers for
29

IDE, floppy, and RAM disks, etc. Above the driver layer are the server processes. These
include the VFS server, underlying file sys-tem implementations, process server, reincarnation
server, and others. On top of the servers come the ordinary user processes including shells,
compilers, utilities, and application programs. Figure 1.1 shows the structure of the operating
system.
Because the default mode of interprocess communication (IPC) are synchronous calls,
deadlocks can occur when two or more processes simultaneously try to communicate and all
processes are blocked waiting for one another. Therefore, a deadlock avoidance protocol has
been carefully devised that prescribes a partial, top-down message ordering. The message
ordering roughly follows the layering that is described above. Deadlock detection is also
implemented in the kernel. If a process unexpectedly were to cause a deadlock, the offending is
denied and an error message is returned to the caller.
Recovering from failures is an important reliability feature in MINIX. Servers and
drivers are started and guarded by a system process called the reincarnation server. If a guarded
process unexpectedly exits or crashes this is immediately de-tected because the process server
notifies the reincarnation server whenever a server or driver terminates and the process is
automatically restarted. Further-more, the reincarnation server periodically polls all servers and
drivers for their status. If one does not respond correctly within a specified time interval, the
rein-carnation server kills and restarts the misbehaving server or driver.
This topic explains how to install MINIX 3. A complete MINIX 3 installation requires a
Pentium (or compatible) with at least 16-MB of RAM, 1 GB of free disk space, an IDE CDROM and an IDE hard disk. A minimal installation (without the commands sources) requires 8
MB RAM and 50 MB of disk space. Serial ATA, USB, and SCSI disks are not supported at
present. For USB CD-ROMS, see the Website: www.minix3.org.
A.1 PREPARATION
If you already have the CD-ROM (e.g., from the book), you can skip steps 1 and 2, but it
is wise to check www.minix3.org to see if a newer version is avail-able. If you want to run
MINIX 3 on a simulator instead of native, see Part V first. If you do not have an IDE CD-ROM,
either get the special USB CD-ROM boot image or use a simulator.
1. Download the MINIX 3 CD-ROM image
Download the MINIX 3 CD-ROM image from the MINIX 3 Website at www.minix3.org.
2. Create a bootable MINIX 3 CD-ROM
Decompress the downloaded file. You will get a CD-ROM image file with extension .iso
and this manual. The .iso file is a bit-for-bit CD-ROM image. Burn it to a CD-ROM to make a
30

bootable CD-ROM.
If you are using Easy CD Creator 5, select Record CD from CD image from the File
menu and change the file type from .cif to .iso in the dialog box that appears. Select the image
file and click Open. Then click Start Recording.
If you are using Nero Express 5, choose Disc Image or Saved Project and change the
type to Image Files, select the image file and click Open. Select your CD recorder and click
on Next.
If you are running Windows XP and do not have a CD-ROM burning pro-gram, take a
look at alexfeinman.brinkster.net/isorecorder.htm for a free one and use it to create a CD image.
3. Determine which Ethernet Chip you have
MINIX 3 supports several Ethernet chips for networking over LAN, ADSL, and cable.
These include Intel Pro/100, RealTek 8029 and 8139, AMD LANCE, and several 3Com chips.
During setup you will be asked which Ethernet chip you have, if any. Determine that now by
looking at your documentation. Alternatively, if you are using Windows, go to the device
manager as follows:
Windows 2000:Start > Settings > Control Panel > System > Hardware > Device
Manager Windows XP: Start > Control Panel > System > Hardware > Device Manager
System requires double clicking; the rest are single. Expand the + next to Net-work
adapters to see what you have. Write it down. If you do not have a sup-ported chip, you can still
run MINIX 3, but without Ethernet.
4. Partition your hard disk
You can boot the computer from your CD-ROM if you like and MINIX 3 will start, but to
do anything useful, you have to create a partition for it on your hard disk. But before partitioning,
be sure to back up your data to an external med-ium like CD-ROM or DVD as a safety
precaution, just in case something goes wrong. Your files are valuable; protect them.
Unless you are sure you are an expert on disk partitioning with much experi-ence, it is
strongly suggested that you read the online tutorial on disk partitioning at
www.minix3.org/doc/partitions.html. If you already know how to manage par-titions, create a
contiguous chunk of free disk space of at least 50 MB, or, if you want all the commands sources,
1 GB. If you do not know how to manage parti-tions but have a partitioning program like
Partition Magic, use it to create a region of free disk space. Also make sure there is at least one
primary partition (i.e., Master Boot Record slot) free. The MINIX 3 setup script will guide you
through creating a MINIX partition in the free space, which can be on either the first or second
IDE disk.

31

If you are running Windows 95, 98, ME, or 2000 and your disk consists of a single FAT
partition, you can use the presz134.exe program on the CD-ROM (also available at zeleps.com)
to reduce its size to leave room for MINIX. In all other cases, please read the online tutorial cited
above.
If your disk is larger than 128 GB, the MINIX 3 partition must fall entirely in the first
128 GB (due to the way disk blocks are addressed).
WARNING: If you make a mistake during disk partitioning, you can lose all the
data on the disk, so be sure to back it up to CD-ROM or DVD before starting. Disk
partitioning requires great care, so proceed with caution.
A.2 BOOTING
By now you should have allocated some free space on your disk. If you have not done so
yet, please do it now unless there is an existing partition you are wil-ling to convert to MINIX 3.
1. Boot from the CD-ROM
Insert the CD-ROM into your CD-ROM drive and boot the computer from it. If you have
16 MB of RAM or more, choose Regular; if you have only 8 MB choose small. If the
computer boots from the hard disk instead of the CD-ROM, boot again and enter the BIOS setup
program to change the order of boot devices, putting the CD-ROM before the hard disk.
2. Login as root
When the login prompt appears, login as root. After a successful login as root, you will
see the shell prompt (#). At this point you are running fully-operational MINIX
3. If you type:
ls /usr/bin | more
you can see what software is available. Hit space to scroll the list. To see what program
foo does, type:
man foo
The manual pages are also available at www.minix3.org/manpages.
3. Start the setup script
To start the installation of MINIX 3 on the hard disk, type
setup
After this and all other commands, be sure to type ENTER (RETURN). When the
installation script ends a screen with a colon, hit ENTER to continue. If the screen suddenly goes
blank, press CTRL-F3 to select software scrolling (should only be needed on very old
computers). Note that CTRL-key means depress the CTRL key and while holding it down, press
32

key.
A.3 INSTALLING TO THE HARD DISK
These steps correspond to the steps on the screen.
1. Select keyboard type
When you are asked to select your national keyboard, do so. This and other steps have a
default choice, in square brackets. If you agree with it, just hit ENTER. In most steps, the default
is generally a good choice for beginners. The us-swap keyboard interchanges the CAPS LOCK
and CTRL keys, as is conven-tional on UNIX systems.
2. Select your Ethernet chip
You will now be asked which of the available Ethernet drivers you want in-stalled (or
none). Please choose one of the options.
3. Basic minimal or full distribution?
If you are tight on disk space, select M for a minimal installation which includes all the
binaries but only the system sources installed. The minimal option does not install the sources of
the commands. 50 MB is enough for a bare-bones system. If you have 1 GB or more, choose F
for a full installation.
4. Create or select a partition for MINIX 3
You will first be asked if you are an expert in MINIX 3 disk partitioning. If so, you will
be placed in the part program to give you full power to edit the Master Boot Record (and enough
rope to hang yourself). If you are not an expert, press ENTER for the default action, which is an
automated step-by-step guide to for-matting a disk partition for MINIX 3.
Substep 4.1: Select a disk to install MINIX 3
An IDE controller may have up to four disks. The setup script will now look for each
one. Just ignore any error messages. When the drives are listed, select one. and confirm your
choice. If you have two hard disks and you decide to install MINIX 3 to the second one and have
trouble booting from it, please see www.minix3.org/doc/using2disks.html for the solution.
Substep 4.2: Select a disk region
Now choose a region to install MINIX 3 into. You have three choices:
(1)
Select a free region
(2) Select a partition to overwrite
(3) Delete a partition to free up space and merge with adjacent free space
For choices (1) and (2), type the region number. For (3) type
33

