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Limits and Tolerances

Outlines

1.

Factors that influence limits and tolerance

2.

Limits in manufacturing process and

costing

Outlines 1. Factors that influence limits and tolerance 2. Limits in manufacturing process and costing
Outlines 1. Factors that influence limits and tolerance 2. Limits in manufacturing process and costing

Understanding Tolerance

Tolerance is the total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary.

It is the difference between the maximum and the minimum limits for the dimension.

Tolerances are specified so that any two mating parts will fit together.

The tolerance is 0.001 for the

hole as well as for the shaft.

tolerance is 0.001 for the hole as well as for the shaft. Limits - the max.

Limits - the max. and min. sizes indicated by a tolerance dimensions.

- limits for the hole = 1.251 and 1.250

For example a dimension given

as 1.625

manufactured part may be 1.627 or 1.623, or anywhere between these limit dimensions.

.002 means that the

Understanding Tolerance

(Contd.)

To effectively provide tolerances in your drawings and CAD models, you must:

Understand the fit required between mating parts.

Have a clear picture of how inspection measurements are performed.

Be able to apply tolerance symbols to a drawing or model.

Apply functional tolerancing to individual features of the part.

functional tolerancing to individual features of the part. The inner workings of a watch are an

The inner workings of a watch are an example of parts that must fit precisely to work.

(Courtesy of SuperStock, Inc.)

Quality Control

Before paying for parts, most companies have a process to quality certify (QC) the parts against the drawing or model.

A tolerance must be specified for each dimension so that it can be determined how accurately the part must be manufactured to be acceptable.

accurately the part must be manufactured to be acceptable. The tolerances that you specify are based

The tolerances that you specify are based on the part’s function and fit.

Tolerancing

Why is tolerancing necessary?

It is impossible to manufacture a part to an exact size or geometry

Since variation from the drawing is unavoidable the acceptable degree of variation must be specified

Large variation may affect the functionality of the part

Small variation will effect the cost of the part

requires precise manufacturing

requires inspection and the rejection of parts

will effect the cost of the part • requires precise manufacturing • requires inspection and the

Cost

Cost generally increases with smaller tolerance.

Parts with small tolerances often require special methods of manufacturing.

Parts with small tolerances often require greater

inspection and call for the rejection of parts.

greater inspection and call for the rejection of parts. Cost more to produce a narrow tolerance;
greater inspection and call for the rejection of parts. Cost more to produce a narrow tolerance;

Cost more to produce a narrow tolerance; therefore, use maximum tolerance without sacrificing quality.

Do not specify a smaller tolerance than is necessary!

Tolerances

Example:

Hole
Hole

Maximum limit Minimum limit

Shaft
Shaft

Maximum size

Example: Hole Maximum limit Minimum limit Shaft Maximum size Minimum size Tolerance = 31.70 – 31.67

Minimum size

Tolerance = 31.70 31.67 = 0.03

Tolerance = total amount of variation

31.78 31.75 = 0.03

Dimension could be 31.78 or 31.75 or any value between them.

It is a decision of the designer to choose a suitable dimension with lower cost.

Note that the previous parts are interchangeable (mating parts).

How Tolerance Specified?

Size

Limits specifying the allowed variation in each dimension (length,

width, height, diameter, etc.) are given on the drawing.

Geometry

Geometric tolerancing

Allows for specification of

tolerance for the geometry of a part separate from its size

GD&T (Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing) uses special symbols to control different geometric features of a part

GD&T (Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing) uses special symbols to control different geometric features of a part

Definitions for Size Designation

Definitions of size designation terms that apply in tolerancing.

- Feature

-

- Actual local feature

- Nominal size

- Allowance

the dimension to which a part to be made if it were possible to manufacture to exact size.

Actual size:
Actual size:
it were possible to manufacture to exact size. Actual size: Feature of size minimum clearance space.

Feature of size

to manufacture to exact size. Actual size: Feature of size minimum clearance space. • clearance fit

minimum clearance space.

clearance fit = (+ve) allowance

interference fit = (-ve) allowance

the measured size of the finished part.

Tolerance vs Allowance

Tolerance

is the difference between the max. and min. allowance on an individual part.

=

between the max. and min. allowance on an individual part. = Allowance is the min. clearance

Allowance

is the min. clearance or max. interference between two mating parts.

=

General Tolerance Notes

“ALL TOLERANCES 1 mm UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. ANGLES 1 DEGREE.”
“ALL TOLERANCES
1 mm
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED.
ANGLES 1 DEGREE.”

