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By Authority Of

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Legally Binding Document


By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code 552(a) and
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations 51 the attached document has been duly
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America.
HEED THIS NOTICE: Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance.

e
Document Name:

AASHTO: Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges

CFR Section(s):

24 CFR 200, Subpart S

Standards Body:

American Association of State Highway and


Transportation Officials

Official Incorporator:
THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER


WASHINGTON, D.C.

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS

HIGHWAY BRIDGES
Adopted by
The American Associotion of Sto te Highwoy OfFiciols

ELEVENTH EDITION
J 973

Published by the Association


General ORices
34J Notionol Press Building

Woshingf on, D.C. 20004


Copyright 1973
Second Printing, J 973 SM

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY OFFICIALS


OFFICERS FOR 1973

President. Thomo s F. Amis, Woshintgon, D.C., 1 973


Firsf Vice President. Word Good mo n (Deceosed Morch 1 5, 1 973)
Regionol Yice Presidents:

Region | Raymond T. Schuler, New York, 1 973

Region II A.B. Rotcliff, Jr. Louisiono, J 973


Region III Robert fl. Hunfer, Missouri, J 974

Region IV Jo rues A. Moe, Colifornio, 1 974


Posf Presidents. [Ex Officio) Dovid H. Stevens, Moine
Chorles E. 5humote, Coloro do
Doug los B. Fugote, Virginia
Fed Fo / H/ 7 Admi nisfrafor. (Ex Officio)
R.R. Borfelsmeyer, Acting Ad ministrotor
Members. km. N. Price, Arizono, 1 973

J oy W. Brown, Florido,

973

George H. Andrews, Woshi ngton, (Interim)


Win . S. Ritchie, J r. West Virginio, 1 974

973

John C. Kohl, New Jersey, 1 975


Roy Loppegoord, Minnesoto, (Interim) 1 973
R.H. Whito ke r, llew No mpshire, 1 976

J.R. Coupol, Jr., lowo, \ 97b


Treosurer: S.N. Peormon, South C orolino, 1 976
Executive Director.

Hen ri k E. Stofseth, Washington, D.C.

OPERATING SUB-COMMITTEE ON BRIDGES


AND STRUCTURES J 973
CHARrcs S. MATLOcic, Alaska, Chairman
W. JACK \\ ILKES, Federal High\v ay A dministration, Secret a ry
.4LAB.AI\TA, R.E. HIGGINS
.A L.4 SKA , D ONAI,D HALSTED

ARIZONA, MARTIN TONEY


ARKAN SA 5, VEiIAL PI N KERTOL

CALIFO RNIA, JAMES E . MCMAII ON, -A.


. LLIOTT
C O I.O RAD O, PAUL II U \'ARSKY
CONNE CTIC UT, RORERT A. NOiiro, EDI\1UND T. KOENiG
DC L.TWA RE , RODERT C. McDOWELL
HIS TRICT O F C O LUMBIA, G.I. SA\\"YER, IIERNARD J. ODN NELL

F HWA, W. dzcx WILKES


iLO RIDA, 1oxi ALiinDi, JR.
G ID 0 RTU A, RUSSELL L. CHAPMAN,

ERNGN ID. GMI TH, CR.

GUAM

HA\\'AII
IDA HO, ROI3ERT JARVIS
ILU NO 15, C.E. T IIUN I\TAN, IR.,

DWARD J. IIII L

IND I.AN.4, NELSON W. STT' NK A 51I, F.R. RI C HAEDSO N


IO WA, CHART,ES PE5TOT TK
KAN SA S, C EIARLES CARPE N TER, E . E . WILK INSON
KG NT UC II Y, ITAIILES G. COOK, J. '1. .4 NDER5ON
LO UIS IA NA, DAVI HU'AL, SID NH L. POLEYNARD
MA I NE, T 11E ODOIIE SARA SOPCIULOS

MA RYLA ND, \\'AT.TEIt H. BinDLE, H.H. Bowens


I\IA 5SA CH U 5ETT 5, JOLI N J. AIIERNE, CR.
I\1ICHIGA N, NELSON FON ES

.\IINN E SO TA, Leo A. KORTFI


MI SSI 5SIPPI, BEN NIE II. VERR '1LI>, V. \V. 11+
MI 5SO URI, W.D. CARNEY
MO NTA NA, HOWAIID ?\ . HTRAT4ON

NE B RA SKA, CHAIILES JD. 5xi i+ii


N VXDA, ALLAN ODELL

SOUTH AROLINA,]4. D. MOSELEY,


SOUTHDAKOTA,I<.Q.WILSGN

.K.MRUM

T ENNESSEE, R.C. ODLE, HNRY DERTI-IICK


T EXA S, WAYNE HN NEBERGER
U'i'A H, R.w BcHLI NG
VE RMONT, WENDELL M . SMITH
VIRCINIA, FRED C. SUTHERLAND, E. H. JONES

WA SHINCTON, C.S. GLOYD


WS ST VI RGINIA , HARRY H. STEPHEN S, RODERT

WI 5CONSIN, WILLIA1 A. KUNE


WYOM ING, CHARUS WILSON

. SMITH

CONTENTS
Preface
Introduction

Division I Design
Division II Constiuction
Appendix A Tables of Maximum Moments, Shears and Reactions, Standard Loadings
Appendix B I'ruck Train and Equivalent Loadings
Appendix C Formulas for Steel Columns
Appendix D Position and Diiection of Neutral Axis and Formulas :for
Stresses
Index

Division

247
411
41?

41fi

433
434

DESIGN
-4i'ficle

Design Analysis

SECTION IGENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN

1.1.8
1.1.4
1.1.?
1.1.6
1.1.7

1.1.8

1.1.10
1.1.11
1.1.12
1.1.13
1.1.14
1.1.15

1.1.16

Bridge Locations
.. .......... .... ........ ............
.
1
Bridge Waterways ............................................................................................................... 1
(A) Site Data
. .. .. .. .. .... ... .. . .. .
1
(B) H3droIogic Analysis
.. .. . .... .. . .. .
2
(C) Hydraulic Analysis
.
. .. .
. . . .
2
Pier Spacing, Orientation and Type
... .. .
...
2
Culvert Waterway Openings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..... ....
2
Culvert Location and Length .
. . .
...
?
Width o:I Roadway and Sidewalk
. . ......
.
8
Cleaiances .
. .
. ...... . . . .. .
13
(A) Navigational .. . .......... .
. .
..
. .
?
(B) Vehicular
.
.
..
..
. . . . .
4
(C) Other
fi
Curbs :ind Sidewalks
5
Railings . . . . . .... . . .
. ..
..
(A) Trafhc Railing
.
. .
.
(B) Pedestrian Railing .. . ..
.
.
7
Roadway Drainage . . . . . .. . .
...
.
. . ..
8
Superelevation
. . .. .
..
. . . .......... .
8
Floor Surfaces . . . . .
.. . . .. . . . .
8
Blast Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
Utilities
. . . .
.
.
.
.
9
Roadway Width, Curbs and C learances for Tunnels

At i:oadway Width . . . .
.. .
.
.
(B) Clearance Between Walls . . . . . .
.
.
(C) Curbs .. . .
.
. .
. . .
. . .. . . . ..
(D) Vertical Clearance
. ..
. . ... .
Roadway Width, Curbs and Clearances for Depressed Roadways

!)

9
I II
TU
IO
1 II

(A)

W
i
d
t
h

GONTENTS
Aiticle

1.1.17

Roadway Width, Curbs and Cleai'ances For Underpasses . . . .


JQ
(A) Widths . . .
.... . ...... . .... .. .
. . .
10
(B) Vertical Clearance..................................................................................... 12
(C) Curbs
.
. . .... . .. .... .... .,. .......... 12
SECPION 2LOADS ..................................................................................... 12

1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3
1.2.4
1.2.?

1.2.
1.2.7
1.2.8

1.2.9
1.2.10
1.2.11

1.2.12

1.2.13
1.2.14

1.215
1.2.16
1.2.17

1.2.18
1.2.19
1.2.20
1.2.21
1.2.22

Loals ............................................................................................................ 12
Dead Load ......................................................................................................... 12
(A) Unit Load on Culverts ....................................................... 18
(B) Shear in Top Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14
Live Load................................................................................................................................ 14
Overload Provision
............... ...... .....
..
14
Highway Loadings
. ....
.
. .. . ....
.
14
(A) General
. .. .
.. . . .. . ..
.
14
(B) H Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..
TO
(C) HS Loadings ............................................................................................16
(D) Classes of Loadings . . . .
..
. .
.
IG
(E) Designation of Loadings .
. .. .. .
. .
18
(F) Minimum Loading ....................................................................................... 18
Traffic Lanes
.
.
. .. . .
. .
18
Standard Trucks and Lane Loads
..
.
18

Application of Loadings

. . .

TO

(A) Traffic Lane Units ..


........ . .
.. .
19
(R) Number and Position, Traffic Lane Units
10
(C) Lane LoadingsContinuous Spans
.
19
(D) Loading for Maximum Stress ............................................................. 19
Reduction in Load Intensity
.
.
........ ..
20
Electric Railway Loading
.
.
. . . .
. .
20
Sidewalk, Curb and Railing Loading . . . . . . . . . . .
....
211
(A) Sideiv-alk Loading ......................................................................................20
(B) Curb Loachng
.
.
. . . ........ .
21
(C) Railing Loading
.. . . . ..
. ..
21
Impact..
.
. . .
. . .
.
.
22
(A) Group A
.
.
..................... ... , . .
22
(B) Group B .................................................................................................... 23
(C) Impact Foimula
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
28
Longitudinal Forces ............................................................................................................ 23
WindLoads
.
. . . . .
.
.
.
24
(A)
(B)
(C)

Superstructure Design

. .

Substructure llesigii
..
. .... . . ..
Overturning Forces
. .
.
. . .
Therma1 F'orces .... . . .
. . . .
.
.
Uplift . .
. .. .
.
.
.. .. .
......
Force of Stream Current, Floating Ice and Drif t

.
.
.

24

24
2f
26
2G
27

Earth Pressure
.. '. .
. . ' .
27
Earthquake Stresses
.
. . . . .
. . .
27
Centrifugal Forces
.
.
. .. . .
. .
28
Loading Combinations . . . . . . . . . . , ...............................................................................................28
SECTION 5

DI STRIBUTION OF LOADS

Distribution of Wheel Loads to Stringers, Longitudinal Beam s

and Floor Beams


( A ) Position of Loads for Shear .
( B ) Ben ding Moment in Stringers and Lorigitudin at
Beams
t C) Bonding Moment in Floor Be:inns ( Transvei se)

29

CONTENTS
Article
1.3.2

Distribution of Loads and Design of Concrete Slabs and MultiBeam Precast Concrete Bridges
.........
. .... .
(A)

Span Lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(C)

Bending Moment . .

(B)

. .. ...

32

... .... . ....

34

Edge Distance of Wheel Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


. . .. ..

(D) Edge Beams ( Longitudinal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


( E) Distribution Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . .
. .
(F ) Shear and Bond Stress in Slabs
.... .... .... ....
( ') Unsupported Edges, Transverse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3.8
1.3.4

1.8.fi

1.3.

1.8.7

(H)

Cantilever Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -

(A)

Distribution of Concentrated Loads for Bending Mo-

( B)

Continuous

( I)
Slabs Supported on Four Sides . . . . . . . . .
.. ....
(I)
Median Slabs . . . .
. . .. . .. . .
.. . .
Distribution of Wheel Loads Through Earth Fills
.
.
Distribution of Wheel Loads on Timber Flooring . . . . . . . . . . .
(A ) Flooring Transverse
. ... .. .. ....
.
( B ) Flooring Longitudinal
. .. . ..
...
. .
( C) Continuous Flooring
.. . ... ... . .. .
. .
Disti-ibuti on of Loads and Design of Composite Wood-Concrete
Members
. . . . ..... . . ... . . ..... ... ..... . .... ..
..
ment and Shear
Dist ribution of Bending Moments in
Spans
( C ) Design .
Distribution of Wheel Loads on Steel Grid Floors
(A) General
( B ) Floors Filled with Concrete .
( C) Open Floors .
Moments, Shears and Reactions

1.4.3
1.4.4

Allowable Stresses . . . . . . . . . .

. .. ..

33

3fi
36
35
35

35

86
37
87
87
37
37
38
38

39
89

40

SECTION 4SUBSTRUCTURES AND RETAIN I NG WALLS


1.4.1
1.4.2

32

411

Rearing Power of Foundation Soils, Determination of Bearing

4ti

Pov'er . .
.. ....... .. .. .
.. . .... ... .
4U
Angles of Repose ............................................................................................................... 41
Bearing Value o1 Piling . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
(A) General
. .. ....... .
...
. . .
41
( B ) Case A. Capacity o:I Pile as a Structural Member
41
( C ) Case B. Capacity o:I Pile to Transfer Load to the
Ground

(D) Case C. Capacity of the Ground to Su port the Load


( F)

1.4.fi

Piles

(G)

(A)
B

D)
E)
F
)
I)

Delivered by the Pile .


Maximum Design Loads for Piles
Uplift
Gioup Pile Loading

46

General

.. . ..

.... .

46

Llmitationof Use. ................................


Design Loads
. . . .
.... .
.
Spacing, Clearances and Embedment
. . .
Batter Piles

46
4f
4f
47

Iluoyancy

47

. . .... . .. .

. .. , ..

Concrete Piles (Precast) ......................................................... 47


Concrete Piles (Cast-in-Place) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48
Steel H-nuns

CONTENTS
Article

1.4.6

1.4.7

1.4.8

1.4.9
1.4.10

Footings
(A)
( B)
(C)
(D)
( E)

Page
150

Depth
Anchorage
Distribution of Pressure .
Spread Footings

Internal Stresses in Spread Footings


R
ansfer of Stress from Vertical Reinforcement

(G)
Abutments
(A) Genei'al
( B) Rein:forcement for Temperature .
( C) Wing walls
(D) Drainage
Retaining Walls
(A ) General
( B ) Base oi- Footing Slabs .
(C) Vertical Walls
( D ) Counterforts and Buttresses
( F) Reinforcement for Temperatu re
( F) Expansion and Contraction Joints
(G) Drainage
.
Piers
(A) General
(B) Pier Nose .
Tubular Steel Piers
(A) Use
( B) Depth
( C) Piling
(D) Dimensions of Shell
( E) Splices and Joints
(F) Bracing

'

SECTION 5 CONCRETE DESIGN


Allowable Stresses
(A) Standard Notations and Assumptions
( B)

Strength of Concrete

(C) Allowable StressesConcrete


( D) Allowable StressesReinforcement
General Assumptions
Span Lengths
Expansion
T-Beams
(A) Fffective Flange Width
( B ) Shear
( C) Isolated Beams
( D)
Diaphragms
(E) Construction Joints
Reinforcement
(A) Spacing
( B) Covering
(C) Splicing
(D) End Anchorages and Hooks .
(E) Extension o:I Reinforcement

(F)

(G)

Structural Steel Shapes


Interim

Girders

Reinforcement

for

T-beams

60

60
G0
60
60
131
61
61
.

62
and

Box

CONTENTS
Article
1.6.6 cont.
1.6.7
1.fi.8

1.fi.9

1.fi.10

1.6.11
1.6.12

1.fi.13

(H)
(I)
(I)

Reinforcement for Temperature and Shrinkage . . . .


Bundled Reinforcement
....... .. . .. .
Bond Stress in Flexural Members . . . . . .

Page
G3
fi4

fi4

Compression Reinforcement in Beams . ..


.
.
.
G4
Web Rein:forcement .
.
. .. . .
IU
(A) Geneial
.
....... . .. ........ .... .... ...
5j
(B) Calculation of Shear
.
. .
..
.
IU
(C) Bent-up Bars
. . .
.. .. . ..
. .
GA
(D) Vertical Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .. ..
fi6
(E) Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
f6
Columns
. ....... . ...... . . .... . .. .. . . . ... . .
67
(A) General ...... .... . ...... .. . .... . ....
G7
(B) Piers and Pedestals
. .. .
. .. . .
..
G8
(C) Spirally Rein:forced Columns . . . .
.. .
68
(D) Tied Columns
.... . ....
. . . . . . . . .. .. .
GA
M
t
(E!
o bnned Axial and Be ding Subss / : :
70
Concrete Arches . ..
.... . .
..
.. .. ..
.
71
(A) Shape of Arch Kings ............................................................................... 71
(B) Spandrel \\'alls . ..
.. .
.
. . ..
72
(C) Expansion Joints .................................................................................. 72
(LI) Reinforcement ................................................................................................ 72
(E) Waterpioofing
. .
. ..
72
(F) Drainage of Spandrel Fill .. .
.
.
.
72
Viaduct Bents and Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. .
72
Box Girders .................................................................................................................. 73
(A) Effective Compiession Flange \Vidth ........................................... 73
(B) Flange Thickness
. .
.
.
.
73
(C) Flexure
. . . . .
. .
.
......
73
(LI) Shear
.
. .
... .
. .
. .
74
(E) Reinforcement
. . .
..
.
74
(F) Flange Reinforcement
. .
..
.
74
(G) Diaphragms
. . . ..
.
.
.
74
(H) Flanges Supporti ng Pipes and Conduits
.
.
74
Bearings ............ .
.
. .. .
.... .... . ...
7fi

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN


1.a.14
1.5.16
1.fi.TG
1.6.17
1.fi.18

General ..................................................................................................................................... 76

(A) Application .
.
. ..
.
7fi
(B) Other Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
..
76
Notation
.... .
.. . . .
.
.
.
7fi
(A) Loads and Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
(B) Dimensions and Constants
....
.
. ..
7G
Materials Properties .......................................................................................................... 77
(A) Concrete
.
.
. ..
. . .. . .
77
(B) Reinforcement
..
. .
.
78
Loads and Lo:id Factor Equations.......................................................................... 7
(A) Loads .... .
. . .. .
. .
.
.
7'J
(B) Load Factor Equations ...................................................................... 79
Str-ength Provisions .......................................................................................................... 79
(A) Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
... ... .
79

Aitic1e

Flexure

..

(A)
(B)
(C)

Ttectangular sections with tension reinforcement only

( B)

Bi'ic1ges exposel to corrosive environments without a

Page
811

80

I- and T-sections
. . . .
8J
Rectangular sections with compression reinforcement
81
(D) Other cross sections
82
Shear .
.
.
..
..
82
(A) Shear stress
. . . . . ..
.
82
(B) Shear' reinforcement
. . ....
. . .. . . .
83
(C) Stress restrictions .. .
.
. ..
88
(D) Shear reinforcement restiictions . . . . . . . . . .
.
83
(E) Shear stress in slabs and footings
......
84
Columns
. .
84
(A) Croneral
. .
.
.
84
(B) Column Section Capacities
. . .
86
(C) Slenderness effects in columns
.
.
8f
Bearing .. .
.. .
. .. . . .
. .. .
.
.
88
Service Lo:id Requirements .
..
.
88
(A) Seivice Load Stresses ............................................................................ 88
T"atigue
. . .
. .. .
. . .
.
8!1
(A) Concieto
.
. .
.
89
.
.. .......
89
( B) Reinforcement
F1exuial Stress Limitations
. ......... .........
89
( A) General................................................................................................................ 89
v aterproof tleck protecti on system
Deflection s
( A) Super structure depth recommendafi ons
(R ) Dead load deflections at falsexvork removal .
( C) Longtime deflections caused by dead loads, crecJi
an1 shrinkage
. . .
. .
Overload ..
.
.
. .
. . ..
.
. . . .. .
Development of Reinforcement

(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
(I)
(I)
(K)

1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
16.4
1.6.5
1.6.6
1.G.7

. . . .. .

8
HO
Al

1)1

General
.
.
.
Al
Positive moment reinforcement
.
92
Negative moment reinfoi cement . . . . . . . . , .............................. 92
Special members
.
.
fi8
Development length of ileformecl bars in tension .
!i3
Development length of deformed liars in compression
I)?
Development length of bundled laai s . . . .
.. ,
04
Standai'd hooks in tension .
.
.
.
fi4
Comloin:ition development length
.
114
Mechanical anchorage . . . ..
. ..
fi4
Anchorage of she:ir reinforcement
...,
114

SECTION 6 PRES'PRESSED CONCRETE


General
.
.
.
. . .
.
Notation
..
.. . .
.
.
Design Theory
.
.
..
Basic Assumptions

. .

.
.

.. .... .
.. .. . . .
.

9
!l
9fi
fi6
97

Load Factors .......................................................................................................................... 97


Alloxva1le Stresses
. . .
. .
97
(A) Piestressing Steel .
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .,. ................ 98
(B) Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,.................................................................................... 98
Loss of Prestress
..
. .. .... .... ..... .. . . ..
(A) Friction Losses ....
.. . .. .
(B) Prestress Losses
..
....... ..... ..... . ...... .

Jfi
011
lIlG

GONT5NTS
Ai ticle
1.6.8

1.6.9

Flexure

Ultimate Flexural Strength

(A) Rectangular Sections


(B) Flanged Sections
((;)

1.6.11
1.6.12

1.6.13

1.6.14

........ ........ .....

Steel Stiess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Maximum and Minimum Steel Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


(A) ilfaximum Steel
.
(B) Aluminum Steel
.
Nonprestressed Reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Continuity
.
....
(A) ieneral . .
. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .... . . ..
.
(B) Cast-in-place Post-Tensioned Bridges
(C) Bridges Composed of Simple-Span Precast Prestressed Girders Made Continuous

Shear

(C)

1.6.24

101
101

102

102
102
102
102
103
103
1113
103

1fl5
19ii
1fl5
106

106

Bundling

(D) Size of Ducts


Post-Tensioning Anchorages and Couplers
Embedment of Prestressed Strand
Concrete Strength at Stress Transfer
Bearings
Span Lengths
Expansion and Contraction
T-Beams
(A) Effective Flange Width .
(R) Construction Joints
(C)
(D)

101

104

Composite Stiuctures
(A) General
( B) Sheai-

(C) Shear Capacity .


t D) Vertical Ties
(E) Shrinkage Stresses
Anchorage Zones
Covei- and Spacing of Steel .
(A) Minimum Cover
(B) Minimum Spacing

1.5.18

.. ..

Page
101

10
107
107
107

107

197
108
108
108
i08
108

Diaphragms
Isolated Beams .

Girders
(A I

Distribution of Loads for Bending Moment .


(B) Effective Compression Flange Vl'idth . . . . , . . . . . . . .
(C) Flange Thickness
.
.
(D) Minimum Rar Reinforcement for Cast-In-Place PostTensioned Box Girders . . . . . .
.
(E) Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(P) Diaphragms . . . . . .
.. . ..
. ... . . .

110
110
111
111
lit
111

SECT!0N 7-STRUCTURALSTE [DES!GN..


1.7.2
1.7.3

Allowable Stresses
Allowable Stresses for \Veld Metal .
Fatigue Stresses

1.7.4

Pins, Rollers and Expansion Rockers .

1.7.5

116
117

Ai'tic1e
1.7.fi

Cast Steel, Ductile Iron Castings, Malleable Castings and Cast

Iron

1.7.7
1.7.8

1.7.9
1.7.10
1.7.11

1.7.12
1.7.13

1.7.14
1.7.15

1.7.16

1.7.17
1.7.18
1.7.19
1.7.20
1.7.21
1.7.22
1.7.23
1.7.24
1.7.25

1.7.2B
1.7.27

1.7.28

1.7.29
1.7.30
1.7.31

1.7.32
1.7.83
1.7.34
1.7.8?
1.7.36

1.7.87

.7. 9

.7.
. .
.7.4
.7.
.7.44
.7.
. .46
.7.4
.7. 8

( A)
( B)
( G)

Cast Steel and Ductile Iron


Malleable Castings .
Cast Iron

124

Bearing on Masonry .

124
124
126
125
125

DETAILS OF DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12?

Bronze or Copper-alloy

Effective Length o:I Span .......................................................................................... 125


Depth Ratios . . . . . . . .. . .. .
.. . ... ... . . .
126
Limiting Lengths of Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12f
Deflection . . . . . .... .. .. .. .
..
.. .
126
Minimum Thickness o1 Metal
.
..
.
.
127
Effective Area of Angles and Tee Sections in Tension . . . . .
127
Outstanding Legs of Angles .... . . .
.
. .
.
128
Expansion and Contraction....................................................................................... 128
Combined Stresses
.. . ... .. ....... . .... . ....
128
CCRtTlC OTtRt3CtlORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8
Splices and Connections
.. .. . .. ... . .
.. .
.
128
Strength of Connections ............................................................................................ 130
Diaphragms, Cross Frames and Lateral Bracing . . .
131
Number of Main Members on Through Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . , .
131
Accessibility of Parts
132
Closed Sections and Pockets . . . . . . . . .
.
132
Welding, General............................................................................................................ 132
Minimum Size of Fillet Welds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1?2
Maximum Effective Size of Fillet Welds
133
Effective Weld Areas.................................................................................................... 133
(A) Butt Welds
. .... .
.. .
. ..
..
133
(B) Fillet Welds ..........................................................................................133
Minimum Effective Length of Fillet Welds .................................................. 138

Fillet Weld End Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . .


.
133
Lap Joints........................................................................................................................... 134
Seal Welds
..
. .. . . . . .. .... . . . .
.... . 1?4
Fillet Welds in Skewed Tee Joints ........................................................................ 134
Fillet Welds in Holes and Slots
. .
.
184
Size of Fasteners (Rivets or High Strength Bolts) . .
134
Spacing of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
134
Maximum Pitch of Sealing and Stitch Fasteners........................................ 135
(A) Sealing Fasteners .................................................................................... 136
(B) Stitch Fasteners ........................................................................................ 136
Edge Distance of Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..
I36
(A) General . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .
.
18fi
(B) Speci:il
10
Long Rivets
. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .
.. . 13fi
Links and Hangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. ..
130
Location of Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 13'?
Size o1 Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
137
Pin Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
Pins and Pin NutS .......................................................................................... 17
Upset Ends.........................................................................................................................137
Eyebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . 187
Packing of Eyebars . . . . , . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Forked Ends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
138

CON'IENTS
Article

BEARINGS
Fixed Bearings

Expansion Bearings

Bronze or Copper-Alloy Sliding Expansion Bearings

Rollers

Sole
Masonry Bearings .... . . .. . . . .
.. .
. .
. .
139
Anchor Bolts ................................................................................................................... 139
Pedestals and Shoes .................................................................................................... 140

FLOOR SYSTEM
1.7.57
1.7.58
1.7.69
1.7.60
1.7.61
1.7.62
1.7.63
1.7.64

140

Stringers
. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. ..
. . . .
140
Floorbeams ......................................................................................................................... 140
Cross Fram s .. . ....

Expansion

. .. . . .. .. .

. .. .

. .

1411

oints .......................................................................................................... 140

End Connections of Floorbeams and Stringers .............................................. 141

End Floorbeams .............................................................................................................141


End Panel of Skewed Bridges
... .. . ...... . . .
141
Sidewalk Brackets ........................................................................................................141
ROLLED BEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Rolled Beams, General . . . . . . . . . .

Rearing Stiffeners

....... .

. . . ... .. ... .. ... . ..

.. .. . . .. .

..

..

142

Cover Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7.68
1.7.69
1.7.70

143
143
143
143
148
144
144

Transverse Intermediate Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14G

Girders Stiffened Longitudinally

Longitudinal Sf iffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bearing Stiffeners
(A)

(B)
Camber

TRUSSES
1.7.76
1.7.76
1.7.77
1.7.78

1.7.79

1.7.80
1.7.81
1.7.82
1.7.83

1.7.84

1.7.8?

1.7.86

142

ILATE GIRDERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .......
Plate Girders, General . . . . . . . .
.. .... ........ ..
.
Flanges . . .
.... .
.
..
.. .. . .
(A) Welded Girders
.. . . .
.
. .... .
(B) Riveted or Bolted Girders . .. .
. . . .
Thickness of: Web Plates . . . .
.. .. .. . .
.. .
(B) Girders Not Stiffened Longitudinally
(A)

1.7.74

142

142

. . .. ..

.. .. .

Welded Girders . .

........

. . .

Riveted or Bolted Girders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


..
.. . . ..
. .
.
..

.. ..

..

. .

146
148

149

149

ISO
1fi0

HO

Trusses, General . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .
..
. . 1fi0
Truss Members . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . UI
Secondary Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . .
............. ....... .
TU
Diaphragms ........................................................................................................................ 152
Camber .. . . . .. . .... . . . . . .
.
. .
.
1fi2
Working Lines and Gravity Axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ifi2
Portal and Svay Bracing . .. . .
.. ... .. ... . ..
.
152
Fillers, Development, Maximum Numbers, Etc. .
12
Perforated Cover Plates and Lacing Bars .
.
.
18
(A) Perforated Cover Plates ................................................................... 153
(B) Lacing Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
..
1fi3
Gusset Plates .................................................................................................................. 164
Half-Through Truss Spans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
US
Fastener Pitch in Ends of Compression
......
. . . 15fi

Article

1.7.87

1.788
1.7.89

1790
1.791

Page
Net Section of Riveted or High Strength Bolted Tension Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . US
Compression Members'Thickness of Metal . . . . . .
.
.
.
156
Stay
Plates
.......................................................................................................................... 158

RIBBED

ARCHES
168

Thickness

of

Web

Plates,

Solid

Rib

Arches
168

1.7.92
1.7.93
1.7.94
1.7.9?

BENTS AND TOWERS

... ..... ........


19
Bents and Towers, General
...
Single Bents

1.7.96

1.797
1.7.98
1.7.?
17.100
1.7.101
1.7.102
1.7.103

1.7.104

1.7.106
1.7.107
1.7.108
1.7.109

1.7.112
1.7.118

. .

. . .

.
.....

.
U'l

COMPOSITE
CIRDERS
.................................................................................................................................................. 160
Composite I-Girders, General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
lftl
Shear Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hit
Effective Flange Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1
Stresses
. .
..
.
1ti1
Shear .. .
. . .
.
.. .. .... .... . ..
..
1 2
(A) Hoiizonta1 Shear
. . . .... .. . .... .
.
1f2
(B) Vertical Shear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . US
Deflection
. .... . .
.. . . .
.... .
.
. .
1tU
Composite Box Girders, General . .
. ....
. .. .
US
Lateral Distribution of Loads for Bending Moment
16G
Design o:I Web Plates
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IGA
(A) Vertical Shear
166
(B) Secondary Bending Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lfiti
Design of Bottom Flange Plates . .
. . . . . . . . 1f7
( A) Tension Flanges .......................................................................... 167
( B) Compression Flanges Unstiffened
.
.
. . . 1G7
(D)

1.7.111

.. .
. .
169

Batter .................................................................................................................................... 159


Bracing
. .. .
.
.
.
. ...... .. .
.
.
.
US
Bottom
Struts
.................................................................................................................................................. 160

( C)

1.7.110

. .

Com pressi on Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally

. . .

167

Compression Flanges Stiffened Longitudinally an1


Transversely ...........................................................................................168
( E) Compression T"lange Stiffener s, General . . . . . . . . . . .
1fi9
Design of Flange to \Veb Welds
.
.
170
Diaphragms ..........................................................................................................................170
Lateral Bracing ........................................................................................................ 170
Access and Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . 17G
HYBRID GIRDERS...................................................................................... 170
Hybrid Girders, General
170
Allowable Stresses .......................................................................................................... 171
(A) lending
..
.
.
.
.
171
(B) Shear
.. . . .. .
.. . .
.. . .. .
171
(C) Fatigue
. . .... .. .. . . . .
.
171

Pla te Thickness Requirements


.. . ...
.
.
173
Bearing Stiffener Requirements...............................................................................178
HEAT-CURVED

ROLLED

BEAMS AND WELDED

PLATE

GIRD
ERS

S
c
o
p
e
M
i
n
i
m
u
m
R
a
d
i
u
s
o
f
C
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
C
a
m
b
e
r

CONTLNTS
Article
LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

1.7.117

1.7.118
1.7.119
1.7.120
1.7.121
1.7.122
1.7.123
1.7.124

1.7.12?

1.7.12
1.7.127

1.7.128
1.7.129

1.7.180

1.7.132

1.7.1?3

1.7.134

1.7.136

Scope . .. .

h
1.74

.. . . .. . . .. .... .

.. .. .. .. . .... . . . .. .. .. .

Notation . . . . .... .. . .
Loads ......
. . .... .
Design Theory . . . . .
.
Assumptions
.
Design Strength :for Steel . . . . . .

..
. .
. ..

..

J74

174
.
.
.
17fi
17
. . . . . .. .. .. . .
17f
.. ... ...
... 17f

Maximum Design Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

17fi

Symmetrical Beams and Girders


.
. .. 177
(A) Compact Systems
177
(B) Braced NonCompact Sections
..
.
178
(C) Transition
. . .
. .. .
.
1711
(D) Unbraced Sections
. ..
. . . . . . . . ITS
(E) Transversely Stiffened Girders
18tJ
(F) Longitudinally Stiffened Gii'ders . . . . . . . . .
181
Unsymmetrical Beams and Girders
182
(A) General
.
.
.
.
182
(B) Unsymmetrical Sections with Transverse Stiffeners .
18?
(C) Longitudinally Stiffened Unsymmetrical Sections . .
183
Composite Beams and Girders
.
.
.
183
Positive Moment Sections of Composite Beams and Gii ders ............... 183
(A) Compact Sections
. . . 188
(B) Non-compact Sections
.... . ..
.
.
18
(C) General
. .
.
..
.
18fi
Negative Moment Sections of Composite Beams and Girclers
18
Composite Box Girders
18?
. .. . . ...... 4 8fi
(A) Maximum Strength
.. .. ..
.
,. .. . 18fi
(B) Lateral Distribution
. . . .. ..
(C) \Veb Plates
.
.. . .
. . .
.
.. 18fi
(D) Tension Flanges .
...........
186
(E) Compression Flanges
.
..
186
. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . . 187
(F) Diaphragms
Shear Connectors
.
.
.
. . 188
(-4) General ......................................................................................................... 188
(B) Design of Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
188
(C) Maximum Spacing ................................................................................ 188
Hybrid Girders
. .
.. .
188
Noncomposite Hybrid Girders

189

(A) Compact Sections


... . ..... ..
189
(B) Braced Non-compact Sections
.
189
(C) Unbraced Noncompact Sections
.
. .. .
189
(D) Ti'ansverse1y Stiffened Girders ..................................................... 189
Composite Hybrid Girders
.
.
190
Compression Members
. .
.
i90
(A) AxialLoading ..
.. .
. . .
.
190
(B) Combined Axial Load and Bending . .
. . . . . . . . . TU
Splices, Connections and Details
.
192
(A) Connectors
. .. .
. . .
.
.
192
(B)
Connections .............................................................................................. 1113
Overload ................................................................................................................................ 194
(A) Noncomposite Beams ........................................................................... 194
(B) Composite Reams
15
(C) Friction Joints
"'

Aitic1e
1.7.1?7

1.7.188

Page
Fatigue

19?

( A)

General

(B)

Composite

Construction

( C) Hybrid Beams and Girders


Deflection
ORTHOTROPIC-DECK
Orthotropic-Deck

BRIDGES

Bridges. General

. .. . .. ... . . ... . .

19fi

...

196

Effective Width of Deck Plate .

1.7.142

1.7.143

(A)
(B)
Allowable
(A)
(B)
( C)
(D)
Thickness
(A)

Longitudinal Ribs and Deck Plate

1.98

.... .

(B) GidersandTinnsverseJ3cams..

Diaphragms ..

1.7.14T

\Vearing

llfaximum Slenderness of Longitudinal Ribs

..

Stiffness Requirements

(A)
(B)

..

..

..

.......
.

. .

. 148
..

1.82

1.8.3

1.8.4

1.8.?
1.86
1.8.7
1.8.8

I99

Surface ................................................................................................................ 1119

Closed Ribs ....................................................................................................................... 199

21It1

General
.
.
200
Design
.
. ..
.... .. .
2110
(A) Seam Sti'ength ....................................................................................... 201
(B) Handling and Installation Strength
201
(C) Failure of the Conduit Wall
.
. 201
(D) Deflection or Flattening
.
. . 203
Chemical and Mechanical Requirements
.
204
(A) AluminumCorrugated
Metal Pipe and Pipe-Arch
204
(B) AluminumStructural Plate Pipe and Pipe-Arch . . 204
(C) SteelCorrugated Metal Pipe and PipeArch
204
(D) SteelStructural Plate Pipe and Pipe-Arch
.
20fi
.kbrasive or Corrosive Conditions . . . . . .
. . .
205
Rivets & Bolts ................................................................................................................ 206
Multiple Structures
. . . . .
..
.
.
20fi
Sloped EnclsSkewed
..
.
.
. ..
206
Maximum Depths of Cover .
.................
. . . . . 20G
SECTION 9STRUCTURAL PLATE ARCHES
Gcneral ...
.
.
. . .

1.9.
1.fi.4

198

198

Defections
.
.
.
.
.
199
Vibrations .................................................................................................. 199

SECTION IICORRUGATED IIIETAL AND STRUCTURAL


PI.ATE PIPES AND PIPE-ARCHES
.

181

11)7

197
11)?
197
197
197
197
1.98
198

1.7.144
1.7.14?
1.7.14

17.148

Ribs and Beams . .. .


. .
Cirders
. .. .
.
. . .
.
...... .. .
Stresses
. .
.
. .
.
Local Bending Stresses in Deck Plate
.......
Bending Stresses in Longitudinal Ribs
....
Bending Stresses in Transverse Beams . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intersections of Ribs, Beams, and Girders
of Plate Elements
. .
.

Mani

He,.ha

ScourConditlons

n p

i. .

Multiple Arches
.
.
Suhstructure Design . . . . . .

: ::
.

. .

.... .
.... .

20?
20fi

. . .

..

.
.. . .

2tJG

207

207
2tI7

CONTENTS
Page

At-ticle

SECTION
Allow able
(A)
( B)
( C)
(D)

1.10.2

( F)
Formulas
(A)

(B)
( C)
( D)
(E )
(F )
(G)
(H)
(I)
(I)
( K)

1.10.8
1.10.4
1.10.?
1.10.6
1.10.7
1.10.8

General

I0PIMBER STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stresses . . . .
... .
.
. .
.
Allowable Unit Stresses for Stress-Grade Lumber
Allowable Unit Stresses :for Glued Laminated Tim1er
Allowable Unit Stresses for Normal Loading Conditions . . . . .
.
.
.
.
Allowable Unit Stresses for Permanent Loading . .
Allowable Unit Stresses for Wind, Earthquake or
Short Time Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combined Stresses .
.
. .
....
.
.
for the Computation of Stresses in Timber . . . . . . . .
Horizontal Shear in Beams . .
.. . ... . .. .
Secondary Stresses in Curved Glued Laminated
M
rb sion or Bearing Perpendicularto Grain'.
Simple Solid Column Design

Spaced Column Design .