Delete
then give the region number when asked. This region will be overwritten and its previous
contents lost forever.
Substep 4.3: Confirm your choices
You have now reached the point of no return. You will be asked if you want to continue.
If you do, the data in the selected region will be lost forever. If you are sure, type:
yes
and then ENTER. To exit the setup script without changing the partition table, hit CTRL-C.
5. Reinstall choice
If you chose an existing MINIX 3 partition, in this step you will be offered a choice
between a Full install, which erases everything in the partition, and a Rein-stall, which does not
affect your existing /home partition. This design means that you can put your personal files on
/home and reinstall a newer version of MINIX 3 when it is available without losing your
personal files.
6. Select the size of /home
The selected partition will be divided into three subpartitions: root, /usr, and /home. The
latter is for your own personal files. Specify how much of the partition should be set aside for
your files. You will be asked to confirm your choice.
7. Select a block size
Disk block sizes of 1-KB, 2-KB, 4-KB, and 8-KB are supported, but to use a size larger
than 4-KB you have to change a constant and recompile the system. If your memory is 16 MB
or more, use the default (4 KB); otherwise, use 1 KB.
8. Wait for bad block detection
The setup script will now scan each partition for bad disk blocks. This will take several
minutes, possibly 10 minutes or more on a large partition. Please be patient. If you are
absolutely certain there are no bad blocks, you can kill each scan by hitting CTRL-C.
9. Wait for files to be copied
When the scan finishes, files will be automatically copied from the CD-ROM to the hard
disk. Every file will be announced as it is copied. When the copying is complete, MINIX 3 is
installed. Shut the system down by typing
shutdown
Always stop MINIX 3 this way to avoid data loss as MINIX 3 keeps some files on the
RAM disk and only copies them back to the hard disk at shutdown time.
34

10. Install packages


To start, boot your new MINIX 3 system For example, if you used controller 0, disk 0,
partition 3, type
boot c0d0p3
and log in as root. Under very rare conditions the drive number seen by the BIOS (and used
by the boot monitor) may not agree with the one used by MINIX 3. Try the one announced by
the setup script first.
The MINIX 3 distribution comes with a large number of software packages. To install
them, type
packman
and choose one of the options, depending on whether you want to install all the binaries, all the
binaries and sources, or select the packages you want. When you have finished installing
packages, exit packman by choosing option 5. If you have installed the X Windows package, you
can start it now by typing
xdm
A.4 TESTING
This section tells you how to test your installation, rebuild the system after modifying it,
and boot it later. To start, boot your new MINIX 3 system. For example, if you used controller 0,
disk 0, partition 3, type
boot c0d0p3
and log in as root. Under very rare conditions the drive number seen by the BIOS (and used by
the boot monitor) may not agree with the one used by MINIX 3. Try the one announced by the
setup script first. This is a good time to create a root password. See man passwd for help.
1. Compile the test suite
To test MINIX 3, at the command prompt (#) type
cd /usr/src/test make
and wait until it completes all 40 compilations. Log out by typing CTRL-D,
2. Run the test suite
To test the system, log in as bin (required) and type
cd /usr/src/test
./run
to run the test programs. They should all run correctly but they can take 20 min on a fast machine
and over an hour on a slow one. Note: It is necessary to compile the test suite when running as
root but execute it as bin in order to see if the setuid bit works correctly.
35

3. Rebuild the entire operating system


If all the tests work correctly, you can now rebuild the system. Doing so is not necessary
since it comes prebuilt, but if you plan to modify the system, you will need to know how to
rebuild it. Besides, rebuilding the system is a good test to see if it works. Type:
cd /usr/src/tools make
to see the various options available. Now make a new bootable image by typing
su
make clean
time make image
You just rebuilt the operating system, including all the kernel and user-mode parts. That did not
take very long, did it? If you have a legacy floppy disk drive, you can make a bootable floppy for
use later by inserting a formatted floppy and typing
make fdboot
When you are asked to complete the path, type:
fd0
This approach does not currently work with USB floppies since there is no MINIX 3 USB floppy
disk driver yet. To update the boot image currently installed on the hard disk, type
make hdboot
4. Shut down and reboot the new system
To boot the new system, first shut down by typing:
shutdown
This command saves certain files and returns you to the MINIX 3 boot monitor. To get a
summary of what the boot monitor can do, while in it, type:
help
For more details, see www.minix3.org/manpages/man8/boot.8.html. You can now remove any
CD-ROM or floppy disk and turn off the computer.
5. Booting Tomorrow
If you have a legacy floppy disk drive, the simplest way to boot MINIX 3 is by inserting your
new boot floppy and turning on the power. It takes only a few seconds. Alternatively, boot from
the MINIX 3 CD-ROM, login as bin and type:
shutdown
to get back to the MINIX 3 boot monitor. Now type:
boot c0d0p0
36

to boot from the operating system image file on controller 0, driver 0, partition 0. Of course, if
you put MINIX 3 on drive 0 partition 1, use:
boot c0d0p1
and so on.
A third possibility for booting is to make the MINIX 3 partition the active one, and use the
MINIX 3 boot monitor to start MINIX 3 or any other operating system. For details see
www.minix3.org/manpages/man8/boot.8.html.
Finally, a fourth option is for you to install a multiboot loader such as LILO or GRUB
(www.gnu.org/software/grub). Then you can boot any of your operating systems easily.
Discussion of multiboot loaders is beyond the scope of this guide, but there is some information
on the subject at www.minix3.org/doc.
A.5 USING A SIMULATOR
A completely different approach to running MINIX 3 is to run it on top of another operating
system instead of native on the bare metal. Various virtual machines, simulators, and emulators
are available for this purpose. Some of the most popular ones are:
d VMware (www.vmware.com)
d Bochs (www.bochs.org)
d QEMU (www.qemu.org)
See the documentation for each of them. Running a program on a simulator is similar to
running it on the actual machine, so you should go back to Part I and acquire the latest CD-ROM
and continue from there.
Minix 3 Drivers and Servers

Drivers and servers run as user mode processes


Powers granted to them are carefully cotrolled
o Non can execute privileged instructions
o Time slicing so drivers/servers in infinite loop can't hang sys
o None can access kernel memory
o None can directly access other address spaces
o Bit map for determining allowed kernel calls
o Bit map for who each one can send to
37

o No direct I/O and list of allowed I/O ports via kernel


User mode servers
o File server:
File system interface to user space programs
o Process manager
Process management (Creation-Termination)
Handles signals
o Virtual memory server
Mechanisms is in the kernel, policy is in the VM server
Keeps track of free and used pages
Catches and handles page faults
o Data store
Small local name server
Used to map server name to end point
Could be used for recoverable drivers
o Information server
Used for debug dumps
o Network server
Contains full TCP/IP stack in user space (Interesting huh? :-D)
o X server
o Reincarnation server
Parent of all drivers and servers
Whenever a server/driver dies the RS collects it
RS checks a table for action to take e.g., Restart it
RS also ping drivers and servers frequently

Reliability and security


Kernel reliability and security
Fewer line of codes means fewer kernel bugs
No foreign code (e.g., drivers) in the kernel
Static data structures (no malloc in kernel)
Removing bugs to user space reduces their power
IPC reliability and security
Fixed length messages (no buffer overruns)
Initial rendezvous system was simple
o No lost messages
o No buffer management
Interrupts and messages are unified
Problem:
Clients send messages to server
38

Server tries to respond, but client has died


Server can't send message and thus hangs
Solution:
Asynchronous messages
Drivers reliability and security

Untrusted code: heavily isolated


Bugs, viruses cannot spread to other modules
Cannot touch kernel data structures
Bad pointers crash only one driver; recoverable
Infinite loops detected and driver restarted
Restricted power to do damage (not superuser)

Conclusion

Current OSes are bloated and unreliable


Minix 3 is an attempt at a reliable, secure OS
Kernel is very small (6000 LoC)
OS runs as a collection of user space processes
Each driver is a separate process
Each OS component has restricted privileges
Faulty drivers can be replaced automatically

Example Module: How to Add a New System Call for Minix 3


1. Introduction
Minix3 has the micro-kernel architecture. The micro-kernel handles interrupts, provides
basic mechanisms for process management, implements inter-process communication, and
performs process scheduling. Filesystem, process management, networking, and other userservices are available from separate servers outside the micro-kernel. The system calls handled
by these services are now processed outside the kernel. The kernel supports a few system-calls
and these are called system-tasks. Systems-tasks are more like a hardware abstraction.
In Minix3, the servers handle system calls. Adding a new system call consists of two
steps: writing a system- call handler and writing a user library. System-call handler is a function
that is called in response to a user requesting a system call. Each system call has one handler. A
user library packages the parameters for the system call and calls the handler on the appropriate
server. A user always invokes a system call using the library.
The system-call handler should be placed in an appropriate server, which in turn would
process a user request by invoking the matching handler. It is important to choose the correct
39

