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SE Reference Manual

UBC 1997/CBC 2001 Chapter 16


UBC 1997/CBC 2001 CHAPTER 16

Chapter 16 of the UBC 1997 & CBC 2001 prescribes general design requirements
(including minimum design loads) for structures regulated by the code.
Relevant information from Chapter 16 is presented below:
1612 Load Combinations

Load combinations are discussed in each separate material section of this manual.

1606 Dead Loads

1606.2 - Minimum 20psf partition load to be included in floor design loads


wherever partition locations are subject to change.

1607 Live Loads

1607.5 Live Load Reduction


Live loads may be reduced by the formula:

R = r ( A 150)
R shall not exceed:

R = 23.1 1 + D

(7-1)

(7-2)

R shall also not exceed:


o 40% for members receiving load from one floor only (e.g. beams)
o 60% for other members (e.g. columns).
where, R = Percentage reduction in live load.
r = Rate of reduction, 0.08 for floors. See Table 16-C for roofs
A = Tributary area to member.
D = Dead load in psf
L = Live load in psf.
Note: If the floor load exceeds 100psf or for public assembly areas, no reduction
is allowed.

Example: Multi-story column


Consider a 5-story column with tributary area A at each floor.
Live load reductions are as follows:
Roof:

Rr = 0.08(A-150)

& R 0.40 and R 23.1(1+Dr/Lr)

UBC 1997/CBC 2001 Chapter 16

UBCC16-1

SE Reference Manual

UBC 1997/CBC 2001 Chapter 16

4th Story:

R4 = 0.08(2*A-150)

3rd Story:

R3 = 0.08(3*A-150)

(D + D4 )

& R 0.60 and 23.11 + r


(Lr + L4 )

(D + D4 + D3 )

& R 0.60 and 23.11 + r


(
)
L
L
L
+
+
r
4
3

And so on.
1609 Wind Loads

Wind loads are per Chapter 16, Division III. Wind loads are not discussed here.

1610 Earthquake Loads


Earthquake loads are per Chapter 16, Division IV. The determination of static forces for
design is discussed elsewhere. Other relevant items are described here.

1629.6.5 Dual Systems


Dual systems are defined as a combination of moment frames and shear walls or
braced frames with a complete space frame for gravity loads.
The moment frames shall be designed to resist a minimum of 25% of the design
base shear.

1629.8.3 Applicability of Static Lateral Force Method


1. All structures in Zone 1 and Occupancy Categories 4 & 5 (Table 16-K) in
Zone 2not adopted by California
2. All regular structures under 240ft in height except if soil type SF with a
period greater than 0.7s.
3. Irregular structures under 65ft in height. (For Chapter 16A irregular
structures with flexible diaphragms and less than 3 stories or 30ft in
height).
4. Structures having a flexible upper portion supported on a lower rigid
portion (the lower rigid portion shall be at least 10 times stiffer than the
upper flexible portion and the period of the entire structure shall not be
greater than 1.1 times the period of the upper portion considered as a
separate structure fixed at the base).
5. Chapter 16AAll wood frames buildings with wood diaphragms and
shear walls.

1629.8.4 Applicability of Dynamic Analysis Procedures


1. Structures more than 240ft in height (except if allowed by Item 1 above).
2. Structures with stiffness, weight, geometric irregularity of type 1,2, or 3
per Table 16-L.
UBC 1997/CBC 2001 Chapter 16

UBCC16-2

SE Reference Manual

Loads & Analysis

DIAPHRAGMS, CHORDS & COLLECTORS


UBC 1997/CBC 2001
Diaphragms (1633.2.9)
Design force for floor and roof diaphragms:
n

F px =

Ft + Fi
i=x

w
i= x

(33-1)

w px

where, Fpx = Diaphragm design force


Fi =Design seismic force at level i
i = Level; ranging from x under consideration to uppermost level n
wi = Seismic weight assigned to level i
wpx =Seismic weight at lvel x.

F px 1.0C a Iw px

&

F px 0.5C a Iw px

where, Ca = Seismic coefficient, Table 16-Q


I = Importance factor
Relevant Provisions:

For flexible diaphragms laterally supporting masonry/concrete frames or walls, Fi


used in Eqn. 33-1 shall be for R 4.

All diaphragms supporting concrete/masonry walls have continuous ties or struts


between diaphragm chords to distribute wall anchorage forces (see section on
CBC 2001 Component Design for anchorage design forces and Wall Anchorage
to Diaphragms in the Timber Design section).
Sub-diaphragms may be used to transmit anchorage forces to the main cross-ties
(see discussion on sub-diaphragms in Wall Anchorage to Diaphragms)

For diaphragm connections to vertical elements in structures with plan


irregularities (other than type 5) from Table 16-M, the use of 1/3 increase or load
duration increase for allowable stress design are not permitted.