General notes are usually located in the lower right corner of the drawing sheet near the title block.

Often, general tolerance notes are included in the title block itself.

corner of the drawing sheet near the title block. Often, general tolerance notes are included in

Limit Tolerances

Limit tolerances state the upper and lower limits for the dimension

range in place of the dimension values.

for the dimension range in place of the dimension values. The upper limit is always placed

The upper limit is always

placed above the lower limit.

The upper limit is always placed above the lower limit. In single-line note form, the low

In single-line note form, the low limit precedes the high limit separated by a dash.

Plus-or-Minus Tolerances

Unilateral when the tolerance

applies in only one direction

so that one value is zero.

applies in only one direction so that one value is zero. Bilateral when either the same

Bilateral when either the same or different values are added and subtracted.

one direction so that one value is zero. Bilateral when either the same or different values
one direction so that one value is zero. Bilateral when either the same or different values

Angular Tolerances

Angular tolerances are usually bilateral and given in terms of degrees, minutes, and seconds, unless geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is used.

minutes, and seconds, unless geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is used. Plus/Minus – Toleranced Decimal Dimensions
minutes, and seconds, unless geometric dimensioning and tolerancing is used. Plus/Minus – Toleranced Decimal Dimensions

Plus/MinusToleranced Decimal Dimensions

Tolerance Stacking

Tolerance stacking refers to the way the tolerance for one dimension is added to the next dimension in the chain and so on from one feature to the next, resulting in a large variation in the location of the last feature in the chain.

variation in the location of the last feature in the chain. Chained dimension uses the end

Chained dimension uses the end of one

dimension as the beginning of the next.

uses the end of one dimension as the beginning of the next. Baseline dimensioning locates a

Baseline dimensioning locates a series

of features from a common base feature.

Tolerance Stacking

(Contd.)

Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B

Part A and B assembled

Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B
Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B
Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B

Part A

Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B
Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B
Tolerance Stacking (Contd.) Part A and B assembled Part A Part B

Part B

Fits between Mating Parts

Fit is the range of tightness or looseness resulting from the allowances and

tolerances in mating parts.

The loosest fit, or maximum clearance, occurs when the smallest internal part (shaft) is in the largest external part (hole).

Fits: relation between mating pairs before assembly Pairs: shaft / hole

Fits purpose:

- assemble / disassemble of parts.

- sliding a part relative to the other.

assembly Pairs : shaft / hole Fits purpose : - assemble / disassemble of parts. -

Fits between Mating Parts

(Contd.)

Fit the relative motion between a shaft and a hole resulting from the final size achieved in manufacture.

hole resulting from the final size achieved in manufacture. There are three (3) types of fits

There are three (3) types of fits between parts:

1. Clearance fit

2. Interference fit

3. Transition fit

Fits between Mating Parts

(Contd.)

Fits between Mating Parts (Contd.) Clearance fit A clearance fit occurs when an internal part fits

Clearance fit

A clearance fit occurs when an internal part fits into an external part with space (or clearance) between the parts.

part with space (or clearance) between the parts. Clearance fit = (+ve) allowance Clearance fit :

Clearance fit = (+ve) allowance

Clearance fit : always there is a clearance between the max. limit of the shaft and the min. limit of the hole.

Fits between Mating Parts

(Contd.)

Smallest shaft is still larger than hole size
Smallest
shaft is still
larger than
hole size

Interference fit = (-ve) allowance

Interference fit

An interference fit occurs when the internal part

is larger than the external part, so the parts

must be forced together.

Require to apply force during assembly resulting in some deformation and

pressure on the mating

surfaces.

Interference fit : min. limit of the shaft is always greater than the max. limit of the hole.

Fits between Mating Parts

(Contd.)

Transition fit

the fit could be either clearance or

interference.

(small interference and clearance)

or interference . (small interference and clearance) In the figure, the smallest shaft 1.2503 ” will

In the figure, the smallest shaft 1.2503will fit in the largest hole 1.2506, with 0.003to spare. But the largest shaft 1.2509will have to be forced into the smallest hole 1.2500with an interference of metal of 0.009.

Transition fit : used where accuracy of location is important, but where a small amount of clearance or a small amount of interference is acceptable.