server for the system-call. For instance, if the system call should update filesystem or fproc datastructures, then the system-call handler should be placed in the FS (filesystem) server.
This document illustrates the method for adding a new system call for Minix3 using an
example. We would implement a system-call handler do_printmessage() in the FS server that
would simply print a message I am a system call. However, the method described could be
used for adding the handler to any server. We would also add a user-library to call the handler.
2. Creating a System-call Handler
The source code for all servers are located at /usr/src/servers. Each server has a separate
directory. Filesystem (FS) is located at /usr/src/servers/fs. Each of the server source directories
contain two files: table.c and proto.h. Table.c contains definition for the call_vec table. The
call_vec table is an array of function pointers that is indexed by the system-call number. In each
line, the address of a system-call handler function is assigned to one entry in the table and the
index of the entry is the system-call number.
PUBLIC _PROTOTYPE (int (*call_vec[]),
(void) ) = {
=
no_sys,
/* 0 unused
*/
do_exit,
/* 1 = exit
*/
do_fork,
/* 2 = fork
*/
/*
do_read,
3 = read
*/
do_write,
/* 4 = write
*/
do_open,
/* 5 = open
*/
do_close,
/* 6 = close
*/
no_sys,
/* 7 = wait
*/
do_creat,
/* 8 = creat
*/
Figure 1: Some entries from /usr/src/servers/fs/table.c
Figure 1 contains a few entries from /usr/src/servers/fs/table.c. The second line in the
table assigns the address of function do_exit to the second entry in the table. The index of the
second entry, which is the number 2, is the system-call number for calling the handler do_exit.
do_unpause,
/* 65 = NPAUSE*/
no_sys,
/* 66 = unused */
do_revive,
/* 67 = REVIVE */
no_sys,
/* 68 = TASK_REPLY
*/
no_sys,
/* 69 = unused */
no_sys,
/* 70 = unused */
no_sys,
/* 71 = si */
no_sys,
/* 72 = sigsuspend */
40

no_sys,
no_sys,

/* 73 = sigpending */
/* 74 = sigprocmask */
Figure 2: Unused entries

There are a few unused entries. For adding a new system call, we need to identify one
unused entry. For instance, index 69 contains an unused entry. We could use slot number 69 for
our system-call handler do_printmessage(). To use entry 69, we replace no_sys with
do_printmessage().
do_revive,
no_sys,
do_printmessage(),
no_sys,
no_sys,

/* 67 = REVIVE*/
/* 68 TASK_REPLY*/
/* 69 = unused */
/* 70 = unused */
/* 71 = si */

Figure 3: Using entry 69


The next step is to declare a prototype of the system-call handler in file
/usr/src/servers/fs/proto.h. This file contains the prototypes of all system-call handler functions.
Figure 4 contains a few prototype declarations from /usr/src/servers/fs/proto.h. We should add
the prototype for the system-call handler to the proto.h file.
_PROTOTYPE( int do_printmessage, (void) );

/* open.c */
_PROTOTYPE( int do_close, (void)
_PROTOTYPE( int do_creat, (void)
_PROTOTYPE( int do_lseek, (void)
_PROTOTYPE( int do_mknod, (void)
_PROTOTYPE( int do_mkdir, (void)
_PROTOTYPE( int do_open, (void)

Figure 4: /usr/src/servers/fs/proto.h
Int do_printmessage()
{
printf(\I am a system call
\n); return (OK);
}

41

);
);
);
);
);
);

Figure 5: Our system-call handler


A few files like misc.c, stadir.c, write.c, and read.c contain the definitions for the systemcall handler functions. We could either add our system-call handler to one of these files or have it
in a separate file. If we choose to add it in a separate file, we have to make changes in the
/usr/src/servers/fs/Makefile accordingly. For our example, we will add the definition of function
do_printmessage() to /usr/src/servers/fs/misc.c. After implementing the system-call handler, we
can compile the FS server to ensure that our new system-call handler does not contain any errors.

2.1. Compiling the FS Server


Steps for compiling the servers:
0 Go to directory /usr/src/servers/
1 Issue make image
2 Issue make install
(4) Calling the System-call Handler Function Directly
Our system-call handler function do_printmessage() has the system-call number 69. We
could call the system-handler function directly using the system call _syscall. _syscall takes three
parameters: the recipient process, system-call number, and pointer to a message structure.
PUBLIC int _syscall(int who, int syscallnr, register message *msgptr);
In our example, the recipient process is FS, the system-call number is 69, and we do not pass
any parameters. Still, we should pass a pointer to an empty message for the third parameter when
calling the handler function. We call the handler as show below.
message m;
_syscall(FS,69,&m);
When the system-call handler needs to receive some parameters, we pass the parameters
using the message structure. The message structure is described in figure 6. To use the message
structure, the header file lib.h should be used. The header file contains some #defines that
makes using the message structure simple.
typedef struct {int m1i1, m1i2, m1i3; char *m1p1, *m1p2, *m1p3;} mess_1;
typedef struct {int m2i1, m2i2, m2i3; long m2l1, m2l2;
char *m2p1;} mess_2; typedef struct {int m3i1, m3i2;
char *m3p1; char m3ca1[M3_STRING];} mess_3;
typedef struct {long m4l1, m4l2, m4l3, m4l4, m4l5;} mess_4;
typedef struct {short m5c1, m5c2;
int m5i1, m5i2; long m5l1, m5l2, m5l3;}mess_5;
42

typedef struct {int m7i1, m7i2, m7i3, m7i4; char *m7p1, *m7p2;} mess_7;
typedef struct {int m8i1, m8i2; char *m8p1, *m8p2, *m8p3, *m8p4;} mess_8;
typedef struct {
int m_source;
/* who sent the message */
int m_type;
/* what kind of message is it */
union {
mess_1 m_m1;
mess_2 m_m2;
mess_3 m_m3;
mess_4 m_m4;
mess_5 m_m5;
mess_7 m_m7;
mess_8 m_m8;
} m_u;
} message;
/* The following defines provide names for useful
members. */ #define m1_i1 m_u.m_m1.m1i1
#define m1_i2 m_u.m_m1.m1i2
#define m1_i3 m_u.m_m1.m1i3
#define m1_p1 m_u.m_m1.m1p1
#define m1_p2 m_u.m_m1.m1p2
#define m1_p3 m_u.m_m1.m1p3
#define m2_i1 m_u.m_m2.m2i1
#define m2_i2 m_u.m_m2.m2i2
#define m2_i3 m_u.m_m2.m2i3
#define m2_l1 m_u.m_m2.m2l1
#define m2_l2 m_u.m_m2.m2l2
#define m2_p1 m_u.m_m2.m2p1
#define m3_i1 m_u.m_m3.m3i1
#define m3_i2 m_u.m_m3.m3i2
#define m3_p1 m_u.m_m3.m3p1
#define m3_ca1 m_u.m_m3.m3ca1
#define m4_l1 m_u.m_m4.m4l1
#define m4_l2 m_u.m_m4.m4l2
#define m4_l3 m_u.m_m4.m4l3
#define m4_l4 m_u.m_m4.m4l4
#define m4_l5 m_u.m_m4.m4l5
#define m5_c1 m_u.m_m5.m5c1
#define m5_c2 m_u.m_m5.m5c2
#define m5_i1 m_u.m_m5.m5i1
#define m5_i2 m_u.m_m5.m5i2
43

Message structure
Say a system-call handler do_managecap needs to receive three integer parameters. The
system-call number of do_managecap is 58. We need to initialize the three parameters in the
message structure, and call the system call handler using the message structure as shown in
figure 7.
message m;
m.m1_i1=45;
m.m1_i2=55;
m.m1_i3=65;
_syscall(FS,58,&m);
Figure 7: Passing Parameter Using the Message Structure
The FS server has a global variable named m_in, which is a message structure.
Whenever a system-call arrives at the FS server, m_in would contain the message structure
pointed to by the third parameter in the call. We retrieve the three parameters from the m_in
message structure in the system-call handler function.
PUBLIC int do_manageusercap(void)
{
int user_id = m_in.m1_i1;
int what = m_in.m1_i2;
int cap_to_process=m_in.m1_i3;
Figure 8: Retrieving Parameters From the Message Structure
3. Creating a User Library Function
A user library function would package the parameters for the system-call handler in the message
structure and would call the handler function. First, we should use #define to map the system-call
number of the handler function to an identifier in the file /usr/src/include/minix/callnr.h and
/usr/include/minix/callnr.h.
#define PRINTMESSAGE 69
We implement the library function for the do_printmessage system call in a separate file named
_printmessage.c. This file should be placed in the directory /usr/src/lib/posix/.

44

#include <lib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
PUBLIC int printmessage(void)
{
message m;
return(_syscall(FS,PRINTMESSAGE,&
m));
}
Figure 9: Library Function Implementation
3.1. Compiling the Library
Steps to compile the new library
Go to the directory /usr/src/lib/posix/
Add the name of the file in the /usr/src/lib/posix/Makefile.in
Issue the command make Makefile. (This command will generate a new
makefile with the rules for the new file included.)
Go to directory /usr/src/
Issue command make libraries
All these steps will compile and install the updated posix library.
3.1. Creating a New Boot-Image Using the Updated Servers and Library
We already compiled and created the binaries for the servers, and now we have the fresh libraries
compiled and installed. Now, we need to merge them the updated binaries and create a new boot
image.
Steps for creating the boot-image:
Go to directory /usr/src/tools
Issue command make hdboot
Issue command make install
These steps would create a new boot -image in the directory /boot/image/. Note down the name
of the new boot-image. When we shutdown and reboot, we should select the new boot-image.
In the boot prompt, we could setup the new image for booting using the command image
=/boot/image/<name of boot-image>. Then we could issue the command boot to startup using
the new boot-image.
Now, the new system call is ready to use.
4. Using the New System Call
45

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
printmessage();
}

RESULT:
Thus the Study of educational operating systems such as Minix and Weenix has been done
and developed a reasonably sized interesting modules for them

CASESTUDY 3: ANDROID
46

Andoid:
Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel,[12] and designed primarily
for touch screen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers
The user interface of Android is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that
loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to
manipulate on-screen objects. Internal hardware . eg: accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity
sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions.
For example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device
is oriented. Android allows users to customize their home screens with shortcuts to applications
and widgets, which allow users to display live content, such as emails and weather information,
directly on the home screen. Applications can further send notifications to the user to inform
them of relevant information, such as new emails and text messages.