Sa:fe Load on Round Columns
B
Bearhn o nc ined Surfaces
Timber Connectors
Size Factor
Lateral Stability

208
208
209
209
200
209
217
221
223
224

226

'

Bolts
Washers
Hardware for Seacoast Structures
Columns and Posts
Pile and Framed Bents
(A) Pile Bents
fB) Framed Bents
(C) Sills and Mud Sills .
( D) Caps
(E) Bracing
(F) Pile Bent Ab utments .
TruSSes
( A) Joints and Splices
( B ) Floor Beams
( C) Hangers
( D) Eyebars and Counters
(E) Bracing
( F) Cambei
Floors and Railings
(A) Stringers
(B) Bridging
(G) Nailing Strips .
( D ) Flooring
( E) Retaining Pieces
( F) Wheel Guards
( G) Drainage
(H) Railings .
Fire Stops
SECTION 11 LOAD CAPACITY RATING OF EXISTING
BRIDGES
Under Permit .

207
207
207
207

226
22G
226
227
227
230
280
230
2
2

2
2

21
231

232

232
232
232
233
233
233
233
233
233
233
234
234
234
234

A iticle
1.11.2

Impact

1.11.4

Ad justable Loads
Stress Analysis
Allowable Stresses

1.12.1

Gcneial

SECTION 12EI.ASTOMERIC BEARINGS


1.12,2

Design

SECTION 13$TEEI. TUNNEL I.1NER ILATES


Genero|

240
]4O
242

Loads

1.134

113.7
1.138

1.13. 11
1.13. 12

Design
Joint Strength
Handling and Installation Strength
Critical Buckling of Liner Plate \Va1l .
Defloctlon or Flattening
Chem ical and Mech anical Requirements
( A) Ch emical Composition
( R) Minimum Mechanical Properties
Before Cold Forming
Sectional Proper ties
Coatings
Rolts
Safety Fiictors
Division

242
242
243
248
of

Flat

Plate
244

244
244
24?
24?

II

CONST RUCTION
SECTION IEXCAVATION AND FILL
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.1.3
2.1.4
2.1.?

2.1.6
2.1.7
2.1.8
2.1.9
2,1.111
2.1.11

2.2.1.
2.2.2
2.2.3

2.2.4
2.2.5

General

..

...

..

......

247

Preservation of Channel
..
.
.
.
.
247
Depth of Footings ........................................................................................ 248
Preparation of Foundations for Footings . . . . . . . .
.
248
Cofferdam and Cribs

. .

248

(A) General
.
.
.
.
248
(R) Protection of Concrete
. . .
.
248
(C) Ilrav ings Required ................................................................. 249
(D) Removal
.
. .. . . . . .. .. .. . .... .. 24!)
Pumping ........................................................................................................... 249
Inspection
. . ..
. .. .
.
. .
249
Back-fill
.
.
.
249
.
.
.. .. . . .
2fi(J
Filled Spandrel Arches . .... . .
Approach Emliankment
..
..
.
...
2fi0
Classification of Excavation
.
.
.
2fit1
Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......
2fit)
SECTION 2SHEET PILES
General
. ........ .
.. .
Timber Sheet Piles . .. .. .
.
Concrete Sheet Piles ........
.
Steel Sheet Piles
Measurement and Payment
. ... ...
SECTION 3DEARING PILES

2.3.1

247

Materials

. .. .

. . .

.. ...

. . .
.... . ..
. . .

.
..
.

..............

. . .

...

..
.

. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

2 1.
2fi1
2fi1
2U
261
2 2
2?2

2 2

A ti

2. .2

2. .

Page
Design and Conditions of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .
252
Preparation
for
Driving
.................................................................................................................................................. 252
(A)
Excavation
....................................................................................................................................... 262
( B)

Caps . .

.............. .... .

(C)

Collars

( E)
(F)

Splicing Piles
Painting Steel Piles

IDA

Pintinq;

. . . . . . .. .. .. .
....

..

..

. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

......

.. . .

..

. . . .. . . . . .. . .

2fi2

2fi

2fi8

2a3
253

Methods of Driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
2j3
(A) General ........................................................................................................... 2
(B) Ihammers for Timber and Steel Piles
. . 253
t C) Hammers for Concrete Piles
.
.
. .
253
(D) Additional Equipment ...................................................................... 264

{E) Lcads

(F) Followers .... .... .


.
( Ci) Water Jets
. .
(H) Accuracy of Driving

Defective Piles

2.3.7

2.3.8

2.3 .9
2.3.1G
2.3.11
2.8.12
2.3.13

.. . ,
. .. .

254

. .

,. .......... 264
.
. .
2fi4
264

2fi4

Determination of Bearing Values (See also Article 1.4.4) . . . .


2fifi
(A) Loading Tests
.
.
.
2fifi
(B) Timber Pile Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25fi
t C) Concrete and Steel Piles ....................................................................... 256
Test Piles ............................................................................................................................. 256
Order Lists for Piling ................................................................................................... 256
Storage and II and ling of Timber Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2fi6
Cutting off Timber Piles
.
.
.
.
.
.. 2fi7
Cutting off Steel or Steel Shell Piles . . . . . . . .
.
.
2fi7
Capping Timber Piles . . .
. .
2fi7
Manufacture o1 Precast Concrete Piles . .
.
.
2fi7
(A) General
. . .. . . . .. . .. .......... .
2fi7
..
.
. 2fi7
(B) Class o:I Concrete
.... .
(C) Form Work
. .
. . . . .
.. 2fi7
(D) Reinforcement ...... .. .. .
.
2fi7
(E) Casting .... . . . . .... .. . .
258
(F) Finish
. ..
.
.. .
.
2fi8
(G) Curing
.. ..
.. . . ..
....
..
.
258
Storage and Handling of Precast Concrete Piles ......................................... 268
Manufacture of Cast-in-Place Concrete Piles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2fi8
(A)

Geneia1

.. ....... ........ ...

....... ......

(B) Inspection of Metal Shells


(C) Class of Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(D) Reinforcement
.
.
. .
.

258

268
2fi9
2fit9

(E) Placing Concrete


. ..
.. . .
2fi9
Extensions or Build-ups. ................................................................................... 259

Painting Steel Piles and Steel Pile Shells


Measurement and Payment
.. . . . . . .. .
(A)

(B)

2.3.19
2 20
2.4.1

General

Method A

. .. .

. .

. ..

. .

2fi9
250
2fi9

2a9

(C) Method B .
. .. . .
.... ..
. .
.
2G0
(D) Falsexvork and Defective Piles ........................................................ 261
(E) Additional Requirements .................................................................... 261

Payment for Test Piles


.
. ..
Payment :for Loading Tests . . . . . . .

. . .
.. .
.

. .

2G2
2G2

SE
CT
IO
N
4
Ge
ner
al
. . .
. ..
. . .
.. .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
.. .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. .
2f32

CONCRETE MASONRY ....................................................... 252

Page

Article

2.4.2

243
2.4.4
2.4.?
2.4.6
2.4.7
2.4.8
249

2.4.10

2.4.11
2.4.12
2.4.1B
2.4.14

Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 262

(A)

(B)
(G)
(D)

Cement . . .

.. ....

. .

Water and Admixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Fine Aggregate . .
....... . ...
.. ...
Coarse Aggregates . . . . . . . . . .
...... . . .

2f2

2f4
24
2 5

Caie ancl Storage of Concrete Aggregates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26fi


Storage of Cement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 i5
Classes of Concrete
.. . . .. . .. . .. .
. ..
..
266
Composition of Concrete ................................................................................................. 267

Sampling and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Measurement of Materials

. . . . .

..

2f8

. . . . .

2f8

Mixing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.... . .
2G9
( A) General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 26!)
(B) Mixing at Site ....................................................................................... 269
(C) Truck Mixing .......................................................................................... 269
(D) Partial Mixing at the Central Plant ........................................ 270
(E) Plant Mix
. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . . ..
270
(F) Time of Hauling and Placing Mixed Concrete .................... 270
(G) Hand Mixing ............................................................................................ 270
(H) Delivery .........................................................................................................271
(I)
Retempering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. .. ..
271
Handling and Placing Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
271
(A) General ......................................................................................................... 271
(B) Culx-erts ......................................................................................................... 273
(C) Girders, Slabs and Columns ............................................................ 274
(D) Arches . . .. . .
.. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . 27fi
Pneumatic Placing ....................................................................................................... 275
Pumping ............................................................................................................................... 276
Depositing Concrete Under Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27fi
Construction Joints
..
.. .. .. . . .
27fi
(A) General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
276
(B) Bonding
. .. .
...... .... .
.... . .. .
276
Rubble or Cyclopean Concrete .............................................................................. 277
Concrete Exposed to Sea Water ......................................................................... 277
Concrete Exposed to Alkali Soils or Alkali Water

278

Falsework and Centering ........................................................................................ 278


Forms
.. . . .. ......
...... . .... . . ...... . .
278
Removal of Falsework, Forms and Housing ................................................ 279
Concreting in Cold Weather ................................................................................... 280
Curing Concrete
.. . .. . .... .. . .. . .. .
.. .
280
Expansion and Fixed Joints and Bearings .................................................. 281
(A) Open Points ............................................................................................... 281
(B) Filled Joints ............................................................................................. 281
(C) Premolded Expansion Joint Fillers ........................................... 281
(D) Steel Joints ................................................................................................ 281
(E) \Vater Stops ............................................................................................. 281
(F) Sheet Copper ............................................................................................. 282
(G) Bearing Devices ..................................................................................... 282

2.4.24
2.4.2?

2426
2.4.27
2.4.28

FINISHING CONCRETE SURFACES

282

General

282

Class 1, Ordinary Suiface Finish

Class 2, Rubbed Finish


Glass 8, Tooled Finish

Class 4, Sanl Blasted Finish

283
28
28

28

CONTENTS
Article

2.4.29
24.J0

2.4.31

2.4.32

2.4.33

2.4.34

2.5.2
2.5.B
2.5.4
2.5.5
2.?.6
2.5.7
2.5.8
2.?.0
2510
2.6.1
2.6.2

Class 5, Wire Brushed or Grubbed Finish .

Page

284

Class 6, Floated Surface Finish .......................................................................... 284


(A) Striking Off.................................................................................................. 284
(B) Floating ....................................................................................................... 284
(C) Longitudinal Floating . . . .... .
. .
.
284
(II) Transverse Flo:iting . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
..
284
(E) Straightedging . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28fi
(F) Final Finishing .. .. . .. .. . ........ . .
28fi
Sidewalk Ftnish .
. .. .. . .. . . .. . . ...... .. . . 28fi
Pneumatically Applied Mortar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . 28fi
(A) General
. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 28o
(B) Proportions . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
286
(C) Water Content .........................................................................................286
(D) Mixing ........................................................................................................... 286
(E) Nozzle Velocity ....................................................................................... 286
(F) Nozzle Position .. .... .. . .. .. . . . . .. . .. .. 28i
(G) Rebound Sand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
......
286
(H) Foiins .
. .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . 28ti
(I) Joints ............................................................................................................. 286
(I) Bond ............................................................................................................. 286
(K) Curing
. .
. ..............
. .. . .. .
287
(L) Reinforcement .......................................................................................... 287
Prestressed Concrete .................................................................................................... 287
(A) General ......................................................................................................... 287
(B) Supervision ................................................................................................ 287
(C) Equipment .................................................................................................. 287
(D) Concrete ....
. . .. ..
. .. . ..
. . .
287
(E) Steam Curing .......................................................................................... 288
(F) Transportation and Storage .. .
.. . . .
288
(G) Pretensioning Method
. .. . . . .
. .. . . .... 288
(H) Post-tensioning Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 289
(I) Grouting of Ronded Steel .
.. .
.. .
.
289
(I) Presti'essing Reinforcement .. .
.
289
(K) Testing Prestressing Reinforcement ancl Anchorages 290
Measurement and Payment
.
.
.
:29()
SECPION 5 REINFORCEMENT ..
. .
..
291
Material ................................................................................................................................ 291
(A) Bal Reinforcement .......................... 291
(B) Wire and \Vire Mesh ............................................................................ 291
(C) Bar Mat Reinforcement ......................................................................... 292
(D) Structural Shapes ................................................................................ 292
Order Lists ...................................................................................................................... 292
Protection of Matei'ial ............................................................................................. 292
Fabrication ......................................................................................................................... 292
Placing and Fastening .. . .. . .
.... .
. . .
.
293
Splicing ................................................................................................................................... 293
Lapping
293
Substitutions ........................................................................................................................ 294
Measurement ....................................................................................................................... 294

Payment ................................................................................................................................. 294


SECTION 6 ASHLAR MASONRY . . . . . . . . .
.
29
Description
Materials

..

..

..

(A) Ashlar Stone


(B)

Mortar

. .. .

. . ..

. .. . . . .. .. .. .

. . .. . . . .. .. .

. .. . . . .

..

... ..... . . . . . .

29?
29

29?o
2I1fi

Article
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.6
2.6.6
2.6.7
2.6.8
2.6.9
2.6.10

2..11

2.G.12

2.6.13
2.G.14
2.6.16
2.6. 16
2.G.17

2.7.1
2.7.2

Page

Size of Stone ............................................................................................................................ 296


Surface linishes of Stone ............................................................................................. 296
Dressing Stone
. . . . .. ...... .. . .. ..... . ... .... .. .
2ilG

Stretchers ........................................................................................................................... 296

He:iders

. .. . .

Cores and Backing

.. . .. . ..

..

282
28
2.8.4
2.8.5
2.8.6
287
2.8.8

29(;

2g7

(C) Stone Backing and Cores ...................................................................... 298


(D) Conciete Cores and Backing .......................................................... 298
Leveling Courses
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , ......................................298

Resetting
.. . .. . .. . . ... . . . .. ..
. . . . . . .. . .. .
298
Dowels and Cramps .................................................................................................... 298
Copings
.
.
. . .. ................ .
.
299

Arches ............................................................................................................................................ 299


Pointing
.
.
.
.
. .
299
Measurement and Payment
.. ..
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?f1i1

SECTION 7MORTAR RUBHLE MASONRY . . . . . . . . . .


3110
Desciiption .
.
.. .
.. . . .. . .
300
M:iterials ........................................................................................................ 300
(A) Rubble Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3110
(B) I\Iortar .... . .... . . .. .
.. .........
. 3011
Size .................................................................................................................. 300
Headers
.
.
.
. . .. .. .
. .. .
.
8t10
Shaping Stone .............................................................................................. 801
.

301

Copings, Bridge Scats and Backwalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Arches
. ..
. .. . . . ..
. .
.
Pointing
.
. .
.. .
Measurement and Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3tl1
?02
ot12
3t12

SECTION 8 DRY RUBBLE MASONRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Description
.. . . . . .. . .... . .. . .. .. .. . . . . . .. .
Materials
.
.
. .. .
..
.... .
Size of Stone
.
.
....
.
Headers
. .
.
.
. .
.. .
. . ..
Shaping Stone
Laying Stone
. .
. .
..
.. . . .. .. . . . . .. .

03
308
?03
?03
'3tl 3
808
$0?

Copings, Bridge Seats and Backivalls ....................................................303

Measurement and Payment ...................................................................... 304


SECTION 9
])/{;i( yij]

BRICK MASONRY ............................................................ 304


. .

. .

. .. .

04

. .... ..., ...... .. .. .... .. ... . .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. ...

3Q4

(A)

BIick

304

(B)

Mortar

. . .. . .

Copings, Bridge

. .

.. . .

SECTION 10 STEEL STRUCTURES


FABR I CATION

...

.... .. .

Seats and Backwalls. . . . . . . .

Measurement and Payment . .

Type of Fabrication

...... .

. .. .. . . .... .. ...... ....

Construction

2.10.1

. ..

. . . ..

Mixing Mortar ....................................................................................................................... 297

Description

2.9.2

.. .

Laying Stone . . .. .
. . .
. .
. .
..
.
297
(A) General ........................................................................................................ 297
(B) Face Stone .... ......
. .
.. .
. .
297

Laying Stone

281

.. .. . .

..... .
.......

?04
?04

FOR
0fi

CONTENTS
A ti

2.

.2

2.1 .

Quality of \V orkmansh ip

Materials
( A)
( l3 )
( C)
( II )
(E)
(F)
(G)
(H)
(I)
(I)
( K)

2. 10.4

2.10.5

2.10.6
2. 10.7

.. .. ..

.. .. . . .. . .. ..

proved Bearing-Type Bolts

2. 10.12

of Reamed and Drilled Holes .

iitting :for Riveting and Bolting .


Shop Assembling
( A) Full Truss or Girder Assembly .
( B ) Progressive Truss or Girder Assembly .
( G) Full Chord Assembly .
( D) Progresswe Chord Assembly .
( E) Special Complete Structure Assembly .
Drifting of Holes
Match-Marking
Itivets
Field Rivets
Bolts and Bolted Connections .
( A ) General .

. 7

2.
2.

.
.

( B)

2.1020

Unfin ished Bolts .

I C) Turned Bolts .
( D ) Ribbed Bolts
Connections Using High Strength Bolts .
( A ) General
( B) Bolts. Nuts and Washers .
( C ) Bolted Parts
( D)

2.111.21

0 ti
81f1
Al.II
?11
'311
312
812
?12
?12
312

Bolts

2.10.13
2.10.14

2.

d06

Holes for Ribbed Bolts, Turned Bolts or Other Ap-

2.10.11

2.10.1?
2.10.16

and Equivalent Bearing Areas

Punchecl Holes
Reamed or Drilled Holes .
Subpu nch ing and Rearing o1 Field Connections .
Accuracy of Punched and Drilled Holes . Accuracy

2.10. 10

Structural Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steel Forgings and Steel Shafting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steel Castings
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . ....
Iron C astings . .
.. . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . . .. .. ...
Ductile Iron Castings
.
Malleable Castings
. .
.
Bronze Castings and Copper-Alloy Plates. . . . . . . . .
Sheet Lead
... . .
. . .
.
.
Sheet Zinc
. . . .
. . .
.......
Galvanizing
. .
...... . .
. .. .
Canvas and Red Lead for Bedding Masonry Plates

Page
?0o

( L) Preformed Fabric Pads


Storage of Materi:its
Straightening Material and Curving Rolled Beams and Welded
Girders
( A)
Straightening Material
( B ) Curving Rolled Beams and Welded Girders
F' inish
Rivet and Bolt Holes
( A) Holes for
High- Strength Bolts and Unfinished
( B)

2.10.8
2.10.9

( E)
Rivetincr

Installation

Inspection

317
317

320
320

3211
820
3211
320
320
321
? 2J.
321
?23
324

Aiticle

2.10.22

Plate Cut Edges


..
(A) Edge Planing .
( B)

Page
32fi
32fi

Visual Inspection :ind Repair of Plate Gut Edges . . .

\Velds . . .
.. ..
.
...
.
. .
(A) General
. .
.. .
( B ) Filler Metal
. . .
.
.
(C)
lreheat and Interpass Temperature
( D ) Qu:ilification of \Veldeis, Welding Operators

?2

and

Tackers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.10.24
2.10.26
2.10.26
2.10.27
2.10.28
2.10.29
2.10.30
2.10.31
2.10.32
2.10.33
2.10.34
2.10.3?
?. 10.3G
2.1 0.37
2.10.38

2. 10.811

2.10.40
2.111.41
2.10.42
2. 10.43

2.10.44
2. 10.4?
2. 10.4

2.10.47

(E)
(F)

Procedure Qualification . . . . . . . . . .
Inspection of \Ve1ds
. .
. .

fG)

Stud Shear Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
. .

?31

882
833

3?fi

OxygenCutting ............................................................................................. 341


Facing of Bearing Surfaces
. .
.
.
342
Abutting Joints
. .
.. . . . . .
342
End Connection Angles .............................................................................. 342
Lacing Bars .................................................................................................. 843
'wished I\Members ....................................................................................... 343
Web Plates
. . . . .. .. ....
.... ..
..
?43
Bent Plates
. ...... . .. ........ . .. . . .. . .
348
Fit of Stiffeners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . ?44
Eyebars

344

Annealing and Stress


Pins and Rollers
Boring Pin Holes
Pin Clearances
Threads for Bolts :ind Pins
Pilot and Driving Nuts

344

Notice of Deginni n g of Work

Facilities for Inspection


Inspectors Authority
\Yorking Drawings and I dentification of Steel During Fabrication
(A) Work in g Drawings
( B) Identifictition of Steels During Fabrication .
\Veighing of Members
Full Size Tests
Marking and Shipping
Painting
ERECTION

21048

328
328
328
33fJ

Or thotropic-Dock Biidges

(A) Protection of Deck Plate A:f ter Sand Blasting .


(B) Dimensional Tolerance Limits
Erection of Structure
Plans
Plant
llelivery of Materials
Handlin g ancl Storing Materials
Falsework
Methods and Equipment
Bearings and Anch orages
Straigh tening Bent Mateiia1 and Gambering .
(A)
Straightening Bent Material
( B ) Gambering

346
4
46
34
48

48

CONTENTS
Article

2.10.68

2. 10.69
2.10.60
2. 10.61
2.10.62

2.10.63
2.10.64

Page
Assembling Steel ......................................................................................... 353
Riveting .......................................................................................................... 353
Pin Connections .... .

I\Iisfits

.. .

. ..

. .

....

...... .

.... .... . .

Removal of Old Structure and Fa1sework

.. .... . .

. . . .

3 4

?54

3fi4

I\fothod of Measurement
.. .. . . .. .
.
.
Basis of Payment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

365
3fi7

SECTION I IBRONZE OR COPPER-ALLOY BEARING AND

EXPANSION PLATES
2.11.1
2.11.2

( C)

2.11.3
2.11.4
2.11.6

2.11.6

358

General ....................................................................................................... 358


Materials ..................................................................................................... 358
( A ) Bronze Bearing and Expansion Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3158
i B) i:o11ed Copper-Alloy Bearings and Expansion Plates .
3fi8
Metal

Powder

5intered

Bearings

SECTION

General
Materials
( A) Steel

2.12.3
2.12.4
2.12.5
2.12.6
2.12.7
2.12.8
2.12.9

( C ) Concrete
( D) Skid Resistance .
Arrangement of Sections .
Provision :for Camber .
Field Assembly
Connection to Supports .
Welding
Repai ring Damaged Galvanized Coatings .
Concrete Filler
Painting
Measurement and Payment .

( B)

2.12.10

2. 12.11

Expansiori

12STEEL GRID FLOORING .

2122

2.12.1

and

Joints ( Oil Impregnated) ................................................................ 358


Bronze Plates ..................................................................................................................... 358
Copper-Alloy Plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. . .. .. ...
368
Placing .................................................................................................................................... 368
Measurement and Payment ....................................................................................... 368

Protective Treatment

( Shop Coat)

359
35?
360
360
360

360
360
361
361
361

SECTION 13RAILINGS .......................................................................... 361


Genes-at . .. . .
. . ...... .
. .. .. .. ..
.
361
Materials ....................................................................................................................................... 862

Line and Grade

................................... 362

METAL RAILING

362

2.13.4

Construction

362
362

2.1B 6

General

2.13.?

Painting

CONCRETE RAILING
2.1
7
2138

GONTENTS
Page

Article

Surface Finish .......................................................................................................................... 363


Expansion Joints .................................................................................................................... 363

S''ONE AND HRICK RAILING


2.18.12

364

General
WOOH RAILINC
General

3G4
3a4

Moasu rement and Payment .

SECTION 1
2.14.1
2.14.2

2.14.
2.14.4
2.14.?

2.14.6

2.14.7
2.14.8
2.14.9
2.14.10

Material .
(A) Shop Coat ( Prime Coat) .
( B ) First Iield Coat
( C)

Second Field Coat ( Finish Coat) .

Number of Coats and Color'.

Mixin(; of Paint .
Weathei- Conditions
AJi pli cation
(A) ieneral
(B) Biush Qing

( U) Inaccessible Surfaces . .. ..
..
.. .. . .. .
Removal of Paint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86fi
SGD

F'ainting Galvanized Surfaces


..
.
.. . .
Cleaning of Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

367
8G7

Thinning Paint

(B)
(C)
(D)

2.14.11
2.14.12

PAINTI NG METAL S1RUCTURES .

(E)

...

.. ........... . ...

.....

. ..

M th$d A-Hand Cleaning


Method IIRlast Cleaning
.
. . .
Method CHarvey Cleaning .
.
. . . . ..

Surfaces Inaccessible After Assembly. . . . . . . .

Shop Painting

..

..

iJ6ti

3 7
3fi7
367

368

3fiI1

Field Painting ................................................................................................................. 369


SECTION
SI.OPES

PROTECTI ON OF

EMBANKMENTS

AND

General
MATERIAL
Materials
CONSTRUCTION
Loose Riprap for Slopes.

371
.

. .
Mortar Riprap :for Slopes.
. . .. . .. .
Stone Ripiap :for Foundation Protection. . . . . . . , .
Conci ete Ripiap in Bags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concrete Slab Riprap .. .... . . .. . .
.

FILTER MATERIAL
2.1?.8

Fnter or Bedding Material .

871

?72
375
HTS
873

CONTENTS
Article

Page
374

MEASUREMENT
I\Measurement
PAYMENT

2.16.10

Payment

SECTION 1
2.16.1

CONCRETE CRIBBING

371

General

2.16.2
2.16.3

Construction
Measurement and Payment .

2.17.1

General .
.. ..
.. .
..
.
. . .
Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(A)
Mortar

377
?77

SECTION 18

?81

SECTION 17
2.17.2

2.17.8
2.17.4
2.17.5
2.17.6

2.17.T
2.17.8
2.17.0

2.18.1
2.18.2
2.18.3
2.18.4
2.18.5

&'ATERPROOFING

. . ......

..

377

37
7
(B) Asphalt ......................................................................................................... 377
(C) Pitch .............................................................................................................. 378
(D) Fabric ............................................................................................................ 378
(E) Tar for Absorptive Treatment. .................................................... 878
(F) Tai Seal Coat ......................................................................................... 378
(G) joint Fillers . .. . .
. . . . . . . .. . . . .
878
(H) Inspection ancl Delivery . . . . . . . . . .
..
79
Storage of Fabric ......................................................................................................... 379
Preparation of Surface ............................................................................................ 379
ApplicationGeneral .................................................................................................... 379
icationDetails ..................................................................................................... 380
Dp
p'age Pate ing . .. . . . .. . .. . ..
am
.. . .
. .
..
381
Protection Course ......................................................................................................... 381
Measurement and P:iyment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .........
?81
DAMPPROOFING

General
Materials
Preparation of Surface

8l

82
382
382
382

Application

Measu rement and Payment

SECTION 19 NAME PLA'TES

382

2. 19.1

General Requirements

382

220.1

SECTION 20
2202
Materials
220.3

TIMBER STRUCTURES . . . . . . . . . . .
.

..

388
383

(A)

38?
. .
. .
.
.
383
L (B) Structural Shapes
(C)
Castings
....
.
.
..
.
.
.
..
.
38o
u
(D) Hardware .................................................................................................... 388
m
(E) Paint for Timber Structures. ...................................................... 384
l
(F) Timber Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
?8fi

Timber Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - 38G


e
of Material ............
. .. . . .
.
?89
r
a
n
d
T
i
m
b
e
r
(
S
o
l
i
c
l
s
a
w
n
o
r
g
l
u
e
d
l
a
m
i
n
a
t
e
d
)

CONTENTS
Article

( C)

220.0
2207

2.20.8
2.20.9
2.20.10

2.20.11

2.20.12
2.20.13

2.20.16
2.20.16
2.20.17
2.20.18

22019
2. .2
.2 .

2.

.2

2.2 .2

2.2 . 4
2.

.2

3P9
389
389
390
390
390
390
390
390

Cuts and Abrasions

( D) Bolt Holes
(E) Temporary Attachment
Untreated Timbep
Treatment of Pile Heads .
(A) General
(B) Method AZinc Covering
( C ) Method BFabric Covering
Holes for Bolts, Dowels, Rods and Lag Screws .
Bolts and Washers
Countersinking
Framing
Pile Bents
Framed Bents
(A) Mud Sills

(B)

2.20.14

Page

Treated Timber
( A)
Handling
(B) Framing and Boring

Caps

(C)
( D)
( E)

39G

391
?.91
391
391
392
392
392
392
392
392
892
393

Concrete Pedestals

Sills
Posts
Design and Construction

393

Bracing
Stringers
Plank Floors

398
398
893
894

Laminated or

Composite \Vood-Concrete Decks

(A)
( B)

3114

Slab Spans .
T Beams

Trusses
Truss Housings
Erection o:I
and Railings .
Painting
Measurement and Payment .

394
?94
39o
395
?9o
395
39?
39?

SECTION 21PRESERVATIVE TREATMENTS FOR TIMBER

396

Wheel Guards and Railing

General ............................................................................................................396
I\Materials
?96
Identification and Inspection
39f

2.22.1

SECTION 22TIMBER CRIBBING

897

Material

. . . . .. .

397

Timber

397

(A)

(B) Logs
Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

397
897

(A) Timber
(B) Logs
Construction
(A) Foundation
(B) Mud Sil]s

397
897
398
398
398

Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

(G) FaceLogsor Timbers.............

.. . ...

397

B98

CONTENT S
Article

2.22.4 cont.

(D)
( E)

Page
398
3?9

Ties
Fastening .

Measurement and Payment


SECTION 23CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION OF
CORRUGATED METAL AND STRUCTURAL PLATE PIPES,
PIPE-ARCHES, AND ARCHES .

2.2B.1
2.23.2

2.28.8
2.23.4
2.23.6
2.23.6
2.23.7
2.23.8
2.23.9
2.23.10
2.23.11
2.23.12
2.23.13

General
Forming and Punching of Corrugated Structural Plates and
Sheets :for Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
....
. 4011
(A) Structural Plate Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .
. . 411f1
( B) Corrugated Metal Pipe . . . . . . . .
.
. . . .
400
( C) Elongation .................................................................................... 400
Assembly ......................................................................................................... 400
Bedding ............................................................................................................ 401
Pipe Foundation .......................................................................................... 401

silent

. . . . . .. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cover Over Pipe During Construction .................................................................. 403

Workmanship and Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


.
Method of Measurement ..
. ....
. .. .

.. ..
. .

404
404

BaSis of Payment ................................................................................................................. 404

SECTION 24WEARING SURFACES


2.24.1
2.24.2

in

Bracing . . . . . . . .
. ... ... . ..... .. . . . . . ..
. ..
402
Camber ........................................................................................................... 402
Arch Substructures and Headwalls ................................................................... 402

4114

Description
Orthotropic Deck Bridge,s
( A)

Material

( B)
( C)

Placement
Inspection

SECTION 25ErAszoMERIC BEARIixGs


Description

Mateiials
Manufacturing Requirements
Tolerances
Quality Assurance

2.2G.1

2.26.2
2.26.8
2.26.4
2.26.?

SECTION 26CONSTRUCTION OF TUNNEL USING STEEI.


TUNNEL LINER PLATES . . . . . . . .
.

408

Scope

408

..

Descrpbon .
.
. . . .
.
409
Forming sndPunching of Liner Plates ..... ........ . 409
Installation ...................................................................................................... 409
Measurement

. . .......... . . . .. . ..

...............

41fJ

CONTENTS
INDEX TO FIGURES
Figures

1.1.7
1.1.9

1.1.17
1.2.SA

1.2.SR
1.2.SC
1.7.3A

1.7.3B
17.19
1.7.70

1.7.71A

1.7.71B

1.7.111A
1.7.111B
1.10.2
1.13.1
2.111.22B
2.10.23A
2. 10.28B
2.10.23C
2.10.23D
2.23

Page
Clearance Diagram for Biidges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
Railings . .
.
..
. .
.
.
. .... .
.
..
fi
Clearance Diagram for TunnelsTwo Lane Highway

Traffic .

II

Clearance Diagram for Underpasses . . . . . . .


11
Standard H Trucks.......
.. ..
. . .
.
TO
H Lane and HS Lane Loadings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16
Standard
HS
Trucks.
................................................................................................................................................. 17
Fatigue
Stresses
.............................................................................................................................................. 117
Fatigue
Stresses
.............................................................................................................................................. 120
Splice
Details
.............................................................................................................................................. 130
\Veb Thickness and Girder Depth. .
..
. . .. .
14fi
t
n$
Web P a e i th
Iffannrs
.

'
1411
Flange Stress Reduction Factors, n== .72. ............................................. 172
Flange Stress Reduction Factoi-, o=:: .50. . . . . . . . . .
172
Spaced Column, Connector Joined.
. . ... ..
.
229
Diagram for Coefficient Ci for Tunnels in Soil. ................................... 241
Discontinuities ............................................................................................................. 827
Procedure Qualification Fillet Weld Test. ................................................ 834
Stud Shear Connector . . . . . . . . . . . .
. .. . .
388
Tensile Test Fixture .............................................................................................. 339
BenJ Test Fixture and Failures. ....................................................................339
Pipe Bedding, Foundation & Sideflll. . . . . . . .
.... . .. .
4t13

INDEX TO TABLES
1.3.IB
1.3.IC
1.?.27
1.?.27A
1.6.29
1.7.1
1.7.3A
1.7.8B
1.8.2
1.10.1
1.10.1A
1.10.TB
1.11.?
2.10.8A
2.10.8B
2.10.20A
2.10.20B

Distribution of Loads
Bending Moment in Floor Beams .
recommended

Minimum

Thickness

for

Constant

Depth

Members

Long-tme Deflettins
Standard Hooks in Tension
Allowable
Stresses
Str-ess Cycles
F'atigue Stresses

Minimum Longitu dinal Seam Strengths

Allowable Unit Stresses Koi' Structural Lumber' Visu:i1ly


Allowable Unit Stresses for Structural Glued Laminated
Timber
Allowable Unit Stresses for Structural Glued Laminated
2.10.22B
2.10.43
2.20.1

94
1. 12
118
242

218

Timber
.......................................................................................................................................... 222

Allov
able
Stresses

.. ....

. .

2?fi

Bolt and
Nut
Dimensio
ns . .
. ....... . . ..
3(J9
\Vasher
Dimensio
ns
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ?I19
Bolt
Tension ................................................................................................... 322
Nut
Rotation
from
Snug
Tight
Condition.
. . .
82i3
Discont
inuities

..

.. .

.. .

82fi

Identifica
tion
Color
Codes.
.
.
.
. .
848
Typical
Dimensi
ons of
Timber
Connect
ors............................................................................................................ 387

PR E FACE
Eleventh Edition

I\/Iajor changes and revi sions to this edition aie as follows :

1. The Interim Specifications of 1970, 1971, arid 1972, have been adopted
and included, together. iv ith tv elve items x\hich x\ ere balloted and adopted in
November 1972.
2. The section on Railings (Article 1.1.9 ) has been expanded and modifieit
to provide :foi' irnpi oved safety performance.
?. Load Factor design concepts are now permitted for both structuia1 steel

and ieinfoicod concrete structu res as an alternate to existing design enter ia.
Th is load factor concept has also been included in the prestiessed concietc
design provi sion s Koi ultimate stienth.
4. Section 7 of Design contains piovisions for heat curving and for design
of oithotropic deckbiidges.
5. Section lHH has been extensively modified to provide nev design icquii e-

ments :for Timber structui'es.


6. Updated provisions for Steel Tunnel Liner Plates and Slope Pt otection

have also been included.

I N TRO DU CTIO N
Th o eompil ation of these specificati ons began with the organ nation, in
1921, of the Comm ittee on Riidges an cl Structuies of the Americ:in Association

of State H ighv ay Other at s. lJuiin g the peiiod from 1921, until p rinfed in 19 1,
the s(ioc l ficatlo ns v-ei'e g ra dually developed, and as the sever at clivi sion s were
a pp i oved f iona tune to time, they v ci e made :ivailabJ e in mimeogiaphed form
Koi use of the State Hi gh ay l3epaitments anet other' organ izat ions. A complete
spee ifiection v'as available i n 1fi26 an ct i I v as ievised in 1928. Thou g1i not in
jiii nted foim, th c s(iecification s v ei e valuable to the bridge engineer ing pi'ofes
si on cluiin y the Jiei iocl of clevelopment.
The fi i st edition of the Standaic1 Speer ficati ons i as published in 1931, an d
it v as follow-ed by the 19 5, 19 t1, 1944, 1949, 196 3, 1957, 19G1, 19t3 fi, :inr1 1969
i ex ise1 e1itions. The piesont and eleventh edition constitutes a i evisi on of tha e
11Iti9 5peer tic ation s, including those cliiinges adopted st nce the public:iti on of the
tenth caution an cl th ose th iou gh 1972. The constant iesearch and doveto pment
in steel, con crete, anal tim1er stiuctui es p tactically dictates th e necessl ty of
rcx i sin c he speci fixation s evei four years, and the 197? edition continues thi s
Am ong the 1 mpoitan I i evi sions in the 1978 edition is the ac1o(ition o1

I omit factor' criteria as an :ilternate design methocl. Other mod ifications aie
ou flined in the Pi'eface.
Interim 5peer fieati on s ai'o usu ally publ ished late in the calendar year, an d
a icvi se1 edition of thi s book is published eveiy four years. The Inter inn
Speci fixations have the same status as standaids of the Amcl iean Association
of State Highx ay Other als, lut aie tentative revi sions appi oved by at least twoth irds of the Comm ittee on Bridges and Structures. These rex ision s at o v
oted on by the Association Member Departments prior to the publication o1 each
nev ed it ion of this hook, and if :ippi'oved by at least two-th irds of the mem be
re, they ac inclutel in th e new ed ition as standaids of The Associ ation. Members of
the Association aie the fifty State HIgh\vay Departments, the IIi strict of
Columb ia, Puerto Rico and the Fede ial Highway Admin i stration. bach member
has one vote.
Annual Interim Specifications are gen erally u sed by the State Highv ay
Departmen I after their adoption by the Brid ge Committee. OIdei s for these
annunl Intciim 5peclficat ion s sh oulcl be sent to the Executive Director of the
.1ssoci ation at ?41 National Piess Bui1ding, \V ash ington, Lt.C. 20004.
The Specification s for Highv ay Bridges ie intended to serve as a standaitt
or gu lde for th o prepai'ation of State sp ecification s :iia ct for iefei'encc Iy bi idge
engin eers.
Primaiily, the spec ificati errs set forth minimum rcqu iremen ts \\ h ich aie
const stent with cuiient p i'iictico, and certain mod ificati ons may 1e necess:in to
su it foe:it cond it ion s. They aJipl y to orlinary h lghv ay bridges an d supplomen tal
s(iecific:itIons in:iy be required Koi unusual types and for bridges with sp:ins
longer th an 60II feet.
Specifi cations of the Amer ie:in Society for 'lesting and Mate rials, th e
Amoi'ican Welding Society, the Ameiican Wood Preserveds Association and the
National I.umbci' Manufactuicrs Association arc referrecl to or are rocognizeil.
Numerous research liulletin s arc noted Koi references.