Specifying Fit Using Limit Dimensions

Limit dimensions are a method of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for

the upper and lower limits of the feature’s size.

of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for the upper and lower limits of the feature’s
of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for the upper and lower limits of the feature’s
of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for the upper and lower limits of the feature’s
of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for the upper and lower limits of the feature’s
of directly specifying tolerance by providing dimensions for the upper and lower limits of the feature’s

Metric System of Tolerances and Fits

Metric System of Tolerances and Fits Basic size: is the theoretical size from which limits of

Basic size: is the theoretical size from which limits of size are derived by the application of allowances and tolerances.

Deviation: is the difference between the basic size and the hole or shaft size.

Upper deviation:

is the difference between the basic size and the permitted maximum size of the part.

Lower deviation:

is the difference between the basic size and the minimum permitted size of the part.

Terms Related to Metric Limits and Fits

(Reprinted from ASME B4.2-1978, by permission of ASME. All rights reserved.)

Metric System of Tolerances and Fits

Metric System of Tolerances and Fits Fundamental deviation: is the deviation closest to the basic size.

Fundamental deviation:

is the deviation closest to the basic size.

Tolerance:

is the difference between the permitted

minimum and maximum sizes of a part.

Terms Related to Metric Limits and Fits

(Reprinted from ASME B4.2-1978, by permission of ASME. All rights reserved.)

Basic Hole System (BHS)

Toleranced dimensions are commonly determined using the basic hole system.

Basic Hole System: the minimum hole is taken as the basic size. (Normally standard drilling
Basic Hole System:
the minimum hole is taken as the basic size.
(Normally standard drilling machines are used
to generate the hole and the shaft is easier to
be machined to the desired diameter).
Lockhart, Shawna D.; Johnson, Cindy M.,
Engineering Design Communication:
Conveying Design Through Graphics, 1st,
© 2000.

Basic Hole System (BHS)

(Contd.)

Minimum hole is taken as the basic size, an allowance is

assigned, and tolerances are applied on both sides of and away

from this allowance.

are applied on both sides of and away from this allowance. 1. The minimum size of

1. The minimum size of the hole 0.500is taken as the basic size.

2. An allowance of 0.002is decided on and subtracted from the basic hole size, making the maximum shaft as 0.498.

3. Tolerances of 0.002and 0.003respectively

are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain

the maximum hole of 0.502and the minimum shaft of 0.495.

Minimum clearance: 0.500” – 0.498” = 0.002”

Maximum clearance: 0.502” – 0.495” = 0.007”

Basic Shaft System (BSS)

In some industries, such as textile machinery manufacturing, which use a

great deal of cold-finished shafting,

the basic shaft system is used. Basic Shaft system: the maximum shaft is taken as
the basic shaft system is used.
Basic Shaft system:
the maximum shaft is taken as the basic size
(shaft cannot be machined to size easily).
Lockhart, Shawna D.: Johnson, Cindy M.,
Engineering Design Communication: Conveying
Design Through Graphics, 1st, © 2000.

Basic Shaft System (BSS)

(Contd.)

Maximum shaft is taken as the basic size, an allowance is assigned, and tolerances are applied on both sides of and away from this allowance.

are applied on both sides of and away from this allowance. 1. The maximum size of

1. The maximum size of the shaft 0.500is taken as the basic size.

2. An allowance of 0.002is decided on and added to the basic shaft size, making the minimum hole as 0.502.

3. Tolerances of 0.003and 0.001respectively are applied to the hole and shaft to obtain the maximum hole of 0.505and the minimum shaft of 0.499.

Minimum clearance: 0.502”-0.500” = 0.002”

Maximum clearance: 0.505” – 0.499” = 0.006”

Basic Hole and Shaft Systems

Example:

Given basic size of 15mm, allowance of 0.02mm, hole machining has a precision of ±0.01mm and shaft machining of ± 0.02mm. Determine the hole and shaft limits for a basic hole fit.

Solution:

Basic hole fit → min. hole size = 15mm

fit . Solution: Basic hole fit → min. hole size = 15mm Hole tolerance 0.02 Allowance
Hole tolerance 0.02 Allowance = 0.02 Shaft tolerance 0.04 Min Max hole Dia. = 15.02
Hole tolerance 0.02
Allowance = 0.02
Shaft tolerance 0.04
Min
Max hole
Dia. = 15.02
hole
15mm
Min shaft
Dia.
Dia. = 14.94
Max shaft
Dia. = 14.98

Tolerances and Machining Processes

Small tolerances generally increase manufacturing cost

Require additional

processing steps

Require additional inspection

Require machines with lower

production rates

Hence, tolerances are often adopted,

which allow reasonable limits for every day applications.