Version
4.4

Code name
KitKat

4.3.x
4.2.x

Jelly Bean

Release date

API level

Distribution

October 31, 2013

19

1.4%

July 24, 2013

18

7.8%

November 13, 2012 17

15.4%

July 9, 2012

16

35.9%

4.0.34.0.4 Ice Cream Sandwich December 16, 2011 15

16.9%

4.1.x

3.2

Honeycomb

2.3.32.3.7 Gingerbread
2.2

Froyo

July 15, 2011

13

0.1%

February 9, 2011

10

21.2%

May 20, 2010

1.3%

History:

2014-02-14: The Android-x86 4.4-RC1 released (kitkat-x86).


2013-12-17: The kitkat-x86 branch is updated to Android 4.4.2 release (kitkat-mr1).

2013-12-10: The kitkat-x86 branch is updated to Android 4.4.1 release.


47

2013-11-04: The kitkat-x86 branch is ready in git.android-x86.org.

2013-11-01: Google announced Android 4.4, the KitKat release.

2013-07-25: Test build 20130725 of jb-x86 based on Android 4.3 is ready

2013-07-24: Google announced Android 4.3. The source code is released.

2013-06-23: Android-x86 4.0-r1 is released.

2013-06-08: Joe Spencer created a supported device list.

2013-02-28: A new test build of jb-x86 is available for downloading.

2013-01-16: The jb-x86 source tree is ready for downloading.

2013-01-02: Android-x86 at Google code is unbanned.

2013-01-01: Android-x86 was blocked by Google code.

2012-12-25: The first test release of jb-x86 is available for downloading.

2012-11-20: begin the jb-x86 porting based on Android 4.2.

2012-07-15: Android-x86 4.0-RC2 is released.

2012-07-11: Intel contributes x86 Dalvik JIT support to AOSP.

2012-06-26: Dalvik patch for arm translator from BuilDroid is merged.

2012-04-10: The ics-x86 branch is updated to Android 4.0.4.

2012-02-27: Android-x86 4.0-RC1 is released.

2012-01-01: Test build 20120101 is released.

2011-12-25: New testing ics-x86 isos supporting hybrid format are available.

2011-12-24: The git.android-x86.org is back and supports smart http transport.

2011-12-20: The git.android-x86.org is down for maintenance.

2011-12-10: Display issue of Intel i915/i965 for ics-x86 is solved.

2011-12-01: The ics-x86 branch is ready for developers.

2011-11-23: Android-x86 3.2-RC2 (honeycomb-x86) is released.

2011-10-31: New target amd_persimmon is added (contributed by AMD).

2011-10-30: The gingerbread-x86 branch is updated to Android 2.3.7.

2011-08-28: Android-x86 2.3 RC1 (Test build 20110828) is released.


48

2011-08-08: The gingerbread-x86 branch is updated to Android 2.3.5, hardware


acceleration enabled for some targets.

2011-07-04: The ethernet support is added to gingerbread-x86 branch.

2011-06-28: Android-x86 2.2-r2 is released.

2011-05-10: The mouse patch is added to gingerbread-x86 branch.

2011-05-05: The gingerbread-x86 branch is updated to Android 2.3.4, API level 10.

2011-04-20: The gingerbread-x86 branch is updated to Android 2.3.3.

2011-04-08: The froyo-x86 branch is updated to Android 2.2.2 based.

2011-04-02: AMD donates T56N/E1 development boards to Android-x86.org

2011-03-30: The build break in gingerbread-x86 branch has been fixed.

2011-02-10: TegaTech donates three Tega v2 tablets to Android-x86.org.

2011-01-26: Gingerbread-x86 branch is ready to download.

2011-01-13: Android-x86 2.2 is released.

2011-01-01: Test build 20110101 is released.

Android delivers a complete set of software for mobile devices:

Operating System
Middleware
Key mobile applications
Open
Breaking down Application Boundaries
Fast & Easy Application Development

Android OS is built on top of the Linux 2.6 Kernel


Linux Core functionality
Memory management
Process management
Networking
Security settings
Hardware drivers

49

Androids native libraries.


Libc: c standard lib.
SSL: Secure Socket Layer
SGL: 2D image engine
OpenGL|ES: 3D image engine
2D and 3D graphics hardware support or software simulation
Media Framework: media codecs offer support for major audio/video codecs
SQLite: Database engine
WebKit: Kernel of web browser for fast HTML rendering
FreeType: Bitmap and Vector
SufraceManager: Compose window manager with off-screen buffering.
Bionic, a super fast and small license-friendly libc library optimized for
embedded use
Surface Manager for composing window manager with off-screen buffering

Core Libraries

Provides the functionality of the JAVA Programming Language

Dalvik VM

A type of Java Virtual Machine


Register based (not stack machine like JVM)
Optimization for low memory requirements
Executes .dex (Dalvik-Executable) files instead of .class
DX tool converts classes to .dex format

50

Each Android application:


runs on its own Process
runs on its own Instance of Dalvik VM
is assigned its own Linux user ID
Important blocks:
o Activity Manager: Manages the activity life cycle of applications
o Content Providers: Manage the data sharing between applications
o Telephony Manager: Manages all voice calls. We use telephony
manager , if we want to access voice calls in our application.
o Location Manager: Location management, using GPS or cell tower
o Resource Manager: Manage the various types of resources

Intents

Intent = asynchronous message w/ or w/o designated target


Like a polymorphic Unix signal, but w/o required target
Intents payload held in Intent Object
Intent Filters specified in Manifest file

Overall Android architecture:

51

Components

1 App = N Components
Apps can use components of other applications
App processes are automagically started whenever any part is needed
Ergo: N entry points, !1, and !main()
Components:
Activities
Services
Broadcast Receivers
Content Providers

Component lifecycle
System automagically starts/stops/kills processes:
Entire system behaviour predicated on low memory
System triggers Lifecycle callbacks when relevant
Ergo: Must manage Component Lifecycle
Some Components are more complex to manage than others
Development tools
SDK:
android manage AVDs and SDK components
apkbuilder creating .apk packages
dx converting .jar to .dex
adb debug bridge
52

emulator QEMU-based ARM emulator


Eclipse w/ ADT plugin
NDK: GNU toolchain for native binaries

System Server
Entropy Service Device Policy Audio Service
Power Manager Status Bar Headset Observer
Activity Manager Clipboard Service Dock Observer
Telephone Registry Input Method Service UI Mode Manager Service
Package Manager Backup Service
Account Manager
Content Manager Connectivity Service Recognition Service
System Content Providers Throttle Service Status Bar Icons
Battery Service Accessibility Manager
Lights Service Mount Service ADB Settings Observer
Vibrator Service Notification Manager
Alarm Manager Device Storage Monitor
Location Manager
Sensor Service Search Service
Window Manager
Wallpaper Service
NetStat Service
NetworkManagement Service AppWidget Service
DiskStats Service
Init Watchdog
DropBox Service
Bluetooth Service
ActivityManager
Start new Activities, Services
Fetch Content Providers
Intent broadcasting
OOM adj. maintenance
Application Not Responding
Permissions
Task management
Lifecycle management
Java Native Interface(JNI)
JNI defines naming and coding convention so that Java VM can find and call native
code.
JNI is built into JVM to provide access to OS I/O and others.
53

Zygote
Android at its core has a process they call the Zygote, which starts up at init. It gets it's
name from dictionary definition: "It is the initial cell formed when a new organism is produced".
This process is a Warmed-up process, which means its a process thats been initialized and has
all the core libraries linked in. When you start an application, the Zygote is forked.
ANDROID '' STARTUP'' &'' RUNTIME"

54

Stock AOSP Apps


/packages/apps /packages/providers
Launcher2
Music
Browser
Calculator
Calendar Provision
Camera
Settings
Contacts
Email
Gallery
/packages/inputmethods
AccountsAndSettings ApplicationProvider LatinIME
AlarmClock Mms CalendarProvider OpenWnn
Bluetooth ContactsProvider PinyinIME
PackageInstaller DownloadProvider
Protips DrmProvider
GoogleContactsProvider
QuickSearchBox MediaProvider
CertInstaller TelephonyProvider
SoundRecorder UserDictionaryProvider
DeskClock SpeechRecorder
Stk
VoiceDialer
HTMLViewer
Creating an Android Project
An Android project contains all the files that comprise the source code for your Android
app. The Android SDK tools make it easy to start a new Android project with a set of default
project directories and files.
Create a Project with Eclipse
1.
2.