The American Association of State Highway

Other all wishes

IO expiess

its sincei e appreciati on to the above organi zati ons, as well as to thos Universities and repiesentatives of industry \\ hose research effoits and consultations
have been most helpful in continued impiovement of these specification s.
Extensive references have been made to the Standaid Specifications for
Highway Miiterials published by the American Association

of

State

High\\':ty

Ofhcials including equivalent ASTM speclfictitions which have bcn reproduced


in the .Associatioris St:in da rc1 Specifi cations by permission of the American

Society Koi Testing and Materials.


Attenti on is also directed to the f olloivin g publications prepared by the
Bridge Committee and published subsequent to the 1969 edition of these
specifications :
Construction Manual for Highv ay R iidges
and Incidental Structures19 7? dition
Standard 5pec fixation s for Movea1le

Highix ay Bric1ges19 70 dition


Spccificati on s Koi' the l9esign and
Construction of Stiuctui at Supports lot
Highway Luminaiies1971 Edition
M:inual :foi' Maintenance Inspection
of Bridges19 7U Edition
The fo1lov'I ng have served as chairmen of the Committee since its i neep

tion in 1921 : Messrs. E. F . Kelley, who pioneered the work of the Committee,
A thin L. Gemeny, R.B. McMinn, epo d Archiband, G.S. Paxson, and Mr.
E.M. Johnson. Tue late Mr. Wai'd Goodman xv ould have completed eight years
as Chairman of the Bridge Committee this year, but his untimely death in
March 1973, resulted in the appointment of Mr. Charles Matlock. Mi. Goodman vvas also serving as Vice Piesident o1 AASIIO. The Committee expiesses Its sincere
appicciation of the v oik of these men and of those active members of the
past, v hose names, because of retirement, :ire no longer or the io1l.
Suggostions for' the innpmovement of the speci fixations at'e v elcome d. They
should be sent to th e Chat rnian, Committee on Bridges and Sfructui es, AA SIIO,
41 National Press Bldg., Washington, D.C. 200114. Inquiiies as to the i nteii t
or' aJiplicati on of the speci fixations should be sent to the same address.
A B B RE V I AT IONS
A.4 SHOAmerican .1ssociation of State Highv ay Officials

A CIAnne iican Concrete Institute AI"lC


American Institute of Timber Construction A 5CE
Ameiie:in Society of Civil Engineer s
ASTMAmeiican Society for'1'esting and Materials
AN 5IAmerican National Standards Institute
.Y W 5.American Welding Society
A WPA.American Wood Preserveds Association
CS Commercial Standards
NDSNational Llesign Specifications for Stiess Gi'ade Lumber and Its
Fastenings
NLMAh'ati onat Lumber Manufacturers Assoc iation
SAE Society of Automotive Engineers

Divi.sion I

D ESIG N
DESIGN ANALYSIS
In any case where the specificati on s provide for an empirical formula
as a design convenience, a rational analysis based on a theory accepted by
the Comm it tee on Bridges and Structures of the American Association of
State Highway Ollie ials, with stresses in accordance with the specifications, will be considered as compliance with the specifications.

Sec fion i GENERAL FEATURES OF DESIGN


J .J .1 BRIDGE LOCATIONS
Selecting favorable stream crossings should be considered in the
prel inn inary route determination to min imize construction, maintenance

and replacement costs. Natural stream meanders sh on Id be studied and,

if necessary, channel changes, river training works and other construction which would red uce erosion problems and prevent possible loss of
the structure should be considered. Foundations of bridges pl aced across
channel changes should be designed for possible deepening an d v iden i ng
of the relocated channel. On wide flood plains, the lowering of approach
fills to provide overflow sections designed to pass unusual floods over the
highway is a means of preventing loss of structures. Where relief bridges
are needed to maintain the natural flow distribution and reduce backwater,
caution must be exercised in proportioning the size and in locating such
s I.ructu res to avoid undue scour or changes in the course of the main river
channel.

J . J .2 BRIDGE WATERWAYS
The determination o:I adequate waterway openings tor stream crossings is essential to the des ign of safe and economical bridges. Hyd raul ic
stud ies of bridge s ites are a necessary part of the preliminary design o:I
a bridge and reports of such studies should include applicable parts of
the follow in g outline :

f AJ Site Doto
1. Maps, stream cross sections, aerial photographs.
2. Complete data on existing bridges, including dates of construction and performance d u ring past floods.
3. Avail able h ighwater marks with dates of occurrence.
4. Information on ice, debris and channel stabil ity.
5. Factors affect in g wate r stages such as h igh water from other
streams, reservoirs, ftood control projects and tides.

H I GH WAY B RIDGE S

f Bl

Hydrologic

1.1.2

Analysis

1. Compl le flood data app licable to esti mat in g Poods at s ite, in cl ud i ng both h is ter ical Poods and max i mum floods of record.
2. P lot flood -Ireq uency cu rve for site.
3. Determ me d istrib ution of Pow and veloci ties at st te for flood
d i scharges to be cons i dered i n desk gn of structu re.
4. Plot stape -d tech a rge c urve for site.
fCl Hydroul ic A no lysis
1. Compute backwater and mean velocities at bridge open ing for
various trial brid ge lengths and selected d i sch arges.
2. Esti mate scou r depth at piers and abutments of proposed
structu res.
Usually, bridge wate rways are sized to pan a des i gn

flood of a

magn i tu de and Freq uency const stent w ith the type or class of h i ghway.

In the selection of the wate rway open ing, consideration should be g iven to
the anion n t of upstream pond inp, the passage of ice and debris and
poss ible scour of the bridge You n dat ion s. Where floods exceed in g the
design flood have occurred, or where su perfloods would cause extensive
damage to ad join ing property or the loss of a costly structure, a larger
waterway open ing may be warranted. Due consideration should be given
to any Federal, State and local reQu i re ments.
Relief open i n gs, spu r-dikes, debri s deflecto rs and channel training
woi ks should be used where needed to min inn ize the effect of adverse flood
flow cond i tions. W here scou r is l ikely to occu r, protection against
damage I rom scour should be provided for in the design of bridge piers
and ab u tments. Embankment slopes ad jacent to structu res su bject to
erosion should be adequately protected by rip-rap, flexible mattresses,
retards, spur di kes or other appropriate construction. Clearing of brush
and trees at ong embankments in the vic in i ty of bridge open ings should be
avoided to prevent h i gh flow veloci ti es and possi ble scou r. Borrow p its
shou ld not be located i n areas which would increase veloci ties and the
poss ibili ty of scou r at bridges.

J .J .3 PIER SPACING, ORIENTATION AND TYPE


Piers shall be located to meet nav i gational clearance requi rements
and to give a min imum interference to flood flow. In general, p iers should
be placed parallel with the d irection of the stream current at flood stage.

Adequate proc'i sion shou ld be made for drift and ice by i ncreasi n g span

lengths and vertical clea rances, by selecting proper pier types and by
using debris deflectors. Special precautions against scour are required
when large coffe rdams are placed in unstable etream beds.

1.J .4 CULVERT WATERWAY OPENINGS


Culve rts, as d istingu ished Irom bridges, are usually smaller in waterway open ing, covered w ith embankment material and composed of structure around the entire perimeter of the culvert barrel. Some culverts are

1.1.4

DE SI GN

supported on spread footi rigs when the natural stream bed can serve as

the bottom of the waterway without undermining the foundation.


Criteria for design discharges, allowable head water depth and outlet
velocities will vary, depending upon the class of highway, hazards to
traffic, risks of flood ing adjacent property, risks of damaging embankments, stream bed material and other factors. Based on con ditions at
and in the vicinity of the culvert site, it may be determined that the
culvert can be des igned to operate satisfactorily u rider su bmergence. Gen
erally, designs for culverts to operate under submergence aie limited to
floods of infrequent occurrence. Culverts should be designed to resist the
hydraulic forces to be encountered and should be protected from und ormining by means of adequate aprons, wingwal ls, cutoff walls or other
appropriate devices. Adjacent embankments shou Id be protected against
erosion as necessary by rip-rap or other suitable means.

J .1.5 CULVERT LOCATION AND LENGTH


In general, culverts are located in natural stream channels. If
l'oun dations are poor, bearing piles, selected backfill material, a cambered
profile or sl ipcollars can be provided to assure good alignment and a
culvert that is structura Jly sound.
The length of culverts should be sufficient to prevent the embankment
material from encroach ing on culvert end. Headwal ls and endwills
with cutoff walls an d aprons are used to protect the fill slopes and stream
beds f rom erosion and to secure the culvert end against hyd raul ie forces.

If headwalls and endwalls are required, they should be des igned not to
protrude above the ground line. Culvert open ings shall be placed a minimum o:I 30 feet from the edge of the traffic lanes or protection provided
by guardrail or other means. Where feasible, culverts shall be continuous
across medians to avoid the traffic hazard presented by additional openings. Where needed, debris control devices should be constructed to pre
vent clogging. If backfill and embankment materials are subject to piping,
consideration should be given to the use of cutoff walls or impervious
material placed at the entrance.

J .J .6 WIDTH OF ROADWAY AND SIDEWALK


The width of roadway shall be the clear width measured at

right

angles to the longitudinal center line of the bridge between the bottoms

of curbs or if curbs are not used, the clear width shall be the minimum
measured between the nearest faces of the bridge railing.
The wid th of the sidewalk shall be the clear width, measured at
right angles to the longitudinal center line of the bridge, from the
extreme inside portion of the handrail to the bottom of the curb or
guard-timber, except that if there is a trust, girder, or parapet wall
adjacent to the roadway curb, the width shal! tie measured to its extreme
walk side portion.

1. .7 CLEARANCES
fAJ Novigotionol
for the

of

HI GHWAY BRI DCE 5

1.1.7

except those streams that have been placed in the advance approval
category by the Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, must be obtained from
the U.S. Coast Guard and other appropriate agencies. Requests for such
permits from the U.S. Coast Guard should be addressed to the appropriate
District Commander.
f Bl

Vehiculor
The horizontal clearance shall be the clear width an d the vertical

clearance the clear heigh I for the passage of veh icu l ar traffic as shown

in Figure 1.1.7.

CLEARANCE

DIAG RAM
FIGUR E

FOR

BR IDYES

1. I .7

( 1 ) The roadway width ahall gener ally equal the full shoulder veidth of the approach roadway
section. Where curbed roadway sections app roach a structure, the same section shall be carried
across the structure. The minimum horizon ta1 clearan ce for low traffic spe d, low tra ffit v 6iume
bridges a hall be 8 -0 arealer than the ap p roach trave11e1 was.
For recommendation a as to roadw'ay widths for various vol umes o:I traffic see AAS HO A
Policy on Deaign Standard alute ratate Szstem, Geometric Deeign Standards for Highw'aYa
Other Than Freewaya, A Polic;v on Geometric Des ign of Rural Hizhwars, and /or A Policy
on Arterial Highways in Urban A reaa.
( 2 ) Vertical cleara nce on State trunk high waye and in terstate systems in rural areas shall
be at least 16 feet over the enti re roadw'ay w idth , to which an allow a rice should be added for
reeurf acing. On State trun k h iah ways and in terstate routes th rough urban areas a 16-foot
clearance shall be p rovided except in highly dev eloped areas. A 16-foot clearan ce should be
p rovided in both rural an d urban areas where en ch clearance is not un rea son ab1x costly and
where needed for defense requirements. Vertical clearan ce on all other high ways shall be at
leaat 14 feet over the entire roadway width to which an aim wance s hould be added for resurf act rig.

D E SI GN

fCl Other
The chan nel open ings and cleara nce shall be cleared with other
agencies has'ing j urisd iction over such matters. Channel open ings and
c learanc es i n general shall conform i n width, her ght, and location to at I
Federal, State and local req u iremen ts.

1 .J .8 CURBS AND SIDEWALKS


The face o:I the curb is defined as the vertical or sloping surface on
the roadway s ide of the curb. Horizontal measurements of roadway and
curb width are given from the botttom of the face, or, in the case of
stepped back curbs, from the bottom of the lower :face for roadway width.
Maximum width of brush curbs, if used, shall be 9 inches.
Where curb and gutter sections are used on the roadway approach,
at either or both ends of the bridge, the curb height on the brid ge may
match the curb height on the roadway approach, or if preferred, it may
be made higher than the approach curb. Where no curbs are used on
the roadway approaches, the height of the bridge curb above the roadway
shall be not less than 8 inches, and preferably not more than 10 inches.
Where sidewalks are warranted for pedestrian trafhc on urban expressways, they shall be separated from the bridge roadway by the use of
a trafhc or combination railing as shown in Figure 1.1.9.

J .1.9

RAILINGS

Railing shall be provided at the edge of structures for the protection


of traffic and for the protection of' pedestrians if pedestrian walkways are
provided.
Where pedestrian walkways are provided adJ acent to roadways on
other than urban expressways, a traffic railing or barrier may be provided between the two with a pedestrian railing outside.

f Al TroRic R oiling
While the primary purpose of traffic rail ing is to contain the
average vehicle using the structure, consideration should also be given

to protection of th e occupants of a veh icle in coll i sion with the railing,

to protection of other vehicles near the collision, to vehicles or pedestrians on roadways being overcrossed, and to appearance and :freedom
of view from passing vehicles.
Materials for traffic railing shall be concrete, metal, timber or a
combination. Metal materials with less than 10 percent tested elongation shall not be used.
Ti afliC ra i li ngs sh on Id provide i smooth, con ti nu on s facc of rail
on the traffic st de with the posts set back from thP f aC O I wit l. Sti iictur.il
in t he rail
of ends, is

TRAFFIC

COMBIN

RAIL\NG

ATION

RAI L I NG

PEDE STR I AN

R Al LI NG

ml or combine

""'

DESIGN

essent ial. ThC iii ling system sh all be able to ie.sist the applicCl load s
at all lociti on s.
Protru sions or impress i errs at i-.ii I .joints shall be acceptable pio

vided their th ickness cr lopth is no greater thiin the wall th ickness of


the rti I mcm ber or 'is, which ever i s less .
The height of traffic rat ling shitl I be no less Ihan 2-? menu iecl
tiom the top of the roadway or cu rb to the top o:I the upper rail
member , except that par-apets des igncd ivi th sloping traffic faces in
tended to at low vehicles to ride up them under low angle contacts shal l
be at least 2-8 in heipht. Th is ,sloping face ptrapet height way be
reduCed to 23 prov i ded a traffic i-ail ing is mounted on top of the
parapet at :t height not exceed i n g 3'-3. The lower element of .i traffic
or combin ation railing sho It ld consist of either a Jarapet pi o.jecting at
least 18 i nches above the iefei-ence ,sii i face or a iti l cc nterecl bctivcen
15 and 20 inch es above the re:Terence ski i face. The roadway s tirficc is
the reference su rf ace unless there is a cu rb or sidewalk projeetin g
more than G inches from the traffic face of the r:ml ing, in ivh ich case
th: SU I-face of the en rb or s idewalk i s th e i efercn cc su rf ace. The maxi
mum clear vertical open mg below the !oxv er raul or between st ceed i ii g
rails shall not exceed 15 i riches. I See Figut-e 1.1.9 I Raili rigs other than
those sh own i ii Figu re 1.1.9 are per mini ble jii ovi dcd the total a;ipli ed
load ing is not less thiri 10 ki ps .
Careful attention shall be given to the treatment of rail ing at the
bridge ends. Exposed rail ends, posts, and sharp changes in the geometry of the railing shall be avoided. A smooth transition by means of a
continuation of the bridge barrier, guard rat l anchored to the bridge
end, or other effective means shall be provided to protect the trafhc :from
direct coll ision with the bridge rail ends.
IBI Pedestrian Railing
Rail ing components shall be proporti on ed commensurate with the
type and volume of anticipated pedestrian traffic, taking account of
appearance, safety and freedom of view from passing vehicles.

t .33
C ml + - ; 5ut shaH uot trlss thau l

Materials for pedestrian railing may be concrete, metal, timber or


a combination.
The minimum height of pedestrian railing shal I be 3-0 I a preferred heigh I is 3-6) measured from the top of the walkway to the
top of the u pper rail member.

1.J . J 0 ROADWAY DRAINAGE


The transverse drainage of the roadway should be accomplished by
providing a su itablc crown in the roadway surface and longitu dinal
drainage should be accomplished by camber or gradient. Water flowing
downgrade i n a gutter section should be intercepted and not permitted to
run onto the bridge. Short, continuous span bridges, particularly overpasses, may be bu ilt wi thout inlets and the water i'rom the bridge road-

way car ried down slope by open or closed chutes near the end of: the bridge
st ructure. Longitudinal drainage on long bridges is acco mplished by
means of scuppers or inlets which should be of sufficient size and number
to drain the gutters adequately. Downspou ts, where requ ired, shou Id be of
rigid corrosion -resistant material not less than 4 inches in least dimension
and should be provided with clean outs. The details of deck drains should
be such ae to prevent the discharge of d rainage water against any portion
of the structure an d to prevent erosion at the outlet of the down spout.
Overhanging portions of concrete deck should be provided with a drip
bead or notch.
\ .1 .1 J SUPERELEVATION
The su pe re levation of the floor surf ace of a bridge on a horizontal
curve shall be prov i ded in accordance with the standard practice of the

commi ssion for the highway construction, exceJt that the su perelevati on

shall not exceed 0.10 foot per foot width of roadway.

1 .1.12 FLOOR SURFACES


Al I brid ge Poors shall have skid-resistant character istics.

1 .J . J 3 BLAST PROTECTION
On bridges over steam railroad tracks, metal likely to be injured by
locomotive gases, and concrete surfaces less than 20 feet above the tracks,
shall be protected by blast plates. The blast plate shall be centered on a

line normal to the pliine of the two rails at the center l ine of the track,
thus takin g into account th e direction of blast d ue to superelevation. The
plates shall be not less than 4 feet wide and shall consist of wrought-iron, castiron, a cor-rosion and blast res isti rig alloy or asbestos-board shields, so su
ppo rte d that they may be readily replaced. The th ickness of plates an d
othe r parts i n d i rect contact with locomotive blast shall be not less than i
inch for cast-i ron, 7s inch for wrou ghtiron or alloy, '/_ inch for
plain asbestos -board an d 7 , i nch for corru gated asbestos-board. Bolts
shall be not less than /s inch in diameter. Pockets wh ich may hold
locomotive gases shall be avoided as far as practicable. All hasten ings
shall be galvan i zed or of cor ros i ve rest stant material.

1.J .14

D E SI GN

1 . J . 14 UTILITIES
Where required, p rov i sion s shall be made for trolley wire supports

and poles, pillars for lights, electric cond u its, telephone condu its, water
pipes, gas pipes and san itary sewers.
1 .1 .15 ROADWAY WIDTH, CURBS AND CLEARANCES FOR TUNNELS
ISee Figu re

IA I

. . 5)

Roodwoy Width

The horizontal clearance shall be the clear width and the vertical
clearance the clear height for the passage of vehicular traffic as shown
in Figure 1.1.15.

Unless otherwise provided, the several parts of the structure shall

be constructed to secure the following= limiting dimensions or clearances


for traffic :

The clearances and width of roadway :for 2-lane traffic shall be not
less than those shown in Figure 1.1.15. The roadway width shall be
wOT

tCSS

THAN

JO fI

Sl0E GA t. k"

R 0 A D MAY
AT L E AST 2 F 7 GR EATER 7 HAN
APPROACH TRAVE L L E D

uT x oT LE ss Tn n z+

CLE AR AN CE DI A GRAM FOR TUNN EL S


TWO LAN E HICH WAY TRAFFI C
FI CURE

I . I . 15

( 1 ) For heavv traffic roade, roadway widtha greater than the above minima are recom mended.
If traffic lane widths exceed 12 feet. the roadway width may be reduced 2-0 Irom that
ccl culated Irom ri. 1. 1. 16.
For recommendations its to roadway wid(hs for various volumes of trafhc see AAS HO A
Policy on Design StandardsInterstate System, Geometric Deeian Stan darda for IIighways
Other Than Freeway: , A Policy on Geometric Design of Rural Highways. and /or A Potter
on A rterial Highways in Urban Areas.
( 2 ) Vertical clearance on State trunk highways and interstate systems i n rural areas shall
be at leiist 16 feet over the entire roadway width, to which an allow an ce should be ailded for
resurfacing. On State trunk highways and interstate routes through urban areas a 16-foot
clearan ce shall be p rovided except in highly develo ped areas. A 16-foot clearan ce should be
p rovi ded in both rural and urban areas where such clearance is not un reasonabIi' costly and
where needed for defense requirements. Vertical clearance on all other hi ghways shal I be at
least 1 4 feet over the entire roadway width to which an a1low'ance should be added for resurfaci rig.

increased at least ten feet and preferably twelve :f eet for each additional traffic lane.
I BI

Cleoronce Between Wolfs

The min imum width between wa l ls of two- lane tunnels shall be


30 feet.
ICI

Curbs
The w idth of curbs shall be not less than 18 inches. The height of

cu rbs shal I be as specified for- bridges.


I DI

Vertical

Cleornnce

The vertical clearance, between curbs, shall be not less than 14 feet.

J .J .16 ROADWAY WIDTH, CURBS AND CLEARANCES FOR DEPRESSED


ROADWAYS
AI

Roodwoy Widf h

The clear width between curbs shall be not less than that specified

for tunnels.

IB J

Cleoronce Between Wolfs


The in i n imu in w id th between walls for depressed roalways carry-

i ng two lanes of traffic shall be 30 feet.

IC J Curbs
The width of curbs shall be not less than 18 inches. The height of
en rbs shall be as specified for bridges.

J .1.17 ROADWAY WIDTH, CURBS AND CLEARANCES FOR UNDERPASSES


( See Figure 1 .1 .1 7 )

f Al Widths
The pier columns or walls for grade separation structures shall
gen oral!y be located a minimum of 30 feet from the edges of the through
traffic lanes. Where the practical limits of structure costs, type of a
str u c tu re, volu me anl dest gn speed of th ro u gh traffic, span arrangement, skew and terrain make the 30 foot offset i mpractical, the pier or

1. 1.17

D E 5I GN
AT LEAST 6O'- 0" GREATER THAN APPROACH PAVEMENT

FACE OF WALL

FACE OF WA LL

OR PIER

OR

PIER

3O'- O" MIN.

3O'- O" MIN.

GENERAL CONDITION
FACE OF WALL

FACE

FACE OF

FACE OF
GUARD RAIL

OR PIER

0R

BARRIER

SHOULDER

ARTICLE

CONDITION

DIAGRAMS FOR UNDERPASSES


FIGURE

SEE

WALL

NOULDER

LIM I TED

CLEARANCE

OF

PIER

I.I. 17 \AJ

1. I. I7
FOR

GENERAL , REQUIREMENTS.

( 1 ) For recommen dations as (o roadway widths I:or various volumes of traffic see AAS HO
"A Policy on Design StandardsI rite rsta te System, "Geometric Design Standards for Highways
Other Than Freeways , A Policy on Geomet ri c Des ian of Rural Hieh ways, an d7'or A Pot ice
on Arterial Highw'ays in Urban Areas.
( 2 ) Vertical clearan ce on State trunk highways and interstate sYstema in rural greas shall
be at leaat 16 feet over the entire roadway wid th, to wh ich an at to wan ce should be added for
resurfacing. On State trunk h ighways and interstate routes through urban areas a 16-foot
clearan ce shall be p rovided except in highly developed areas. A 16-foot clea run ce should be
provided in both rurat and urban areas where such clearance is not un reasonably costly and
where needed for defense requirements. Verti cal clea ran cc o n all other highways shall be at
leaat 14 feet over the entire roadway width to which an altowan ce should be added for resurf acing.

wall may be placed closer than 30 feet and protected by (he use of guard
rail or other barrier devices. The guard rail shall be independently sup
ported with the roadway face at least 2'-0 from the face of pier or
abutment. The face of the guard rail or other device shall be at least 20 outs ide the normal shoulder line.
tBJ Vertical

Cleoronce

A vertical clearance of not less than 14 f'eet shall be provided between curbs, or if curbs are not used, over the entire width that is
available for traffic.

ICI Curbs
Curbs, if used, shall match those of the approach roadway section.

Section 2

LOADS

1.2.J LOADS
Structu res shall be proportioned for the follow ing loads and forces
when th ey ext st :
Dead load.
Live load.
Impact or dy nam ie effect of the live load.

Wind loads.
Other I orces, w hen they exist, as I ollows :
Lon gitu dinal forces, cen tr if ugal do rce, thermal forces, earth
press u re, bu oy ancy, shr i nkage stresses, ri b sh orteni ng, erection
s tresses, ice and cu rrent pressu re, and earthQll ake stre sses.
Mem be rs shall be proportioned using all owable stresses and design
l i in itati on s to r the approp nate material.
Upon the strew sheets a d iagram or notation of the assumed loads
shall be shown and the stresses due to the various loads shall be sh own
sepa rately.

W here req u i red by des tin cond it ions, concrete placing sequence shall
be i nd mated on the plan s or in the spec rat prov is ions.
The load ing comb i nations shall be in accord ance with Article 1.2.22.
J .2.2 DEAD LOAD
The dead load shall consist of the weight of the structure complete,
including the roadway, s idewalks, car tracks, pipes, condu its, cables and
other public utili ty services.
The snow an d i ce load is const dered to be offset by an accompanying

decrease in live load and impact and shal I not be incl uded except under
.spec i al con di ti ons.

1.2.2
If a se pa rate wean ng .s u rface i s to be placed when the br id ge is

cons tructed, or if placemen I of a separate we iring su rface is anticipated


in the I uture by the de pa rtme nt, a deg u ate al l owance shall be made for i ts
weigh t in the des ign dead load. Otherwise pro v i si on for a I utu re wearing
su rface i s n t req u i red.

5pec ial cont i de ration shall be given to the necess i ty for a separate
wearing surface for those regions where the use of chains on tires or
studded snow tires, is anticipated.
Where the ab ras ion of cone rete is not ant ie i p:i ted, the traffic may bear
d irectly on the concrete slab. If con s id e red desk ra blc, /i inch or more
may be act dcd to the s lab for a wearing su rf ace.
Th o I oll ow ing we i ghts are to be used i n comp uting the dead load :
\Ve ight per c ubic foot,

pounds
4?0
4?0

Steel o r c ast steel


Cas I i rori

Al urni n um

17?

al I eye

'atl

T tin be r ( t i eated o i' u nt rcate d)


Co n c rete, (I a in or ie I n to reed
Com pactei1 san d, ea i th, gi avel o r ba I I ast

Loose sand, earth and giave1


I\I acadam or gravel, io1lec1
Cinder filling

Pavement, oth ei than wood block


Rat l way ra i 1s, guai'd ra its, and fasten i n gs ( per

linear foot of track)


Stone masonry
Asphalt plank, 1 inch thick

200
170
9 lbs. pe r squa i e foot

I AJ Unit Lood on Culverts


Earth press ures or loads on culverts may be com puted ordina rily
as the weight of earth d irectl y above the structure. For box culverts,
and culverts with cast-in -place inverts or footi ngs,

the

weight

of the

earth may be taken at 70 percent of its actu at weight. Th is wit I have


the effect of increasing the allow able design dead load stresses 40 o
more than allowed for l we load. For flexible and rigid pipes, not castin-place, the weight of the earth may be taken at 83 o of its actual
we ight. Th is wit l have the effect of in creas ing the allowable design
dead load stresses 20 more than allowed for live load.
For deft n i te conditions of bedd ing and backfill, the pri nciples of soil

mech an ics may be applied. The to flowing are recommended formulas


for these con ditions :
(1) C u lvert in trench on u nyield ing su bgrade, or culvert untrenched on y ieldi rig foundation.

(2) Culvert untrenched on unyielding foundation I such as rock


or piles) .

P = W (1.92H 0.87B) for H V 1.7B


0.385H
(e' 1) for H 1.7B v'here k
=2
2.5599

BW

( IA)
( IB)

where P = the un it pressure in pounds per squ are foot due to earth
backfi 11.
B = width in feet of trench, or in case there is no trench, the
overall w idth of the culvert.
H == depth in feet of fill over culvert.
W

IBJ

effective weight per cubic foot of fil I material,

which may

be

taken as 70 percent, or 83 pe rcent, of actual weight in accord ance with above stated pi-ovisions.
2.7182818 == base of natu rat logarithms, abstract n umber.

Sheor in Top Slobs

The maximum shear in the top slabs of culverts under embankments shall be assumed to occur at a distance, d, ou t from the wall or
abutment ; d' bung eQual to the depth from the top of the slab to the
centroid of the tension reinforcement.
The shear in bottom slabs shall be comp uted as spec i fied for footings in Article 1.4.6.

J .2.3. LIVE LOAD


The live load shall con st st of the we ight of the applied mov ing load
of veh i cl es, c:trs ind pei1es tri and.

1 .2.4 OVERLOAD
The to!lowi rig

PROVISION
prov i sion

for

overload

shal I

apply to

all loadings

excPpt the H 20 and H S 20 load in gs.


P ro\ is i on for i nf req u e n I heavy loads shall be made by apply in g in
any single lane an H or H S tr uck as spec i fie d, increased 100 per cent,
and w ithout concu rrent load ing of any other lanes. Combined dead, I we
and impact stresses ros u I I i n g f rom such load in g shall not be greater than
150 per cent of thC :i1lOwab1c stresses prescribed here in . The overload
shall apply to all parts of the structure affected, except the roadway deck.

1.2.5 HIGHWAY
\AI

LOADINGS

Generol

The h ighvs ay live load in gs on the i oadway s of bridges or inci


dental stru e tu r t s shall con sit ct stan hard trucks or of lane load s which
are cq u i v ahm t to truck tra i ns. T w o systems of loading arc provided,
Note: Fri ran ulas 1 A a ri d IB have been derived Irom Iwa En p in ee ri n g Ex pe rim ent Stat ion
BufleW n 96, The Theory of External Loads on G!osed Condufls in the Light of the Lstest

DESIGN

1.2.5

the H load i ngs an cl the H S load ings, the corresponding HS loadings

be ing heav ier than the H load in gs.


IB I H Loodings

The H load i nps an illu strated in Fig u res 1.2.SA and 1.2.SB. They
consist of a two axle truck or the co r respon d i n g lane loaJ i ng. The H

H 20-44

8,000 LBS.

52,000 LBS. +

H IS - 44
H 10 -44

6,000 LBS.
4,000 LBS.

24,000 LBS.

I 6,000 LBS.

I0-0" CLEARANCE
AND
LOAD LAN E WIDTH

CURB

STAN DARD
F I GU RE

TR UCKS

I . 2. 5 A

loadi n gs are d en gnated If foil owed by a n umbe r i n d icating the gross

we ight i n ton s of the standard truck.


IC J

HS Loodings
The H S load ings are ill ustrated in Figures 1.2.SB and 1.2.EC.

Th ey cons i st of a tractor truck w ith sew i tra i ter or of the correspond-

ing lan e load ing. The H S load in gs are des i gnated by the letters HS
Vol towed by :t n um-be r ind wat in g the grow we igh I in tons of the
traeto Y tru ek. The va riable axle spacing has been i ntrodu ced i n order
that th e sJiacing of axJ es may approx i mate more closely the tractor

tra ilers now in u se. The variable spac ing also prov ides more sat isI actory loan i n g for conti n uou s spans, i n that heavy axle I oads may be

so placed on ad jo in inp spans as to prod uce maximum negative moment.


ID I Closses of Loodings
H i g h \v.ty load in gs Sha 11 be of five classes : H 20, II 15, H 10,

HS 20 and H S 15. Load i rips H 15 and H 10 are 75 per cent and 50 per

H2O -44 LOADING


ri S 20 -44 LOADIN G

HIS94
L OAOING
HS 15-4 4 LOA DIN C

U N!F0RW

LOAD

320 LBS PER L!N EAR

ROOT 0F 0AD LA N E

H 10 - 44 LOAD I NG
H LANE

ANO

HS LANE

F lGU RE

LOAOINGS

I . 2. 5 B

17

DE SIGN
cen t, rospecti vely , of load in g H 20. Load ing H S 15 is 75 per

cent

of

loading H 5 20. ID loadings of weights other than those designated are

desired, they shall be obtained by proportionately changing the weights


shown for both the standard truck and the corresponding lane loads.

HS 20 -44
HS 15 -44

8,000 LBS.
6,000 LBS.

32,000 LBS.
24,000 LBS.

52,000 LBS. *
24,000 LBS.

O4W

W 00 M B I N ED WEI GH T ON TH E F I RTT TWO A X L E 5 WH J C H IS TH E SAM E

AS FOR THE CORRE SPON 01 NC


V - VA R I AB L E

H TRUCK.

SPAO I NC - I4 BE E 7 70 TO BE ET I NCLU SI VE .

SPAO I N G

BE US E D IS THAT \// H 1 0 H PRO DU CES /4 AX I J\1UM STRESSES.


CLEARANCE

STAN DARD
FI GUR E

HS

TRUCKS

I . 2. 5 C

70

IEA Designation of Loadings


The policy of affixing the year to loadings to identify them was
institu ted with the ;ubl mation of the 1944 edition in the follow in g
manner :
H10 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be designated . . . . . . . . . . . . H10-44
HTO Loading, 1'J44 Edi tion shall be designated . . . . . . . . . . . . H10-44
H20 Loading, 1944 Edition shall be designated . . . . . . . . . . . . H20-44
H lfi- 512 Load in g, 1944 Edition sh all be designated . . . . . . . HS 10-44
H20- S16 Loading, 1944 Eelit ion sh all be designated . . . . . . H 520-44

The affix remains u nchanged until such time as the loading specification is revised. The same policy for identification shall be applied,
for future reference, to loadings previously adopted by the American
Assoc i ation of State Highway Officials.
IF J

Minimum

Looding

J .2.6 TRAFFIC LANES

wiclth between curbs with out median on structure.


\\ itlth letxvecn median curb and outside cu i 6, or bctvecu med ion Carrier and ou tsicle cunt v ith me dian on s true- ture.

II cunts are not used, roadw:iy v idth is between fuces of


N

bridge r:tiling.
Number of design traffic lanes as shovn in the follow ing table.

W == \\'idth of design traffic lane.


\\ , ( in feet)
2U ter 8 II inc.

cx e i
ox c i
ov ei
ov oi
o ve r
ov c r
cv c i
o ve i'

N
2

iJ II to 4 2 inc.
?
. .. . .
4
12 to fi 4 inc. .
...
6 4 to C G inc.
fi
fiti to 78 in c.
6
7P to ii(J i nc.
.. 7
9tI to 102 i n c. ..........................................................................................8
1 fJ2 to 1 14 inc.
p
114 to 1 2ii i nc. ................................................................................................ 10

The lan e loaclin gs or stand a i-d trucks shall be issu med to occupy any

pos iti on wit h in the ir ind mid u ml des ign trafhc 1ene which w i 11 produce
the max imu in stress.

J .2.7 STANDARD TRUCKS AND LANE LOADS

1.2.7

DE SIGN

19

wid th on a l i ne normal to the center l iiie of the Ian e.

For th e comp u ta I ion of mo me ii t> it net sh et re, d i ffe re n I concen tiated

J .2.8 APPLICATION

OF LOADINGS

IA I TroPic Lone Unifs


In computing stresses, each 10-:foot lane loading or single standard
truck shall be con sidered as a un it, and fractional load lane widths or
Iracti on al trucks shall not be used.
IB J Number ond Position, TroRic Lone Units
The number an d position of the lane loadings or truck load ings
shall be as specified in Article 1.2.6 and, whether lane loading or truck
loading, shall be s uch as to produce maximum stress, subject to the
reduction specified in Article 1.2.9.
IC J

Lone Loodings
Confinuous Spons
The lane load ings shown in Figure 1.2.SB shall be mod ified as
fol I owe for th e design of cont in u on s spans. The lane load ings shall
cons is I of the loads shown in Figure 1.2.SB and in addition thereto
another concentrated load of equal weight shall be placed in one other
span in the series in such position as to produce maximum negative
moment. For maximum positive moment, only ono concentrated load
shall be used per lane, combined with as many spans loaded uniformly
as req u ired to produce maximu in moment.
ID)

Looding for Moximum

Stress

The type of loading, whether lane load ing or truck loading, to be


used, and whether the spans be simple or continu ous, shall be the load in g
wh ich prod uces the maximum stress. The moment and shear tables
given in Append ix A sh ow wh ich load ing controls for simple spans.
The axle spacing for HS trucks shall be varied between th e specified
l twits to produce maximu in stresses.
For continu ous spans, the lane loading shall be continuous or d is-

con ti n uou s, as may be necessary to produce maximum stresses, and


the concentrated load or loads as specified in par:igraph (C) shall be
placed in such position as to produce maximum stresses.
For cont in uous spans, only one Standard H or HS truck per lane
shall be considered on the structure and placed so as to produce maximum pos it we and negative moments.

1.2.9 REDUCTION IN LOAD INTENSITY


Where maximum stresses are produced in any member by loading
any nu mber of traffic lanes simu ltan eously, the following pe men tages of
the resultant live load stresses shall be used in view of improbable coincident maximum loading :
Per cent
One or two lanes ................................................................................... 100

Three

lanes

.. .

.......... ,

90

Four lanes or more ............................................................................. 76

The reduction in int.ensity of floor beam loads shall be determined as


in the case of main trusses or girders, us ing the wi dth of roadway which
must be loaded to produce maximum stresses in the floor beam.

I .2.10 ELECTRIC RAILWAY LOADING


If h i ghway b ri dges carry electric rat Iway traffic, the railway load ing
sh all be cle term i ned n the bas i s of the Clan of traffic wh i ch the bridge
may be expected to carry. ThP possib i I ity that the bri lge may be requ i red

to carry railroad freight cars shall be given con st deration.

J .2.1 J

SIDEWALK, CURB, AND RAILING LOADING

IAI

Sidewalk Loading
Sidewal k floors, str i n gen and their immed rate s up ports, shall be
des igned for a l iv e load of PS pu rids per sq uare I oot of sidewalk area.
Girders, trusses, arc hes an d other mem bers shall be designed f or the
follow ing s id ewalk live loads per sq u are foot of s idev'alk area :
Spans 0 to 2fi ft. in length

. 8 lbs.

S pan s 26 to 11111 ft. i n len gth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6fl l bs.

Spans ove i 1110 ft. i n leng th acco rd in g to the to i mula

h
L
P

l we loacl pe i squ are foot ( max i mum, 60 I bs. pe i sq. ft. ) .

L = loaded length of st dewa lk in feet.

W = w idth of s idewalk i n feet.