In seismic zones 4, if the re-entrant corner irregularity is present, the diaphragm,


chords, collectors shall be designed considering independent movement of the
two projecting wings of the structure (see code for other requirements).

Diaphragms, Chords & Collectors

DCC-1

SE Reference Manual

Loads & Analysis


LOADS & ANALYSIS
IBC 2003 EARTHQUAKE LOADS

IBC 2003 1617


The IBC static load procedure is similar to the UBC procedure except that in lieu of
seismic zones, the loads and associated detailing is based on the Seismic Design
Category (SDC) assigned to the building. The SDC is a function of the Seismic Use
Group (Table 1604.5) and the mapped accelerations at the site. See Tables 1616.3(1) and
1616.3(2) for SDC classification. Typically sites in seismic zone 4 fall into SDC E or
F (depending on the seismic use group or occupancy category); zone 3 sites fall in SDC
D, and lower zones fall into SDC A, B or C.
The detailing requirements as well as construction quality assurance requirements for
SDC D, E, and F are much more stringent than for the lower categories.
The different lateral loadings & analyses permitted are:

Minimum Lateral Force (1616.4) Applies to SDC A only (sheet IBCSL5).


Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure (1617.4) See ASCE 7 9.5.5
Exception: Simplified Procedure (1617.5): Applies to light framed
structures in Seismic Use Group I (See 1616.6.1 for requirements) See
sheet IBCSL5 in this section.
Dynamic Analysis Procedure (1618.1) See ASCE 7 9.5.6, 9.5.7, 9.5.8.

The Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure per ASCE 7 9.5.5 is presented below.
Wherever possible IBC 2003 references are provided as well.
Equivalent Lateral (Static) Force Procedure (ASCE 7 9.4 & 9.5.5)

Step 1 Obtain Spectral Accelerations: IBC 1615.1 or ASCE 7 9.4.1.1


From the maps (IBC 2003 pp. 304-321 or ASCE 7-02 pp. 110-127) obtain the
following:
Ss = Short period earthquake spectral response acceleration, &
S1 = 1-second period earthquake spectral response acceleration

Step 2 - Determine Site Coefficients Fa and Fv: IBC 1615.1.2 or ASCE 7-02
9.4.1.2.4
Determine Site Coefficients Fa and Fv from IBC 2003 Tables 1615.1.2(1) &
1615.1.2(2) or ASCE 7-02 Tables 9.4.1.2.4a & 9.4.1.2.4b.
If site class is not known, assume D.

IBC Earthquake Loads

IBCSL1

SE Reference Manual

Loads & Analysis


LOADS & ANALYSIS
RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

Given:

Mode shapes, time periods, response spectrum

Compute:

Base shear for each mode


Vertical distribution of the base shear
SRSS base shear for all modes

Assume a 3-story structure.


Modal data
Mode shapes
Mode 1
R1
31
21
1

Mode 2
R2
32
22
2

Mode 3
R3
33
23
3

Period (seconds)
W2, W3, WR Seismic
weight @ each floor

Sai

Ti

Period (seconds)

Base shear for Mode i:


Story

Wj

ji

Wjji

Wjji2

Roof
3rd
2nd

WR
W3
W2
Wj

Ri
3i
2i

WRRi
W33i
W22i
Wjji

WRRi2
W33i2
W22i2
Wjji2

Li = Wjji

&

Mi = Wjji2

Where, j = Floor or story


i = Mode under consideration.

Response Spectrum Analysis

RSA1

SE Reference Manual

Steel Design
STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
LOAD COMBINATIONS

Load Resistance Factor Design


UBC 1997 & CBC 2001 (1612.2.2.1 & 2211.4.3.1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (f1L or 0.8W)
1.2D + 1.3W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + Ev + 1.0Eh + (f1L + f2S)
(0.9D Ev) (1.0Ehor 1.3W)

Additional load combinations:


Where explicitly required by Chapter 16,
7. 1.2D + f1L + oEh
Division IV & Chapter 23
8. 0.9D oEh
where,

f1 = 1.0 for assembly area, garage loads or if L > 100psf, 0.5 for all other
live loads
f2 = 0.7 for roofs that do not shed snow (saw tooth roofs), 0.2 for all other
roofs
Ev = 0.5CaID (1630.1.1)

IBC 2003 ( 1605.2.1)


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.4D
1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + 1.6(Lr or S or R) + (f1L or 0.8W)
1.2D + 1.6W + f1L + 0.5(Lr or S or R)
1.2D + Ev + 1.0Eh + f1L + f2S)
(0.9D Ev) (1.0Ehor 1.6W)

where,

f1 & f2 are as per above


Ev = 0.2SDSD (1617.1.1)