Click New

in the toolbar.

In the window that appears, open the Android folder, select Android Application
Project, and click Next.

55

Figure . The New Android App Project wizard in Eclipse.


3.
o
o
o

Fill in the form that appears:


Application Name is the app name that appears to users. For this project, use
"My First App."
Project Name is the name of your project directory and the name visible in
Eclipse.
Package Name is the package namespace for your app (following the same rules
as packages in the Java programming language). Your package name must be unique across
all packages installed on the Android system. For this reason, it's generally best if you use a
name that begins with the reverse domain name of your organization or publisher entity.
For this project, you can use something like "com.example.myfirstapp." However, you
cannot publish your app on Google Play using the "com.example" namespace.
Minimum Required SDK is the lowest version of Android that your app
supports, indicated using the API level. To support as many devices as possible, you
should set this to the lowest version available that allows your app to provide its core
feature set. If any feature of your app is possible only on newer versions of Android and it's
not critical to the app's core feature set, you can enable the feature only when running on
the versions that support it (as discussed in Supporting Different Platform
Versions). Leave this set to the default value for this project.
Target SDK indicates the highest version of Android (also using the API level)
with which you have tested with your application.
As new versions of Android become available, you should test your app on the new version
and update this value to match the latest API level in order to take advantage of new
platform features.
56

4.

Compile With is the platform version against which you will compile your app.
By default, this is set to the latest version of Android available in your SDK. (It should be
Android 4.1 or greater; if you don't have such a version available, you must install one
using the SDK Manager). You can still build your app to support older versions, but
setting the build target to the latest version allows you to enable new features and optimize
your app for a great user experience on the latest devices.
Theme specifies the Android UI style to apply for your app. You can leave this
alone.
Click Next.
On the next screen to configure the project, leave the default selections and click Next.

5.

The next screen can help you create a launcher icon for your app.
You can customize an icon in several ways and the tool generates an icon for all screen
densities. Before you publish your app, you should be sure your icon meets the specifications
defined in the Iconography design guide.
Click Next.
6.
Now you can select an activity template from which to begin building your app.
For this project, select BlankActivity and click Next.
7.
Leave all the details for the activity in their default state and click Finish.
Create a Project with Command Line Tools
If you're not using the Eclipse IDE with the ADT plugin, you can instead create your project
using the SDK tools from a command line:
1.

Change directories into the Android SDKs tools/ path.

2.

Execute:

android list targets


This prints a list of the available Android platforms that youve downloaded for your SDK.
Find the platform against which you want to compile your app. Make a note of the target id.
We recommend that you select the highest version possible. You can still build your app to
support older versions, but setting the build target to the latest version allows you to optimize
your app for the latest devices.
If you don't see any targets listed, you need to install some using the Android SDK Manager
tool. See Adding Platforms and Packages.
3.
Execute:
android create project --target <target-id> --name MyFirstApp \
--path <path-to-workspace>/MyFirstApp --activity MainActivity \
--package com.example.myfirstapp

57

Replace <target-id> with an id from the list of targets (from the previous step) and
replace <path-to-workspace> with the location in which you want to save your Android
projects.
Tip: Add the platform-tools/ as well as the tools/ directory to your PATH environment variable.
Running Your App
How you run your app depends on two things: whether you have a real Android-powered
device and whether you're using Eclipse. This lesson shows you how to install and run your app
on a real device and on the Android emulator, and in both cases with either Eclipse or the
command line tools.
Before you run your app, you should be aware of a few directories and files in the Android
project:
AndroidManifest.xml

The manifest file describes the fundamental characteristics of the app and defines each of
its components. You'll learn about various declarations in this file as you read more training
classes.

One of the most important elements your manifest should include is the <uses-sdk> element.
This declares your app's compatibility with different Android versions using the
android:minSdkVersion andandroid:targetSdkVersion attributes. For your first app, it should
look like this:
<manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" ... >
<uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="8" android:targetSdkVersion="17" />
...
</manifest>

You should always set the android:targetSdkVersion as high as possible and test your app on
the corresponding platform version. For more information, read Supporting Different
Platform Versions.
src/

Directory for your app's main source files. By default, it includes an Activity class that runs
when your app is launched using the app icon.
res/
Contains several sub-directories for app resources. Here are just a few:
drawable-hdpi/

58

Directory for drawable objects (such as bitmaps) that are designed for high-density (hdpi)
screens. Other drawable directories contain assets designed for other screen densities.
layout/
Directory for files that define your app's user interface.
values/
Directory for other various XML files that contain a collection of resources, such as
string and color definitions.

When you build and run the default Android app, the default Activity class starts and
loads a layout file that says "Hello World." The result is nothing exciting, but it's important that
you understand how to run your app before you start developing.
Run on a Real Device
If you have a real Android-powered device, here's how you can install and run your app:
1.

o
o

Plug in your device to your development machine with a USB cable. If you're
developing on Windows, you might need to install the appropriate USB driver for your
device. For help installing drivers, see the OEM USB Drivers document.
2. Enable USB debugging on your device.
On most devices running Android 3.2 or older, you can find the option under Settings >
Applications > Development.
On Android 4.0 and newer, it's in Settings > Developer options.

Note: On Android 4.2 and newer, Developer options is hidden by default. To make it available,
go toSettings > About phone and tap Build number seven times. Return to the previous screen to
findDeveloper options.
To run the app from Eclipse:
1. Open one of your project's files and click Run
from the toolbar.
2. In the Run as window that appears, select Android Application and click OK.
Eclipse installs the app on your connected device and starts it.
Or to run your app from a command line:
1. Change directories to the root of your Android project and execute:
ant debug
2. Make sure the Android SDK platform-tools/ directory is included in
your PATH environment variable, then execute:
adb install bin/MyFirstApp-debug.apk
3. On your device, locate MyFirstActivity and open it.

59

Run on the Emulator


Whether you're using Eclipse or the command line, to run your app on the emulator you
need to first create anAndroid Virtual Device (AVD). An AVD is a device configuration for the
Android emulator that allows you to model different devices.

Figure The AVD Manager showing a few virtual devices.


To create an AVD:
1. Launch the Android Virtual Device Manager:
a. In Eclipse, click Android Virtual Device Manager from the toolbar.
b. From the command line, change directories to<sdk>/tools/ and execute:
android avd
2. In the Android Virtual Device Manager panel, click New.
3. Fill in the details for the AVD. Give it a name, a platform target, an SD card
size, and a skin (HVGA is default).
4. Click Create AVD.
5. Select the new AVD from the Android Virtual Device Manager and click Start.
6. After the emulator boots up, unlock the emulator screen.
To run the app from Eclipse:
1. Open one of your project's files and click Run
from the toolbar.
2. In the Run as window that appears, select Android Application and click OK.
Eclipse installs the app on your AVD and starts it.
Or to run your app from the command line:
1. Change directories to the root of your Android project and execute:
ant debug
60

2. Make sure the Android SDK platform-tools/ directory is included in


your PATH environment variable, then execute:
adb install bin/MyFirstApp-debug.apk
3. On the emulator, locate MyFirstActivity and open it.

Example Project:
Android Google Maps Tutorial
The Android platform provides easy and tight integration between Android
applications and Google Maps. The well established Google Maps APIis used under the
hood in order to bring the power of Google Maps to your Android applications. In this tutorial
we will see how to incorporate Google Maps into an Android app.Installing the Google APIs
In order to be able to use Google Maps, the Google APIs have to be present in your SDK.
In case the Google APIs are not already installed, you will have to manually install them. This is
accomplished by using the Android SDK and AVD Manager.
Launch the manager and choose the Installed Options section to see what is already
installed and the Available Packages to download the additional APIs.