In ca lc u lat i n g stresses in structures which support cantilevered


sidewal ks, the s idPwalk shall be cons idered as fully loa ded on only one
side of the st ructu re i f this condition produces maximum stress.
Pedestrian bridges shall be designed for a live load of 85 pounds
per square foot of area walkway.

1.2.11

IBJ

21

DE SIGN
Curb Looding

Cu rbs shall be des i gned to resi st a lateral force of not less th an 500

pounds per linear foot f c u rb, appl red at the top of the curb, or at an
elevation 10 inches above the floor if the c u rb is h igher than 10 inChes.

Where sidewalk, c u rb an d traffic rail form an integral system, th e


trafhc rat l ing load i rig shal I a;iply and stresses in cu rbs comp uted

accordingly.

Railing Looding *
( I ) Troffic rolling

tee ted by I ull scale i in pa ct tests


The Jesignur is u|ertcd to the possitHity of huavy !on1s beinx n W nhed t hiPher levfr nrms

pend ently Jplied roadiv:ird load equal to 'i the outward trans
verse load.
The transverse force on concrete parapet and barrier walls
shall be spread over a longitudinal length of: 5 :feet.
Railing loads shall be applied to the supporting slab in accordance with Article 1.3.2 (H) (2) . Railing and wheel loads are
not to be applied simultaneously.
(2)

Pedestrion r oil ing

The minimum design loading for pedestrian rat ling shall be


w= 50 lbs. per l in. it. acting simultaneously transversely and vertically on each longitu d inal member. Rail members locatecl more than
5-0 above the walkway are excluded from these req u i resents.
Posts shall be designed for- a transverse load of ivl actin g at
the center of grav i ty of the upper rail, or for hi gh rai ls, at 5-0

maximum above the walkway.


/3)

Desig n

Starlings shall be lesigne d by the elastic method to the allow


able stresses for th e appropriate materi at. Poi' aluminium alloys
o 154-H38, 6fI6I -Tti, G063TG, 600 5-TS, and G351 TS, the design
stresses given in Tables 3.3.7, 8, fi, and 10 of the April 1969,
Spec the ation s for Alu minum Eridge and other Highway Struc
turcs publ i sheet by the Alum in u in Ass oci ation shall be used. For
Alloy A 44T4, 35 of the values listed in Table 3.3.8, and for
Alloys A? fi6-T61 and 3fi6-T6, T7, 45 ? of the values listed in
Table 3.?. P shall be It sed for design. Alum inti in i-ail ings shall be
fabricated ind bu ilt in accordance with the pi ovi sions of Section 6
of the above jiI bl mation for riveted and bolted f abr ication, and in
accordance with Section 10 of the 1968 Specifications Koi the
Desipn ind Gonsti uction of Stru ctural Stipports foi Highway
Signs for ve eldod tab i ication.
The llowible unit str ess for steel shall be as given by the
AASIIO Standiiid Speci ficatio ns for H ighwiiy Pridges except as
mod ified by Section G, Unit Stresses of the AASHO Specification s for the Design and Construction of Structu i-tl Supports for
Highway

Signs.

J .2.12 I?4PACT
Lix'e load stresses produced by H or HS load ings shall be increased
for items in Group A by allowance as stated herein for dynamic, vibratory
and impact effects. Impact shall not be appl red to items in Group B.
I AJ

Group A

1 11 Super structure, including steel or concrete su pporting columns, steel towers, legs of ri gid frames and generally those portions
of the structure which extend down to the main fou ndation.
1 2 ) The portion above the ground line of concrete or steel piles

DE SIGN

23

wh ich are rigid ly connected to the su perst ruct u re as in rigid frame or


continu ous designs.
I B I Group B
1 ) A but ments, retain ing walls, piers, piles, except Grotip A (2) .
12) Fou ndation presdu rev and footi ngs.

(8 )

T i mber stru ctu res.

(4 )

S idewalk loads.

( 5 ) C u l verts and structu res having cover of 3 feet or more.


ICJ

lmpoct Formula

The amount of th is allowance or increment is expressed as a fraction of live load stress, and shal l be determ in ed by the formula :
I ==

in which
L -| 2s

I = impact f ic:ction ( maximum 30 per cent)


L length in feet of the portion of the span which is loaded to
produce the maximum stress in the member .

For uri i formi ty of application the loaded length L shal l be


espec tally cons idered as follows :
For road way floors, use the design span len gth.
For transverse members, s uch as floor beams, use the span
length of member center to center of supports.
For computing truck load moments use the span length, except
for cant i lever arms use the length from moment center to the
Iarth er mos t axle.
For shear d ue to truck loads use the length of the loaded portion of span from the point u rider const deration to the f ar reaction,
except for ca nt ileve r arms use 30 per ccnt.
For continu ous spans use the length of span under cons iderati on for posi tive moment, and use the average of

two adjacent

loaded spans for negative moment.


For culverts with cover 0
to 1'- 0 inc. I=30 c

1-1 to 2- 0 inc. I =20 @n

2-1 to 2-11 inc. I= 10 Jo


1 .2.J 3 LONGITUDINAL FORCES

Prov is ion shall be made for the effect of a longitu d inal force of five
per cent of the l we l oad in all lanes carrying traffic headed in the same
d i rPcti on. All lanes sha 11 be cons id e red as loaded for bridges l ike ly to
become one d i recti on at in the future. The load used, witho ut impact,
shall be the lane load pl us the concentrated load for moment specified in
Article 1.2.8, w ith red uc t ion for mul tip Ie-loaded lanes as speci fled in
A rt icl e 1.2.S. The center of g rav i ty of the long i tu d inal force sh al l be
ass umed to be located 6 feet above the floor slab and tr nsm it ted to the
s u bst rue I u re th rou gh the s u pe rs ti u ct u re.

The longitud inal force due to friction at expansion bearings or shear


resistance at elastomeric bearings shall also be provided for in thl de9ign.

1.2.14

HI CHWAY DRI DGE 5

1 .2.1 4 WIND LOADS


The follow ing v'i nd load forces per sQuare

foot Of

exposed

area

shall be applied to all stru ctu re s ( see Article 1.2.22 for percentage of
basic unit stress to be used under val'io us comb in ations of loads and
forces) . The exposed area con sidercd shall be the sum of the areas of
all members, incl ud ing floor system and railing, as seen in elevation at
90 degrees to the longitudinal axis of the structure. The forces and loads
given herein are for a wind velocity of 100 miles per hour. For Group II
loading, but not for Group III loadin g, they may be reduced or increased
in the ratio of the square of the design w-ind velocity to the square of
100, provided the maximum probable wind velocity can be ascertained
with reason able accuracy, or there are permanent features of the terrain
which make such changes safe and advisable. If change in the design
wind velocity is made, the design wind velocity shall be shown on the

plans.

IAJ Superstructure Design


A moving u n if ormly distributed wind load of the following intensity shall be app lied horizontally at right angles to the long itudinal axis
of the structure in the design of the superstructure :
For trusses and arches

For girders and beams

75 pounds per square foot

60 pounds per square foot

The total force shall not be less than 300 pounds per linear foot
in the plane of the loaded chord and 150 pounds per linear foot in
the plane of the unloaded chord on truss spans, and not less than
300 pounds per linear foot on girder spans.
The above forces shall be used for Group II loading. For Group
III loading there shall be added thereto a load of 100 pounds per linear
foot applied at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the structure
and 6 feet above the deck as a wind load on a rrioving live load. When a
rein forced concrete floor slab or a steel grid deck is keyed to or
attached to its 9upp or ting members, it may be assumed that the deck
resists, within its plane, the shear resulting from the wind load on the
moving live load.
IBJ Substructure Design

Forces transmitted to the substructu re by the superstructure and


forces applied di rectly to the su bstructure by wind loads shall be
assumed to be as follows :
( J )

Forces from su per st rucf u re

The transverse and longitudinal forces transmitted by the


superstructure to the substructure for vary ing angles of wind

1.2.14

DE 5IGN

direction shall be as set forth in the fol low in g table. The skew

angle is measured :f rom the perpend icular to the longitud inal axis.
The ass umed wind direction shall be that which prod uces the maximum stress in the substructure being designed. The transverse
and longitudinal :forces shall be applied

simu ltan eou sly at

the

elevation of the center of gravity of the exposed area of the superstructure.

70

The loads l isted above shall be used in Group II load ing as


given in Article 1.2.22.
For Grou p III loading, these loads may be reduced 70 per cent

and there shall be added thereto, as a wi nd load on a moving live

load, a load per I in ear foot as gi ven in the following table :


S ke w A n plc
of W i n d
( Deg roes )

L ate ra I Lad
Pe r Lin . Ft.
I Pen n de )

0
15

100
88

45
60

66
34

30

82

Lori g itu d in at
Load Per Li n. Ft.
I fin u n de )

0
12

24

32
38

This load shall be applied at a point 6 feet above the deck.


For the usual girder and slab bridges having maxim nan span

length s of 125 feet, the followi ng wind load ing may be used in lieu

of the more precise loading specihed above :

W (wind load on structu re)


50 pounds per sQu are foot, transverse ;
12 pounds per sQuare foot, longitud inal.
Both forces shall be appl red s i in u] tancously.
WL (wind load on l we load )
100 pounds per Iinear foot, transverse ;
40 pou nds per l inear foot, longitud inal.
Both forces shall be applied simu ltaneous ly.
( 2)

Fo rces o p p I ied d irectl y fo th e s u bst rucfu re

The trans ve rse and longitud inal forces to be appl ied d irectly

to the su bstructu re for a 100 mile per hou r wind shall be calcu lated

from an assumed wind force of 40 pounds per square foot. For


w ind d i reet i ons assu med skev'ed to the substr u ctu re th is force
shall be resolved into

IO the end and

HIGHWAY BRIDGE S

2fi

1.2.14

front oleva tions of the su bstructu re according to the f u nations of


the skew angle. The component pe rpend icu far to the end elevat ion
shal I act on the exposed su bet r uct u re area as seen in end e]evat ion
and the componen t pe rpend icu far to the f rout elevation shall act on
the exposed s u bs true tu re area as seen in front elevation. These
loads shall be assumed to act on horizontal

li nes at the centers of

grav ity o f the exposed areas and shal I be appl ied s imu ltan eou sly
with the wind loads f i'om the su pe rst ructu re. The above loads are
for Group I I loading and may be reduced 70 per cent for Group III
loading, as ind icated in Article 1.2.22.
( CJ

Overturning

Forces

The effect of forces tending to overturn sti uctures shall be calelated ii ncler Group II an d Gro up III of Article 1.2.22, and there shall

be added an u pward force applied at the wi nd\vard qu artei- point of

the tran sverse su pe rstructii re width. Th is force shall be 20 pou rids


per square foot of deck und sidewalk plan area for Group II com
bination and 6 pounds per square foot for Group III comb i n ati on. The

wind di rection shall be assumed to be at ri ght angles to the longi tu dinal


axis of the stru ctu re.

J .2. J 5 THERMAL FORCES

Metal Qtr natures


Moderate climate, from 0 to 120 F.

Cold climate, from TO to 120 F.


Co nc iete SIi'ucturos
Moderate climate

Cold climate

Tom pe ratu i c
iise

30 F.
35 F.

Temper atu i e
fal I

40 F.

45 F.

J .2. J 6 UPLIFT

(a) 100 ' r of the calculated uplift ca ised 1y any loading or


combination of loadings in which the live plus impact load
i rig is increased by 100 "
(b) 150 ' of the Culcu lated uplift at working load level.

Anchor bolts sub.ject to tension or other elcments of the structu i e

27

DE SICN

stress under the above conditions shall be


allowable basic stress.

designed

at

150 %

of

the

J .2.17 FORCE OF STREAM CURRENT, FLOATING ICE AND DRIFT


Al I piers and other portions of stru ctu res wh ich are s u bject

to the

force of flowing water, floating we, or drift shall be des i gn ed to i os is I


the maximum stresses i ndu ced thereby.
The pres su re of ice on ;a iers shtll be cafe ulated at 400 pou nd s pei
sq u are i rich. The thickn ess o:I ice and hei ght at wh ich i t a ppl i es shtll be
determ in ed by in vest igat ion at the s ite of the strue t ti i e.
The effect of flowing water on piers sh all be caIC u lateCl by the
form u la :

J .2.J 8 BUOYANCY
B u oyancy sh all be considered as it affects the design of either substructu re, inc I u d ing pi ling, or the su perst ructure.

J .2. 19 EAPTH PRESSURE


Structures ivh ich retain fills sh all be proportioned to w i thstand
press ure as given by Rank me's form ula ; provided, hcv e ver, th at no
structure sh m l be des igned for less than an eq u ivalent flu id pressure
of 30 pounds per cub ie foot.
For rigid frames a max imu in of one-h al f of the moment eau sed by
earth pres s u re I lateral ) may be u sed to reduce thP positive moment in
the beams, in the top slab, or in the top and bottom slab, as the case
may be.
When h ighway traffic can come with in a h orizon tal distance from
the top of the s tructu re eg url to one-half its heigh I, the press u re shall
ha ve added to it a I we load s urchl rge iress ure eQual to not less than
2 feet of earth.
Where an adeq u ately des ign ed rei n forced cone rete approach slab
su pported at one en d by the bridge is provided, no live load surc h arge
need be considered.
All des igns shall provide for the thorough d rainage of the backfi II in g material by mean s of w'ee p h oles a rid crushed rock, pipe dra ins
or gravel dra i ns, or by perl ora ted d rains.

J .2.20 EARTHQUAKE STRESSES


In regton s where earth Qu akes may be anticipated, prov is ion shall

be made to acc cmm odate lateral forces from earthqu akes as follows :
where

E Q = Latei'a1 force applied horizonta I l y i n any d i Section at center of


gravity of the we i gh t of the st met u re.

HIGHWAY

28
19
C

BRIDGES

Ete md load of st ructu re.


II. 02 to i st ructu res foun ten on s p iea d foot i ug s on mate rial i ated
as 4 ton s r more pe r squa re Ioot.
0.tJ4 Io i st i uctu rev foun clcd on sJ i eacl footi n gs on in ate rial i'ate d
as less th an 4 tins pc i squa re foot.
G.t1 ti for struetu res founded on p iles.

Live load may be negl ected.

J .2.2J CENTRIFUGAL FORCES

U. 011117 S LI

w he re
C
S
D
R

the
the
the
the

cen I ri I u gal fo i ee in percent of the live load, w ithout impact.


des ign speed, in in i les per h our.
cleg ree of en rve.
i alius of the curve, in feet.

The effects of superelevation shall be taken into account.


The centrifugal force shall be applied 6 feet above the roadway
surface, measured along the center line of the roadway. The design
speed shall be determined with regard to the amount or' superelevation
provided in the roadway. The traffic lanes shall be loaded in accordance
wi th the provisions of Article 1.2.8.
Each design traffic lane shall be loaded with one standard truck (lane
loading shall not be u sed in any case) placed in position for maximum
loading.
When a reinforced concrete floor slab or a steel grid deck is keyed
to or attached to its supporting members, it may be assumed that the
deck resists, within its plane, the shear resulting from the centrif ugal
forces acting on the live load.

1.2.22 LOADING

COMBINATIONS

The followin g Groups represent various combinations of loads and


forces to which a structure may be subjected. Each part of such structure, or the foundation on wh ich it rests, shall be proportioned for all
combinations of such of these forces as are applicable to the particular
site or type, and at the percentage of the basic unit stress i ndicated for
the various groups except that no increase in allowable un it stresses
shall be perm itted for members or connections carry ing w ind loads only.
See Articles 1. 2. 1 to 1. 2. 21 for loads and forces.
The maximum section requ ired shall be used.

1222

DE SI CN

29
Percentage
of Unit
Stress

Group I

=D <L -|- I--|- E <B >SF

Group II

=D >E <B SF >W


=Group I| LF >F >309o W -|-WL >GF

Group III
Group IV
Group V
Group VI

Group VI I

Group I<R j S -l- T


=:Group II>R j 5| T
=Group III --| R< S -|-T
D E -{- B >SF EQ

Group V III :=: Group I <ICE


Group IX
D

Group II +ICE
Dead Load

=Live Load

=Live Load Impact


Earth Pressure
=Buoyancy

Wind Load on Structure


WL

=\\'I n d Load on Live Load100 pounds pe r linear foot


Lori gitu di n at Force from Live Load

=Centi ifugal Force


=Longitudinal force due to :friction or shear resistance
(elastomeric bearings) .

R
S

= R ib Sh orten in g
5' h i inkage
= Ea ithQu ake

= Stream Flow Fressure


=Ice Pi essure

Section 3

DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS

J .3.1 DIST RIBUTION OF WH EEL LOADS TO STRINGER S,


LONGITUDINAL BEAMS AND FLOOR BEAMS *
IAl Position of Loods for She or
In calc ulatin g end shears and end reactions in lransve rse floor
beams and long itu dinal beams and st r iri go rs, no long itu d i nal d istii button of the wheel lead shal l be assu meet for the wheel or axle load ad jacent to the end at wh ich the stress is being dete ran i ned.
* Froviions in thi

Aitclc sh|1 no[:ipMy

H I GH WAY B RIDGE S

Latera l d i stribut ion of th e wheel load shall be that produced by


assu ining the floor i rig to act as a simple span betv'een sI ri n get s or
beams. For loads in other pos it ions on the span, the di str-ibu tion for
shear shal I be determ tried by the method prew ribed for moment, except
that the cilc mation of ho r i zontal shear in rectan gular timber beams
sh at I be in ecordan ee with Article 1.10.2.
fBl Bending Moment in Sfringers ond Longitudinal Beo ins *
In calcu l at in g bend ing moments in longitudinal beams or stringers,
no longitud i nat di s fiibu tion of the wheel

loads shall

be

assu med.

The

lateral th sIr ibut ion sha 11 be de term in ed as follows :


( 1)

I n terio r St ringers o nd Beo in s

The l we load bending moment for each interior Stringer shall


be dete i in i ned by ipplyin g to the stringer the fraction of a whee l
loai both front and rear) detei-mined in Table 1.3.1( B )

/ 2)

Outside

(o)

Roodwo y Sfringers

o nd Beo ins

Steel Timber Concrete T- beores

The c1eat load considered as s upported by the outside


roadv ay stringer or beam shall be that portio n of the floor
slab cii'ried my thP Stringer or beam. Chi bs, railings and
iveiiiin g su rface, if placed after the slab has en red, may be
con siclered equally d istrib uted to ill roadway 8t r in gers or

beams.
The live load bending moment for outside roadway stiingem or beams shall be determined by applying to the stringer
or beam the reach on of the wheel load obtained by assuming
the flooring to act as i simple span between stringers or
beams.
When the outside roadway beam or stringcr supports the
st dewalk livP load as well in traffic live load and impact, the
allo\vab le stress in the beam or stringer may be increased
25 " for the combination of dead load, sidewalk live load,
traffic live load, and impact, pi ovidi ng the beam is of no less
carry i ng capacity than would be required iI there were no
sidewalks.
In rio case shall an exterior str in ger have less carrying
capacity th:in an interior strin ger.
In the case of spin with conci'eIe floor supported by 4 or

DE SI GN

TAB LE 1.3.1

B)

Bridge designed
for one

Kind of Floor

traffic lane

Timber :
Plank

Bridge designed

for two or more


traffic lanes

S/3.TS

Strip 4 thick or multiple


layer floors over 6 thick .

S/40
If S exceeds 5

S/4.26
If S exceeds 6.5

If S exceeds 10 use

If S exceeds 14

S/5.0

Stri p 6 or more thick .

use footnote

Concrete :

use footnote

On Steel I-Beam Stringers


and Prestressed Concrete
Girders
footnote .

S/B.J

On Concrete T-Beams .

If S exceeds 6 use
footnote

On T'imber Stringers .

use footnote .

S/6.0
If S exceeds 10
use l'ootnote

S/60

S/S0

If 5 exceeds 6 use
footnote .

If S exceeds 10
use footnote .

If S exceeds 12

If S exceeds 16

If S exceeds 6.0'
use footnote .

If 5 exceeds 10.5'
use :footnote .

Concrete box girders


use footnote .

use footnote .

On Steel Box Girders .


On Irestresset Cone iete

Steel grid :

(I ess th on 4 thick )

(4 or' in oie )

average stringer spacing in feet.


' S n I i n ed a n d dowelled tim be r floo iin g sh all have the sa in e di st rib ut in n as stri p floors of
en u ivalen t th ick ness.
In th i s case th e I oat on each st rin ge r s hall be the rea ction of th e wheel loads, asen in i rig
the flue ri rig bet wee n Ihe s Irinpe rs to act as a s i in pIe beam .
Des ip n of I-Beam B ridq es by N. M . New ma rkP roceed ings. AS CE. March 194 8.
* The s idewal k li ve tea d ( see A rt icle 1 .:?. 11 ) shal I be cm itted Io r i n tc rio r a n d exte rio r box
gi rders dest an ed i n accord a n cc w ith the w heel load d is Iribution i n d icated herein .

H I GHWAY BRI DGE S

40

fbJ Concrefe . Box Girders


The dead loacl con si dered as supported by the exterior
girder shall be deter mined in the same manner as for steel,
timber, concrete T-beams, as g iven in 12) ( a) above.
The wheel load d istribu ti on to the exterior girder shall

be W ,/7.

(3)

W,, v idth of exterior gii dcr. The width to be used


in determ ining the wheel line distr ibuti on to the
exterior girder shall be the top slab width as
measured from thc midpoint between girders to
the on tside edge of tire slab. The cantilever
di men r>ion of any' stab extend in g beyond the
exterior g iider shall preferably not cxccct S/2.

To tot Co po city of Stringers o n d Beo ins

The combined design loacl capacity of all the beams and stringenn a nan shall not be less than rcqu ired to support the total I we

and dead loacl in the span.

IC I Bending Momenf in Floor Beoms ITronsverse J

In cafe u latin 3 bend in g moments i n Poor beams no transve rse d istr i b u Ii on of th e whcel loads .shall be ass umeil.
ID ton gi tud i n at stri n get s are omitted an d the floor i s su pported directly on floor beamc , the beams shall be des i gned for loads determined

J .3.2 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN OF CONCRETE SLABS *


AND MULTI-BEAM PRECAST CONCRETE BRIDGES **
IA )

Spon Lengths

( See o I so Article

1 .5 . 3

DESIGN

load

K n

IIoor beam

Plank
it ri p 4 i nclies

iii

th ickncss,

wood

block

on

4 -inch Ji l ank su bflooi o i mu I Ii -th ick ness


p lank moi e than fi inches th ick .

5trI p 6 inches or more i n th ickness .

Cone i ete
Steel gri d ( less th an 4 inches thick ) .

Stee l gi id (4 inches or more)


5

spac i ng of beams in feet.

Spline and doivcled flooring shall have the same di stri button as stri p floors
eg uivalent thickness.
The followi n g effect i x c span lengths shall be u sed i n eaten I at in g

distribution of !oads and bend ing moments :for slabs continuous over
more than two en ppoi ts :
Slabs mon ct ith ie w i th beams or walls

. without h.i u nch es ) ,

Sla be s u ppo i-ted on steel sf i in gers, S =d istance betivcen edges


of flanges pI u s '/_ of the s tringer flange width.

IB J

Edge Distonce of Wheel Lood

fn dcs igu i ng sJ ebs the center l me of wheel load (axle load /2 ) shall
be assu mcd to be one foot fi-cm the fice of th e cu rb. II cu rbs or s i de-

walks are not tised, the v'h el load sh ill be assu nied to be one foot from
the face of th e i'a i I . Crnib i n ed deid , I we and i in pact str esses sh all be
not g rea te r than th e al I ov i1le st i-esses.

In design ing sidewalks, slabs and supporting membt3P9, a wheel


l oad located or the sidewalk shall be assumed to be one :foot from the
face of the rail. Combined dead, live and impact stresses :for this load ing shall be not greater than 150 percent of the allowable stresses.
Wheel load.s shall not be applied on s idewalks protected by a traffic

barrier.

* ** If 5 cxceocl s I eno in mate r, tLie load o n the beam s hall be the reaction of th e wheel loads
an u in i n g the flo ri n z bet wee n bea me to ac I as a s i in pI - bea m.

34

H]GHWAY BRIDGES

ICI Bending Moment


Betid i rig moment per fiitit xv ilt h of st:ib sha 11 be ea Ie ulated according to mcthocls gi v e ii unlei Cases A and B, u rile.ss the more exact
methods i c fei red to in the footnote to Article 1.3.2 a re used.
S = Effect i s'c sp:i n length, in fc'et, as defined under spn
Length.s A rt iclea 1.3.2 I A 1 anl 1.ii.3
E =Y\' idth tf st:ib i n feet ovei- vv hich a wheel is distributed
P 1.:tl in ne i eit i iv hctl of truck ( P, , or P_,,)
lu:itl ing
-12,0011
P,,, -l6,00G Jiiu iil-s for H20 to.tel in g

The l i ve loal moment for st in plc straits shall be deter-in tried by the
tel low irig fen-anti tae ( im;act not i nc luded ) :

P ,= Moment in foot-pounds per foot width of slab

- 32
" . Moment i n foot-pounds per foot width of slab
In st:the ctiil i n non a ver th i-ee ir more stipliorts, a contiiiu ity
factor f 0.8 sh:ill be applil to the above f oi niul:is for both port tive
:inl negati x'e rudiment.

Distribution of wheel loade, E =4 +0.065, maximum 7.0 feet.


twine loicIs ai-e tl isti-ibti ted river ;i width of 2l'J. Longi-

tud iiia fly i ct nfer-ci'il .slibs sh:i 11 be de5ignetl foi the appi opt-rate H5 liial i rig.
Foi- s i mple spans, t he in:tx i mum I we to:tit moment per- foot w itlth of
slab, v' ithout i mpact, i s closely approx imited by the follow i rig formulas :
11520 Load trip :
Sp.ins up to and ineluling 0 feet : I.LM =9005 foot-pounls
Sj ns ci0 feet to 100 feet :
LLM = 1G0t1 ! 1.30S 20.G ) fit-Joti nds

IIS15 Load in ii :
Use ii of the values obtained f i-ore the formu las for HS20
load ing.

Moments in continuous epans shall be determined by suitable analysis using the truck or appropriate lane loading.
The lateral distribution of wheel loads for multi-beam precast concrete bridges, conventional or prestressed, shall not exceed that specified

for slabs under Case BMain Reinforcement Parallel to Traffic.

DESIGN
ID J Edge Beoms ILongifudinol I

Edge beams shall be provided for all slabs having main reinforcement parallel to traffic. The beam may consist of a slab section add itionally reinforced, a beam i ntegral with and deeper th an the slab, or
an integral reinforced section of slab and en rb.
Tt shall be designed to resist a live load moment of 0.10 PS, where
P Wheel load, in pounds (P, , or P,,)
S = Span length, in feet
This formula gives the simple span moment. Val ues for cont in uous
spans may be reduced 20 per cent u mess a greater red uction res ults
from a more exact a na lys i s.
IEI

Disfribut ion Reinforcement


Reinforcement shal I be placed in the bottoms of all slabs transverse to the main steel reinforcement, to provide for the lateral distrib ution of the concentrated I we loads, except that th is specification
will not apply on en lverts or bridge slabs when the depth of fill over
the slab exceeds two feet. The amount shall be the percentage of the
main reinforcement steel requ ired for positive moment as gi ven by the
following formu las :

For main rein forcement parallel to traffic :


i
Percentage
s Maximum 50 o
For main reinforcement perpendic u far to trafhc :
Percentage

Maximum 67o

where S the effective span length, in feet.


For main re inforcement perpend icu far to traffic the specified
anion nt of distri bu tion reinfoi-cement shall be used in the middle half
of the slab span, and in the outer quarters of the slab span not less than
50 percent of the above amount shal I be used.
fF J Sheor ond Bond Sfress in Slobs
Slabs designed for bending moment in accordance wi th the foregoing sh all be con sidered satisf actory in bond and shear.
IG J Unsupported Edges, Transverse
The des ign assu mpti ons of this article do not provide for the effect
of loads near unsu pportod edges. Therefore, at the ends of the bridge
and at in termed rate points where the continu ity of the slab is broken,
the edges sh all be supported by d iaph ragms or other su itable means.
The d iaph ragms shall be des igned to resist the Iull moment and shear
produced by the wheel loads wh ich can come on them.
IHJ

Confilever
( I )

Truck

Slobs
Loods

Under the toll ow ing formulas


slabs. the slab is

for d i stri b ution of loads on


to sunnort the loan i ii-

HIGHWAY BRIDGE 5

penden I of edge support at on g the end of the canti leve r. The distribu tion g iven inclu des the effect of wheels on parallel elements.
Each wheel on th e element pe rpen d iCu l ar to traffic shall be d istributed according to the following formula :

E = 0.8X + 3.75
Moment per foot of slab

foot-pounds in which X dis-

tancP i n feet from load to porn t of support.

C'es c B R ciii[o rce ni e nI Par all ct to 7'ro@c


The d i str ibu I ion for each wheel load on the element parallel to
tr:iffic shall bP as follows :
E 0.35X + 3.2 but shall not exceed 7.0 feet.

Moment per foot of slab = E " foot-pounds.


(2)

R oil ing foods

I t shall be assu med that the effective length of slab res i stirig
post I oad ings is eju al to E = 0.PX + 3.75 feet, where no parapet is
used and is eq u a I to E 0.8X < 5.0 feet where a p:i rapet is used,
where X is the d istance in feet from the center of the post to the
point u n der i n ve sti gation. Railing load ing shall be applied in
acco rdance vv ith Article 1.2.11 (C) .
III Slobs Supporf ed on Four Sides
In the case of slabs supported alori g four edges and reinforced in

both directions, the proportion of the load carried by the short span of
the slab shall be assumed as given by the follow ing eg uations :
For load u n iformly d istri buted

a' +b
b
For load concentrated at center,
'a I-b
where
p proportion of load carried by short span.
a length of short span of slab.
b length of long span of slab.

Where the len gth of the slab exceeds 1' times its width, the entire
load shall be assumed to be carried by the tra nsverse reinforcement.
The distribution width, E, :for the I oad taken by either span shall
be cietermi ned as provided for other slabs. Moments obtained shall be
used in designing the center half of the short and long slabs. The
reinforcement steel in the outer quarters of both short and long spans
may be reduced 50 per cent. In the design of the support ing beams,
consideration shall be given to the fact that the loads delivered to the
supporting beams are not uniformly distributed along the beams.

DE 5IGN

37

i JI Medion Slobs
Raised median slabs shall be designed in accordance w ith the provisions of this article with truck loadings so placed as to produce maxi mum stresses. Combined dead, live and impact stresses may be not
greater than 150 percent o:I the allowab Ie stresses. F lush median slabs
shall be designed without any overstress.

J .3.3 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS THROUGH EARTH FILLS


When the depth of fill is 2 feet or more, concentrated loads shall be
considered as un iformly distributed over a square, the sides of which
are equal to 1'i times the depth of fil1.
The shear produced by such loads shall be calculated as provided
for dead loads.
When such areas :f rom several concentrations overlap, the total load
shall be considered as un iformly distributed over the area defined by
the o utside lim its of the i nd ivid ua1 areas, but the total wi dth o1 disTrib ution shall not exceed the total width of the s upporting slab. For
single spans, the effect of live load may be neglected when the depth of
multiple spans
fill is more than 8 feet and exceeds the span length
distance between
it may be neglected when the depth o1 fill exceeds

faces of end supports or abutmeiits. WhP11 the depth of fill is less than

2 feet the wheel load shall be d i StPlbu ted as in slabs v ith coiicen trated
loads. When the calcu lated live load and impact moment iii concrete
slabs, based on distribution of the wheel load through fills as herein
outlined, exceeds the live load and impact moment calculated according
to Article 1.3.2, then the latter moment shall be used.

1.3.4 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON TIMBER FLOORING


For the eaten Iation of bending moments in timber flooring each
wheel load shall be it istribu ted ae follows :
fAl Flooring Transverse
In direction of span :
Over w idth of tire ( 10 inches for H10 ; IS inches for H15 ;
and 20 inches for H20 loading.)
Normal to direction of span :
Plank floor : width of plank
Lami nated floor : IS inches

Splined or doweled floor, not less than 5' _ inches th ick : 4 times
thickness.
For transverse flooring the span shall be taken as the clear distance
between stringers plus one-half the width of one stringer, but shall
not exceed the clear span plus the floor thickness.
IB J

Flooring

Longitudinol

In d irection of span :
Point load in g
Normal to d irection of span :
Plan k floor : vv id th of plank

La:ninated floor : w idth of wheel plus th ickness of floor


Spl in ed or rl owe feel floor, not few t han 6'm inches th ick : width
of wheel plus twice th redness of floor
For Ion gi tud incl II oor rug the span shall be taken as the clear distance betv een floor beams pI u s one-hall the wid th of ono noam but shal I
not exceed th e clear span plu s the floor thickness ,
ICI Continuous Flooring
If the flooring; i s conti nuou s ox cr more than tv'o spans the maxi

mu in bend in g moment shall be assumed as being 80 per cent of that


obta tried for a simple span.

J .3.5 DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND DESIGN OF COMPOSITE


WOOD-CONCRETE MEMBERS
IAJ Disfribution of Concentrof ed Loods for Bending Moment ond Sheor
For freely su pported or cont i nuou s slab spans of compos ite woodthe
bend ing
moment a nl a wicl th of 4 feet for shear.
For compos i te T-beams of wood and cone rete, as described in
Article 2.20. TS I B ) , the Pff ectii e tl an ge wicl th sh all not exceed that
given in Article 1.7.58. Shear eonne etors shall be capable of red is ting
both vertical and h or izon tel movemen t.

IBI Disfribution of Bending Moments in Continuous Spons


Both posi tix e and n egative moments shall be d istr ibuted in iicco rdance iv ith the lot lowing table :

U n if crrri Dead Load

5PAN

Max inn nan Liv e Load


M omen ts
Concentrated

Wood Subdock
Pos.
l'feg.

Gomr'osite Slab
Pos.
Neg.

I n te rio r

7O

60

Uniform

Loed

Load
Neg.

Pos.

Neg.
bS
66

78
Gontin uous beam ct 2 equal s pans.

Impact shou ld be considc cd in computing stresses :for concrete and


steel, but neglected for wood.
ICJ

Design
The comb mation in a structural member of two elements having
different mech an ical properties requires the formulation of a design
premise. Such a formulation as follows is based on the elastic properties of the materi a Is :

1 for slab in which the net concrete thickness is less than half
the over-all depth of the coiiiposite section

DE SIGN

= 2 for slab in which the net concrete thickness is at least half


the over-all depth of the composite section
18.75 (for Douglas fir and Southern pine)

in which
E =modulus of elasticity of concrete

Ep = modulus of elastici ty of wood


E, =mod u lus of elasticity of steel

J .3.6 DISTRIBUTION OF WHEEL LOADS ON STEEL GRID FLOORS *


fAl Generol
The grid floor shall be designed as continuous. Simple span moments may be used and reduced as provided in Article 1.3.2.
The formulas for distribution of loads provided herein are based
upon there being adequate transfer of the load normal to the main
elements. Reinforcement for th is purpose shall consist of transverse
bars or shapes welded to the main steel. The strength and detai Is of
the transverse reinforcement shall meet with the approval of the
Engineer.

I B J Floors Filled with Concrefe


The distribution and bend ing moment shal l be as specified for concrete slabs, Article 1.3.2. The following items specified in that article
shal I also apply to concrete filled steel grid floors :
Edge beams (longitudinal) .
Uneu pported edges (transverse) .
Span lengths.
The strength of the composite steel and concrete slab shall be determined by means of the transformed .area method. The allowable
stresses shall be as set forth in Articles 1.5.1 and 1.7.1.

ICJ Open Floors


A wheel load shall be d istri bu ted, normal to the main bare, over a
width equ al to US inches per ton of axle load plus twice the distance
center to center of main bars. The portion of the load assigned to each

main bar shall be appl red to the bar u n iformIy Over a length equal to

the rear tire width (20 inches for H20, IS inches for H15) .
The strength of the section shall be determined by the moment of
inertia method. The a llowablc stresses shall be as set. forth in Article
1.7.1.
Ed ges of open grid steel floors shall be supported by su itable meane
as required. These supports may be longitudinal or transverse, or both,
as may be requ ired to properly support all edges.
When inves ti gti ng for fati gu e, ftse mi ri i mum cycles of niaximu in
stress.

J .3.7 MOMENTS, SHEARS AND REACTIONS


Maximum moments, sh ears, and reactions are given in tables,
Append i x A, for H 15, H20, H 6 15 and If 520 loadi n gs. They are calculated

for the standard truck or the lane loading appl red to a single l ane on the
bas is of freely supported spans. It is ind icated in the table whether the
standard truck or the lane load ing produces the maximum stress.

Section 4

SUBSTRUCTURES AND RETAINING WALLS

1.4.I I ALLOWABLE STRESSES


Concrete, steel or timber sit bstruc tu res and retain ing walls shall be
designed for the u n it stresses indicated in Section 5, Section 7 or Section
10.

1.4.2 BEARING POWER OF FOUNDATION SOILS


DETERMINATION OF BEARING POWER *
When requ ired by the E ngineer, the bearing power of the soil in
excav ated ton ndation pits shall be determined by loading tests.
The following tab u lation of the bearing power of broad basic groups
of material s may be u sed as an aid to the judgment in the absence of more
defi ni te i n lormati on :
Safe bearing power,
T errs per square foot
M in.

Material

Max.

Alluvial soils
Hwy s ................................................................................. 1
Sand, confined
..
...
... 1
Gravel

..

. .

.....

Cemented sand and gravel . . . . . . . .

..

4
4
10

Rock..........................................................................................5

Load ing tests have a li rutted depth inPuence and may not disclose
long-timc consol idation.
When the con sol i d at i on of

You nd ation

soils cau see

the

settlement

of the backfill against an abutment or the settlement of the soil under


an abutment which is placed on piles driven th roush a fill, the load
tran suit tted may result in ovc rloadi n g the piles.
When the hydrau lic grad rent is increased as in excavating material

from below the water table, foundation soils may be loosened by the upward Pow of water. Such a cond iti on shoultl be guarded against.
Io r meth cd of es tim a tin g bea rim p ca;a cities o I I on n tation soils and com p ut ing settlementa
of p ie re a n d a bu true n ts, ref eren ce s hon) d be made to 'Soil Mecha n ics i n Engi neeri ng P ractice, bz
Te rzaa h i & P eck. E ditto n of 194 b, published by I oh n Wiley & Son, New Yo rk. N . Y .

DESIGN

1.4.2

Intrusion failures should be, prevented by requiring a base course


between rip-rap and fine soils and by requiring proper gradation of drainage backfill behind abutmente.

1.4.3 ANGLES OF REPOSE


Earth, Loam . . . . . . .
Dry Sand . . . . . . . . . .
Moist Sand . . . . . . . . .
Wet Sand . . . . . . . . . .
Compact earth . . . . . .