Note: 1.The codes imply that in combination 6, Ev is to be used to reduce the effect of
the dead load, i.e. 0.9D Ev. In practice, Ev is typically neglected in this
combination.
2. OSHPD & DSA require that design of the connection of the superstructure to
the foundation (i.e. base plates, anchor rods etc. ) as well as the foundation itself
be based on load combinations 7 & 8 per the CBC. Correspondingly it is allowed
to use the ultimate bearing capacity of the soil (typically 3 times the allowable
bearing capacity).
Steel Load Combinations

SLC1

(4) 2213.9.5 Columns


b
52
,
WF =>
t
Fy

(1) 2213.9.2 Bracing Members


l 1000
2213.9.2.1 Braces:
r
Fy

2213.9.2.4 Compactness:
b
65
Table B5.1 AISC ASD
WF & Channels:
t
Fy
(Recommended
Rectangular Tubes:
Circular Sections:
Angles:

b
52
)

t
Fy

(2) 2213.9.3 Connections

2213.7.3

b 110
Rectangular Tubes =>
t
Fy
Column strength and splice design shall be per 2213.5.1 and 2213.5.2 => See sheet SSD1.
Splices shall develop full shear strength & 50% full moment strength of the section. Splices shall
be located in the middle third of clear column height.

2213.9.3.1 Design connection for the minimum of:


1. Pst = AFy
2. oPE + PG
3. Maximum force that can be transferred to brace by
the system
Note: In the latest AISC Seismic Provisions, item 2 has been
discarded.
Load combinations for connection design:
1. 1612.2 Strength design with LRFD provisions
2. 1612.3.2 ASD (with 1/3 increase if applicable)

b 110

t
Fy

OD 1,300

t
Fy

2213.8.3.2: Net area in bolted connections shall satisfy:


Ae 1.2F *

Ag
Fu

b
52

t
Fy

where, F* = Stress based on 1,2, or 3 above


= Fraction of force transferred along net
section.
Fu = Minimum tensile strength.

2213.9.2.2 Lateral Force Distribution


For a line of bracing:
Vh tension 0.7Vtotal

2213.9.3.3 Gusset Plate Detailing

Vh compression 0.7Vtotal
Vh = Horizontal component of brace axial force.
Note: Exception for braces designed to resist oE in
compression.

2213.9.2.3 Built-up Members:

For each individual element between stitches, l/r


0.4lt/r, where lt/r is for whole member.
Shear strength of stitches tensile strength of each
element.

(3) 2213.9.4.1 Beam Design for Chevron Bracing

1. Beam shall be continuous and capable of carrying the gravity loads.


2. Beam shall be designed to the following load combinations:
- 1.2D + 0.5L + Pb
- 0.9D Pb
where, Pb = unbalanced post-buckling force based on Pst = AFy & Psc = 0.3(1.7FaA)
3. Both flanges of the beam at the point of brace intersection shall be braced (to resist 2% of
the maximum brace force).

Where out-of-plane buckling strength of the brace is less than


in-plane buckling strength, single plate gussets can be used with
a 2t setback from the yield line at the brace end to all out-ofplane rotation.
The gusset plate shall be designed to resist the compressive
strength of the brace without buckling.

Note: Item 2 need not apply to top story of buildings, penthouse or one-story buildings.

Stitches to be placed uniformly along length. No less


than 2 stitches. No bolted stitches within the middle
of the brace clear length.

STEEL SPECIAL CONCENTRIC BRACED FRAMES (UBC 1997/CBC 2001, 2213.9)


R = 6.4, = 2.2

SAMPLE SHEET. PRESENTED IN LARGER FORMAT IN THE MANUAL

SSD5

SE Reference Manual

Steel Design

REDUCED BEAM SECTION MOMENT FRAME CONNECTIONS


FEMA 350 Section 3.5.5
Introduction:
Prequalified connection for OMRF and SMRF with the following criteria:

Beam depths 36 or shallower


Span/Depth ratio 7 for SMRF and 5 for OMRF
Maximum beam flange thickness 1-3/4
W12 or W14 Columns for SMRF; no column size limitation for OMRF
A572 Grade 50, A992, A913 Grade 50 steels

Analysis of RBS Moment Frames:


Use prismatic sections to determine sizes required to meet the drift criteria of the
applicable code. Per Section 3.5.5, a drift increase factor of 1.09 may be used in lieu of
more detailed calculations.
Reduced Beam Section Design (Section 3.5.5.1):

Check Column & Beam Compactness:


bf
52

For both beam & column:


2t f
Fy

Check that beam span to depth ratio is per the criteria above.