You can find more information about this procedure in the following links:

Adding SDK Components

Installing the Google APIs Add-On


Setting up an Eclipse project
Now that the appropriate tools are installed, lets proceed with creating a new Android
project in Eclipse. The project I created is named AndroidGoogleMapsProject and has the
following configuration:
It is important to use the Google APIs as the target since this option includes the
Google extensions that allow you to use Google Maps. Return to the first step of this tutorial if

61

no such option is available in your configuration. I chose the 1.5 version of the platform since we
will not be using any of the latest fancy API stuff.
Google Maps API Key Generation
As you might know if you have used the Google Maps API in the past, a key is required
in order to be able to use the API. The process is slightly different for use in Android
applications, so lets see what is required to do.
First, we have to calculate the MD5 fingerprint of the certificate that we will use to sign
the final application. This fingerprint will have to be provided to the Google Maps API service so
that it can associate the key with your application. Javas Key and Certificate Management
tool named keytool is used for the fingerprint generation.
The keytool executable resides in the %JAVA_HOME%/bin directory for Windows or
$JAVA_HOME/bin for Linux/OS X. For example, in my setup, it is installed in the
C:\programs\Java\jdk1.6.0_18\bin folder.
While developing an Android application, the application is being signed in debug mode.
That is, the SDK build tools automatically sign the application using the debug certificate. This is
the certificate whose fingerprint we need to calculate. To generate the MD5 fingerprint of the
debug certificate we first need to locate the debug keystore. The location of the keystore varies
by platform:

Windows Vista: C:\Users\\.android\debug.keystore

Windows XP: C:\Documents and Settings\\.android\debug.keystore

OS X and Linux: ~/.android/debug.keystore


Now that we have located the keystore, we use the keytool executable to get the MD5
fingerprint of the debug certificate by issuing the following command:
keytool -list -alias androiddebugkey \
-keystore .keystore \
-storepass android -keypass android
For example, in my Windows machine I changed directory to the .android folder and I
used the following command:
%JAVA_HOME%/bin/keytool -list -alias androiddebugkey -keystore debug.keystore -storepass
android -keypass android
Note that this was executed against the debug keystore, you will have to repeat this for
the keystore that will be used with the application you are going to create. Additionally, the

62

application is run on another development environment, with different Android SDK keystore,
the API key will be invalid and Google Maps will not work.
The output would be something like the following:
androiddebugkey, Apr 2, 2010, PrivateKeyEntry,
Certificate fingerprint (MD5): 72:BF:25:C1:AF:4C:C1:2F:34:D9:B1:90:35:XX:XX:XX
This the fingerprint we have to provide to the Google Maps service. Now we are ready to sign up
for a key by visiting the Android Maps API Key Signup page. After we read and accept the terms
and conditions, we provide the generated fingerprint as follows:

We generate the API key and we are presented with the following screen:

Creating the Google Maps application


Finally, its time to write some code. Bookmark the Google APIs Add-On Javadocs for
future reference. Integrating Google Maps is quite straightforward and can be achieved by
extending the MapActivity class instead of the Activity class that we usually do. The main work
is performed by a MapView which displays a map with data obtained from the Google Maps
service. A MapActivity is actually a base class with code to manage the boring necessities of
any activity that displays a MapView. Activity responsibilities include:
63

Activity lifecycle management and Setup and teardown of services behind a MapView

To extend from MapActivity we have to implement the isRouteDisplayed method, which


denotes whether or not we are displaying any kind of route information, such as a set of driving
directions. We will not provide such information, so we just return false there.
In our map activity, we will just take reference of a MapView. This view will be defined
in the layout XML. We will also use thesetBuiltInZoomControls method to enable the built-in
zoom controls.
Lets see how our activity looks like so far:

Lets also see the referenced main.xml layout file:

64

Do not forget to provide your API key in the relevant field or else Google Maps will not work.
Launching the application
To test the application we will have to use a device that includes the Google APIs. We
will use the AVD manager to create a new device with target set to one of the Google APIs and
settings like the following:
If we now launch the Eclipse configuration, we will encounter the following exception:
java.lang.ClassNotFoundException: com.javacodegeeks.android.googlemaps.GMapsActivity in
loader dalvik.system.PathClassLoader@435988d0
The problem is that we havent notified Android that we wish to use the add-on Google APIs
which are external to the base API. To do so, we have to use the uses-library element in our
Android manifest file, informing Android that we are going to use classes from the
com.google.android.maps package.
Additionally, we have to grant internet access to our application by adding the
android.permission.INTERNET directive. Here is how our AndroidManifest.xml file looks like:

65

And here is what the application screen looks like:

If you click inside the map, the zoom controls will appear and you will be able to zoom in and
out.
Adding map overlays
The next step is to add some custom map overlays. To do so, we can extend
the Overlay class, which is a base class representing an overlay which may be displayed on top
of a map. Alternatively, we may extend the ItemizedOverlay, which is a base class for
an Overlaywhich consists of a list of OverlayItems. Lets see how we can do this (note that the
following example is very similar to the Hello Map Viewarticle from the Android
documentation):

66

Our class requires an Android Drawable in its constructor, which will be used as a
marker. Additionally, the current Context has to be provided. We use an ArrayList to store all
the OverlayItems stored in the specific class, so the createItem and size methods are pretty much
self-explanatory. The onTap method is called when an item is tapped and that could be from a
touchscreen tap on an onscreen Item, or from a trackball click on a centered, selected Item. In
that method, we just create an AlertDialog and show it to the user. Finally, in the exposed
addOverlay method, we add the OverlayItem and invoke the populate method, which is a utility
method to perform all processing on a new ItemizedOverlay.
Lets see how this class can be utilized from our map activity:

67

We create a new instance of our CustomItemizedOverlay class by using the default


Android icon as the Drawable. Then we create aGeoPoint pointing to a predefined location and
use that to generate an OverlayItem object. We add the overlay item to our
CustomItemizedOverlay class and it magically appears in our map on the predefined point.
Finally, we take reference of the underlying MapController and use it to point the map to
a specific geographical point using theanimateTo method and to define the zoom level by using
the setZoom method.
If we launch again the configuration, we will be presented with a zoomed-in map which
includes an overlay marker pointing toJavaCodeGeeks home town Athens, Greece. Clicking on
the marker will cause the alert dialog to pop-up displaying our custom message.

RESULT:
Thus the Study the Android open source operating system for mobile devices has been
done and developed a module.

68

CASE STUDY 4 :eCos


eCos:
eCos is provided as an open source runtime system supported by the GNU open source
development tools. Developers have full and unfettered access to all aspects of the runtime
system. No parts of it are proprietary or hidden, and you are at liberty to examine, add to, and
modify the code as you deem necessary. These rights are granted to you and protected by
the eCos license. It also grants you the right to freely develop and distribute applications based
on eCos. We welcome all contributions back to eCos such as board ports, device drivers and
other components, as this helps the growth and development of eCos, and is of benefit to the
entire eCos community.
One of the key technological innovations in eCos is the configuration system. The
configuration system allows the application writer to impose their requirements on the run-time
components, both in terms of their functionality and implementation, whereas traditionally the
operating system has constrained the application's own implementation. Essentially, this enables
eCos developers to create their own application-specific operating system and makes eCos
suitable for a wide range of embedded uses. Configuration also ensures that the resource
footprint of eCos is minimized as all unnecessary functionality and features are removed. The
configuration system also presents eCos as a component architecture. This provides a
standardized mechanism for component suppliers to extend the functionality of eCos and allows
applications to be built from a wide set of optional configurable run-time components.
Components can be provided from a variety of sources including the standard eCos release,
commercial third party developers and open source contributors.
The royalty-free nature of eCos means that you can develop and deploy your application
using the standard eCos release without incurring any royalty charges. In addition, there are no
up-front license charges for the eCos runtime source code and associated tools. eCos delivers,
without charge, everything necessary for basic embedded applications development.
eCos is designed to be portable to a wide range of target architectures and target platforms
including 16, 32, and 64 bit architectures, MPUs, MCUs and DSPs. The eCos kernel, libraries
and runtime components are layered on the Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL), and thus will
run on any target once the HAL and relevant device drivers have been ported to the target's
processor architecture and board.
Currently eCos supports 13 different target architectures:

68K/ColdFire
ARM (including ARM7TDMI, ARM9TDMI, Cortex-M, StrongARM, XScale)

CalmRISC16 and CalmRISC32 (RedBoot only)


69

Fujitsu FR-V

Fujitsu FR30

Hitachi H8/300

Intel x86

Matsushita AM3x

MIPS

NEC V8xx

PowerPC

SPARC

SuperH

Support includes many of the popular variants of these architectures and evaluation boards.
Many new ports are in development and will be released as they become available.
eCos has been designed to support applications with real-time requirements, providing
features such as full preemptability, minimal interrupt latencies, and all the necessary
synchronization primitives, scheduling policies, and interrupt handling mechanisms needed for
these type of applications. eCos also provides all the functionality required for general embedded
application support including device drivers, memory management, exception handling, C, math
libraries, etc. In addition to runtime support, the eCos system includes all the tools necessary to
develop embedded applications, including eCos software configuration and build tools, and
GNU based compilers, assemblers, linkers, debuggers, and simulators.
The following core functionality is provided:

Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL)


Real-time kernel
o

Interrupt handling, Exception handling

Choice of schedulers, Thread support

Rich set of synchronization primitives

Timers, counters and alarms

Choice of memory allocators

Debug and instrumentation support

ITRON 3.0 compatible API, POSIX compatible API


70

ISO C and math libraries

Serial, ethernet, SPI, I2C, framebuffer, CAN, ADC, wallclock and watchdog device
drivers

USB slave support

TCP/IP networking stacks

C++ Standard Template Library (uSTL)