30
25
30
16
35

to 45
to 35
to 46
to 30
to 40

Gravel . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cinders . . . . . . . . . . .. .
Coke . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30 to 40
25 to 40
30 to 45
25 to 36

In the absence of exact data, which has been rletermined by field


investigation and soil an alys is, the angle of repose of the material shall
be assumed to be the minimum given in the table.

1.4.4 BEARING VALUE OF PILING


IA I

General

The design loads for piles shall not be greater th an the minimum
value which shall be determined for Case A, Case B and Case C ; where
Case A is the capacity of the pile as a structural member, Case B is
the capacity of the pile to transfer its load to the ground and Case C
is the capacity of the ground to support the load del ivered to it by the

pile or piles. The val ues assignable to each of the three cases shall be
determined by makin g subs urf ace investigations or tests of sufficient
extent to justify the assumed design values used for the particu lar
cond ition of su pport under cons ideration.
In determining the bearing value of piles :for use in design ing,
consideration shall be given to all in i'ormation ava i]able relative to the
subs urface cond i ti one. Consideration shall also be given to :
(1) ) The difference between the supporting capacity of a single
pile and a group of piles.
(2) The capacity of the underlying strata to support the load of the
pile group.
(3) The effect of driving additional piles and the effect of their
loads on adjacent structure9.
(4) Possibil ity of scour and its effect.
IB J

Cose A.
( !)

Copocify of Pile os o Structural Member

Structuro I Colum ns

Piles sh all be designed as structural columns. Timber piles


shall be designed in accordance with Article 1.10.2, using the
allowable unit stresses given in Article 1.10.1 for lumber and in the
following table for round piles.

Round Tiiii 6 er Pi te s
Species

Allowable unit working stress


p ounds per scj. in. Compression
pa rat IeI to grain for normal
duration of loading

1200

Ash, wh ite

Beech

1300
1300
900
1200
1200
1200

Birch

Chestnut
Cypress, Southei n

Cypress, T idewater red .


Douglas fi r, coast ty pe .
Douglas fi r, in l and .
Elin, rock

1100
1300

Elm, soft
Gum, black and red .
Hemlock, Eastern

860
850
800
1000
16?0
1200
1300

Hemlock, West Coast .


Hickory

Larch

Maple, hard
Oak, red and w'hite .

1100

Pecan
Pine,
P me, Ncivay

1650
800

860

Pine, Southern
Pine, Southe rn, dense .

1200

1400
800
1100

Poplar, yellow
Redwood

<S pruce, Eastern


Tupelo

850

860

Concrete piles sh:ill be designei in accordance with Article


1 5.1, steel piles in accordance with Article 1.7.1, and concretefil led pipe piles in acco rdance with Article 1.5.1, except that the
allow able u n i t strewn may be inc reased 20 9o provi dcd the shell

th ickn ass is not le:ss th.tn 'li inch. The area of the shell sh all be
i ncl u detl in deterred n mg the value of p, ( pe rce ntage of reinforcement j . Where corros i on may be expected 'li; inch shall be deducted
from the shell th i ckn ess to allow for red u ct i on i n section by corrost on. The at lowab Ie stresses of A rti cles 1.5. 1, 1.7.1 and 1.10. 1 may
be used in all cases where all of the stresses to which the piles may

be s u b]ected hive been i nclu ded. These st resses may be inc reased
in accordance w ith Article 1.2.22. For trest le piles or other piles

xvi thou I lateral ski pport d en gned for de:id load anil live load only

and where tempe ratu re, triction, water pressure and other forces

are not cont i dere d, the al l ow ab le uni t stresses spec ifi ed in Articles

1.5.1, 1.7.1 and 1.10.1 shal I be dcc reased 20 % .


12 )

Requi red Subsu rf oce

I nve st igo tions

Subsu rface i nvestiati ons shall be made which will determine


the probable depth of scour or flotation of material and the condi
tion of lateral support of the pile.

DESIGN

1.4.4

43

ICJ Cose B. Copocity of Pile fo Transfer Lood to ltte Ground


( J ) Poinf - beoring Piles

A pile shall be considered to be a point-bearing pi Ie when


placed or driven on or into a material which is capable of developing the pi le load by direct bearing at the
factor of safety.

point

with reasonable

The allowable load at the tip of the pile shall not exceed the
following :
(a) For round timber piles,

use

values

tabulated

in

Article 1.4.4 (B) for allowable compression parallel


to grain.
For sawn timber piles, use those values applicable
to wet condition for allowable compression parallel

to grain, in accordance with Article 1.10.1.

(b) For concrete piles, 0.33f, in accordance with Article


1.5.1 (B) .
(c) For concrete-filled piles, 0.40f', in accordance with

Article 1.5.1 (B) applied to the total actual area of the

" (d

(2)

Fricfion

concrete and steel.


For steel Hpiles and It milled tubular steel piles,
9,000 psi over the cross scctiona l area of the pile tip,
not includ ing the area of any pile tip rein forcemcnt.
Piles

A pile shall be considered to be a friction pile if its point does


not rest on or in a material which is capable of developing the pile
load by direct bearing at the point.
The load-carrying capacity of :friction piles shall be determined by one or more of the following methods :
(a) Driving and loading test piles. Ihe safe allowable load
shall be as defined by Article 2.3.6 (A ) .
(b) Pile-driving experience in the vicinity. When piles
are designed on the basis of experience in the vicinity,
due consideration will be given to the variation in pile
types and lengths, and in the variation of the soil
strata. Where possible, the complete driv ing records
of all piles in the vicin ity sh all be examined and compared to the driving records of the project piles.
(cI Adequate tests of the soil strata th rotigh which the
pile is to be driven. These tests should be projected
and compared, if possible, to tests of similar material
through which piles of known capacity have been

driven.

13 I Required Subsurfoce Invesfigotions

(a) Point-bearing piles. Suflic ient borings shall be made


to determine the presence, position, and thickness of
2'IOTE : The limitation in ( c ) and ( d ) govern excent where the point bearing eapac ity of
the niles is determ tried by loadi rig test piles.

44

the material which is capable of developing pointbearing, and the log of borings shall show the nature
of the overlying strata in order that the extent of
lateral support may be determined. If the pointbearing stratum is of doubtful thickness and quality,
the borings shall be made to such sufficient depth below this stratum that the capacity of a :friction pile
may be determined.
Friction piles. Borings shall be made to an elevation
well below the expected elevation of the pile tips and
accurate logs of these borings shall be made. In those
cases where the piles are to be designed on the basis
of soil tests, un disturbed samples shall be taken on
all strata which will I:ave appreciable influence on the

capacity of the pile.

Combination point-bearing and Ination piles. Piles


shall be classified as either (1 ) point-bearing or (2)
friction. Those cases where adequate strength is developed by both point bearing and friction may be
designed under either of these class ifications.

ID I Cose C. Copocity of the Ground to Support the Lood Delivered by


the Pile
Preference shall be given to the determination of maximum loads
on piles by test loading or by satisfactory s ubgrade investigation.
The capacity of the ground to support the load delivered by the
pile shall be determined from the resu Its of the applicable subsurface
investigations :
(\ )

Poi nt- beor ing Piles

Sufficient borings shall be made to determine the th icknes9 and


quality of the stratum in which the point bearing is developed.
If that stratum is of sufficient thickness and is un derlain by a firm
material, no reduction will be made for grou p action of piles. In
general, piles should not rest on a thin stratum of h a rd material
which is under la in by a thick stratum of soft or yielding material,
but where this condition cannot be avoided, group action should
be considered and the design loads reduced accord ingly.
( 2)

Friction

Piles

Borings shall be carried well below the tips of the piles in order

to determine

the characteristics

of

the

underlying

material. In

most cases a study of those borings wi 11 sufhce to determine


whether or not the un derlying soil will -support the loads delivered
to it, but in doubtful or special cases, especial ly large foundation
areas and important foot in gs, the material should be investigated
more thorough lj' by soil mechanics methods.
A single row of piles shall not be considered as a group
provided that they are not spaced closer center to center than 2'Z

1.4.4

timee the nominal diameter or dimension. In those cases where


piles are driven in grou ps into plastic material, the deeign load

shall be determined by the loading of a group of piles or definite

allowance shall be made for the difference between the supporting


capacity of a single pile and a group of piles. ( Refer to (G) )
I EJ Maximum Design Loods for Piles
In those cases where it is not feasible to make thl reQu ired subsurface investigation s or test loads, the maximum assumed design load
for piles shall be as given in the table below. These values may be increased for certain combinations of loads as specified in Article 1.2.22.
The assumed pile loads shall be substantiated by determining the
allowable load by formula, when the piles are driven, as provided in
Article 2.3.6 (B) .
Tjj pcs oJ Piles
Size or Diameter
at Butt,' Inches

Timber
Tons

Concrete
T'ons

12

24

24

10

20

14

28

16
20
24

32

Steel
(Friction) Tons

Steel
Point-Bearing

16

9000 pounds per sq.

24

not including the

20

20

28

28

32
40
ii0

in. of point area,

area of any pile

tip reinforcement

Tim be r p iles, diameter to be measured 3 feet Irom b utt.

Friction piles may be considered to resist an intermittent but not


sustained uplift equivalent to 40 per cent of the above loads providing
proper provision is made for the anchorage at the top and sufhcient skin
friction is developed and in no case shall i I exceed the weight of mate-

rial (buoyancy considered su rrou nd i n g the embedded portion of the

pile.

I GI Group Pile Loading


Where the capacity of: a group of friction piles driven into plastic
material is not determined by test loading, the following Converse-

Labarre formula is suggested to determine the reduction of a single


pile load for a group pile load :

+ (in 1) n
E -1.(n 1) in90mn
Where
E =the efficiency or the decimal fraction of the single pile
value to be used for each pile in the group.
n == the n u mber of piles in each row.
in =the number of rows in each group.

d the average diameter of the pile.


s center to center spacing of piles.

Tan'i= d/s

equal to the angle

J .4.5 PILES
\ Al

General
In general, pi lin g shall be used when footin gs cannot, at a reason-

able expense, be fou ndel on rock or other solid fou ndation material.
At loeati one whet-e unus u at erosion may occu r and the set l cond iti on s
perm i t the drivi n g of p iles, thr y, pre ferably, shall be u sed as a pro
tection agar n st scou r, even though the safe bearing res i stance of the
natu rat soi I is su ffici ent to su pport the stru ctu re wi th out pili ng.
In general, the penetrati on for any pile shall be not less than 10
feet in h ard material and not less thin ?i the length of the pile nor
less than 20 feet i n soft water i at.
For ton ndation work, no p i link shall be used to penetrate a very
soft u;per stratum overly i n g a hard stratum un less the pi Ie.s penetrate
the hard material a suffic ten t d istance to rigidly fix the ends.
I BJ

Limifotion of Use
Un treated timber piles may be used for temporary con struction,

revetments, fenders and similar work, and in Je rmanent


under the follow ing cond iti on s :

constru ction

(1) For fou ndation piling when the cutoff is below pe rmanent
ground water level.

(2) For trestle construction when it is econ omica l to do so.


though treated piles are pref e rab Ie.
I? 1 They shall not be u sod when they w i 11, or may be, exposed to
man ne borers.

The hint tation s of use of treated tim ber p iles are g iven i n D wis ion
II, Section 21.
ICI

Design Loods
The design loads for piles shall be accord i ng to Article 1.4.4.
Piles shal l be des i gned to cai ry the entire superim posed

load,

no

pile s;aci rig shall

be

allowance be ing made for the su ppo rt i n g value of the material between
the piles.
The supporti rig power of piles shall be determined by the application of test loads or by the use of formulas as specified in Article
2.3.6 (B) .
ID I Spocing, Cleoronces ond Embedment
Footi ng areas shall be so propo r Ii oned that

n ot less than 2 feet 6 i nches center to cen(er. When the tops of fou nda
tion p i let are incorporated i n a concrete footing, the distance Irom the
side of any pile to the nearest edge of the footing shall be not less than
9 inches.
The tops of pit ing in general shall iroject not less than 12 inches
into the concrete after all damaged pile material has been removed, but
in special cases it may be reduced to 6 inches.
Where a reinforced concrete beam is cast-inplace and used as a
bent cap su pported by pil ing, concrete cover at the sides of piles shall

DE 5I GN

47

be a min imu in of six inches. The piles shall project at least six inches,
and preferably n me inches, into the cap ; provided, however, concrete
piles may project a lesser d istance into the cap if the proj ection of
the pile reinforcement is sufficient to provide for adequate bond.
I EJ Botfer Piles
When the lateral resistance to the soil surrounding the piles is
inadequate to con nteract the horizontal forces transmitted to the
fou ndation or when increased rigidi ty of the entire structure is requ ired, batter piles shall be used in the to undat ion.
I FJ

Buoyancy
The effeCt of hyd rostatic pressure shall be considered in the design
as provid ed in Article 1.2.18.
IGJ

Concrefe Piles I Precost J


Precast concrete piles shall be of approved size and shape. If a
square section is employed, the corners shall be chamfe red at least one
inch. Piles, preferably, shall be cast with a driving point and for hard
driving, p referably shall be shod with a metal shoe of approved pattern.
PiIing may be either of uniform section or tapered. In general, tapered
piling shall not be used for trestle construction except for that portion
of the pi ie wh ich ] res below the ground line ; nor shall tapered piles be
used in any loc at ion when-e the piles are to act as col umns. In general,
concrete piles shall have a cross sectional area, measured above the
taper, of not less than 140 square inches and when they are to be used
in salt water they shall have a cross sectional area of not less than
220 square inches.
The d iameter of tapered piles measured 2 feet from the point shall
be not less than 8 inches. In all cases the diameter shal l be cons idered
as the least d imension through the center. The point in all cases,
where steel points are not used, shall be not less than 6 inches in
diameter and the pile shall be beveled, tapered or sloped un if or rely
from the point to 2 feet from the point.
Vertical re Enforcement shall be provided consisting of not less than
four bars spaced un iformly arou nd the perimeter of the pile. It shall
be at least 1zi per cent of the total cross section measured above the
taper, except th at if more than fou r bars are used, the n u mber may be
reduced to four in the bottom 4 feet of the pile.
The Iull length of vertical steel shall be enclosed with spiral reinforcement or equ ivalent hoops.
The spiral re in torcement at the ends of the pile shall have a pitch
of 3 inches, and gage of not less than No. 5 (U.S. Steel \Vire Gage) . In
addition the top 6 inches of pile shall have five turns of spiral winding
at one-inch pitch.
For the remainder of the pile the vertical steel shal l be enc losed
with spiral re inforce ment No. 5 gage (U.S. Steel Wire Gage) with not
more than 6-inch pitch, or with i-inch rou nd hoops spaced not more
than 6-inch centers.
The reinforcement shall be placed at a clear distance from the face

of the pi Ie of n ot l ess th an 2 inches and when thi ri !"" = = *= ' - "

48

salt water or alkali soils this c lear distance shall be not less than 3
inches.
In computing stresses due to handlin g, the computed static loads
shall be increa sed by 50 per cent as an at losvance for impact and shock.
IHJ

Concref e Piles

I Cost-in-Ploce J

Cast-in -place concrete pi les shall be, in general, cast in metal shells
wh ich shall remain pe rmane ntly in place. H owever, other types of castin -place concrete pi1e5, plai n or re into reed, case d or u ncased, may be
used if, in the opinion of the Engineer, the soil cond ition9 permit their
use and if the i r des i g n and the method of placing are set isf actory to
him.
Cast- in-place concrete piles may be of either uniform section or
tapered, or a comb in ation thereof. The minim um size, incas ured at the
butt, or above the taper, and em bed men I of re inf o rce ment shall be as
spec ified for precast piles, except that You ndation pi les may have a
min inn um butt cross-sect ion area of 100 square inches. The minimum
diameter at tip o f pi ilc shall be 8 inches.

Castin-place piling sh all be rein forced when specified or shown on


the plan s. Cast-in -place foundation piling, carry ing axial loads only
and where the possibil ity of lateral forces being appl red to the piles is
inn gn ificant, need not be re in forced when the soil prov ides adequate
lateral su pport. Those portion s of cast-in-place piling which are not
supported laterally shall be designed as re in forced concrete columns in
accordance with Article 1.15.9 and the reinf orc ing steel shall extend
ten feet be!ow the plane where the soil provides adeQuate lateral
restra i nt. Where the shell is more than 0. 12 i nch in thickness, it may
be const ci ered as re i nfo rcement.
Su ffic rent reinf or cement shall be provided at the junction of the
pi Ie wi th the su pe rstr uctu re to make a su itable con neeti on.
The metal shall be of su fficient thickness and strength so that the
shell wi 11 hold i ts o rigi nat form and show no harmful distortion after it
and ad jacent shells have been drivPn and the driving core, if any, has
been w ithd rawn. The des ign of the shell shall be approved by the
Engineer before any driving is done.
IIJ

Steel

H-piles

( I I Th ick ness of Metol

Steel pile shall have a min imu in th redness of web of .400 inch.
Splice plates shall be not less than ! inch thick.
1 2 I Spl ices
Piles shall be spliced to develop the net section of p ile. The
Panpes ind wcb shall be either spliced by butt 'weld ing or with

plates, we ldecl, riveted or bolted. The bolted splices shall only be

used on projects where a swab I nu mber of pit ing are required and
whe re hae i litre s for riveting or wPld ing are not available.
Spl ices shall be detailed on the contract plans.

P
In general, caps are not requ ired for steel piles embedded in

1.4.5

DESIGN

49

cone rete. Reference is made to Research Report No. 1, Investiga-

tion of the Strength of the Connection between a Concrete Cap an d


the Embedded end of the Steel H -PileDepartment of H ighways,
State of Oh io, for a discussion of this subject and for the resul ts

of tests pertinent to it.


(4I

Scou r

If heavy scour is anticipated, cons idcration shal l be given to


design of the portion of the pile which would be exposed, as a

column.
(5)

Lugs, Scobs, ond Core-stoppers

These devices may be used to increase the bearing power of the


pi le where necessary. They may consist of structural shapes,
v'e1ded, riveted or bol ted, of plates welded between the flanges, or of

timber or concrete blocks securely fastened.

Unfilled Tubulor Steel Piles


( J ) Th ickness of Meto I

Piles shall have minimum wall th ickness not less than indicated in the to flow in g table :
Outside Diameter

Less than
14 i nches

14 inches
and over

.25 inch

.375 inch

( 2 ) Spl ices
Piles shall be spliced to develop the full section of the pile.
The piles shall be spliced either by butt welding or by the use of
welded sleeves. Spl ices shall be detailed on the contract plans.
( fl )

Driv ing

T u bulir steel piles may be driven either closed or open endod.


Cl0sui e plates shou Id not extend beyond the perimeter of the pile.
( d ) Col um n Action

When e the piles are to be used as part of a bent structu re or


whPi P heavy scori r is anticipated that would expose a poi-tion of
the pile, the pile shall be i nvest igated for column action.
The provisions of Article 1.4.5 (K) shall apply to unfilled
tubu far steel piles.

Steel Pile ond Sleet Pile Shell Profec fion


Where cond it ions of exposure warrant, concrete encasement shall
be used on steel pi les and steel shells or ie inch depth of thickness shall
be deducted from all exposed surfaces in computin g the area of steel in
the p iles or shells.

1.4.6 FOOTINGS
I Al

Depth

The depths of footings shall be determined with respect to the


character of the foundation mater ins and the poss ibili ty of undermining. Except where solid rock is encountered or in other special
cases, the footings of all structures, other than culverts, which are
exposed to the erosive action of stream currents, preferably, shall be
fou rided at a depth of not less than 4 feet below the permanent bed of
the stream. Stream piers and arch abutments, preferably, shall be
fou rided at a depth of not less than 6 feet below stream bed. The above
preferred minimum depths shall be increased as conditions may reQulre.
Footin gs not exposed to the action of stream currents shall be
founded on a firm foundation and below l'rost.
Footings for culx'erts shall be carried to

an

elevation sufficient to

secure a firm foundation, or a heavy reinforced floor shall be u sed to


distribute the pressure over the enti re horizon tal area of the structu re.
In any location l table to erosion, aprons or cut-off walls shall be used at
both ends of the cu lvert and, where necessary, the entire ftoor area between the wing wal 1s shall be paved. Baffte walls or struts across the
unpaved bottom of a en lvert barrel shall not be u sed where the stream
bed is subject to erosion. When conditions reQuire, en lvert footings
sh all be reinforced longitu dinally.
\ BI

Anchorage
Footings on inclined smooth solid rock surfaces which are not restrained by an overburden of resistant material, shall be effectively
anchored by means of anchor bolts, dowels, keys or other suitable
means.
I C J Distribution of Pressure

All footings shall be designed to keep the max imum soil pressu res

wi thin safe bear in g values. In order to

prevent

unequ al

settlement,

Iooti n gs shall be designed to keep the pressu re as nearly un if erm as


pract i cab le. In footings has i rig uneQu at pressu res and reQu i rin g pil ing,
the spac i rig of the piles sh all be such as to seen re as nearly equal loads
on each p ile as may bP pract icable.
ID J

Spreod Foofings
Sp read footi n gs wh i ch act as c antil eve rs may be dear ea sed i n thick-

ness Irom the ju nction of the Iooting slab ix'ith col umn or wa 11 toward
the edge of the foot i n g, provi ded sulfur ent section is ma i nta tried at all
points to provide the necessary resrat a nce to diagonal ten s ion and bending stresses. Th is decrease in section may be accompl ished by sloping
the upper su rface of the footi ng or by means of verti cal steps. Stepped
foot in gs shall be cast monoli th i call y.
IE J lnternol Sfresses in Spreod Footings
Spread footings shall be coned dered as u nder the action of down-

ward forces, due to the superimposel loads, resisted by an u pward


prPssu re exe i ted by the You n d at i on miter ials a net distributed over the

1.4.6

DESIGN

area of the footings as determ in ed by the eccentric i ty of th e result ant

of the down wa rd foi ces. Where p iles arc used u nder foot i ngs, the
upward react ion iif the fou nd at ion sh:il I be cons idered as :t series of
concen Irated load s a ppl red at the pile centers, each p i Ie being ass umed
to carry its computed proport ion of the total footing load.
When a st ngl e spread footi n g su pports a cod umn, pier or wall, thi s
footing shall b issu med to act as a cent i lev er. When two or more
piers or col u run s are place cl u pon a common tooI i n g , the foot ing slab
shall be des igned for the actual cond it ions of cont in u ity tnd restra int.
Footings shall be designed fo r the bend ing stress, d iagonal ton sion
stress an d bond at the crit ical section designated herein.
The critical section for bend inp shall be taken at the face of the
col umn, pedestal or wall. In the case of col u runs other than s q uare or
rectangu far, the critics I section shall be taken at the s ide of the concentric square of eQU ivalent area. FOr footings under masonry walls,
where bon d between the wall and foot ing i s redu ced to f nation val ue,
the critical section shal I be taken as in id way between the middle and
the face o:I the wal 1. For footings under metall ie colu run bases, the
crit ical section shall be taken as in idway between the face of the col umn
and the edge of the metallic base. The load shall be cons idered as
u niform ly d i stri buted over the colu run, pedestal or wal I, or metallic
column base.
The c ritical section for bond shal l be taken at the same plane as for
bend ing, and the shear u sed for compu ting bond shall be based on the
same loading and section as for bendi ng. Bond shou ld also be invest i gated at plan es where changes of secti on oi- of rei n force ment occu r.
The cri tical section for d iagonal tension in foot ings on so i I or rock
shall be cons idered as the concentric vertical section throu gh the footing
at a distance d from each face of' the column, pedestal, or wall ; d
being equal to the depth from the top of the section to the centroid o:I
the long it nd inal tension reinforcement.
The critical section for diagonal tension in footings supported on
piles shall be considered as the concentric vertical 9ection th rough the
footing at a distance, d/2, from each face of the col umn, pedestal or
wal I, and any piles whose centers are at or outside this section shall be
considered in com puting the diagonal tension.
In sloped or stepped foot in gs, stresses short Id be investigated at
sections where the depth changes outside the critical section as defined
above.
Bending need not be considered unless the projection of the footing
is more than two-thirds of the depth.
In plain concrete footings, the stresses shall be computed on the
basis of a monolithic section having a depth measured from the top of
the footing to a plane 2 inches above the bottom of the footing. The
maximum fibre stress due to bend ing shall not exceed that specified
in Article 1.5.1 and the average shearing stress on a concentric vertical
section through the footing at a distance (d minus 2 inches) from each
face of the column, pedestal or wall, shall not exceed the shearing
stresses specified in Article 1.5.1 for beams without web rein forcement
and with l ong itudinal bars not anchored.

52
\ FJ

Reinforcement
Footing slabs shall be reinforced for bending stresses and, where
necessary, for diagonal tension. The computed stress in the bar shall
be developed in bond.
The reinforcement for square footings shall consist of two or more
bands of bars. The reinforcement necessary to resist the bending
moment in each direction in the footing shall be determined as for a
reinforced concrete beam ; the effective depth of the footing shall be the
depth Irom the top to the plane of the reinforcement. The required
reinforcement shall be spaced uniformly across the footing, unless the
footing width is greater than the side of the column or pedestal plus
twice the effective depth of the footing, in which ca9e the width over
which the reinforcement is spread may equal the width of the column
or pedestal plus twice the effective depth of the footing plus one-half
the remaining widt,h of the footing. In order that no considerable area
of the footing shall remain unrein forced, additional bars shall be placed
outside of the width specified, but such bars shall not be considered as
effective in resisting the calculated bending moment.. For the extra
bars a spacing doe ble that used for the reinforcement wi thin the effective belt may be used.
I GJ Transfer of Stress from Vertical Reinforcement
The stresses in the vertical reinforcement of columns or walls shall
be transferred to the footings by extending the reinforcement into
them a sufficient distance to develop the strength of the bars in bond,
or by means of dowels anchored in the footings and overlapping or
fastened to the vertical bars in such manner as to develop their stren gth.
If the dimentions of the footings are not sufficient to permit the use
of straight bars, the bars may be hooked or otherwise mechanically
anchored in the footings.

J .4.7 ABUTMENTS
IA I

General
Abu tments shall be designed to wi thstand earth pressure as specified in Article 1.2.19, the weight of abutment and supe rstructure, live
load over any portion of the superstructure or approach fill, wind forces,
longitud rna I force when the bearings are fixed, and longitu dinal forces
due to friction or shear res istance of bearings. The design shall be in-

vestigated for any combination of these forces which may produce the
most severe condition of loading.
Abu true nts shall be des i gncil to be safe against overturn ing about
the toe of the f ootin g, against sliding on the footing base and against
crushing of foundation material or overloading of pi les at the point of
maximum pressure.
In comp uting stresses in abutments, the weight of filling material
directly over an inclined or stepped rear face, or over a reinforced
concrete spread footing extending back from the face wall, may be
conside red as part of the effective weight of the abutment. In the
case of a spread footing, the rear projection shall be designed as a

1.4.7

DE 5I GN

canti lever supported at the abutment

stem and

loaded

with

the in 11

we ight of the s u per imposed materi a I, unless a more exact method ie


used.
The cross section of stone masonry or pla in concrete ab u tmen ts
shall be proportioned to avoid the int rod uction of tensi ie strese in the
material.
IBJ

Reinforcement for Temperature


Except in gravi ty abu true nts, not less than /c square inch of horizontal rein f orceme n t per foot of height s hall be provided near exposed
surfaces not otherw i se reinforced, to resist the formation of temperature and sh rinkage c racks.
ICJ

Wing Wolfs

Wing xval ls shall be of sufficient length to retain the roadway


embankment to the req u i red extent and to f u rn i sh protect ion against
erosion. The vv ing lengths shal I be computed on the basis of the reQu ired

roadway slo pes.


Where deflection Joints arc not used, re i n to rcement rods or other
su itable rolled sections prefe rabl y shall be spaced across the j unction
between all wing walls and abu tmen ts to th oroughly tie them together.
Such bars shall extend into the mason ry on each side of the joint far
enough to develop the strength of the bar as spec ified for bar reinforce ment, and shall x ary in length so as to avoid planes of weakness
in the concrete at their en de. If bars are not used, an expansion joint
shall be provided at th is point in wh ich the wings shall be morti sed into
the body of the abutment.
IDI

Drninope

The filI ing material beh ind abut men ts shall be effectively drained
by weep holes with French drains, placed at suitable i n te rvals.

J .4.8 RETAINING
IA I

IBI

WALLS

Generol

Bose or Footing blobs


The rear pro.ject ton or heel of base slabs sha l1 be des igned to su p
port the entire weigh I of the s u pe r imposed materi ls, u nless a more
exact method is used.
The base slabs of can ti leve r wa us shal I be des igned as cant i levers
supported by the wal 1.

The base slabs of con rite r f orted and buttressed walls shall be
designed as fixed or conti n u ou s beams of spans equal to the d istance
between cou nte rf orts or bu Stresses.
ICJ

Verticol

Wolfs

The vertical stems of ca nt i lever walls sh all be dest gned as canti levers suppo rted at the base.
The vertical or face wall s of cou ntcrf orted and bu Stressed wall s
shall be designed as fixed or continuou s beams. The hace walls sha!1 be
securely anchored to the supporting cou nterf orts or buttresse s by
means of a deg u ate rei n f orcement.
DI

Counterforf s ond

Buttresses

Counterfo rts shall be designed as T-beams. Buttresses shall be


designed as rectang ular beams. In connection sv ith the main ten s i on
rein forcemen t of counte rf orts there sh al I be a system of horizon ta I and

vertical bars or str rrups to eff ecti vely anchor the face walls and base

slab. These .st i rru ps shall be anchored as near the outside faces of the
face walls, and as near the bottom of the base slab as practicab ie.
I EJ

Reinforcement for Temperature


Except in gras'ity walls, not less than 7s square inch of hor izon tal

re i nforeement per foot of height shall be provided near exposed surfaces not otherw i se rei nforced, to resi st the formation of tempe ratu re
and sh ri nkage cracks.
IFJ

Expansion ond Contraction Joints


Go n tracti on joints shal I be provided at i ntervils not exceeding ?0

feet and expan sion j oints at interva 1s not exceed in g 90 feet, for gravity
or rei nforeed concrete walls.
I GI

Droinoge

Th e fill in g material behind aI I retaining walls shall be effectively


drained by weep holes with French drains, placed at su itable inte rvals.
In counterfor ted walls there shall be at least one drain :for each pocket
formed by the counte rforts.

J .4.9 PIERS
IA I General
Piers shall be designed to withstand the dead and I we loads en perimposed thereon ; wind pressu res acting on the pier and su perstructu re ;
the forces d uc to stream cu rrent, floating ice and drift ; and longitud inal
forces at the fixed on ds of spans.
Where necessary, p ters shall be protected against abrasion by facing them wi th granite, vitri fied brick, timber or other suitable material

with in the limits of damage by floating ice or debris.

DESIGN

IBl Pier Nose


In streams ca rry ing ice or drift, the pier nose shall be designed as

an ice breaker. When a s feel angle or other metal nosing is used it

shal l be effectively secu red to the masonry by means of s u it able anchors.

1 .4.10 TUBULAR STEEL PIERS


I A I Use
Preferably, tu bu lar steel piers shall not be used and they shall
never be used in locations whe re they will be su bjected to lateral earth
pressu re. In special cases their use may be permitted, in which cases
the following req u i rements shall apply.
/ BJ

Depth
Th eneral reQu irements gove rni rig the depths of You nd at ions as
above set forth sha 11 govern in the case of tubu lar s teel piers except
that steel tu bes resting upon gravel to undation without pil in g shall in
no case be carried to a depth less than 8 feet below the permanent bed of
the stream and to such addr tional depth as may be necessary to eliminate all danger of u nd ermin ing.

Piles u sed in connection with tub u far piers shal I extend into the
concrete fil ling a suffic rent d istance to thoroughly brace the tubes. In
general, these p iles shall extend not less than 6 to 8 feet above the bottom of the cone rete.
I DJ

Dimensions of Shell
The min imu in th ick ness of the metal in the shells of tubu far piers
shall be /ic inch. Th is th icknoss shall be i ncreased whe re necessary to

secu re strength and ri gid i ty for placi ng the shell. In at I cases the pier

sh aI l be des igned for safe pit e or soi l bearing val ues as speci fied here in,
but when the d I tmeter fQU i Peel by these va I ues i s greater than that
requ ired for the superstructure bearing, the diameter may be reduced
at any spl ice point. The min imum d iameter of steel cyl inders used for
piers shall be 42 inches.
I EI

Splices ond Joints


All horizontal joints shall be butt joints. Vertical Joints may be
lapped if the corners of the plates are properly snarled. WhPn field
sp lic ing is necessary the lower section of the tube shall extend at least
2 feet above the water l me when in position.

IFI Brocing
Ad eq u ate braci ng connecting the tubes of cyl inder pi e rs

shall be

orov i dcd. In general, th i.s bracing shall consist of a steel or concrete


gi rder d iaph ragm effectively secured to the tu bes. The depth of this
diaph ragm shall be as great as conditions will perm it.

Section 5

CONCRETE DESIGN'

1.4.J J ALLOWABLE STRESSES


I AJ

Stondord Nototions ond Assumptions

IB J

Sfrength of

Concrete

The p roport ions for concrete mixes specified in Article 2.4.6 were
selected on the basis of meeting the following minimum req u irements
for stren gth for 2P day cyli ntlei s for the variou s classes of concrete

here recog n i ze d.
Class of Cone i ete
A or A ( AE )

Minimum Comp i essive


Sti ength at 28 days
3,000

B or B ( AE )

2,200

X or X ( AE)

1,500
3,000

G oi
Y

G ( AE)

or. Y ( A E )

3,000

N etc : The ratios tin I vaI uea in th is sectio n a p ;1y to con c rete in ale w ith cc n ven tion at h a rd
rck ugp red a to. V aI ues app licable to 1 ih twei g h I ap g reate con crcte s hould be es tablis hcd by
deq u ute in v es tiatin .

DESIGN
The basic va I u e used in dos ign under- these spec ificat ions is 3,000
pou rids per sq. in. at 28 days and if another x'aI ue is u sed it shall be
subs tant i a ted by test d ata an d s tipu lated on the plans, along with the
resu ltant at lovable stresses. In no cace shall the u It innate strength
u pon wh ich al Iowa ble strewed are based exceed 4,500 pou rids po r sQ. in .,

except for pres dressed concrete.

I CI

Allowoble
( I I

Sfresses Concrete

Flex u re

F' xtreme fi bor in comp ress i on


E xt re me fi ber i n tension, plain cone rete, primarily in fotings
Extreme fiber in tens ion, reinforced
cone rete

None

1 2 I Sh eci r
B cams wi th out web re in fo rcement :
Longi tud inal

bars

not

an-

chored or plain concrete


footi rigs
0.02 I,, ( max. 75 ps i . )
Longi tu d inal b:trs anchored
0.03 f,. ( max. 90 psi.)
I3eams with web re i n f o rce ment
V 0.075 I.bjd
Hor i zon ta l shear i n shear keys be-

tween slab and stem of Tbeams and box gi rders


( 3)

Bon d o n Piles

( i n Si eo I s )

Timber, steel or concrete piles, 10 I bs. per square inch. (Providing the pile has the res istance to the pu!l thereby induced.)
( 4 ) Be o ring on B rid ge Seo ts

Refer to At ticle 1.7.8


( 5 ) Col u in n s See Article J .5.9.

IDI Allowoble Sfresses

Reinforcement

Specified Yield Strength


AASFIO M 31 ( ASTM A C15)
AASHO M ?1 (ASTM A 616)

I.rade 40
Grade 0

40,000 psi
60,000 psi

Steel Reinforcement

Grade 40

Grade 60

20,000 psi

24,000 psi

Tension in flexu i i1

members

HI GHWAY B RIDGE S

Tension in web
ieinf orcement

20,000 psi

24,000 psi

16,000 psi

20,000 psi

20,0011 psi

24,000 psi

Compiession in

Compression in Eeams
See Article 1.5.7

G. 5 I '

400 psi max

1.5.2 GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS


The design of reinforced concrete members under these specification s
shall be based on the following assu options :
11) Calculations are made w ith reference to unit working stresses
and safe loads, as elsewhere specified herein, rather than with reference
to ultimate strength and u ltimate loads.

(2) A plane section before bending remains plane after bendi ng.

( 3 ) The modulu s of elasticity of concrete in compression is con-

stant withi n the limits of working strewed ; the distr ibution of compressive stress in Pexure is, therefore, linear.
14) The ratio n shall be ass u med as follows :

Values of n

Ultimate strength of con-

For compu tations

Fo r com p station s

crete, f , Lbs. per sq. in.

of strength

of deflection

2,000 to 2,400. . . . . . . . . . . . .

lIi

2,b00 to 2,900.. .. . .
.
3,000 to 3,900. . . . . . . . . . . . .

12
10

4,000 to 4,900.
5,000 or more. . . .

........

. ..

DESIGN

1.5.2

In computing the ultimate deflection of slabs and beams, the vat ue


of the mod u I us of elasticity of concrete shou Id be assumed as one
thirtiPth that of steel in order to allow for the effect of plastic flow
and shrinkage.
(5) Concrete shall be assu med as offering no tensile rms istance.
(6)

The bond

between

concrete and metal rei nforcemen(

is as-

curved to remain unbroken throughout the range of working stresses.


Under compression the two materials are therefore stressed in proportion to their mod u li of elasticity.
(7) Initial stress in the reinforcement, due to contraction or expansion of the concrete, is neglected, except in the design of reinforced
concrete colu runs.
18 ) For the determ in ation of external react ions, moments, shears,
and d ef1ec I i on s, moments of inertia of rigid frame and conti n uous
structu res .shal I be compu ted for the gross concrete sect ion s, neglect i n p
the effect of steel re i n forcemen t, except that the tran sformed area of
the steel shall be incl u d ed for colu runs, arches or other compressive
members.
I S) The moment of inertia of the entire en perst ructu re sections,
except rail ings or i ny cur bs or s id ewalks not placed monol ith ma fly with
the s u pe rst ruct ure before the false work is re leased, and the moment
of inertia of the f u Il cross section of the pier or bent shall be used to
determ in e the elastic p ropert ies of the various spans and su pports.
( 10) T he depth of girder or slab to be u sed in c o in put in g moment
of inertia at the centerl me of su pport shal I be obtained by extend ing
the slope of th e intr dos of the member to the centerl inc.
111) Rigid frames shall be con si dered I ree to away longitu d in ally
d ue to the appl matio n of vertical dead loads an d vert really appl red live
loads, except when the stru cture is res tra in ed from movement by
external forces.
(12 ) The ass umption of no moment res trai n I at the base of column
shall be u sed in the an a lys i s of rigid I rames ( superstructures ) unless
the base is known to be' fully fixed. W hen a pin ned end condi tion is
ass u med for the anal ys is of the su pe rstruct u re, the base of colu run,
footing a nd pi I ing shall be dest gned to res ist the moment res ulting
from an :tss u med restraint varying from zero to fu lI fixity. The degree
of res tr in I sha II be determ in ed by the type of footing and the character of the foundation ma te ri al.
( 18) P i e rs or bents eo net ructed integrall y with footi ngs placed on
a skew exceed ing 10 shall be cons id e red fi xed at the top of footing.