They may vary depending on the type of product and degree of precision required.

limits for every day applications. They may vary depending on the type of product and degree

Tolerances and Machining Processes

(Contd.)

Tolerances and Machining Processes (Contd.) Tolerances related to Machining Processes

Tolerances related to Machining Processes

Tolerances and Machining Processes

(Contd.)

Application, Process

Tolerance (mm)

Slip blocks, reference gages

1-2

High quality gages, plus gages

2-3

Good quality gages, gap gages

3-5

Fits produced by lapping

4-10

Ball bearings, Diamond or fine boring, fine grinding

5-12

Grinding, fine honing

6-20

High quality turning, broaching

12-35

Center lathe turning and boring, reaming

14-50

Horizontal or vertical boring machine

30-80

Milling, slotting, planing, metal rolling or extrusion

50-100

Drilling, rough turning and boring, precision tubing

70-140

Light press work, tube drawing

120-240

Press work, tube rolling

150-500

Die casting or molding, rubber moulding

250-1000

Stamping

400-1400

Sand casting, flame cutting

500-2000

Specifying Tolerances (Mating Parts)

Acceptable Acceptable
Acceptable
Acceptable
Specifying Tolerances (Mating Parts) Acceptable Acceptable Preferred

Preferred

International Tolerances Grade (IT)

In order to establish a preferred fit, we need

1) The magnitude of the tolerance zone for the shaft and the hole

2) Fundamental deviation for the shaft (in BHS) Fundamental deviation for the hole (in BSS)

International tolerance grade numbers (IT numbers) designate groups of tolerances such that tolerances for a particular IT number have the same relative level of accuracy but vary depending on the basic size.

The magnitude of the tolerance zone is the variation in part size.

The tolerance zones are specified in international tolerance grade numbers

called IT numbers.

These numbers range from IT0 to IT16.

The smaller grade numbers specify a smaller tolerance zone.

International Tolerances Grade (IT)

 

(Contd.)

Application / Process

Tolerance (mm)

IT Grade

Slip blocks, reference gages

1-2

1

High quality gages, plus gages

2-3

2

Good quality gages, gap gages

3-5

3

Fits produced by lapping

4-10

4

Ball bearings, diamond or fine boring, fine grinding

5-12

5

Grinding, fine honing

6-20

6

High quality turning, broaching

12-35

7

Center lathe turning and boring, reaming

14-50

8

Horizontal or vertical boring machine

30-80

9

Milling, slotting, planing, metal rolling or extrusion

50-100

10

Drilling, rough turning and boring, precision tubing

70-140

11

Light press work, tube drawing

120-240

12

Press work, tube rolling

150-500

13

Die casting or molding, rubber moulding

250-1000

14

Stamping

400-1400

15

Sand casting, flame cutting

500-2000

16

International Tolerances Grade (IT)

(Contd.)

International Tolerances Grade (IT) (Contd.) H o l e : H ( u p p e

Hole: H (uppercase)

Shaft: f (lowercase)

They are a set of tolerances that varies according to the basic size and provides a uniform level of accuracy within the grade.

set of tolerances that varies according to the basic size and provides a uniform level of

Metric System of Tolerances & Fits (ISO)

Basic reference for tolerance and fits (ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits)

for tolerance and fits (ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits ) Fine tolerance, precise work

Fine tolerance, precise work

for tolerance and fits (ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits ) Fine tolerance, precise work

Coarse tolerance

for tolerance and fits (ANSI B4.2-1978, Preferred Metric Limits and Fits ) Fine tolerance, precise work

Classes of Fits

I)

Clearance fits:

1. Loose running fit: H11/c11

Wide commercial tolerances. Precision is not important.

2. Free running: H9/d9

Accuracy is not important, or large temp. variation, or both conditions.

3. Close running: H8/f7

Running on accurate machines, accurate locations at moderate speeds and journal pressure. Accurate location and minimum play are desired.

4. Sliding fit: H7/g6

For easy move and turn (no free motion), and accurate location.

5. Locational fit (precision clearance fit): H7/h6

Location of stationary parts (static applications).

II)

Transition fits:

Classes of Fits (Clearance Fits)

Classes of Fits (Clearance Fits)

Classes of Fits (Clearance Fits)

(Contd.)

Classes of Fits (Clearance Fits)

(Contd.)