GDB debug support

System requirements
The eCos net distribution is available in both Linux and Windows versions. The Linux
version is tested under recent versions of the Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu distributions for
x86 and should work under most Linux variants. The Windows version has been tested under
Microsoft Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP and Windows Vista. It should also work
under Windows NT4 with SP6a. The use of eCos under Windows 95/98/ME is no-longer
supported.
The eCos net distribution is supplied with full support for configuration of eCos on all
host platforms via both a graphical configuration tool and a command-line tool. It is intended to
be used in conjunction with GNU development tools which are available freely on the net. As a
minimum, the gcc compiler, gdb debugger and binutils tools are required to build eCos, link with
application code and undertake debugging.
Architecture Index List
ARM, CalmRISC, Cortex-M, FR-V, FR30, H8, IA32, 68K/ColdFire, Matsushita
AM3x, MIPS, NEC V8xx, PowerPC, SPARC, SuperH
Devices Index List
Flash devices, Ethernet devices, Serial devices, USB devices, Timekeeping devices
Status Key:
:

71

Hardware
supported
by eCos
RedBoot: Hardware supported by RedBoot
A:

Alpha quality

B:

Beta quality

O:

Obsolete - hardware no longer available

X:

Port presently non-functional

Downloading and Installation


These instructions describe how to download and install recent versions of the eCos realtime operating system.
Host support
The eCos net distribution is available in both Linux and Windows versions. The Linux
version is tested under recent versions of the Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu distributions for
x86 and should work under most Linux variants. The Windows version has been tested under
Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP and Windows Vista. It should also work under
Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 with SP6a. Please note that eCos is no longer supported under
Windows 95/98/ME.
Downloading and installation instructions
Linux
Developers wishing to use the pre-built eCos 3.0 host tools on a 32-bit Linux host (i686)
must first ensure that they have libstdc++ v3 (/usr/lib/libstdc++.so.5) installed. Users of Linux
distributions which provide a more recent libstdc++ may need to install a libstdc++ v3
compatibility package. Installation of the compatibility package may be achieved as follows:
Fedora i686:

yum install compat-libstdc++-33

openSUSE i686:

zypper install libstdc++33

Ubuntu 9.10 i686 (and later):

dpkg -i libstdc++5_3.3.6-17ubuntu1_i386.deb

Ubuntu 9.04 i686 (and earlier): apt-get install libstdc++5


72

Developers working with a 64-bit Linux host (x86_64) should use the above snapshot
build and will also need to install 32-bit libraries as follows:
Fedora x86_64:

yum install libstdc++.i686

openSUSE 12.x x86_64: zypper install libstdc++46-32bit


openSUSE 11.x x86_64: zypper install libstdc++45-32bit
Ubuntu x86_64:

apt-get install ia32-libs

The Linux-hosted eCos Configuration Tool also requires the GTK+ toolkit version 2.0 or
later.
Cygwin
Developers wishing to install eCos on a Windows host must first install a recent version
of the Cygwin UNIX emulation system. Full instructions on installing Cygwin for use with
eCos are available. The following instructions assume that Cygwin has already been installed
(where necessary) and that the reader is familiar with invoking a bash shell.

eCos and Toolchain


The most recent eCos release (eCos 3.0) may be installed using an installation tool which
simplifies the downloading and installation of the eCos sources, host tools and documentation.
The installation tool can optionally download one or more pre-built GNU cross toolchains
(contributed by eCosCentric Limited) for use in conjunction with eCos. At present, toolchains for
the following target architectures are available for download in pre-built form:
Architecture

Target

ARM (ARM7TDMI, ARM9, Cortex-M, XScale)

arm-eabi

ARM (ARM7DI, StrongARM)

arm-elf

ColdFire

m68k-elf

Intel x86

i386-elf

73

MIPS32

mipsisa32-elf

PowerPC

powerpc-eabi

SuperH

sh-elf

Developers targetting one of the other architectures must build a toolchain themselves at
present. Full instructions for downloading source code and building a toolchain are available.
We recommend that eCos is installed to /opt/ecos where it will be accessible by all users.
This may require installation by a user with suitable privileges. First, download the eCos
installation tool by using the following command at a bash prompt:
wget --passive-ftp ftp://ecos.sourceware.org/pub/ecos/ecos-install.tcl
The installation tool may then be invoked as follows:
sh ecos-install.tcl
The installation tool will present a list of mirror sites from which the software may be
downloaded. For best results, please select a mirror site in your own geographical region. The
tool will then prompt for an installation location. Finally, the tool will present a list of pre-built
GNU toolchains available for download. Select each toolchain you wish to download by entering
the corresponding number. When all required toolchains have been selected, enter q.
Downloading and installation of the software will then commence.
Note: Following installation of eCos, most users will need to replace their eCos host tools with
more recent snapshot builds. Download instructions for the most recent snapshot builds are
available in the ecos-discuss mailing list archives:

eCos host tools for Cygwin - 120425 snapshot builds


eCos host tools for Linux - 110209 snapshot builds

Windows users should note that POSIX-style paths are relative to the root of their Cygwin
installation (typically c:\cygwin) by default. For example, /opt/ecos might be located
atc:\cygwin\opt\ecos in the Windows Explorer.
Users may wish to create a shortcut to the eCos Configuration Tool on their desktop.
Typically, this may be achieved by dragging the configtool or configtool.exe executable file from the
file manager provided by your operating system onto the desktop and dropping it while holding
down the shift and ctrl keys. This file is located in the ecos-version/tools/bin directory under the
location at which eCos was installed. On Windows hosts, it will be necessary to modify the
"Start in" property of the shortcut to specify the Cygwin /bin directory (typically c:\cygwin\bin) as
the working directory.
74

Users who have downloaded eCos previously and now wish to download additional
toolchains should re-invoke the eCos installer, specifying the -t switch on the installer command
line as follows:
sh ecos-install.tcl -t
Documentation
The eCos Configuration Tool is used to tailor eCos at source level, prior to
compilation or assembly, and provides a configuration file and a set of files used to build
user applications. The sources and other files used for building a configuration are
provided in a component repository, which is loaded when the eCos Configuration Tool is
invoked. The component repository includes a set of files defining the structure of
relationships between the Configuration Tool and other components, and is written in
a Component Definition Language (CDL). For a description of the concepts underlying
component configuration,
Invoking the eCos Configuration Tool
On Linux
Add the eCos Configuration Tool install directory to your PATH, for example:
export PATH=/opt/ecos/ecos<version>/bin:$PATH
You may run configtool with zero, one or two arguments. You can specify
the eCos repository location, and/or an eCos save file (extension .ecc) on the command line. The
ordering of these two arguments is not significant. For example:
configtool /opt/ecos/ecos<version>/packages myfile.ecc
On Windows
There are two ways in which to invoke the eCos Configuration Tool:

from the desktop explorer or program set up at installation time (by default Start ->
Programs -> eCos -> Configuration Tool ).
type (at a command prompt or in the Start menus Run item):
<foldername>\ConfigTool.exe where <foldername> is the full path of the directory in
which you installed the eCos Configuration Tool.

The Configuration Tool will be displayed

You may run configtool with zero, one or two arguments. You can specify
the eCos repository location, and/or an eCos save file (extension .ecc) on the command line. The
ordering of these two arguments is not significant. For example:
75

configtool "c:\Program Files\eCos\packages" myfile.ecc


If you invoke the configuration tool from the command line with --help, you will see this output:
Usage: eCos Configuration Tool [-h] [-e] [-v] [-c] [input file 1] [input file 2]
-h --help
displays help on the command line parameters
-e --edit-only
edit save file only
-v --version
print version
-c --compile-help compile online help only
This summarizes valid parameters and switches. Switches are shown with both short
form and long form.
--help shows valid options and parameters, as above.
--edit-only runs the Configuration Tool in a mode that suppresses creation of a build tree, in
case you only want to create and edit save files.
--version shows version and build date information, and exits.
--compile-help compiles help contents files from the HTML documentation files that the tool
finds in the eCos repository, and exits.

Figure. Configuration Tool


The Component Repository
When you invoke the eCos Configuration Tool, it accesses the Component Repository, a
read-only location of configuration information. The eCos Configuration Tool will look for a
component repository using (in descending order of preference):

A location specified on the command line


The component repository most recently used by the current user
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An eCos distribution under /opt/ecos (under Linux) or a default location set by the
installation procedure (under Windows)

User input

The final case above will normally only occur if the previous repository has been moved or
(under Windows) installation information stored in the Windows registry has been modified; it
will result in a dialog box being displayed that allows you to specify the repository location:

Figure . Repository relocation dialog box


Note that in order to use the eCos Configuration Tool you are obliged to provide a valid
repository location.
In the rare event that you subsequently wish to change the component location,
select Build->Repository and the above dialog box will then be displayed.
You can check the location of the current repository, the current save file path, and the
current hardware template and default package, by selecting Help->Repository Information.... A
summary will be displayed.
eCos Configuration Tool Documents
Configuration Save File
eCos configuration settings and other information (such as disabled conflicts) that are set
using the eCos Configuration Tool are saved to a file between sessions. By default, when
the eCos Configuration Tool is first invoked, it reads and displays information from the
Component Registry and displays the information in an untitled blank document. You can
perform the following operations on a document:
Save the currently active document
Use the File->Save menu item or click the Save Document icon on the toolbar; if the
current document is unnamed, you will be prompted to supply a name for the configuration save
file.