1.5.3 SPAN LENGTHS


The effect i ve s; an lengths of slabs shall be as speci fled i n Article
1.3.2.
The effective span len gth of freely s up ported beams sh all not exceed
the clear span pl us the depth of bca m.
For the a nalys is of all rigid frames, the span leng ths shal l be taken
as the d is tance bct v een the centers of bear in gs at th e ton of the footings.
The span len gth of cont in uou s or restra tried floor slabs and beams
shall be the clear distance bet vv'ecn laces of su pport. Where fillets

60

making an an g Ie of 4 5 degrees or moi e with the axis of a con tinu ous or


rostra tried slab a i e bu i It monolith ie xv ith the slab and support, the span
shall be m easu red

I rom

the section where the combined

depth

of

the

.slab and fillet is at teas I one :ind n e-half times the th redness of slab.
Maxi in u in negitive moments are to be cont idered as fix is ting at the
ends of the span, as above de fine1. N o portion of the fillet shall be
conn tler ed s add in g to the effect i ve clcpth of the slab.

1.5.4 EXPANSION
In gene rel, p rovision for tomperatu re change.s shall be made in all
simple spans having a clear length in excess of 40 feet.
In continuous bridges, provision shall be made in the design to
resist thermal stresses induced or means shall be provided Ior movement
caused by temperature changes.
Expansion not otherwise provided for shall be provided by means
of hinged columns, rockers, sliding plates or other devices.

1.5.5 T-BEAMS
I Al

Elective Flonge Width

In beam and slab construction, effective and adequate bond and


shear res istance shall be provided at the junction of the beam and slab.
The slab may then be considered an integral part of the beam, but its
assumed effective width as a T-beam flange shall not exceed the
following :
1) One-fourth of the span length of the beam.
12) The distance center to center of beams.
3) Twelve times the least thickness of the slab plus the width
of the girder stem.
For beams having a flange on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall n ot exceed one-twelfth of the span length of
the beam, nor six times the thickness or' the slab, nor one-half the clear

distance to the next beam.


I BI

Sheor

The flange shall not be considered as effective in computing the


shear and diagonal tension resistance of T-beams, except in the determination of the value of j.
The horizontal shearing unit stress at the juncture of the flange
and the monolithic fillet Joining it to the girder stem shall not exceed
that given in Article 1.5.1 (C ) , Shear, Beams with web reinf orcemen t.
ICI Isolated Beoms
Isolated beams, in which the T-form is used only for the purpose of
providing add itional compress ion area, shall have a flange thickness
of not less than one-half the width of the web, and a total flange width
of not more than 4 times the width of web.

DESIGN
IDJ

Diophrogms

For T-beam spans over 40 feet in length d iaph ragms or spreaders


shall be placed between the beams at the middle or at the third points.
I El

Construction Joints
When a cons trueti on joint is requ ired between the slab and the

stem of the beam, the shearkeys shall be des igned i n accordance wi th

allowable stresses gi ven in Article 1.5.1 (C) .

fA J

Spacing

IBJ Covering

IC J

Splicing

Tensile ieinforcement shall piefei-ably not he spl iced at points of

max imu ni stress. The spliced bar sh:ill develop the compri ted stress at

62

the splice point v ithout exceed in g " of the permissible bond values
given in Ai ticle 1.5. 1 I D) . However, the length of lap for deformed
bai s shall not be less than 24 and 36 bar diameters for Grade 40 and
Gi ade 60, respectively, nor less thin 12.
(3) Where lapped sJilices are used in reinforcement in which the
ci itical design stress is compressive, the minimum amount of lap
sh all be : with concrete having a strength of 3,000 Jisi or more, the
length of lap lor deformed bars shall be 20 biir and 24 bar diametei s
for Gi ade 40 and Grade G0, respectively, but not less than 12. When
the specified concrete strengths ai e tess than 3,000 psi, the amount of
In shall be /, greatei- than the value s- given above.
\\'elded splices or other pos it we connections may be used instead
of lapped splices. Where the bai- size exceeds @ 11, weldel splices or
other positive connections shall be used. In bars requ ired for compression only, the compressive stress may be transmitted by bearing of
sr;uareclit ends held in concentr ie contict by a su itably welded sleev e
oi- mechani cal device.

(4) An approved welded splice is one in which the bars are


betted and welded so s to develop in tension at least 90 'c of the
minimum tensile streri gth of the reinfo rein g b:ir. Approved positive
connections for bars designed to car y ciitical tension or compression
shill be eqn ivalent in strength to an aIPi oved welded splice.
ID J End Anchoroge ond Hooks

( 1) A SIT1 iircu1ar ttirn plus an extension of at least four

bar diameters but not less than 2/_ at the free end of the
bar, or

(2) A 90 degree turn plus an extension of at least 12 bar


diameters at the free end of' the bar, or
(3) For stirrup and tie anchorage only, either a 90 degree or
135 degi ee tu rn plus an exlens ion of at least 6 bar
ii:truckers but not less than 2, at the f reP end of thP bor.
When bends are made at points of stress in the bar, an adequate
rad i us of bentl shall be provided to prevent crushing of concrete.
Standaid hooks in tension may be considered as developing 10,000
psi in the but or may be cons idered as extension o1 the bars at appropriate bond stresses.

Hooks shall not be const dei ed effective in adding to the com- piessive resistance of bars. Any mechanical de ice capable of develop-

DESIGN

fi3

ing the strength of the bar without damage to the concrete may be
tised in li e u of hooks or extension s.
IEl Extension of Reinforcemenf
(1) To provide for

contingencies arising from unanticipated di s-

tri but ion of loads, yielding of supports, shifting of points of i nflection,


or other lack of agreement with assumed conditions govern ing the design of elastic structures, the reinforcement shall be extended at the
supports and at other points between the s upports as ind icated in (2)
to (5) below. These paragraphs relate to ordinary anchorage and are
the minim um requirements under which normal working stresses for
bond or shear are permitted.
(2) Negative tensile reinforcement at the supported end of a
restrained or cantilever lieam or member of a rigid frame shall be
extended in or th rough the supportin g member in such a manner as to
develop the maximu in tension in the bar with a bond stress not exceeding the normal working stress provided in Article 1.fi.1 (D) .
(3) Between the supports of continuous or simple beams, every
reinforcement bar shall be extended at least 15 diameters but not less
than '/o of the span length, beyond the point at which computations
indicate it is no longer needed to resist stress.
(4) In simple beams and freely supported ends of continuous
beams, at least 'ii of the pot it we re in forcement shall extend beyond
the face of the su pports a distance sufficient to deve top '/_ the allowable
stress in the bars.
(5) In restrained or cont in u ous beams at Ie:est ' fi of the pos it we
J8l n forcemen I shall extend beyond the face of the s u pports and the
remainder treated as provided in 13 i .
(6) Dowels and bars carrying little or no theoretical stress shou Id
be embedded at least ten bar d iameters from the con s t r uct ion joint.
I FI

Sf ructurcil Steel Shcipes

IGI Interim Reinforcement for T-beoms ond Box Girders

lHJ

R einforcemenf

for

Temperoture

ond

Shrinkage

Not less than /8 square inch of rei nforcement per foot shall be
placed in each d irection of all concrete su rfaces to resist the format ion

64

of temperature and sh rinkage cracks. The maxi mum spacing of bars


shall be 18inches. Th is rein to rcement is not required if' the sur:face is
covered by at least 1'?_ feet of earth.
II I

Bundled Reinforcement
Croups of parallel i einf orcing bat bundled in contact to act as ii
unit shall be limited to fotii @ 9 or smaller, three @ 11, two 14 or
two @ IP in any onP trundle. Stirrups or ties shall enclose the bundle.
Bars in bundles shall prefer-ably be the same size.
Where spacing limitations are based on b:ir size, a unit of bundled
bai s shall be trP:ited as :i single b:ir of equ ivalent area. Ears in a
bundle sh all terminate at different points with at least 40 bar diameters
stagger u nless all of the bars encl in a suppoi t.
WhPn making bond stress c:ilcu litions the external pei-imeter of
the bundle is eqn at to the 1ol]owiny

When bundled bun are used in tied columns and as compression


rPiu foi cement in beams, the spacing of ties or hoops shall be 'i that
speci fied i n Aitieles 1.5.7 and 1.5.9 !D3 2) .
IJ)

Bond Stress in Flexurol Members

3 ) The bond strew, u, comJa uted as in ( 1) or (2 shall not exceed

the limits given in 1.5.1 t D) , except that flexu in bond stress neel not
be consiclorol in comJu-ossion, nor in those cises of tension whore
:inchorage bond is less than 0.8 of the permissible.

J .5.7

COMPRESSION

REINFORCEMENT

IN BEAMS

1.5.7

DE SIGN

and spaced not moi-e than 16 bar d iameters apart. Where compress ion
reinforcement is used, its effectiveness in res is ting bending may be taken
s twice the val tie indicated from the calcu lotions as sri min g a straight-line
relation between stress and strain and the modular i-eIati on of stress in
steel to str ess in concrete given in Article 1.5.2 (4) . However, in no case
should a strew in compress i on reinforcement be gt-eater than that
allowed in Article 1.5.1(D ) .

J .5.8 WEB REINFORCEMENT


IA J

General
When the al lowabl e unit shearing stress for concrete is exceeded,
web reinforcement shall be provided by one of the followi n g methods :
(1) Longitudinal bars bent up in series or in a single plane.
(2) Vertical stirrups.
(3) Combination of bent-up bars and vertical stirrups.
When any of the above methods of reinforcement are used, the
concrete may be assumed to carry external vertical shear not to exceed .03 f, (max imum, 90 pounds per square inch) the remainder of
shear being carried by the web reinforcement.
The webs of T-beams and box girders shal I be reinforced with

stirrups in all cases.


IBJ

Colculofion

of

Sheor

Diagonal tension and shear in reinforced concrete beams shall be


ca lc ulated by the followi rig formu lms :
Shearing unit stress, as a meas ure of diagonal tension :

'b.)d
Stress in vertical web ieinforcement :

When a series of web bars or bentup longitudinal bars are used,


the web re in for cement shall be designed by the following formula :

When web rei nforcemen I consists of bars bent up in :i single plane


so as to reinforce all secti ons of the beam v hich require re inforcement,
the bent-up bars shall be designed by the to flow ing formula :

A=
I CJ

Benf-up Bors

Bent- u p bars used as web rei nforcement may be bent at any anple
between 20 and 45 degrees with the longitudinal re inf orcemcn t. The
radius of bend shall not be less than 4 d iameters of the bar.

'I'he spacing of bent-up bars shall be measured at the neutral axie


and in the direction of the long itudinal axis of the beam. Th is spacing
shall not exceed three-fourths the effective depth of the beam. The
first bar from the support shall cross the mid-depth of the beam at a
distance :from the face of the support, measured parallel to the longitudinal axis of the beam, not greater than one-half the effective depth.
I DJ Verticol Stirrups
Where stirrups are required to carry shear, the maxi mum spacing
of v-rtica1 stirrups shall be limited to ). the depth of the beam, and
where not requ ired to carry shear, the maximum spacing shall be
limited to /i the depth of the beam. The first stirrup shall be placed
at a distance from the face of the support not greater than one-fourth
of the effective depth of the beam.

IEJ Anchorage
(1) The stress in a stii rup or other web reinforcement shall not
exceed the capacity of its anchorage in the upper or lower onehal:I of
the effective depth of the beam.
(2) Web i einforcemenf which is provided by bending into an inclined position one or more bars of the main tensile reinforcement
where not requ ired I'or resistance to positive or negative bending, may
be cons iclerefl completely :inchored by continuity with the main tensile
reinforcement, or by embedment of the requ isite length in the upper
or lower half of the beam, provided at least of such embedment is as
close to the upper or lower surface of the beam as the requirements of
fire and rust protection allow. A hook placed close to the upper or
lower surface of the be:inn may be substituted for a portion of such
embedment.
(3) Stirrups shall be anchored at both ends by one of the following methods, or by a combination thereof :
(a) Rigid attachment, as by welding, to the in:tin longitud inal
reinforcement. All welding shall conform to AWS D12. 1.
Bending around and closely in contact with a bar of the
longitudinal reinfoi-cement, in the form of a U-stirrup or
hook.
A hook placed as close to the upper or lower surface of the
beam as the requi resents of fire and rush protection will
allow. In estimating the capacity of this anchorage the
stress developed by bond between the mi dhei ght of the beam
and the center of bending of the hook may be added to the
capacity of the hook.
An adequate length of embedment in the upper or lov er /_
of the effective depth of the beam, whether straight or bent.

DESIGN

67

J .5.9 COLUMNS *
IAl General
The prov is ions of Section 5, Concrete Design, shal I apply in the

design of columns unless speci fically modified by th is article.

In the design of columns the unsupported i eng ih shall be defined


as the clea r d is tance between struts, cross beams, footings or other
types of adequate restraint to lateral movement. Where a bracing
member has ha u nches at its junction to a column, the u nsu pported
col u run length shall be measured from the j unction of the hau nch with
the column, provided that the face of the haunch makes an angle with
the face of the col u run of at least 45 degrees. Struts or cross beams
join ing colu runs at an gles greater than 30 degrees from the plane of
symmetry of the colu run shall not be considered as adeg uate support.
The least lateral d imension of a colu run shall be taken as : ( 1) for
rectangu lar colu runs, the over-all th redness along a pri ncipal axis ;
2) for spirall y reinforced columns, the overall diameter incl u ding the
encase men t of the spirals ; (3) for T-shaped columns, the width or
depth of the T.
In a column which, for arch itectu ra l or other reasons, has a larger
cross section than requ i red by the load carried, the min imum amou nt
of lori gi tud inal steel hereinafter spec ificd may be red uced provided that
in no case shall ten longitudinal steel be used than that requ ired by
the min imum colu run designed wi th one per cent of longitud inal steel.
The notations used in this article are as I:ollows :
A over-all or gross cross-sectional area of a spi rally reinforced or tied pier, pedestal or column in square inches
A, cross-sectional area of core of spi rally re nilorced colu runs
meas ured to the outside diameter of the s pi ral, square
inches
A, across-sectional area of longitudinal steel
A A,-1- (n 1) A,, effective area of column
, a factor used in the design of members subjected
0.40 f,
to combined axial and bending stresses
d least lateral d imension of colu run, inches
e eccentricity of res ultant load on a column, measured from
a gravity axis

0225

for spiral col umns and 0.8 that amo nut for
1 + (n 1 ) p tied columns.

f, crush ing strength of 6 x 12 concrete cylinders at age of

28 days, psi.

f ,-maximu in allowable compress i ve stress in members subjected to combined axial and bending 9tress, psi.
This articl e, covert rig the desig n of rein forced cone rete colum us, follows in ge neral the
recom men dations of the I cm I Comm ittee on Stan da rd S peer fixations I or Cone rete a ii d Rei rife reed
Concrete an d of the 1951 A CI Build ing Cod e R equi remen ts for Reinforced Cone rete.

7?8

HI GH WAY BRID GE 5

+.

I,Allowable working stress in flexural members [ eee Article

1.5.1 (D) ], psi.

I, yield stress of spiral rein:forcement (for steel grades not


h:rving a definite yield point, the stress causing a 0.2 per
cent plastic set) , psi.
' , a factor used in the design of members subjected to
2r combined axial and bending streseee
L unsupported length of column, inches
n= ratio of modulus of ela9ticity of steel to that of concrete
P, a load eccentrically applied
P;, total load on pier or pedestal, pounds
P,=total load on spirally reini'orced column, pounds
P,,-total load on spirally reinforced long column, pounds
=total load on tied column, pounds
P, =total load on tied long column, pound9
p ratio of longitudinal steel area to gross column area
p ratio of volume o:I spiral reinforcement to core volume

r= radius of gyration of section (transformed section) in


the d irection of eccentricity or bending
t over-all depth of column in the direction of eccentricity
or bending

IBI Piers ond Pedestals


The ratio of the unsupported lengths of unreinforced concrete piers
or pedestals to their least dimension shall not exceed 3. The total load
on any unreinforced concrete pier or pedestal shall not exceed that given
by the tollowing formula :

(1)
Spirolly Reinforced Columns
( J )

Longitudino I Reinforcement

Longitudinal reinforcement shall be placed within the area


contained by the spiral reinforcement. The ratio between the area
of longitud inal reinforcement and the gross area of the column,
includ ing the encasement outside the spiral reinforcement, shall be
not less than 0.01 nor more than 0.08. There shall be a minimum
of six long itud inal bars evenly spaced around the periphery of the
column core. The diameter of bars shall be not less than fiveeighths inch. For columns with a circu far spirally reinforced core
having excessive size or other outside shapes, the gross area to
be used in determining percentage of reinforcement 9hall be a
circle with a diameter equal to the minimum core requ ired for
structural design plus the specified outside cover.
1 2 I Spirci I Reinforce in ent

Spiral reinforcement shall convict of unitorm spirals held


hrmly in position by attachment to the longitud inal reinforcement.

DE SI GN

69

Spi rat reinforcement may be plain or deformed reinforcing bars


or cold drawn wire conform ng to AA SHO M32 ( ASTM A82) .
Spl ices in spiral bars should be avoided if practical or, if necessary,
shall be made by weld ing or by a lap of 1'3e turns. The pitch of
spirals shall not exceed 'ii of the core d iameter. The clear distance

between indi vid ual turns of the spiral shall not exceed 3 inches or

be less than 1/s inches or 1_ times the maximum size aggregate


used. Spiral reinforcement shall exten d from the footing or other
support to the level o:I the lowest ho rizon ta1 reinforcement of
members s u pported by the col umn.
"1 he rat to of the volume of the spiral reinforcement to the
vol u me of co re of the colu run, out to ou t of spirals, shall be not
less than :
1

f'.

The yield strength for d eside ass u mption, I,, shall not be
taken h igher than 60,000 p.s. i .
( 3 I Allowoble Lood Short Colum ns

The provisi one of th i s suba rticl e shall apply only to col u run s
havin p rat ios of u n s u pported height to least lateral d i mans ion of
not more than 10. The total ax ial load on a col u in n shall not exceed

that given by the lot low i ng formula :


(d)

Lon g Co Iuin n s

T he t rtal ax rat load on a colum ii htv i n g a ritio of u nsu pported

height to least lat era I d ime n sin greater than l tl, but not greater
tha n 2 0, shall be not greater than gi v'en by the follow ing form u la :
If the L/d ratio of colu runs exceeds 20, the colu run shal I be
investi gated for elastic sta bil ity.
Tied Columns
(

Lon g itudi n o I Rein forcemen f

The longitu d inal rein fo moment shall cons i st of at least four


bars, and, when oril y fou r bars are u sed, they sha 11 be pl aced at the
corners of the sec I ion. Bars sha 11 be place cl at each i n to meet i on of
col u run I ucos. The bars s hall be not less than five-oighths inch in
d iameter. The ratio of the total cross-sect tonal area of the bars
to the total cross-wet tonal area of the col umn shall be not less than
0.01 nor more than 0.04.
( 2 ) Hoops ond Lo terol Ties

Hoops shall ,su rrou nd the ton gi tud i nal rei n forcenien t. They

shall be n ot les.s than one-You rth i rich

i n d iitmeter and

shall be

spaced not more than 12 inches apart except that th is spaci n may
tie i n creased in the caw of pi er shafts o r columns hav i n g a larger
cross sec tion thH it reQu i reel by condi tions of load i rig. Adequate
auxil iary ties shall be provi ded to su ppo rt in termed i ate longitud inal bars whose distance from any tied bar exceeds 2 feet.

70
1 3 J Allowoble Lood Shorf Colum ns
The prov isions of this subarticle shall apply only to columns
having ratios of unsupported height to least lateral dimension of
not more than 10. The total axial load on a column shall be not
greater than 0.8 of that given by equation (3) , which results in
(4)

long Columns

The total axial load on a column having a ratio of unsupported


height to least lateral dimension greater than 10 but not greater
than 20 shall be not greater than given by the following formula :
If the L/d ratio exceeds 20, the column shall be investigated
for elastic stabil ity.

IEJ Bending Momenfs in Columns


When beams or slabs are connected to columns, the moments
induced in the col umns by such beams or slabs shall be provided for in
the column design.

IFJ Combined Axiol ond Bending Stress


IJ )

Longitudino I Reinforcement

The limiting steel ratio of 0.04 provided in Article 1.6.9 (D) ( 1)


may be increised to 0.08 for tied columns designed to withstand combined axi:tl and bending stresses, proviied that the -amount of steel
spliced by lappinE in any 3foot length of column shall not exceed a
steel ratio of 0.04. The size of the column shall be not less than that
required by axi at load alone.
\ 2 ) Ro tio e/f less f ho n 0.5

A reinforced concrete column which is symmetr ical about two


mutually perpendicular planes through its axis and which is subject
to an axial load, P,,, combinetl with bonding in one of the planes of
symmetry shall be designed on the haste of uncracked sections provided
the ratio of eccentricity to depth, e/t, is not greater than 0.5 in the
plane of bending. In this case the combined fiber stress in compress ion
is given by the :foltowing formula :

Ag ( 1 + (n 1 ) p |

DE 5IGN

The column may be designed for an equ ivalent axi:il load P oi P,


as given by the Toll owi n g formula ;

whei e f. q 0.2
"
1
tied columns.
In the cise of eqn are or recta ng ula r columns subject to bending
in both planes of symmeti y, the colu in n shall be designed on the basis
of u ncracked sections onlJ' when the su in of the e/t ratios about both
axes does not exceed 0.5. In this case formulas (7) , ( 8) , and (S ) may

be used by s u bstitti ting for Ke /I thc sum of the Ke/I ratios in both
planes of ben d ing.
( 3 ) R o tio e/f g reofer fh o n 0.5

R o informed concrete columns in which the e /t ratio is gi eater


than 0.5 in the case of bend ing in one plane or in which the sum of
the e /t ratios is greater than 0.5 in the case of bending in both planes
of symmetry, shall be designed on the basis of the recognized theory
for cr.icked secti one, based on the use u mption that no tension is resisted
by the concrete.
In such cases the mod u lar iatio, n, for the com jn e sswe reinforce
ment may be assu med as twice the value given in Article 1.5.2 (4) ,
however, the stress in the compressive re Enforcement when calc ulated
on this basis, shall not be realer thin the al l owbIe stress in tension.
5ae Appendix D for a method of deternii ning the location and direction of the neutial axis.) When designed on the basis of the cracked
section them-y , the col umn shall be so proportioned that the maximum
combined compress we Stl-ess in the concrete does not exceed 0.4f',
For nich cases the tensile stress in the reinforcing steel shall also be
investigate d.

J .5.J 0 CONCRETE ARCHES


IA J Shope of Arch Rings
Arch rings shall be set ected

as to shape in s uch manner

that

the

axi s of the ri rig sh aI I con form, as nearly as practicable, to either the


eq u i I i bri nan polygon for f u 11 dead load or to the eg u i li bri nan polygon

72

HI GHWAY BR ID GE S

for full dead plus onehalf live load over the Iu 11 span, whichever produces the smallest bend ing stresses under combined loads.
I BI

Spondrel Wolfs

When the spandrel walls or filled spandrel arches exceed 8 feet in


heigh I above the extrados they shall be des igned as vertical slabs supported by transverse d iaphragm walls or deep coun terf or ts. Vertical
cantilever walls over 8 feet in height, or counterf orts havin g a back
slope of less than 45 degrees with the vertical, shall not be used, on
account of the excessive and indeterminate stresses set up in the arch
ring by torsion.

I Cl Expansion Joints
Vertical expansion joints shall be placed in the spandrel walls of
archee to provide for movement due to temperature change and arch
detection. These joints ehall be placed at the ends o1 spans and at
intermediate poin ts, generally not more than 50 feet apart.
I DI Reinforcement
Arch ribs in reinforced concrete construction shall be reinforced
with a complete double line of longitudinal reinforcement consisting of
an intradosal system and an extradosal system connected by a series
of stirrups or tie-rods.
For barrel arches, a system of transverse reinforcement, thoroughly anchored to the longitudinal rein:forcement, shall be used in both
inti-ados and extrados. The transverse reinf orcement shall be propor-

tioned to resist the bending stresses due to any overturn ing action of
the spandrel wall.
For rib arches, hoO]39 OF tie bare shall be used in connection with
the longitudinal rib reinforcement, as in the case of reinforced concrete
columns.
I El

Waterproofing
Preferably, the top of the arch ring and the interior faces of the
spandrel walls of all filled 9pandrel arches shall be waterproofed with a

membrane waterproofin g constructed in accordance with the r9quirements specified in Division II, Section 17.

RFI Droinoge of Spondrel Fill


The fills of filled spandrel arches shall be effectively drained

by

system of tile drains or French drains laid along the intersection of the
spandrel walls and arch rings and discharging through suitable outlets
in the p iers and abutments. The location and details of the drainiige
outlets shall be such as to eliminate, as far as possible, the discoloration
by drainage water of the exposed masonry faces.

1.5.11 VIADUCT BENTS AND TOWERS


When concrete columns are used in viaduct construction, bents and
towers shall be effectively braced by means of longitudinal and trans-

73
verse struts. For height greater than 40 feet, both longitud i na] and
transverse cross or diagonal bracing, preferably, shall bl U9ed and the

footings for the columns forming a single bent shall be thoroughly tied
together.

J .5.J 2 BOX GIRDERS


IA I Elective Compression Flonge Widfh
In girder and flange construction, con9i sting of a girder stem
with top and bottom slab, effective and adequate bond and shear
resistance shall be provided at the j unction of the girder and slab. The
s lab may then be considered an integral part of the girder, but its
effective width as a gi rder flange shal I not exceed the following :
( 1) One fourth of the span length of the girder.
(2) The distance center to center of girders.
(3) Twelve times the least thickness of the slab pl us the width

of the girder stem.

For girders having flanges on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall not exceed the f oil ow in g :

(1

One-twelfth of the span length of the girder.

(2) One-half of the clear distance to the next girder.


( 3I Six times the least thickness of the slab.
IBJ Flonge Thickness
( I ) Top Flonge

The minimum thickness of the top flange shall be determined


by Article 1.3.2 (C) Case A, and the maximum allowable unit
stresses as specified in Article 1.5.12 (G) & (D) , but i n no case shall
be less than 6 inches.
(2)

Boftom FI o nge

The thickness of the bottom flange shall be such that the maxi-

mum allowable unit stresses as specified in Article 1.5.12 ( C) & ID)


are not exceeded. It also shall be at least 'is of the clear span between girders, except that it shall not be less than 5' inches, but
need not be thicker than the top flange unless requ ired for strss
considerations.

IC J Flexure
( I ) Porollel to Girder
The compreeeive unit stress in the extreme fiber of concrete in
both girder stem and flange shall not exceed that given in Article
1.5.1 (C) .
( 2 ) Jform o I fo Girder

The compressive unit stress in the extreme fiber of concrete in


the girder flange shall not exceed that given in Article 1.5.1 (C) .

74

I D I Sheor
The flange shall not be considered as effective in computing the
shear and diagonal tension resistance of girder stems, except in the
determination of the value of j .
The horizontal shearing u nit stress at the junction of the flange
and the monol ith ie fillet jot ning it to the girder stem shall not exceed
that given in Article 1.5. 1 I C I , Shear, Beams with web rein force ment.
Changes in girder stem thickness shall be tapered for a min imum
distance of 12 times the difference in stem thickness.
I El Reinforcement
The unit stress i n steel for both girder stem and flange shall not
exceed that given in Article 1.5.1 (D) .

lFJ Flonge Reinforcement


( J )

Bottom

Flonge

Reinforcement

Minimum reinforcement of 0.4


placed in the slab. A single layer of
slab. Bar spacing shall not exceed
stopped whenever they lap with

Porollel

to

Girders

o of the flange section shall be


bars may be centered in the
18 inches. These bars may be
any main girder reinforcement

located in the approximate center o:I the Pange.


(2)

Bottom

Flonge

Reinforcement

Normol to Girder

Minimum reinforcement of 0.5 o of the flange section shall be

placed in the slab, distributed over both surfaces. Bar spacing ehall
not exceed 18 inche9.
Reinforcement provided as above :for the minimum flange
thickness at other points may be used in areas thickened at support9
in accordance with Art. 1.5.12 IB) (2) & (G) .
All transverse reinforcement in the bottom flange shall be extended to the exterior face of the outside girders in each group and
anchored with standard 90 degree bends.
( 3 I Top Flonge Reinforcement

A minimum or y3 or the bottom layer of the transverse rein-

forcement in the top flange shall be extended to the exterior face o:I
the outside girder in each group and shall be anchored with Standard 90 degree bends or, if the Pange extends beyond the last
girder, extended beyond the girder I:ace at least a bond length.

Diaphragms or spreaders shall be placed between the girders at


intervals not to exceed 60 feet. Diaphragm spacing for curved girders
shall be given special consideration.
IHI Flonges Supporting Pipes ond Conduits
Flanges supporting both vehicle I we load and pipes or conduits
shall be designed using unit stresses set forth in Article 1.5.1.

DE SIGN
Flanges supporting only dead load of structure and pipes or cond u its shall be designed in the direction normal to the girder using unit
stresses not exceeding 75 per cent of those set forth in Article 1.5.1.

I .5. J 3

BEARINGS

Bearing devices Ior concrete structures shall le designed in accord


ance with Articles 1.7.49 through 1.7.SG, or Section 12, Elastomeric
Bearings.

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

J .5.J 4GENERAL
fAl

Application

These spec ificati ons are intended for use in the desi gn of simple
and continuous structures of moderate (to 200) span length. Liirge
or unusual structures may require special study and detailed consideration of effects that can otherwise be neglected or assigned
arbitrary values in the design of structures to which these specifica
tions are intended to apply.
I BI

Other Specificofions

All applicable provisions of the AASHO Specifications shall apply


unless specifically modified herein.

J .5.J 5NOTATION
IAJ Loods ond Forces
B = Buoyancy
CF = Centrifugal force
D = Dead load
EQ Earthquake
F
Longitu dinal force
I Live load impact
ICE Ice pressure
L Live load
LF Longitudi nat force from live load
M = Moment to be used for design of compression member
M,
Column moment capacity under lialanced conditions
M,
Moment requ ired to crack a concrete section
My,, = Maximum dead load moment for section under consideration
M,, = Moment capacity of the section fi applied design load moment
:it a secti on

M,,, Theoretical moment strength of a section

M,,, = Moment capacity in the direction of the x axis


M,,, = Moment capacity in the direction of the y axis
M, Design bending moment component in the direction

o1 the

M, = Design bending moment component in the direction of the


y axis

M Value of smaller end moment on compression member calculated from a conventional elastic frame analysis, positive if
membei- is bent in single curvature, negative if bent in double
curvature
I B I Dimensions end Constcints
A , Loaned area
A,,' Maximum area of the portion of the supporting surface that
is geo meti ical ly similar I o and concentric with the loaded are:i
A Gross area of column section
A s = Area of tension reinforcement
A,
Area of compression reinforcement
A,, := A rem of reinforcement to develop compressive strength of
overhanging flanges in I- and T-sections
A,, = Totaf area of longi tudinal reinforcement = A , + A ' total
vertical reinforcement in columns
A, A i ea of shear reinforcement within a distance s
a llepth of eJu ivalent rectangular stress block k;c
a, Area of an individual bar, sq. in.
b Width of compression face of flexural member, or member
subject to flexure
b= Width of v eb in I and T-sections. In tapered webs, the
average width or 1.2 times the minimum width, whichever is
smaller
b, Per iphery of critical section for slabs and footings
c = Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis
c,, Distance from extreme compression fiber to neutral axis for
balanced conditions
Gp a factor relating the actual moment diagram to an equivalent
uniform moment diagram
D = Nominal diameter of bars ; also, overall diameter of circular
section

d = Distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension


reinf o rcement
d= Distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of compression reinforcement
E, = Modulus of elasticity of concrete
E = Modulus of elasticity of steel
e Eccentr icily of design load parallel to axis measured from the
centroid of the section. It may be calculated by conventional
methods of frame analysis
F Moment magnification factor
I'= Specified compression strength of concrete
f, = Tensile stress des'eloped by a standard hook, psi
r ' MOdulus of rupture of concrete
:f, = Specified yield strength of reinforcement

DE SI GN

77

h = Unsupported length o:I compression memberI,, = Moment of inertia of the trans:formed cracked section
I,, = Effective moment of inertia for computation of deflection
I, = Moment of inertia of gross concrete section about the centroid'l
axis, neglecting the reinforcement
K
Constint for standard hook
k = Effective len gth factor in design of slender columns
k; := 0.85 for strengths, I,., up to 4000 psi, and shall be reduced at
a i-ate of 0.05 for each 1000 psi of strength in excess of
4000 psi
L, = Additional embed ment length at support or at point o:I inflection, in.
L,; = Development length, in.
L, E q ti ivalenl embed mont length, in.

n E /E,

p = A /bd
p= A ,bd
p;, = Re in f orcemcn I ratio prod ucing balanced conditions
Pf
A,,/b'd
pq = A /bd
R

= Ratio of maximum design dead load moment to maximum


design total load moment, always positive
r = Radius of gyration of the concrete gi-oss section in the direction of bending
r
Ratio of area of bars cut off to total area of bars at the

section
s = Shear reinforcement spacing in i direction parallel to the
longitudinal reinforcement
I
F'lange thickness in I- and Tsections ; also overall depth of
section
tq,,,
Recommen d ed minimum thickness for constant depth members
y, = Distance from centroid:it :ixis of gross section, neglecting the
reinforcement, to extreme fiber in tension
c, = Maximum usable strain at the extreme concrete compression
fiber, assumed equal to 0.003
c, = Yield strain of reinforcement corresponding to the yield
strength, I,.
d = Capacity mod ification factor

1.5.J 6
fA J

MATERIALS PROPERTIES
Concrete

(1) The design strength, :f,, of the concrete shall be specified


and the specified strength shall be indie:itPd on the plans. The specified
strength of the concrete shall be basis for acceptance, and each class

78
of concrete shall be represented by a sufficient number of tests.' For
structures designed in accordance with these specifications, the average
of any three consecutive strength tests of the laboratory-cured specimens representing each class of concrete (at least two specimens shall
be made for each test) shall be equal to or greater than the specified
strength, I', and not more than 10 percent of the strength tests shall
have values less than the specified design strength, but no test shall
show an average strength less than 85 percent of the specified com
pressive strength I,
(2) The modulus of elasticity, E,, for concrete may be taken as
(iv' x 33 1: ) in psi, for values of w between 90 and 155 lb. per
cu it. For normal weight concrete, E, may be considered as 57,000

I BJ

Reinforcemenf
( 1) Reinf oi cing bars shall conform to one of the follow ing specifications, except that yield strength shall correspond to that determined
by tests on full sized bars and that reinforcing bars with a specified
yield strength, I,., exceeding 60,000 psi are not permitted under these
specifications.
(a) Specifications for Deformed Billet- Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement (AASHO M31, AST I\I A 615) . If @ 14 or
@ 18 bars meeting these specifications are to be bent, they
shall also be capable of being bent 90 deg. at a minimum
temperature of 60 F. around a ten-bar-diameter pin without
criicking ti-ansverse to the axis of the bar.
(b) Specifications for Rail-Steel llef ormed Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement (AASHO M42) . ID bars meeting these
specifications are to be bent, they shall also meet the bending requirements of AASHO M31, ASTM A615 for Grade
60.
Specifications for AxleSteel Deformed Bars for Concrete
Re Enforcement (AASHO M53, ASTM A 617) .
(2) The modulu s of elastici ty of steel reinforcement, E,, may be
taken as 29,000,0 00 psi.

speci fied, the ea rlicr ago at vv-hi ch the con c retc is to rece we its Iml loaI o r in iiximum stress.
Strength Control Proced ures shall be J ref erabl y in accordance with ACI 2 14 -G Ii , liecom men tel
Practi cc for Ev at uaf in n of Comp session Tests Results o I FioI1 Con c rete. Refer :ilso the Iollowing
specifi c:itions : Methol of Sampling FresL Concr etc ( A AS HO T 141, AS TM C 1 7 2 ) ; Mcttiot of
Making and Curing Con c rete Comp ress we and Flex u rat Test Sr ecimen s in th e Fielcl' ( AA SHO
T2? , ASTM C31 ) ; Comp restive Strength of Molded Concrete CyL n ie r-s ( AA SHO T2 2, A STM
C30 ) .

1.5.17

J .5.1 7
fA J

DESIGN

79

LOADS AND LOAD FACTOR EQUATIONS


Loods

The forces in the structure shall be determined by cons idering


the elastic behavior of the str ucture under loads specified in Section 2,
Loads, Articles 1.2.4 and 1.2.16 excepted .
IBJ

Lood

Foctor Equofions

The following Load Groups represent various combinations of


loads and forces to ivh ich a structu re may be s objected. Each part of
s uch structure, or the to u ndation on which it rests, shal l be propor
tioned for all comb inat ions of such of these forces as are applicable to
the particu lar site or type.
The maximum section requ ired shall be used.
Group I = 1.30 [D 5/3 (L + I) ]
For all loadings less than H20, prov is ion shall be made for an
in Freq tient heavy load by applying Group IA loading, with the live load
assumed to occupy a single lane without conc urrent loading in any
other lane.
Group IA = 1.30 [D 2.2 (L q I) ]
Grou p II 1.30 [D + W + F - SF -J B + S l T j
When earthq u ako loading is taken into account, Group II loadin g
shall be used substituting E Q for \V. \Vhcn ice pressure is taken into
account, Group II loading shall be rised subst i tuti ng ICE for SF.

J .5.J 8
fA J

STRENGTH PROVISIONS
Assum pfions

(1) The strengt.h design o:I members for flex ti i e and :ixial loads
8hall be based on the issu mptions given in th is section, and on siitisfaction o1 the appl icable conditions of eqti ilibrium and compatibility o:I
sti ains.
(2) Str:tin in the reinforcing steel and concrete shall be assumed
d irectly proportional to the distance from the neuti-al axis.
(3) The maximum it s:iblc Qtr:tin at the extreme concrete compi es
sion fibei shall be ass It med equal to 0.003.
(4) Stress in reinforcement below the specified yield strength,
I,., for the giade of steel used shall be taken as E, times the steel
stiain. For str-i ins pieater than that co rrespond ing to f,., the stress
in the reinforcement shall be consi dered independent of strain and

equal to I
( ?) T'ensile strength of the concrete shall be neglected in Pexural
calc ulttions of reinf oi ced concrete.
6) The relationship between the conciete compress we stress

d ist ribution and the conci ete strain may be assumed to be a rectangle,
trapezo 1 d, parabola, or any other shape which results in prediction of
st i ength in substantial agreement with the results of comprehensive

tests.