Example:

For free running clearance fit, find hole and shaft limits for a base size of 12mm. Also provide the fit symbol in the preferred form.

Solution:

From the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9

the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9
the previous table for free running fit, Hole limits: 12.000-12.043 Shaft limits: 11.907-11.950 Fit symbol: 12H9/d9

Classes of Fits

I) Clearance fits:

II) Transition fits:

1. Location transition: H7/k6

2. Location transition: H7/n6 (more accurate location)

III) Interference fits:

1. Location interference: H7/p6

Slight interference (press fit). Parts to be assembled/disassembled with accuracy

without bore pressure. Ex: couplings, brass collars…

2. Medium drive: H7/s6

Ordinary steel parts, shrink fit on light sections, tightest fit for cast iron.

3. Force fit: H7/u6

Parts to be joined with high stresses, shrink fit on medium sections.

Classes of Fits (Trans. & Interf. Fits)

Classes of Fits (Trans. & Interf. Fits)

Classes of Fits (Trans. & Interf. Fits)

(Contd.)

Classes of Fits (Trans. & Interf. Fits) (Contd.) 48

48

Classes of Fits (Trans. & Interf. Fits)

(Contd.)

Example:

For a basic hole diameter of 40mm, H7/p6, determine the class of the fit, the

limits for the hole and the shaft.

Solution:

From the previous,

Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042

previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042

40H7/p6

previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042
previous, Type of fit: Locational interference Hole limits: 40.000 – 40.025 Shaft limits: 40.026 - 40.042

International Tolerances Grade (IT)

Example:

A shaft of nominal diameter 25 mm is going to be manufactured.

IT grade is required to be IT7. Determine the tolerance on the shaft.

is required to be IT7. Determine the tolerance on the shaft. Basic size → 18 -30

Basic size → 18-30 (Consider the 1st appearance)

T

d
d
Basic size → 18 -30 (Consider the 1st appearance) T d d max d min 0.021mm

d

max

d
d

min

→ 18 -30 (Consider the 1st appearance) T d d max d min 0.021mm Tables can

0.021mm

Tables can be used for both shafts and the holes.

Tolerance on a shaft or a hole can be calculated by using the formulas provided by ISO.

Tolerances Designation (ISO R286)

Tolerance on a shaft or a hole can also be calculated by using the

formulas provided by ISO. T

K i
K
i

where,

T is the tolerance (in mm)

i 0.45
i
0.45

D

3 D D D 1 2
3
D
D D
1
2
where, T is the tolerance (in mm) i 0.45 D 3 D D D 1 2

0.001D

(unit tolerance, in µm)

(D 1 and D 2 are the nominal sizes marking the beginning and the end of a range of sizes, in mm)

K =10(1.6) (ITn IT6)

International Tolerances Grade (IT)

Example:

Consider the previous example (D = 25 mm and IT grade of IT7) and calculate

the tolerance on the shaft using the formulas given in ISO standards.

i 0.45 3 D
i
0.45
3
D
using the formulas given in ISO standards. i 0.45 3 D 0.001 D Note: When the

0.001D

Note: When the nominal sized marking the beginning and end of a range of sizes are not available, nominal size can be directly used to calculate i.

i 1.341 μm
i
1.341 μm

K =10(1.6) (7 6) =16

T K i s
T
K
i
s
i 1.341 μm K =10(1.6) ( 7 – 6 ) =16 T K i s 21.45

21.45 μm

i 1.341 μm K =10(1.6) ( 7 – 6 ) =16 T K i s 21.45

0.021mm

Same result is obtained using Table.

Geometric Dimensioning and

Tolerancing (GD&T)

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) Geometric tolerances state the maximum allowable variations of a form

Geometric tolerances

state the maximum allowable variations of a form or its position from the perfect geometry implied on the drawing.

The term “geometric” refers to various forms, such as a

plane, a cylinder, a cone, a square, or a hexagon.

Geometric Dimensioning and

Tolerancing (GD&T)

(Contd.)

Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) (Contd.) 54

54

Tolerances and CAD 3D Models

Tolerances and CAD 3D Models Tolerances can be added directly to a 3D model so that

Tolerances can be added directly to a 3D model so that it can be used as the digital product definition.

(Reprinted from ASME Y14.41-2003, by permission of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.)

Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.) SolidWorks software makes it easy to select surface finish
Society of Mechanical Engineers. All rights reserved.) SolidWorks software makes it easy to select surface finish

SolidWorks software makes it easy to select surface finish symbols.