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Figure . Save As dialog box


Open an existing document
Select File->Open, or click the Open Document icon on the toolbar. You will be
prompted to supply a name for the configuration save file.

Figure Open dialog box


Open a document you have used recently
Click its name at the bottom of the File menu.
Documents may also be opened by:
double-clicking a Configuration Save File in the desktop explorer (Windows only);
invoking the eCos Configuration Tool with the name of a Configuration File as
command-line argument, or by creating a shortcut to the eCos Configuration Tool with
such an argument (under Windows or a suitable Linux desktop environment).
Create a new blank document based on the Component Registry
Select File->New, or click the New Document icon on the toolbar.
Save to a different file name
Select File->Save As. You will be prompted to supply a new name for the configuration
save file.
Build and Install Trees

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The location of the build and install trees are derived from the eCos save file name as
illustrated in the following example:
Save file name = c:\My eCos\config1.ecc
Install tree folder = c:\My eCos\config1_install
Build tree folder = c:\My eCos\config1_build
These names are automatically generated from the name of the save file.
Building and Running Sample Applications
The first program you will run is a hello world-style application, then you will run a more
complex application that demonstrates the creation of threads and the use of cyg_thread_delay(),
and finally you will run one that uses clocks and alarm handlers.
The Makefile depends on an externally defined variable to find the eCos library and header files.
This variable is INSTALL_DIR and must be set to the pathname of the install directory.
INSTALL_DIR may be either be set in the shell environment or may be supplied on the
command line. To set it in the shell do the following in a bash shell:
$ export INSTALL_DIR=BASE_DIR/ecos-work/arm_install
You can then run make without any extra parameters to build the examples.
Alternatively, if you can do the following:
$ make INSTALL_DIR=BASE_DIR/ecos-work/arm_install
eCos Hello World
The following code is found in the file hello.c in the examples directory:
eCos hello world program listing
/* this is a simple hello world program */
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
printf("Hello, eCos world!\n");
return 0;
}

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To compile this or any other program that is not part of the eCos distribution, you can
follow the procedures described below. Type this explicit compilation command (assuming your
current working directory is also where you built the eCos kernel):
$ TARGET-gcc -g -IBASE_DIR/ecos-work/install/include hello.c
-LBASE_DIR/ecos-work/install/lib -Ttarget.ld -nostdlib
The compilation command above contains some standard GCC options (for example, g enables debugging), as well as some mention of paths (-IBASE_DIR/ecoswork/install/include allows
files
likecyg/kernel/kapi.h to
be
found,
and LBASE_DIR/ecos-work/install/lib allows the linker to find -Ttarget.ld).
The executable program will be called a.out.
You can now run the resulting program using GDB in exactly the same the way you ran
the test case before. The procedure will be the same, but this time run TARGET-gdb specifying nw a.out on the command line:
$ TARGET-gdb -nw a.out
For targets other than the synthetic linux target, you should now run the usual GDB
commands described earlier. Once this is done, typing the command "continue" at the (gdb)
prompt ("run" for simulators) will allow the program to execute and print the string "Hello, eCos
world!" on your screen.
On the synthetic linux target, you may use the "run" command immediately - you do not
need to connect to the target, nor use the "load" command.
A Sample Program with Two Threads
Below is a program that uses some of eCos' system calls. It creates two threads, each of
which goes into an infinite loop in which it sleeps for a while (using cyg_thread_delay()). This
code is found in the file twothreads.cin the examples directory.
eCos two-threaded program listing
#include <cyg/kernel/kapi.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
/* now declare (and allocate space for) some kernel objects, like the two threads we will use */
cyg_thread thread_s[2];/* space for two thread objects */
char stack[2][4096]; /* space for two 4K stacks */

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/* now the handles for the threads */


cyg_handle_t simple_threadA, simple_threadB;
/* and now variables for the procedure which is the thread */
cyg_thread_entry_t simple_program;
/* and now a mutex to protect calls to the C library */
cyg_mutex_t cliblock;
/* we install our own startup routine which sets up threads */
void cyg_user_start(void)
{
printf("Entering twothreads' cyg_user_start() function\n");
cyg_mutex_init(&cliblock);
cyg_thread_create(4, simple_program, (cyg_addrword_t) 0,"Thread A", (void *) stack[0],4096,
&simple_threadA, &thread_s[0]);
cyg_thread_create(4, simple_program, (cyg_addrword_t) 1,"Thread B", (void *) stack[1], 4096,
&simple_threadB, &thread_s[1]);
cyg_thread_resume(simple_threadA);
cyg_thread_resume(simple_threadB);
}
/* this is a simple program which runs in a thread */
void simple_program(cyg_addrword_t data)
{
int message = (int) data;
int delay;
printf("Beginning execution; thread data is %d\n", message);
cyg_thread_delay(200);
for (;;) {
delay = 200 + (rand() % 50);
/* note: printf() must be protected by a
call to cyg_mutex_lock() */
cyg_mutex_lock(&cliblock); {
printf("Thread %d: and now a delay of %d clock ticks\n",
message, delay);
}
cyg_mutex_unlock(&cliblock);
cyg_thread_delay(delay);
}
}
When you run the program (by typing continue at the (gdb) prompt) the output should look like
this:
Starting program: BASE_DIR/examples/twothreads.exe
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Entering twothreads' cyg_user_start()


function
Beginning execution; thread data is 0
Beginning execution; thread data is 1
Thread 0: and now a delay of 240 clock ticks
Thread 1: and now a delay of 225 clock ticks
Thread 1: and now a delay of 234 clock ticks
Thread 0: and now a delay of 231 clock ticks
Thread 1: and now a delay of 224 clock ticks
Thread 0: and now a delay of 249 clock ticks
Thread 1: and now a delay of 202 clock ticks
Thread 0: and now a delay of 235 clock ticks
Note: When running in a simulator the delays might be quite long. On a hardware board (where
the clock speed is 100 ticks/second) the delays should average to about 2.25 seconds. In
simulation, the delay will depend on the speed of the host processor and will almost always be
much slower than the actual board. You might want to reduce the delay parameter when running
in simulation.
Following figure shows how this multitasking program executes. Note that apart from the
thread creation system calls, this program also creates and uses a mutex for synchronization
between the printf() calls in the two threads. This is because the C library standard I/O (by
default) is configured not to be thread-safe, which means that if more than one thread is using
standard I/O they might corrupt each other. This is fixed by a mutual exclusion (or mutex)
lockout mechanism: the threads do not call printf() until cyg_mutex_lock() has returned,
which only happens when the other thread calls cyg_mutex_unlock().

Figure. Two threads with simple print statements after random delays

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Ecosconfig on Windows and Linux Quick Start


As an alternative to using the graphical Configuration Tool, it is possible to configure and
build a kernel by editing a configuration file manually and using the ecosconfig command. Users
with a Unix background may find this tool more suitable than the GUI tool described in the
previous section.
To use the ecosconfig command you need to start a shell. In Windows you need to start
a CygWin bash shell, not a DOS command line. The following instructions assume that
the PATH and ECOS_REPOSITORY environment variables have been setup correctly. They also
assume Linux usage but equally well apply to Windows running Cygwin.

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Before invoking ecosconfig you need to choose a directory in which to work. For the
purposes of this tutorial, the default path will be BASE_DIR/ecos-work. Create this directory and
change to it by typing:
$ mkdir BASE_DIR/ecos-work
$ cd BASE_DIR/ecos-work
To see what options can be used with ecosconfig, type:
$ ecosconfig help
The available packages, targets and templates may be listed as follows:
$ ecosconfig list
Here is sample output from ecosconfig showing the usage message.
Example Getting help from ecosconfig
$ ecosconfig --help
Usage: ecosconfig [ qualifier ... ] [ command ]
commands are:
list
: list repository contents
new TARGET [ TEMPLATE [ VERSION
: create a configuration
target TARGET
: change the target hardware
template TEMPLATE [ VERSION ]
: change the template
add PACKAGE [ PACKAGE ... ]
: add package(s)
remove PACKAGE [ PACKAGE ... ]
: remove package(s)
version VERSION PACKAGE [ PACKAGE ... ] : change version of package(s)
export FILE
: export minimal config info
import FILE
: import additional config info
check
: check the configuration
resolve
: resolve conflicts
tree
: create a build tree
qualifiers are:
--config=FILE
: the configuration file
--prefix=DIRECTORY
: the install prefix
--srcdir=DIRECTORY
: the source repository
--no-resolve
: disable conflict
resolution
--version
: show version and copyright
RESULT:
Thus the Study the eCos open source operating system has been done and developed a
module.

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