(7I The requ i cements of Article 1.5.18 (A) 16) may be considered
satisfied by on equ ivalent reetang ular concrete stress distribution
which is defined as follows : A concrete stress of 0.85 I', shall be
as sumed u n if ormly distr ibuted oser an equivalent compression zone
bounded by the edges of the cross section :ind a straight line located
parallel to the neutral axis at a distance a k;c from the fiber of
maximum compressive str-ain. The distance c from the tiber of maxi
mu in strain to the neutral axis is measured in a disection perpend icular
to that axis. The fraction k; shall be taken as 0.85 for strengths, I',
up to 400 0 psi and shall be reduced continuously at a rate of 0.05 for
each 1000 psi of strength in excess of 4000 psi.
(8) E'alanced conditions exist at a cross section when the tension
reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength, f,, just as the concrete in conip session reaches its assumed ultimate strain of 0.003.

1 .5.J 9CAPACITY

MODIFICATION

FACTORS

A ) The us iible toad capacities of the members shall be the calculated


capacities of the members modified according to the provisions
of this Article.
(P ) The computed theoi-etical capacity shall be modified by a capacity
mo dificati on factor d as follows :
For flexure

d 0.50

For shear
&= 0.85
For spirally re i nforced compression members
Q 0.75
For tied compression members
d 0.70
For bearing on concrete
.
d= 0.70
Development lengths specified in Article 1.5.29 do not require a
factor.
J .5.20FLEXURE
I AJ Rectongulor sections with tension reinforcement only
Foi- rect an gul a r or flanged sections in which the neutral axis lies
with in the flan ge, the moment capacity shall be assumed :is :
(5-1)
(5 2)
where

DES IGN

a=
The reinforcement ratio, p, shall not exceed 0.50 of the ratio, p ,,

which prod uces balanced conditions at ultimate stage given by :

0.85 k,f,.

"' 'f,

87,000

8T000 + f,.

I B I I- ond T-sections
( 1) When the flange thickness equals or exceeds the depth to
the neutral axis, a/k , the section may be designed by Equation (5-1) ,
with, a, commuted as for a rectangular beam with a width equal to
the overall flange width given by Article 1.5.5 (A) .
(2) When the flange thickness is less than a/k, the design moment
M shall not exceed that given by the moment capacity of the section
assumed as
I,, (d 0.51) ]
(5-6)

where

0.85 f b

The rein:forcement ratio, p,,. shall noI exceed 0.50 of the quantity
(p,, + p ) , where p,, is given by equation (55) .
IC J

Recfongulor sections with compression reinforcemenf

The moment capacity of rectangular sections, or flanged sections


in wh ich the neu tral axis lies within the flange, with compression
i einf orcement shall be assu med as :

where

and the following cond it ion shall exist


' 0.85 k
When the value of

I,.d
87,000
' I,.d 87,000 f,

(5-9)

82
is less thiin the vil u e given by Eqti:it ion (5-11) , so that the compres
sion steel stress is less than the yield strength, I,., or when effects of
compression steel are neglected, the calculated moment capacity shall
not excced th tit given by Equ:itions ( 61) and
when a
given in
genei a1 analysis is macle on the basis of' the
Article 1.5.18 A) . The quantity

shall not exceecl 0.50 o1 the value of p ,, given by Equation (55) .


I DJ Other cross sections
( 1) For other cross sections :ind for cases of nonsymmetrical
beniing, the moment capacity, M,, dM,,,,, shall be computed by a
general an:ily>is based on the assumptions given in Article 1.5.18 (A) .
(2) The amount of tension reini'orcement shall be so limited Ihat
the steel ratio, p, does not exceed 50 percent of that corresponding to
balanced conditions as defined by Article 1.5.20 A) .
(3) The moment capacity of the reinforced section, when ci-acked,
shall be at lent 1.5 times the moment which produces ci iicking of the
ti ansf ormed, uncracked section. This i equ ii ement, which limits the
minimum tension i einf oi cement to be provided in the section shall
apply to all sections of Article 1.5.20. The modulus of rupture of the
co ncrcte shall be used for calculating the resi stin g moment of the
u ncracked section.

1 .5.2J
IA J

SHEAR
Sheor stress

( 1) The nominal design shear stress in reinforced concrete memLerS shall be computed by :

For design, the maximum design shear V , shall be considePPd


as that ml the section distance, d, from the lace of the support.
Whei evei app liable, effects of torsion shall be added and effects of
inclined flexural compression in variable depth members shall be
included.
(2) For beams of I and T-sections, b shall be substituted for 6
in fiqu:+tion ( 512) .

1.5.21

DE SIGN

reinforcement ratio p is less than 1.2 percent then the shear stress
capacity of the concrete shall be governed by
The design shear stress at sections between the face of the support

and the section at a distance d therefrom, shall not be consider-ed criti-

cal.

IBJ

Sheor

reinforcement

(1) Wherever the value of the design shear stress, v,,, computed
by Equation (5-12) plus effects o:I torsion, exceeds the shear stress
capacity, v,,,., per mitted by Article 1.5.21 (A)
shear i-einforcemenf
shall be pi ovided to carry the excess. Such
reinforce ment shall
also be provided for a distance equal to the depth, d, of the member
beyond the point theoi etically requii-ed. Shear reinforcement between
the lace of the s upport and the section at a distance, d, therefrom shall
be the s.t me as rcquired at the section.

(2) When shear rein:forcement perpen dicu lar to the longitudinal


axis is tised, the rejii ired at ea of shear reinforcement shall be compti ted by :

(5-13)
ICJ

Stress resfricfions

( 1) The design yield strength for shear reinforcement shall not


exceed 60,000 psi.
(2) The shear stress v,, v,, + v,,, shall not exceed
sections v ith shear reinforcement.

10d

I', in

(3) In those areas subject to stress reversals caused by a single


p:issage of the live load plus imp:tct, at service load level, the range
of tensile stress in the sheai i einforcemenf shall be limited as in
accordance with Article 1.5.25 (B) . The shear stress capacity of the
concrete, v,,,., shall be zero and the design shear, v,,, shall not exceed

IDI Sheor reinforcement resfricfions

( 1) Whet o shear reinforcement is requ ired and is placed per


pondicti la r to Iho axis of the member, it shall be sp:iced not further
apart th an 0.50d but not more than 24 in. Inclined stirrups and bent
bars shall be so spaced that every 45 degree l ine, extending tow:ii d the
reaction :f rom the mid-depth o:I the member, 0. 50d, to the longitud ina I
tension bars, shall be crossed by at least one line o:I shear reinIorce1. the maximum
ment. When the design shear stress, v,,, exceeds
spacin gs given ibove shall be reiiuced by one-half.
(2) \\'here shear reinforcement is i equiied, its area, A,., shall not

84
be less than 0. 15 percent of the area computed as the p roduct of the
width of the web and the spacing of the shear reinforcement at on g
the longitu dinl axis of the member. (i.e., A,. ? 0.0015b's) .
IE J

Sheor sfress in slobs ond footings

11) The shear capacity of slabs and footings in the vicinity of


concentrated loads or concentr:ited reactions is governed by the more
severe of two conditions :
with a critical section extending in a plane across the
entire width and located at distance d from the face
of the concentrated load or reaction area. For this condition the slab or footing shall be designed in accordance
with Article 1.5.21 (A) .
Two-way action for the slab or looting, with a critical
section perpendicular to the plane of the slab and located
so th:it its periphery is a minimum and approaches no
closer than d/2 to the pei iphe ry of the concentrated load
oi reaction area. For this condition the slab

or

footing

shall be designed as specified in the remainiler of this


section.
(2) The periphery shear stress shall be computed by

in which V,, and b,, are taken at the critical section specified in Article
1.5.21 ( E) (1) t b) . The periphery shear stress, v,,, shall not exceeil the
shear stress capacity o1 the concrete v,, 45\/f ',. unless shear rein
forcement is pi ovi ded in accordance with Article 1.6.21(E ) (3) , in
which case, v,,, shall not exceed 68 f', .
3) When v,, exceeds v,,,.= 4d f', shear reinforcement shall be
provided in accordance with Articles 1.5.21 ( B) to 1.5.21 (D) , except
that the design yield strength, I,., for the shear reinforcement shall
be 50 percent of that prescribed in Article 1.5.16 (B) . Sheir reinforcement const sting of bars, rods or wires shall not be considered effective
i n members having an effective depth of less than 10 inches.
1.5.22
I AJ

COLUMNS
General

( 1) All columns shall be designed to resist the combined bending


and axial loads Ihat result from the x aious combination s of loads and
forces given in Article 1.5.17. All members subj ected to a compression
load shall be designed for the eccentricity, e, correspond ing to the
in:iximum moment thit can accompany this loading condition, but not
less than 1-inch, or 0.051 for spii ally reinforced compression members,
or 0. 101 for tied compi ession members, about eithei- principal axis.

DE SIGN

85

(2) The area of lon gitud in at rei nforcement preferably shall not
be less th an 1 percent, nor more than 8 percent of the gross concrete
:trea of the colu run section. In a col umn which, for any reason, has a
larger crow-section than required by the loads and moments determined
in accordance ivi th the prov isi ons of Article 1.5.17, the minimum

amou nt of longitti iiinal steel specified above may be red need provided

that in no case shall less longilu d incl steel be u sed than that req u i red
by the minimum sized column neccssa ry to support the I oads and
moments defined above, designed with one percent o:I longitu dinal
steel.

IBJ

Column Secfion Copocifies

11)

Concentric f oo ding
T'he axial load capacity of a col umn section sub.jected to pui c
co repress to n, P,,, is :
The capacity mod ification factor, /, shall be the :ippropriate
value for tied or spii i l colu runs gi ven in Article 1.5.19. C oncentric
loading is a h ypothetical loading cond i I i on since columns shall be
designed for eccentricities at lent :is large as those given in
Article 1.5.22 I A) ( 1) .
( 2)

Pure

Flexure

The assu mptions given in Articlc 1.5.18 (A) , or the eJ uations


for flexu re given in Article 1.5.20, in.iy be u sed to deterred ne the
capacity of the cot u run section It nd er the hypothetical load irig
cond it ion of pu re flex u re. The section capacity is mu ltipl red by
the capacity mod i fixation factor, d, for flexu re.
( 3)

Com bi ned Axio I L ood o n d Flexure

The determine ti on of the column cross-section capacity sh;ill


be bised on compati b il i ty of stiess and strain tieing the assumptions on u merated in Article 1.5.18 ( A \ . The axiitl loid captci ty and
the moment capacity th It s obtained for the section shal l be multi
plied by the appi-opri ate c:opacity modification factor, 6. The
value of d may be increased lineai-ly from the val ue for columns to
the value for- flexui e as the axial design load, P , decieases f i-ore

0.101,A, to zero.
(4)

B o I o need

Condifions

8
for compression members using the assumptions
1.5.18 (A) :ind assuming the neu tral axis located at :

of

At-ticle

d
( 5)

Bio xio I Loodi ng

In lieu of making the


scribed above for the case
bending in the direct ion
approximate expressions may

general column section analysis de


of non-cii cular columns subjected to
of both principal axes, the following
be used :

1 when
CJ

Slenderness effects in columns '

The influence of slender columns on behav ior of' the structure


may be I:iken into account by the follov in g approximate proceilures.
1 The unsupported length, h, of a compression member shall
be taken as the clear distance between slabs, girders or other members
capable of provitl ing lateral support for the compression member.
Where capitals or haunches at-e present, the unsupported length shall
be measureii to the loi'er extremity of the capital or haunch in the

pliino considered.
(2) The radius of gyration, r, may be taken equal to 0.30 ti1T19
the overall dimension in the direction in which stability is being
considered for rect nguliir compression members and 0.25 times the
I i ameter for circular compress ion members. For other shapes, r wiry
be computed for the gross concrete section.
(3) For compression memliers braced against sidesway, the effec
tive length factor, k, shall be taken as 1.0, unless an analysis shows
that a lower value may be used. For compression member-s not braced
against sidesiv ay, the effective length factor, k, shall be determined
with due coR51drtion of cracking and reinforcement on relative stiffness, and shall be greater than 1.0.
14) For compression members braced against siilesway, the effects
of slenderness may be neglected when kh/r is less than 34 12 M, /M .
For compressi on members not braced against sidesway, the effects of
Slenderness may- be neglected when kh/r is less than 22. For all compress ion members with kh/i- greater than 100, a more exact analysis

EJwnrJ 0. Ffrang, Journal uf tte American Goncre[c Institute, January 1970, ;p. 6-2B fur
comp rehen s we lis cues ion of these p rev isto n s No r clesigni rig efanele r columns. Th is a rti cl e includes
n cm oa rat h s to r fete ran i n i n j the e ffccliv o leng th I actor, k.

87

DE SIGN

than that prescri bed herein shall be made. M, = value of smaller end
moment on compress i on member calcu l ated from a conventional elastic
frame analysis, positive if member is bent in single curvature, negative
if bent in double curvature. M,. value of larger end moment on
compression member calcti l ated from a conventi onml elastic frame
analys is, always positive.

(5) Compression members shall be des igned using the design axial
load from a conventional f i ame analys is and a magnified moment
defined by

where
( 5-20)

(5-21)
In lieu of more precise calculation, EI may be taken either as

EI

(5-22)

or consers'atively

EI =
where R,,, is the i-a tio of maximum design dead load moment to
maximum design to tal load moment.
For members braced ag:iinst sidesway and without
loads between su pports, C,,, may be taken as

transverse

b ut not less than 0.4.


For- all other cases C,,, shall be taken as 1.0.
16) When a grou p of colu runs on one level comprise a bent, or
when they ai e connected integrally to the same superstr Picture, and

COllecti vPly resu t the sidesway of the structu re, the value of F shall

be computed for the column group. P , and P,., then shall be taken as
the summation of Pp and P,. for all the columns in the group. In
des igning each column in the group, F shall be taken as the larger
of ( a) the value compri ted for the group as a whole, or (b) the valrie
computed f oi- the ind ivi d tial colti run ass ri ming its ends to be braced
against si desway.
(7) When compress ion members are sub.ject to bending about both
princi pal :ixes, the moment about each :ixis sh:ill be amplified by F,
compu ted from the co rr espond ing con di ti one of restrai nt about that

bb

(a) When the actual computcd eccentricities are less than the
specified min imum, the compu ted end moments may be
u sed to evaluate the con d i tions of curvature.
I b) If cmptitations show that ther e is no eccentricity at
both ends o1 the member, conditions of curvature shall
be based on a ratio of M , /M.. equil to one.

1.5.23

BEARING

in u ltipl ied ly yA' , /A ,, b tit not more than 2.

1.5.24

SERVICE LOAD REQUIREMENTS

I AJ

Service Lood Stresses


( 1) For investi gation of service load stresses Ihe straight-line
theory of stress in d Qtr-at n in flcxui-e shall be used and the following
assu options shall be made :

(2) In doubly rein Ior ced beams and slabs, on effective modular
ratio of 2E / E,. shall be u sed to transform the compre ssion reinforce
ment for- stress compu lation s.

1.. .25

89

DE SIGN

J .5.25 FATIGUE
IA I Concrete
The range of compressive stress in the concrete caused by a sinbl e
passage o1 live load plus impact and centr if ugal force, at service load
level, shall be limited to 0.15f, at points

tions where stress reversals occur.


I BI

of

contraftexure, and

at

sec-

Reinforcemenf

The range of stress in straight reinforcement caused by a single


passage o:I live load plus impact at service load level, shall be limited
to 21,000 psi." Bends in pi-treat-y reinforcement shall be avoided at
sections having a high range of stress.

J .5.26 FLEXURAL STRESS LIMITATIONS


IA J

General

( 1) The steel stress range shall comply with the :fatigue provisions
of Article 1.5.2 (B) .
(2) The maximum steel stress shall be 36,000 psi'
IB J

Bridges exposed to corrosive environments


deck profection sysfem

withouf

o woterproof

( 1) All primary negative moment reinforcement in continuous


bridges shall be increased 10 percent beyond the amount required by
the prov is ions of Article 1.5.20."

J .5.27 DEFLECTIONS
fAl Superstrucfure depth recommendations

As a means o:I controlling longtime deflections due to creep and


sh rinkage, it is recommended that superstructure depths for various
bridge types be not less than the value obtained from the equations

in Table 1.5.27. Depths less than these may be used when specific
consideration is given to limiting longtime deflections by use of
compression re inf orcement or some other method.
Concrete Roadway Slabs excluded.
A putt cable p r trna ril x to bridge deck slabs anl short s pan slab b t-idges where the iIe1 load
to total load moment ratio is I oss than ap p rox imately 0.25.
This stress I imitation is intended for G0, 00 0 jis i yielI point rei rife rcem cnt. For b riclg:es
des igned using 40,0 00 ps i and 5 0.0 00 ps i yield ioi nt rei nto rcement, the maximum stresses Io r vet
long span structures where the live I cad stres ses become in sign ifi cant wouIc1 be li in itol by th o load
tractor equations in Section 1.5. 17 ( D ) to about 27, 7 00 psi to r 40, 00 0 jisi vie1l pot nt rei nfoicement
and to about 34, 6 00 ps i for 60,0 00 psi vield point reinfo rccment.
Appl icable to 6ridges using 6 0, 0 00 psi yield point reinforcement w ith spans o:I 1 50 feet of
mo re where the dead load to total load moment ratio is eoual to or g reater than 0.776.
This provis ion does not applr to rcinforceme nI of brid ge deck sI abs.

Slabs with in:tin reinforcement parallel


and transverse to traffic
S effective span in feet

t,,,,,== 0.?? < 30


but no less than 0.542 feet

Tee-Beams
S actual span in feet
S

actual span in feet

'

20

* Recommcn dcd values for continuous sp ans; simple sp an s sh ould have bout 10 ieicent
g reater thickness.
* * When variable dep th memlc re are used, table v alucs may be adjusted to a:con n( Ior chan be
i n relative sti IDness of nositive an cl negative moment sections.

I BJ

Deod lood deflections ot folsework removol

Unless a moi e comp rehens we analysis is made, immediate dead


load deflections upon removal of I alsework shall be computed by the
usual methods of Iormul:is for elastic deflections, using Ihe modulus
of elasticity for concrete specified in Article 1.5.16 (A) . The effective
moment of inertia shall be taken as the follow in g, but not greater
than Ig :

where

M,,,,, Maximum

dead load moment

for

section under consideration


For continuous spans, the effective moment of inertia may be taken
as the average of the values obtained from Equation (5-25) for the
critical po.sitive and negative moment sections.

ICI Long-time deflections coused by deod foods, creep ond shrinkage


Unless a more comprehend we analysis is made, for purposes of
determ in in g f alsework camber, the dead load deflection computed ln
IF) may be multipl ied by a factor chosen from Table 1.5.27A. The longtime deflection s, thus calculated, might be expected to occur over
:t period of about three years.

91

DE SIGN

Climate of high humidity


Climate of

average

humidity

Climate o:I low humidity

.8

2.

J .5.28 OVERLOAD
Structures proportioned by this specification will sustain without
damage the following overload :

Members designed for Group I loading = D + 5/3 (L + I)

Members designed for Group IA loading D + 2.2 (L + I)

J .5.29 DEVELOPMENT OF REINFORCEMENT


IA I General
(1) The calculated tension or compression in the reinforcement at
each section shall be developed on each side of that section by embedment length or end anchorage or a combination thereof. For bars in
tension, hoot:s may be used in developing the bars.
(2) Tension reinf orcement may be anchored by bending it across

the web and making it continuous with the reinforcement on the


opposite face of the member, or anchoring it there.
(3) The critical sections for development of reinf:orcement in
flexural mernbeis are at points of maximum stress and at points within
the span where adjacent reinforcement terminates, or is bent. The
provisions of Article 1.5.29 (B) (2) must also be satisfied.
(4) Reinforcement shall extend beyond the point at which it is
no longer' rejuired to resist flexure for a distance equal to the effective
dPQth Of the mPmber or 12 bar diameters, whichever is greater, except
at supports of simple spans and at the free end of canti levers.
15) Continuing reinforcement shall have an embedment length not
less than the development length, L,,, beyond the point where bent or
terminated tension reinforcement is no longer required to resist
flexure.
16) Flexural rei riforcement shall not be terminated in a tension
zone unless one of' the :fo1lowing conditions is satisfied :
( a) The shear at the cutoff point does not exceed twothirds
that permitted, including the shear strength of furnished
web reinforcement.
(b) Stirrup area in excess of that required :for shear and
torsion is provided along each terminated bar over a
distance from the terna inati on point equal to threefourths the effective depth of the member. The excess

stirrups shall be proportioned such that their (A,./bs) I,.


is not less than 60 psi. The resulting spacin g, s, shall not
exceed d/ 8r,, where i , is the ratio of the area of bars
clit off to the total area of bars at the section.
( c) For @ 11 and smaller bars, the continuing bars provide
double the area required for flexure at the cutoff point
and the shear does not exceed three-fourths that per-

IBJ

Positive momenf

reinforcement

(1) At least onethird the positive moment reinforcement in


simple members and one-fourth the positive moment reinforcement in
continuou s members shall extend along the same face of the member
into the support, and in beams at least G in.
(2) When a flexural member is part of the primary lateral load
resisting system, the required positive rei nf orcement of Article 1.5.29
(B) (1) extended into the support shall be anchored to develop its
yield stress in tension at the face of' the support.
(3) At simple supports and at points of in flection, positive moment tension reinf or-cement shall be limited to a diameter such that L,
computed for I,. by Article 1.5.29 (E) does not exceed :

M,n the computed flexural strength assuming all reinforcement at


the section to be stressed to I,. V,, is the maximum applied shear at
the section. L., at a support shall be the sum of the embedment length
beyond the center of Ihe support and the equivalent length of any
furnished hook or mechanical anchorage. L,, at a point of inflection
shall be limited to the effective depth of the member or 12D, which
ever is greater. The value M,,,/V,, in the development length limitation may be increased 30 percent when the ends of the reinforcement
are confined by a compressive reaction.

IC J

Negative moment reinforcement

(1) Tenslon reinforcement in a continuous, restrained, or cantilever member, or in any member of a rigid frame, s-hall be anchored
in or through the supporting member by embedment length, hooks,
or mechanical anchorage.
(2) Negative moment reinforcement shall has'e an Pmbedmenl
length into the span as required by Articles 1.5.29 (A) (1) and 1.5.29
(A) (4)
(3) At least one-third the total reinforcement provided for negative moment at the support shall have an embedment length beyond
the point of inflection not less than the effective depth of the member,
12D, or one-sixteenth of the clear span, whichever is gi eater.

DE SIGN

ID J Special members
Adequate end anchorage shall
mPnt in flexural mcmbers where
p roportional to moment, such as :
brackets ; deep beams ; or members

93

be provided for tension rein:forcereinforcement stress is not directly


sloped, stepped, or tapered footings ;
in which the tension i einf orcement

is not parallel to the compression face.

IEJ Development length of deformed bors in tension


The development length, L,; in inches, of deformed bars in tension
shall be computed as the product o:I the basic development length of
(1) and the applicable modi ficati on factor or factors of (2) and (3) ,
but L,, shall be not less than 12 in.
(1) T'he basic development length in inches shall be :

(2) T'or
be mu lti plied
(3) The
requ irement
factors for

toJ re Enforcement " the basic development length shall


by a factor of 1.4.
basic development lenpth, modified by the appropriate
of (2) may be multiplied by the applicable :factor or

Reinforcement being developed in :i length under consideration


and spaced laterally at least G in. on center and at least 3 in.
:from the side of the member ...................................................0.8
Reinforcement in a flexural member in excess of that requ ii ed
(A iequired/A provided)
Bars enclosed within a spiral which is not less than ir in. diameter
and not more than 4 in. pitch ............................................... 0.75

computed as 0.02f,D/ I but shall not be less than 0.0003f,.D or 8 in.


Where excess bar area is provided, the L, length may be red uced by the
ratio of required area to area proc ided. The development length may
be red uced 25 percent when the reinforcement is enclosed by spirals
not less than 'r in. in diameter and not more than 4 in. pitch.

IG J

Development length of bundled bors

The development length of each bar of bundled bars shall be that


for the in dividual bar, increased by 20 percent for a three-bar bundle,
and 33 percent for n Yourbar bundle.
I HJ

Stondord hooks in tension

(1) lStandard hooks shall be considered to develop a tensile stress


in bar reinforcement I,, = H f', where K is not greater than the values
in Table 1.5.29.

:f,=:60 ksi
Top Bars

Bar Size

360
360
360
360
860

540
460

330
220

330
220

Bottom Bars

(2) An equivalent embedment length L,, shall be computed using


the provisions of Article 1.5.29 (E) (1) by substituting I;, for I, and

L,Ior L,,.

(3) Hooks shall not be considered effective in adding to the


compressive resistance of reinforcement.
III Combination development lengfh

Development length L, may consist of a combination of the


equis alent embedme nt length of a hook or mechanical anchorage plus
additional embedment length of the reinforcement.
IJ J

Mechonicol onchoroge
Any mechanical device capable of developing the strength of the
reinforcement without damage to the concrete may be used as anchorage.
IKJ Anchorage of sheor reinforcement

( 1) Shear reinforcement shall be carried as close to the compression and tension surfaces of the member as cover requirements
and the proximity of other steel will permit, and in any case the end
of single leg, simple U-, or multiple

U-stirrup, shall

be anchored

by

one of the following means :


(a) A standard hook plus an effective embedment of 0.6 L,;.
The effective embe dment of a stirrup leg shall be taken
as the distance between the middepth of the member,
d/2, and the start of the hook (point of tangency) .

95

Embedment above or below the middepth, d /2, of the


beam on the compres,sion side for a full development

len gth L, , but not les>- than 24 bor diameters.

Bend in g around the ton gitud inal rei nforcement thro ugh
at least 180 deg. Hooking or bendi ng stii-rups around
the longi tudina1 rei nforcemen I shall be con sidered effective anchorage only when the stirrups re.ike an angle of
at least 45 cleg. with cleformed ton g itud i nat bar-s.
Between the anchored ends, each bend in the con tinuou s
portion of a transverse st mple U or multiple U-stirr tip
shall enclose a lori gitud i not bar.
Pairs
of U-stirrups or ties so Jlaced as to form a closed
(e)
un it shall be cons idered properly spliced when the laps
are 1.7L, . In members at teas-I 18 in. deep, such splices
havin g a,f ,. not more than 9000 lb per leg may be considered adequate if the legs extend the lull available
depth of the member.

Section 6 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


J .6.J GENERAL
Th e spec the at ions of this section
stressed concrete bridge members.
concrete, except for a percentage of
service lieha vi o3-, shall conform to the

are intended for design of pro


I\Members designed as i einf oicec1
tensile steel stressed to improve
applicable specification s of Section

E xcepti on all y lon p span or untis ual structu res req u ii e detailed con
sideration o1 effects which under this Section may have been assigned

or biti ary values.

J .6.2 NOTATION
A, n ei of non-prestiessed tension ieinforcement.

A, area of compress ion i einforeement.


A = are:i of pi'estressing steel.
A , steel area requ ired to develop the ultimate comPressivP streii gth
of the overh:in gin g portions o:I the flange.
A,,.= steel area requ ired to develop the ultimate compressive strength
of the web of a flanged section.
A,.= area of web reinforcement.
b width of flange of f1anged member or v\'ic1th of rectangul:ir mem-

ber.

b width of a iv'eb of a flanged member.


CR;= loss of pi-estress due to creep of concrete.
GR = loss of pres Press due to relaxation of prestressing steel.
CR,;, loss of prestress due to relaxation of post-tensioning steel.
D effect of deail load.
D = n ominal d iameter of prestressing steel.

d distance from enreme compressive fiber to centroid of the prestressing f'orce.


ES Elastic shortening loss.
base of Niiperian logai ithms.

I,,,= average concrete compressive stress at the e.g. of the prestressing

steel under full dead load.


I , average concrete stress at the e.g. of the prestress ing steel at
time of release.
compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.
i= compressive strength of conci-ete at time of initial prestress.
total prestress loss, excluding friction.
:f, effective steel prestress after losses.
I,,, average stress in prestress ing steel at ultimate load.
I= ultimate strength of prestressing steel.
I,,=yield Etrength of non-prestressed conventional rei nforcement in
tension.
yield strength of non-prestressed conventional reinforcement in
compression.

yield point stress of prestressing steel.

moment of inertia about the centroid of the cross section.


$ = impact load.
I ratio of distance between centroid of compression and centroid
of tension to the depth d.
= friction wobble coefficient per foot of prestress ing steel.
L=effect of design live load.
L=length of prestressing steel element from jack end to point x.
Mq -p]timate flexural strength.

p A /bd, ratio of non-prestressed tension reinf orcoment.

p A*,/bd, ratio of prestressing steel.


p' A',/bd, ratio of compression reinforcement.
B statical moment of cross sectional area, above or below the level
being investi gated for shear, about the centroi d.

SH = concrete shrinkage loss.

s longitudinal spacing of the web reinforcement.


I average thickness of the flange of a flanged member.
T,, steel stress at jacking end.
T, steel stress at any point x.
v= ultimate horizontal shear stress.
V = sheiir carried by concrete.

V,, = shear due to ultimate load and effect of prestressing.

y = friction curvature coefficient.


n total angular change of prestressing steel profile in radians from
jacking end to point x.

J .6.3

DESIGN THEORY

Members shall meet the ultimate strength and allowable stress reQtr irements as specified.
Design shall be based on ultimate strength and behavior at service

DESIGN

1.6.3

97

conditions for all load stages that may be critical during the life of the
structure from the time of prestressin g.
I .G.4

BASI C ASSU6IPTION 5

The following assumptions are made for design purposes :


(1) Strains vary linearly over the depth of the member throughout the entire load range.
(2) Before cracking, stress is linearly proportional to strain.
(3) After cracking, tension in the concrete 1s neglected.

J .6.5

LOAD FACTORS

Load factors are multiples of the design load applied to the struc-

ture to ensure its safety. The computed ultimate capacity shall not be
less than the largest val ue obtained from foi mulas 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4.

Members subject to comb inat ions of loads and forces shall be designed
for the combined effect.
Group I
For all loadings less than H2O, prov isi on shall be made for an infrequent heavy load by applying Group IA loading, with the live load
assumed to occupy a single lane without concurrent load ing in any other
lane.

Group II
When earthquake loading is taken into account, Group II loading
shall be used substitut ing EQ for W. When ice pressure is taken into

account, Group II loading shall be used substituting ICE for SF.


Group III

+ (L +I) +CF +0.3W +WL + F + LF)

(6-4)

Except for the d factors listed below, the symbols in the above

formulas represent the moments, shears or forces caused by the loads


and the effects described in Article 1.2.22.
& Factor on section strength =
1.0 for factory produced precast prestressed concrete members
0.95 for post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete members
1.90 for shear

J ..6

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

The design of precast prestressed members ordinarily shall be based


on I'=5000 psi. An increase to G000 psi is permissible where, in the

l.b.b

HI GH WAY B RI D GE 5

Enginceis j udgment, it is reasonable to expect that this strength will be


obtained consi stently. Still higher conci ete strengths may be considered
on an individual area basis. In such cases, the Engineer shall satisfy
himself completely that the controls over materials and fabrication procedures will provide Ihe requ ii e d streng ths. The provisions o:I this
Section aie equally applicable to prestressed concrete structures or
components designed with lower concrete strengths.
IA J

Prestressing

steel

Temp orary stress before loss due to creep and


shrin kage
.
.
. . . . . .
.
. , . , . ,
Stress at service load after losses

. . .

. . . 0.70f ',
. 0.80f ',

(Ovei stressing to 0.80f', for short periods of time may be permitted provided the stress, after transfer to concrete in pretensioning or seating of anchorage in post-tensioning, does not exceed
0.70f',) .
IBJ Concrete
IJ J

Temporory stresses before losses due f o creep ond shrinkage:

Compression
Pretensioned members Posttensioned members
Tension

12 I

Stress of service lood ofter losses hove occurred:

(a) For members with bonded reinforcement


For severe corrosive exposure conditions, such as
coastal areas
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 f ',
t b) For members wihout bonded reinforcement
.0
* Service loal cons ists of :ill I oa ds cont amed in Arti etc 1.2.1 but rices not in elude ovcr1oal

99

DE SIGN

1.6.6

Tension in other areas is l imited by the allowable temporary

stresses specihed in Article 1.6.6 (B) (1 .

( 3 J Crocking Stress '

Modulus of rupture from tests or if not available :


For normal weight concrete
For sand-lightweight concrete
For all other lightweight concrete
(4 )

A nchoroge beon ng sfress :

Posttensioned anchorage at service lo:id


(but not to exceed 0.9 I,;)

J .6.7 LOSS OF PRESTRESS


IA )

Friction

Losses

Friction losses in post-tensioned steel shall be based on experimentally determined wobble and curvature coefficients, and shall be
verified d uring stressing operations. The val ues of coefficients :issu med
for design, and the acceptable ranges of jacking foi ces and steel

eI ongations shall be shown on the plans. These friction losses shall be


calculated as follows :

When (KL+yz ) is not greater than 0.3, Ihe following equation

may be used :

The following values for K and y may be used when experimental


data for the materials used are not avai table :
Type of Steel
\\'ire or ungalvanized strand

Type of Duct
Pright Metal Sheath ing

Galvanized Metal
Sheathing

Greased or asphaltcoated and wrapped


Galvanized rigid

High-strength bars

Bright Metal Sheath in g


Galvan ized I\1etal
Sheath ing

0.0020

0.30

0.0015

0.25

0.0020

0.30

0.0003

0.20

00002

015

0.0002

0.25

Friction losses occur prior to anchoi-ing but should be estimated


:for design and checked during stressing operati ons. Rigid ducts shall

+.

HIGHWAY BRIDGE S

have sufficient strength Io maintain their correct alignment without


visible wobble during placement of concrete. Rigid ducts may be
fabricated with either welded or interlocked seams. Galvanizing of the
v'elded seam will not be required.
lBJ Prestress Losses
Loss of prestress due to all causes, excluding friction, may be
estimated from the following method. The method is based upon the
use of 270 ksi, seven-wire, stressrelieved strand and normal-welght
concrete. For data regarding the properties and effects of lightweight
aggregates and low-relaxation tendons, refer to documented tests or
see authorized suppliers.
( I )

Prefe n stoned

Af, -SH +ES +CR +CR,


where : of total prestress loss, excludlng friction.
I ci I Shri n kog e

SH concrete shrinkage loss computed using the :fo1lowing


average alues. Select the average ambient relative
humidity for the geographic area.
Average Ambient Relative
Humidity

SH
(psi)

(percent)
100-'75
75-25
2ii- 0

( b I ElostiC Ehorte ni ng

EA 7 I,,.= elastic shortening loss, where f,, = average concrete stress at the center of gravity of the
stressing steel at time of release. E 5 may be
mated using the following average values :
Sections with

Sections without

Composite Deck Slab

Composite Deck Slab

I , (psi)

ES (psi)

I ,. (psi)

7,000
10,000
13,000

600
800
1,000

1,000
1,400
1,800

preesti-

ES (psi)
4,000
5,500
7,000

* Should more cxiict prestress losses be reou ired, data repres enti n g the material to be usel,
the metho de o:I curing, the ambient service cond it ion an d any portin ent structural letail should be
dete rmin cd for use in the methol r resented in Deflectio us of Prestre sseel Concrete Mem bers
reports d by Subcomm ittee 6, ACI Ccmm ittec 435 , Journal o( tic III, Vol. G 0, No. 12, Docean ber

1.6.7

DE SIGN
(c)

Creep of Concrete

GR 16:I,, loss due to creep of concrete, v here I,,, =

average concrete compressive stress at the center of

gravity of the prestress ing steel under full dead


load. CR may be estimated using the following
average values. These values apply to sections that
are both with and without composite deck slabs.
500

8,000

800

13,000

1,200
(d)

ReIo x o fion of

19,000

Prestre ssing Sleet

CR,=20,000 0.125 (SH +ES + CR ) =loss due to relaxa

tion of prestress ing steel.


12 )

Post- fensioned

Af, =0.8 (SH -F 0.5 (ES) + CR, +CR,,,

where CR, , =20,000 0.125 [ (0.8) (SH) + (0.5) (ES + CR,]

J .6.8

FLEXURE

Prestressed concrete members may be assumed to act as uncracked


members subJ eCted to combined axial and bending stresses within specified service loads.
In calcu lotions of section properties, the transformed area of bonded
reinforcement may be included in pretens toned members and in posttensioned members after grouting ; prior to bonding of tendons, areas
of the open ducts shall be deducted.

J .6.9

ULTIMATE FLEXURAL STRENGTH

fA J

Recfongulor

Sections

For rectangular or flanged secti ons in which the neutral axis 1 ies
within the flange, the ultimate flexural strength shall be assumed as

IBJ Flanged Sec fions


ID the neutral axis falls outside the flange . usually if the Pange
thickness is less than 1 .4dp * ../*',) , the ultimate Pexural strength
shall be assu med as

where
A,,

A", A,, the steel area required to develop the ultimate

compressive stren gth of the web of a flanged

section.

A, = 0.85 I,, (b b) t/f ",,, = steel area required to develop the ultimate compressive strength of the overhanging portions of the flange.
I CI

Steel Stress

Unless the value of f,,, can be more accurately


detailed analysis, the following values may be used :

known

from

Bonded members .
Unbonded members
pi-ovided that :
(1) The stress-strain properties of the prestressing steel approximate those specified in Article 2.4.33 (I )
(2) The effective prestress after losses is not less than 0.5 I',

1 .6. J 0

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM STEEL PERCENTAGE

I AJ Moximum Steel
P restressed concrete members shall be designed so that the steel
is yielding as ultimate capacity is approached. In general the reinforcement index shall be such that
1'or rectangular sections
and
for flanged sections
does not exceed 0.30. For steel with reinforcement indices greater than
this, the ultimate flexur:it strength shall be assumed not greater than :

IBJ Minimum Steel


The total amount of prestressed and non -prestressed reinfoi cement shall be adequate to develop an ultimate load in flextire at the
ciitical section at least 1.2 times the cracking load calculated on the
basis of the modulus of rupture (refer to Article 1.6.6 (B) ( ?) .