Beam Flange Reduction:

a (0.5 to 0.75)b f

(3-15)

b (0.65 to 0.85)d b

(3-16)

Reduced Beam Section SMRF

RBS1

SE Reference Manual

Concrete Design
REINFORCED CONCRETE
COLUMN DESIGN

Reference: UBC 1997/CBC 2001 & ACI-318 1999


General Design Provision for Columns:

1910.3.5
Columns with Spirals:

Pn = {0.85[0.85 f ' c ( Ag Ast ) + f y Ast ]} , where =0.75

(10-1)

Columns with ties:

Pn = {0.80[0.85 f ' c ( Ag Ast ) + f y Ast ]} , where =0.70

(10-2)

Longitudinal Reinforcement (1910.9.1):

Longitudinal:
Section Type
Rectangular
Circular

0.01 g 0.08
Minimum
Number of Bars
4
4
6

Transverse Reinforcement
(1910.9.2)
Ties
(#3 ties for bars up to #10 & #4 beyond)
Ties
Spirals (#3 minimum)

Note: For development lengths, splices etc. use the ACI Rebar Design &
Detailing Charts.

Concrete Column Design

CCD1

SE Reference Manual
1921.5.4:

Concrete Design
Development lengths:

f y db

Ld = 3.5
65 f '
c

f y db
For bottom bars: Ld = 2.5
65 f '
c

Where, fy & fc are in psi.


For top bars:

Ldh = hooked bar development length,


1921.5.1.3, 1921,5,4,1
Ldh is the maximum of:
- 8db
- 6
f y db
65 f ' c
Typical Column & Beam-Column Joint Seismic Detailing

Concrete Column Design

CCD10

SE Reference Manual

Concrete Design
REINFORCED CONCRETE
SHEAR WALL DESIGN

Reference: UBC 1997/CBC 2001 & ACI-318 1999


Reinforcement Limits (1914.3,1921.6)

For seismic design reinforcement


development lengths (& splices) shall
be per 1921.5.4 (1921.6.2.4) See
Reinforcement Development & Lap
Splices, pp. RDL3-RDL4

If tw > 10 => 2 curtains of rebar (1914.3.4)


If Vu > 2 Acv f ' c => 2 curtains of rebar (1921.6.2.2)

If Vu Acv

f ' c => v min and h min can be reduced per 1914.3 (1921.6.2.1)

Shear Strength (1921.6.5.3):

Vn = Acv c f ' c + n f y

(21-7)

Where, Acv = Concrete shear area, Lw x tw.


= 0.6 (unless certain that flexure governs)
1909.3.4.1
n = Shear reinforcement ratio perpendicular to Acv.
c = factor that varies linearly between hw/Lw of 1.5 and 2.
c
3.0
2.0

1.5

2.0

Shear Wall Design

hw /Lw
CSWD1

SE Reference Manual

Masonry Design
MASONRY DESIGN

DIMENSIONS OF MASONRY ELEMENTS (STRENGTH DESIGN)

Reference: UBC 1997/CBC 2001 (Strength Design)


2108.2.3.9 Masonry Elements
The following minimum dimensions for different masonry elements are per the strength
design provisions of the code. They provide a good starting point for design.

(< 20B for OSHPD)

Notes:

1.
2.
3.

For ASD design of masonry columns (2107.1.3.2), B12 & D12. If half
allowable stresses are used for design, minimum column dimension 8.
Nominal thickness of bearing walls 6 (2107.1.3.1). See code for exceptions.
For reinforcement requirements see Beam & Column Design Section.

Dimensions of Masonry Elements

DME1

S.E. Reference Manual

Timber Design
TIMBER DESIGN

WALL ANCHORAGE TO DIAPHRAGMS


UBC 1997/CBC 2001 & IBC 2000
Design Load
UBC/CBC 1632
Fp =

a p Ca I p
h
1 + 3 x
Rp
hr

W p

(32-2)

0.7C a I pW p F p 4C a I pW p

(32-3)

where, ap = 1.5
&
Rp = 3.0
Ca = Seismic coefficient per Table 16-Q.

1633.2.8.1.1

Fop 420plf
Fop 280plf

Zone 4
Other Zones

1633.2.8.1.1
1611.4

(See section IBC Chapter 16)

1604.8.2

IBC 2000
Fp 280plf
1620.1.7
For Seismic Design Category (SDC) B:
F p = 0.4 S DS I EW p
F p = 400 S DS I E

For SDC C and higher:


F p = 1.2 S DS I EW p

where, SDS = Short period design spectral acceleration.


Notes: 1. Per both UBC/CBC & IBC, the wall has to be checked for bending if the
anchorage spacing is greater than 4.
2. Also see section Diaphragms, Chords & Collectors.

Wall Anchorage

WAD1

S.E. Reference Manual

Timber Design

Sub-diaphragms

Per 1633.2.9, Item 3, flexible diaphragms providing lateral support to concrete/masonry


walls & frames shall be designed for a maximum R = 4.
Per UBC/CBC 1633.2.9, item 4, sub-diaphragm length/width ratio shall not exceed 2:1
(the same limit is specified by IBC 2000)

Wall Anchorage

WAD5