1 .6.J 1

NONPRESTRESSED

REINFORCEMENT

Nonprestressed reinforcement may be cons idered as contributing to


the tensile strength o:I the beam at ultimate strength in an amount equal

to its area times its yield point, provided that

DE SIGN

J .d.12 CONTINUITY
IAJ Generol
Continu ous beams and other statieilly indeterminate struct It res
shall be designed for adequate strPn gth and satisfactory behavior.
Pehavior shall be determ in ed by clastic analysis, hiking into account
the reactio ns, moments, shcr and axi:il foi ces produced by prestiessing, the effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, axial deform at ion,
ros trint of attached structuial elements, and Iourid ution settlement.
IBI Cost-in-ploce Posf-Tensioned Bridges

The effect of secon dary moments due to prestress ing shall be in


cluded in stiess calcu lotions at working Ioad, but shall be neglected in
calcu letting ulti mate st rength.
ICJ Bridges Composed of Simple-Spon Precosf Prestressed Girders Mode
Continuous
( J )

Genero I

When structurttl Continu ity is vssii med in calcu lating live loads
plus iinpact and composite dead load moments, the effects of creep
and shrinkage shall be considered in the design of bridges incor
porating simple span precast, prest ressocl girders and deck slams
cont in uous over two or more spans.
( 2)

Positive /V\oment Con necfion of Piers

Provis ion shall be made in the design for the positive moments
that may develop in the negative moment region due to the combined effects of creep and sh ri nkige in the girders and deck slab,
and due to the effects of live load plus impact in remote spans.
Sh rinkage .tnd elastic shorten ing of the pier shall be considered
when significant.
Non-prostressod positive moment conn ection reinforcement at
Jiers may be designed at working stress o:I II.G times the yield
strength but not to exceed 36 ksi.
( 3)

Negofive lv\omenfs

Negative moment reinforcement shall be proportioned by


ultimate strength design with load :factors in accordance with
Article 1.6.5.
The effect of initial precompress ion due to prestress in the
gi rders may be neglected in the negative moment calcu lation of
ultimate strengfh if the maximum prccompression stress is less
than 0.4f and the coritin uity reinforcement, p, in the deck slab
is less than 0.01 ; where p= A,/bd.

104

The ultimate negative resisting moment sh:Ill be calculated


using the compressive strength of the girder concrete regardless
of the strength of the diaphragm concrete.
1 4 I Com p ress we Stress i n Girde rs ct Pie rs cif Se rvice Loci ds

The compressive stress in ends of' girders :it piers resulting


from addition of the effects of prestrossing and negative live load
bend1I1@ Shall not exceed 0.G0 I
In continuous bridges of this type, shear reinforcement shall
be designed according to Artlcle 1.6.13.
The horizont:it shear connection between the castin-place slab
and the precast girder shall be designed in accordance with Article
1.6.14.

1 .. J 3

SHEAR *

but not less than


A, -100 b's/1,,
where I,,, shall not exceed 60,000 psi

V,. =0.061 b'jd but not more than 180 bJ d.

Web reinforcement may consist Of :

The spacing of w eb reinfo rcemont shall not exceed three-fourth.s


the depth o1 the member.
The ci itic:it sections for shen in simply supported beams will
usually not be near the ends of the span where the shear is a maximum, but at some pot nt away from the ends in a region nd high

moment.
For the design of web re inforcement in simply supported mem
bers carrying moving to:ids, it is recommended that shear be in
ves tig alecl only in the middle

half of the spin

length.

The

web

reinl orcement reqti ired at the quarter points should be used throi gh
oit the outer quarters of the span.
* The metho1 Jor les ign of web remit or cemeat: j resen tecl in ACI .3 18-7 1 is :in aece ptablo :iltc rnate but web rcinf or cemc nt shall not be less th:in Av
100 6./f s .

DESIGN
For continuous bridges whose individual spans consist of pre
cast prestressed girders, web reinforcement shall be designed for
the lull length of interi or spans and for the interior three-fourths
of the exterior span.
1 .. J 4 COMPOSITE STRUCTURES
IA J

General

Composite structures in which the deck is assumed to act integrally

with the beam shall be interconnected in accordance with (B) (C) and

(D) of this Article to transfer shear along contact su rf aces and to


prevent ,separation of elements.
IBJ Sheor Tronsfer
Full transfer of the ultimate horizontal shear forces may be
assumed when contact su rfaces are clean and intentionally roughened,
minimum vertical ties are provided in accordance with ( D) of this
Article, all sti rrups ai e fully anchored into all intersecting components,
and the web members are designed to resist the entire vertical shear.
Othe i wise, u ltimate horizontal shear stress shall be calculated and
limited accoril ing to ( C) and ( D) of this article.
I CJ Sheor Copocity
In lieu of the requ memento of FI ) of this article, ultimate horizontal shear stress may be computed by the formu la v= V,,Q/Ib . To iesist the computed shear stress, the follow ing values of shear capacity
shall be assumed at the contact surfaces :
When the minimum steel tie requirements of

Article are met

(D) of this

When the minimum steeltie requ irements of (D) of this


Article are met and the contact surf aces o:I the present elements are clean and artificially roughened
. .
300 psi
In addition to the above values ; for each percent of stirrup or
vei tical tie reinf orcemont crossing the joint in excess of the
minimum requ i resents of (D) of this Article
. 150 psi
I DI Verficol Ties
All web reinforcement shall extend into cast-inplace decks. The
mini mum total area of vertical ties per linear foot of span shall ldc not
less than the area of two No. 8 bars spaced at 12 in. Web reinforce
ment may be used to satisfy the vertical tie requirement. The spacing
of vertica I ties shall not be greater than four times the average thickness of the composite flange and in no case greater than 24 in.
IEl Shrinkage Sfresses
In structures with a cast-in-place slab on precast beams, the
differential shrinkage tends to cause tensile stresses in the slab and
in the bottom of the beams. F'ecause the tensile shi inkage develops

over an extended time period, the effect on the beams is reduced by


Cieep. Differential shrinkage may inPuence the cracking load and the
beam dePect ion prohle. When these factors are particularly significant,
the effect of differential shrinkage should le added to the effect of
loads.

1.6. 15

ANCHORAGE ZONES

For beams with post-tensioning tendons, end blocks shall be used to


distribute the concentrated prestressin g forces at the anchorage. Where
all tendons are pretensioned wires or 7-wire strand, the use of end
blocks will not be re1uired. End blocks shall have sufficient area to allow
the sJacing of the prestressing steel as specified in Article 1.6.TG. Preferably, they shall be as wide as the narrower flange of the beam. They
sh:ill have a length at least equal to three-lourths o:I the depth of the
beam and in any case 24 in. In post-tensioned members a closely spaced
grid of both vertical and horizont:it bars shall be placed near the face of
the end block to resist bursting stresses. Amounts of steel in the end
grid should follow i ecommendations of the supplier of the anchorage.
Where such i-ecommendations are not av:iilable the grid shall consist of at
least @ 3 bars on 3in. centers in each direction placed not more than
1/_ in. from the inside Oa e of the anchor bearing plate.
Closely spaced reinforcement shall be placed both vei tically and horizontally through out the length of the end block in accordance with
accepted methods of end block stress analysis.
In pretensioned beams, vertical stirrups acting at a unit stress of
20,G00 psi to resist at least 4 percent of the total prestressing f'oi e shall
be placed within the distance of d/4 of the end of the beam, the end
stirrups to be as close to the end of the beam as practicable. For at least
the distance d from the end of the beam, nominal i-einforcemenf shall
be placed to enclose the prestress ing steel in the bottom flange. For box
girders, transverse reinforcement shall be provided and anchored by
extending the leg into the web of the girder.
1.6. J 6 COVER AND SPACING OF STEEL
I A) Minimum cover

The following minimum concrete cover shall be provided for prestressing and conventionil steel :
( 1) P restressing steel and main reinforcement
(2) Slab Reinforcement
(a) Top of slab
(1) When de-icers are used
(b) Bottom o:I slab

1t_ in.
. 2 in.
1

in.

(3) Stirrups and ties


1 in.
When de-icer chemicals are used, drainage details shall dispose of deicer solutions without constant contact with the prestressed girders. Where
such contact cannot be avoided, or in locations where members

DEBIGN

107

are exposed to salt water, salt spray or chemical vapor, add itional cover
should be provided.
IBI Minimum Spacing
The minimum clear spacing of prestressin g steel at the ends of

beams shall be as follows :

Pretensioning steel : three times the diameter of the steel or


1 the maximum size of the concrete a ggregate, whichever is
greater.
Post-tensioning ducts : 1'? in. or 1'/e times the maximum size
of the concrete aggi egate, whichever is the greater.

ICN Bundling
When post-tensioning steel is draped or deflected, post-tensioning
ducts may be bundled in groups o:I three maximum, provided that the
spacing specified in (B) is maintained in the end three ft. o:I the mem-

ber. Where pretensioning steel is bundled, the deflection points shall be


invesIig:ited for secondary stresses and all bundling done in the middle
th ird of the beam length.
I D I Size of Ducts
Ducts for prestressing steel when bars are used shall have a minimum inside diameter of 'is-in. larger than the diameter of the bars to
be used. When wire or strand is used, the area of the duct shall be at
least 2'?_ times as large as the area of prestressing steel in the duct.

J .6. J 7 POST-TENSIONING ANCHORAGES AND COUPLERS


Anchorages, couplers, and splices for post-tensioned rein:forcement
shi1l develop the required ultimate capacity of the tendons without exceeding anticipated slip. Couplers and splices shall be placed in areas
approved by the Engineer and enclosed in housing long enough to permit
the necessary movements.
Anchor-age, end fittings and exposed tendons shall be permanently
protected against corrosion.
Anchor fittings for unbonded tendons shall be capable of transferring
to the concrete a load equal to the capacity of the tendon under both static
and cyclic load ing conditions.

J .6. J 8

EMBEDMENT OF PRESTRESSED STRAND

Three or sevenwit e pretens ioning strand shall be bonded beyond the


critical section :for a development length (in inches) not less than

where
D is the nominal diameter in inches, I ,,, and :f,,, are kips per sq. in.
and the parenthetical expression is considered to be without units.

Investi gation may be limited to those cross-sections nearest each


end of the member which are required to develop their full ultimate
capacity.
WhPre straRd lS debonded at the end of a member, the development
length required above shall be doubled.

J .6.19

CONCRETE STRENGTH AT STRESS TRANSFER

Unless otherwise specified, stress shall not be transfers ed to concrete


until the compressive strength of the concrete as indicateil by test
cyllnders, cured by methods identical with the curing of the members, is
at least 4000 psi :for pre-tensioned members and 3500 psi for post-ten
sioned members.

J .6.20

BEARINGS

Bearing devices for prestressed concrete structures shall be designed


in accordance with Articles 1.7.49 through 1.7.56 and Section 12.

J .6.2 J

SPAN LENGTHS

The effective span lengths of slabs shall be as specified in Article


The effective span lengths of simply supported beams shall not exceed

the clear span plus the depth o:I the beam.


The span length of continuous or restrained floor slabs and beams
shall be the clear distance between laces of support. Where fillets making
an angle of 45 degrees or more with the axis of a continuous or restrained
slab are built monolithic with the slab and support, the span shall be
measured from the section where the combined depth of the slab and the
fillet is at least one and one-half times the thickness of the slab. I\Maximum

negative moments are to be considered as existing at the ends of the


span, as above defined. No portion of the fillet shall

be

considered

as

adding to the effective depth.

J .6.22 EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION


In all bridges, provisions shall be made in the design to resist
thermal stresses induced, or means shall be provided for movement caused
by temperature changes.
Mos ements not otherwise provided :f or, including shortening durinp

stressing, shall be provided for by moans of hinged columns, rockers,


sliding pl:itos, elastomeric pads or other devices.

I .6.23 T-BEAMS
In beam and slab composite construction, the junction between flange
slab and web beam shall meet the requirements of Article 1.6.14, if the
slab is to be considered an integral part with the beam. In cast-in-place

DE SI GN

or precast T-beams, equally effective shear rests tance shall be provided at


the junction of slab :ind beam.
fA J

Effective Flonge Width

In beam and slab construction , using precast, prestressed beams


and composite castinplace slabs, effective and adequate bond and shear
i-esistance shall be provided at the junction of the beam and slab.
The slab may then be considered as an integral part of the beam, but its
assumed effective width as a T-beam flange shall not exceed the
:fol1owing :
(1) One-fourth of the span length of the beam
(2) The distance center-tocenter of the beams
(3) Twelve times the least thickness of the slab plus the width
o:I the girder web.
For beams having a flange on one side only, the effective overhanging flange width shall not exceed onetwelfth of the span length
of the beam, nor six times the thickness of the slab, nor one-half the
clear d istance to the next beam.

For monolith ie prestressed construction, with normal slab spon and

girder spacing, the effectis e flange width is the distance center-tocenter of beams. For very short spans, or where girder spacing is
excessive, an alytical investigations shall be made to determine the
anticipated width of flange acting with the beam.
IBJ Consfruction Joints

When a construction .joint is requ ired between slab and beam of a


cast-in-place T-beam, the joint shall meet the requ ii ements of Article
1.6.14.
ICJ Diophrogms
Diaphiagms of precast or cast-in-place construction using prestressed or non-prestressed reinfoi-cement are recommended at span
ends. Intermediate diaphragms are not required in spans up to 40 :ft. ,
are recommended at mid-span for spans from 40 ft. to 80 it. ; and are
recommended at span third points for spans in excess of 80 ft.
I DJ Isolated Beoms
Isolated beams, in which the T-f orm is used only :for the purpose
of provid ing add itional compression at-ea, shall have a flange thickness

not less than onehalf the web width.

For

composite

construction,

flange width shall not exceed 4 times the web width. For monolithic piestressed construction, flange width shall not exceed 15 times the web
width and shall be a deg nate for all design loads.

1.6.24 BOX GIRDERS


A J Loterol Disfribufion of Loods for Bending Moment *
( 1)

In te nor Beo ins

'The live load bend ing moment for each interior beam in a

spread bOX bPam s uperStI'uctui'e shall be determined by applying

to the beam the fraction (D.F.) of the wheel load (both front and
rear') determined by the following equation :

D.F.=
where N,

nii mber of design traffic lanes (as defined as N in


Art. 1.2.G)

S= beimspacnginfeot (675
L= spun|ength, infeet

in Art. 1.2.6) (32


(2)

Exterior Beo ins

The live loacl bending moment in the exterior beams shall be

leterminPd by :ipplying to the beams the reaction of the wheel


loads obtiin ed by asen ming the flooring to act as :i simple span

(of length S) between beams, bit I shill not be less than 2N; / N p.
IBJ

Elective Compression

Flonge Widfh

In g irdei and flange constiuction, con.sist in g of a stem with top


met bottom slab, effective and ad epi ate bond and shear resistance
sh all be provident at the juncture of the gii-cler and the slan. The slab
may then be con Si dered an i ntergral part of the girder, but its effective width n a girder flange shall not cxceed the following :
(1) One You rth of the span len Mth of the girder
( 2) The di stance center-to-center of gii ders
? ) Twelve times the least th ickness of the slab plus the width
of the gir1er web.
For- girdei s h:wing a flame on onP side only, the effective overhi ngin g vi1th shall not exceed the Vol lowing :
(1 ) One twelf th of the span length of the girder
12) One half of the clear distance to the next girder
13) Six times the lent thickness of the slab

DESIGN
IC J

Flonge

Thickness

( \ ) Top Flo nge

The minimum flange thickness shall be ?c of the clear distance


between gi rders or 6 in., whichever is greater, except the minimu in
thickness way be reduced for factory produced precas I elements to
6'?c in.
(2)

Bottom Flo nge

The maximum thickness of the bottom flange shall be deter-

mined by maximum allowable unit stresses as specified in Article


1.6.6 but in no case shall be less than '/i. of the clear span between
girders or 5'm in., whichever is the greater, except the minimum
thickness may be reduced lor factory produced precast elements to

5 in. Adequate fillets shall be provided at the intersections of all


surfaces within the cell of a box girder, except at the I unction of
well and bott ore flange whore none are requ ired.
IDI Minimum Bor Reinforcement for Cosf-In-Ploce Post-Tensioned Box
Girders
( 1)

Top Flo nge

The minimum top flange reinforcement shall be the same as


for reinforced concrete box girders.
(2)

Boffom Flo nge

The minimum bottom flange reinforcement shall be the same


as for re intoned concrete box girders except the minimum reinforcement shall be 0.3 percent of the Panpe section.
I EJ Sheor
The hot-izontal sheirin g unit stress at the junction of the flange
and the monolithic fillet join in g it to the girder web shall not exceed
0.15 I',
Changes in girder stem thickness shall be tapered for a minimum
distance of 12 times I.he difference in web thickness.
IFJ Diophrogms
Diaphi=agms or spi-eaders within the precast box beams shall be
placed at midspan for spans up to 50 ft. ; at third points :for spans for
50 to 5 It. aan
nd
d t uarter oints :for s ans over 75 lt.
i ntervals not to exceed 80 it. Diaphragm spacing for curved girders
shall be given special consideration.

Section 7

STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

J .7.1 ALLOWABLE STRESSES

Isee Tobie 1.7.1 J

Stresses are shown in pou n cfs per square inch .

'The mod ulus of elasticity of all grades of steel shall be assumed to be


29,000,000 ps i and the coefficient of linear expansion 0.0000065 per degree

Fahrenheit.

5t ructural
Carbon
5I eel

T ab I c 1 . 7. I

IIigh Strength Low

AST V Dns nin


U p I.o
P I n cl.

fi ma Jes (h)

Goups (6)

1 ve r 4
To 4 "
T o 8 I n ct.

Appficable
Aa
.

7t1 . 000

46 , G00

40.000

27,000

2J OOO

36
23 00 0-

2 5 , 000-

27 , 000-

(A) Hivctcd unde


16. 000-

L'
18 , 000
L'

= 16, 000-

L'

20 , 000

22 , 000-

14.000

17.000

54,000

40.000

Bearny on m:Med 9h9rne:s znd Other

tation (10)

not subject0.80F

37.000

32.000

31,000

14 000

16,000

17.000

48,000
See i'age II 4 for Iootn otes.

37 . 0 TO
1 8 , 000

28.000

(such sg ustl in rocke:s nnd hingus]

0.4OF,

34 . 000
1 7 . 0011

66.000

40.000

1.7.1

Alloy Stru ctural Steel


M223 (A572) (B)

(A SI4/A517(9)

Up to TQ I net.

Up to
4 Incl.

Not applicable

Shapen thru 42 6 #/Ft.

60 , 000
42,000

70,00

75.000

30 , 000

33 . 000

36 , 000

48 , 090

TO, 000

33, 000

36, 0()()

49, 000

45,000
27,000

23 , 000

27, 0110

3. 000

25, 000

27, 000

28

34
2 7 , 00014.4

19,000-

20,000-

b
b

22,000-

30 , 000-

23
8 6 , 000-

49 , 000-

US , 000-

29,000-

40,000-

44,000-

24,000-

28,00U-

44,000

48,000

44, 000

46 , 0 00
24 , 000

1 7, 00 0
J4, 000

3 7 , 00 0

34.000

87,000

17.000

48.000

34,010

37 , 000

17,000

40 , 000

40,000

.55, 000

44.000

72 , 000

52 , 00o

72,000

26 , 000
72.000

114
FOOTNOTESFOR TABLE >7.1
( I ) Continuous or c a nIilcver beams or gi rders mav be p report ion ed for negative women I at
i uterine en p po r ts Io r an allow a bIe u n it stress 20 po rcent hig her than permitted by th is :to rmula
but i n no case ex needing aim w able u n it s tress Io r comp ress ion flange sup po rted its Iml lenpth.
If cove r plates a re used, the alto w a blc s tati c stress at the pot n I of theoretical cutoff shall be as
determ tried by the Io rmul a.
( 2 ) 1 ton gth , i n in ches , of unsu p ported fl ange between la te raI connecti ons, kn ee b races or
othe r pot nts of en p per t. For conti nun us beams an d g i rde rs , 1 may be taken as the
d istance f rom trite rio r s upp o rt to poin I o:I dead load ccn Iraflex u re if this d is tance is
less th an des ig n ated above.
For can ti1ev'er beam an d gi rders , I may be taken as tw ice the distan ce I rom the s up p ort to the
end of the ca n tileve r, if this rue ta n ce is let s than desig n ated above.
r
b

radius of 8yration , in inches, of the comp reset on flange nbout the axie i n the plane
of the web.
flan ge w idth, in i n ches.

L
Ie ngth of member, in i nches.
r = least radius of gYration of member, in inches.
For comp reseion members with values of greater than those s frown or of kn own ec cent ri city.
see Ap pe ndix C.
( 4 ) See also Article 1.7.4
( 5 ) Linn ited to 4 th iclc ness for structural members other than bearing assembly components.

( 6) Groups I and 2 include all shapes excent those in Groups 3, 4 and 6.


Group 3 in eludes A nghs,
wide flange shapes :

in thi ckness a nd the Iollowi rig

Nominal Depth. In.


x Nowt n at Width, In.
14 3 16
12 X 12
Group 4 in eludes w ide flanae sha pes having nominal
16 in ches, an d weig ht per I oot of 2 19 to SS 0 pen rids ,
G roup 5 incl udes wide flanae s ha pcs hav in g no rni n at
16 in ches, a n d weiiiht per I not of 605 to 7 30 p oun de,
For breakdown of Groups 1 an d 2 see ASTM A6.

Weight Per ft. , Lb.


. . . 142 to 211 incl.
. . . . . . . . 120 to 190 incl.
depth of 14 inches , nom i n at width of
incl us we.
depth of 14 i n ches , nom in at width of
in elusive.

(Z) M222 ( A 588 ) is upplicabl e for we lde I st ructures. with Su p pleme nta ry Requirement 51,
Impact Properties , I See AASHO M222 I .
( 8) A ppli cable Ior weI dcd structures in Grades 42, 4 5 and 50 in pI ate th ick nesses th roug h
19j an d i n shape groups 1, 2 an d 3. w'ith Sup pleinenta ry Requirement SZ, Ian p act Properties,

( See AASHO ltt223 ) .

( 9) Quen ched a nd tempered alloy steel structural shapes a n d seamless mech an ical tubi rig
meeti rig all mechan ical and chemical requ memento of A STM At 1 4/A5 17 s teel, etePt that the
speci fled maximum tensile stren gth may be 14 0,000 ni to r stru ctural s hapes and I46,000 par
to r aeamlese mech an ical tubi na , shall be confide bed as ASTM ASI 4 / A6t7 steel.
( 1 0) This shall apply to pins used p nana rily in axiiiug loa4ed members, such us truss members
an d c:i1le adju stint; links. It shall not ap j1y to j in s used in mem be re hav ing rot:ition caused bv
exp:in sion or deflection.

1.72

DE SIGN

1.7.2 ALLOWABLE STRESSES FOR WELD METAL


Unless otherwise spec ified, the yield point and u ltimate strength of
weld metal shall be equal to or greater than min imum specified val ue of
the base metal. AI lowable stresses on the effective areas of weld metal
shall be as follows :

Butt Welds

The same as the base metal joined, except in the case of joining metals of d ifferent yields when the lower yield material
shall govern.

Fillet welds
F,. = 12,400 psi on base metal with minimum specified yield
point or strength of 36,000 psi.

F,= 14,700 psi on base metal with minimum specified yield


point or strength between 40,000 psi and 50,000 psi

inclusive.
F,=25,000 psi on base metal with a minimum specified yield
strength between 50,000 ps i and 100,000 psi incl us we.
AWS AS.1, E 70 electrodes, or eqn ivalent weld metal,
may be used for fillet welds on AS 14/A 517 steel ; for
sucii welds F,. = 14,700 psi.

Plug welds
F,. 12,400 psi for resistance to shear stresses only,
where F,=allowab le basic shear stress.

J .7.3 FATIGUE STRESSES


The number of cycles of maximum stress to b
. considered in the

design shall be selected from Table 1.7.3A unless traffic and load ometer
surveys or other considerations mid icate otherwise.

Number of cycles of maximum sti'ess


to be used when the tyJie of load

Case

II

Type
OI
Road

1. Freeways
2. Exp ressivays
3. Major
Highways &
Streets

producing maximum stress is :

H Loadin g

H5 Load ing

Lane Lo:iding

2,000004

500000

1O0 O04

600, 1100

1t1f1, fIt)0

100,000

Other Hi glivvays
& Streets not
included in
Case 1

* \Yhore HS 8: H I oa1i rips give the s:true in ax imum stress, use th c n nan be r ct cycles tin if or H

loadings.

The nu mber of maximum stre->s cycles from win d loads shall be


100,000 unless cond itions at a specific s ite or ii dynamic analysis of a
particular structure indicate otheIwise.
In addition to meeting basic design criteria, members and fasteners
subject to repeated v:iriations or reversals of stress shall be designed
for :fatigue.
Allowable I atigue stress, F,., shall apply to live load in combination
with dead loads, wind loads only, and wind loads in combination with
dead loads. Allowable fatigue stresses shall not be increased for com
bined loadin gs. F,. is given by the following formula, except a-> notei in

Table 1.7.3 (B) :

1 k,R

A)
'

where R = algebraic ratio of the minimum stress to the maximum stress.


'This ratio may be expressed also in terms of moment, shear, axial force

or torque.
,

1 , but not less than 1.0

8,

(B)

cc and k, = values of coefficients given in Table 1.7.3 (B)


f,,= value given in Table 1.7.3 ( B ) , in psi.

F,,= minimum tensile strength, in psl, given in Article 1.7.1, or


other appropriate minimum ultimate strength.
'

F,= allowable fatigue stresssee Figures 1.7.3 (A) and 1.7.3 (B)

for graphical presentations of the more commonly used values.

Btitt welded splices which conform to all of the :following conditions


shall be designed for F,. as determined for Base metal adjacent to con-

tinuois flange-web hllet welds :

(1) The parts joined are of equal thickness.


(2) The parts joine1 are of equal widths or if of unequal w idths
they shall be transitioned in accordance with Article 1.7.19.
3) Weld soundness is established by radiographic inspection and
the requirements of such inspection are speci fied.
(4) The weld is finished smooth and flush with the base metal on all
surfaces by grinding in the direction of applied stress, leaving
surfaces free from depressions. Chipping may be used providing it is followed by such grinding.
Butt welded splices which do not conform to all of the foregoing
conditions shall be designed for F . as determined for Base Metal ad
jacent to butt welds and shaped in accordance with Article 1.7.19.
Prackets, clips, gussets, stiffeners, and other detail material shall
not be wet ded to members or parts subJ ected to tensile stress unless the
maximum stress at the point o:I attachment does not exceed F,. for
BitS Metal in members adjacent to or connected by fillt Or plug welds.

117
Cixvos {]) tirx+ @ ore plotted
fw M l 83 (A 36) 8 feel. For of her afclc

multiply
from

thv

formula

Fot i que

CATEGORY

curve
( B)

v olucs

by the

Arf. I .7. 5

stress , Fy , 8 h0Il

CYCLES

F,

nof

FORMULA

cxc+e d

cuev
NO

F i gure

1.? 3A

Fatigue

Sfresses

This restriction shall not apply to a compression flange at locati ons where
stiffoners, studs, or fillet v elded shear connectors only are weldetl.
For members with stud shear connectors attached to tension flanges

the allowable stress shall not exceed F,. for " Flanges v ith stud shear
connectors.

J .7.4 PINS, ROLLERS AND EXPANSION ROCKERS


The effective bearing area of a pin shall be its diameter multiplied by
the thickness of the material on which it bears. When parts in contact

have different yield points, F, shall be the smaller value.

FATICUE STRESSES

7ob/ 1 .7.3B
Type of
Tvpe & Location of Stateriot

100.000 Cctes

Base Metal

( 4 ) Tension or
Reversal

60,000

Base Metal adjace nt to


tri ction ty p e Iastener

( 4 ) Tension
( I ) G omp res sion

20,300
13,000

1.06
1.06

Base Metal a djarent to


bearing type Iastene r

( 4 ) Tens in n or
Comp ress ion

Weld Metal or Base


Metal ( 3 ) adjacent to
Butt Weld

( 4 ) Tension
( I ) Comp reset on

Flan ges w'ith Stud Shear


Con nectorn
Base Metal adjacent to or
con nected by fillet ( 2 ) ( 7 )
oz ptuB wetde

Fri ction tip e Iastener

( 5 ) Tene ion or
Comp ress ion

20,500
13,300

0.65
0.65

20,500

1.06

21,000

Base Metal adjacent to


tra usverse stifle ner in
ASTM A6 14/A 5 t7

steel

'

0.55

20,500
13,300

0.55

1?,200
10,600

0.78
0.78

0.65

0.23
0.23

0.54
0.54

0.65

15,000

0.67
0.67

11,500

1.00

0.36

8 ,0

I.oo

9,000 ,

0.62

11,200

0. 50

18,000

LOO

F,

Shear

1 3,500

Tension or
Gompr cssion

20,500
13,300

0.62

16,500

10,80tJ

Bea ri rig ty pe fastener


Base Metal ( s ) sdiacen
to continuous Pa nge web
fillet weld

2.000.000 Cxctes

17,200

(4)Shear

500,0 00 Cycles

Stress

45,000

20,509
11,400

0.65
0.65

1.00

,6
( continued on page 119 )

FO O TNO TES TO "1ABL E 1.7.3B ( continued I rom p age 118.)


( 1 ) Use the F o rmul a :

( 2 ) The us ual cont in uous fillet we1dot flung c-web con neutrons and sim ila r con nectio ns shall be gove rne1 by Catego r J, Base
Met at ad Ia cent to cont inuous flange-web fi llet welds.
( 3 ) Dase Metal adjacent to Inng itud inaI butt wells anl the weld metal i n long itud inal bu It welds shall be governe d by Category I,
Base Metal adJ a cent to Continuous fla nge- web fillet welds.
( 4 ) See graihs on figure 1.7.3A.
( 5 ) See grants on figure 1. 7.3B .
( C ) The Cat ego re G , Weld Metal in Table 1.7.3B d oes not ap ply to th is case. Wh ere the shea r st ress in the welds exceeds 15 ks i ,
Fr Fi -|- 3F in which Ft, and F aie the max inn nan bend ing an d she a r st resses i n the weI 1 and Fr is the altoiv a 6Ie fatigue stiess Ior
Catego ry J, Base Metal A ljacent to continuous flange-web fillet wet ds. lnterm ittent fillet welds shall not be per-rii i tteil.
( 7 ) See Catego nes I an1 K for excey tions.

Figure 1.7. 3 B

FATIGUE STRESSES

CATEGOR'Y
F

CYCLES

BASE METAL

IOQOOO

cnr v c J ed by

500.000

od|ocsni to or

FORMULA

NUMBER

TYPE
OF
TRESS

!f s O O

!- R

Fotigve slrers , Fr , sho 4 not exceed

- I.O -0. 8 -46 -O.4 - 0.

0 +O.2 +O.4 +0.6 +0.8 + I.O


min.

Bearing per linear inch on expansion rockers and rollers shall not
exceed the values obtained by the Iollowing formulas :
F 13,000
600d
Diameters up to 25 inches p
20,000

DESIGN

1.7.4

121

F, 13,000

Diameters from 25 to 125 inches

20,000

3,000

where :

p allowable bearing in pounds per linear inch


d diameter of rocker or roller in inches
F,= minimum yield point in tenet on of steel in the roller or
bearing plate, whichever is the smaller.
Steel may conform to one of the follow ing designations in addition to
the designations l isted in Article 1.7.I :
G old Fin ished Carbon Steel Bars and Sha fting, AA SHO, M-169
(AST I\I A-108)
Carbon Steel Forgings for General Industrial Use, AASH O,
M102 / ASTM A-235)
Alloy Steel Forgi rigs for General Industrial Use, ASTM A-237
Expansion rollers shall le not less than 4 inches in diameter
I\I-169
M-102
M-102
I\1-102
None
4 in dia.
(To 211 ( To 20 (To 10 (To 20
or less
in dia.) in dia. ) in dia.) in dia.)

AASHO Designation
with size limitations
ASTM Designation
\\ ith Ciradc or Class

A-108

A-23?

A-235

A-26

A-287

Grades 11116
to 11180 inc.

Class
Cl

Class
E

Class
G

Class
A

36000'

33,000

B\600

J OOOO

50000

Minimum Yield

Point, psi

F.

Stress in Extreme
Fiber, psi

0.80 ',.

29,000 "

26,000

80,000

40,000

40,000

Shear', psi

0.40 F,

14,400 *

18,000

15,000

20,0110

20,0011

0.40 F,.

14,000 "

13,000

16,000

20,tt0ft

20,000

Bearing on pins not

subject to rotation,

psi '' *

Bearing on pins subI Act to rotation, psi

( Such as used in
iockoi's and hinges)

* For losi jn jurp os e only. Not a ; art of the A 108 sjecifi cations . 5u p p lean on ta ry mate ri.i I
i'equi cements sh ouJ d p rovi dc gua ra n tee that mater iaI will meet these values.
** M:iv s u b sI i I u te rollout material of the same n robic rties.
* * * 1h i.s sh all a; p I y to ji ins use1 j nana riI y in x tall y loaded in embers , s u ch as t runs mem bets
:in d cubic al i us tin I inks. It shall not a n;ly to jins useI in membe re h avi n;;; rotation causecl bv

expansion or ilefleetion.

J .7.5 FASTENERS I RIVETS AND BOLTS I


In proportion ing fasteners, the nominal diameter shall be used, except
as otherwise noted.

The effective bearing area of a fastener 9hall be its diameter run lti-

plied by the thickness of the metal on which it bears. In metal less than
8
' inch th ick, cou ntersunk rivets, turned bolts or ribbed bolts shall not be
assumed to carry etress. In metal is inch thick and over, one-half the
depth of countersin k shall be omitted in calculating the bearing area.
Allowable unit stresses in pounds per square inch for fasteners shall
be as listed in the table below :
Shear

'Type of Fastener

Tension

Bearing

Friction
Type
Connec-

tion

Bearing
Type
Connec-

tion

(A ) Low C'nr6oii Steel Bolts ( 1)


Turned l3olts (ASTM A -307)
antl Ribbeil Bolts
( II) No iucr Dir en Ztrc /s

(rivets striven by pneumatreally or electrically


operated hammers are
considered pov ei driven) .

Structural Steel Rivet


AASHO I\1228, grade 1
( ASTM A-502 grade 1)
Structur:it Steel Rivet
( High Strength)
AASHO M228, grade 2
(ASTM A-602 grade 2)

( C) Hi gm Sir enjj Hi Bolts


High Strength Steel Bolts
AASH O M-164 (ASTM A325 )

40,000

40,009

3G,00I1

40,000 ( ?)

20,000

18,5011

20,000 (4)

High strength bolts may be substituted for Grade 1 rivets, AASHO


1\I 228 (AT TI\I A-502) .
All bolts Pxcept h igh strength bolts, shall have single self-locking
nuts or double nuts.
Joints req umed to resist shear between their connected parts are
designated as e ither Nr iction type or bearing type con nect ions. Shear
connections su b jected to strew reversal, or where slippage wou Id be undesirable, shall be friction type.
Bolts in bearing type con mentions shall have the threads excluded
from the shear planes of the contact surfaces between the connected
parts. I n clete rmining whether the bolt threads are excluded from the
shear planes of the contact surf aces, th read length of bo lts shall be cal( 1 ) AS TM A? 07 bolts shall not be used i n con neutrons subject to Iatigue.
( 2 ) Basecl o n area at the root of th read.
( 3 ) Lees n ct a;'plv to Ination typ e con unction s.
( 4 I Th c allow a blc shcii r x'alue of bolts I r boa r in g ty j c con nect.ion s i n steel with n y tel d p q;q
less then 4 8 , 0 90 psi sh all be redu ce1 by 20 jj w hen th e on 1 ct the s;1icc in ate rim is more than
24 inches Irom the en d of the con ii ectcd mem bcr, $s hasured alori i: the gage line o I the bet ts.

1.7.5

123

DES IGN

c ulated as two thread lengths greater than the specified thread length as
an allowance for th read run out.
In bearing type connections, pull-out shear in a plate should be invest igated between the end ef the plate and the end row of fasteners.
High strength bolts preferably shall be used for Iastene rs s ubject

to computed tension or combined sh ear and computed tension .

For combined shear and tension in friction type joints, where applied
:forcee reduce the total clamping force on the friction plane, the allowable
unit shearing stress, f,., for AAS HO M164 (ASTM A325) high strength
bolts shall not exceed the values obtained from the following equation :
:f, 13,500 .22f ,
where f,=tensile stress due to applied loade

When rivets or high-strength bolts in benrinp type connections are


subject to both shear and tension, the combined stress shall not exceed
values obtained from the following equation :

s + (kt) = S
where s= the computed rivet or bolt unit stress in shear

t= the computed rivet or bolt unit stress in tension


S the allowable rivet or bolt unit stress in shear
k a constant : 0.75 for rivets ; 0.555 for A 325 bolts with
threads excluded from shear plane.

Bolted bearing type connections using high strength bolts shall be


li roited to members in compression and secondary members.
Where shown in the design drawings, enlarged or slotted holes may

be used with high strength bolts proportioned to meet the allowable unit
stresses given a1ove except as herein alter restricted :

1. Holes '?ii; inch larger than bolts /s inch and less in diameter,
? inch larger than bolts 1 inch in diitmeter, anil ?c inch larger
than bolts 1?s inch and greater in diameter may be used in
uncoated friction type shear con neutron s provided a hardened
washer is inserted under both the head and nut.

2. Slotted holes ',ic inch wider than the bolt diameter and of a

length more than allowed in subparagraph 1 but not more than

2' _ times the bolt diameter may be used without regard to

direction of' loading in enclosed parts


connections if one-third more bolts are
to satisfy the design requirements. Only
parts adjacent to an individual laying
slotted holes.

of friction-type shear
provided than needed
one o:I the Enclosed
surface may contain

When enlarged or slotted holes are used, the distances between


edges of adjacent holes or edges of holes and edges of members

124

shall not lie less than that permitted with conventional size
holes under Art. 1.7.36.

J .7.6
IA

CAST STEEL, DUCTILE IRON CASTINGS, MALLEABLE CASTINGS AND


CAST IRON
Cost Steel ond Ductile Iron

For cast steel con:forming to specifications for Steel Castings for

Highway Bridges, AASHO M 192 (ASTM A 486) Mild-to MediumStrength Carbon-Steel Castings for General Appl ication AASHO M 103,
(ASTM A 27) and Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Chromium-Nickel Alloy
Hastings for General Application, AASHO M 163 (ASTM A 296) and
f oi Ductile fron Castings, ASTM A 536 the following allowable stresses
in pounds per square inch shall be used :

AASBO Designation
ASTM Designation
Class or Grade

none $ M192

M 192

A27 A486
70-36

Minimum yield point, F,

70

36,000

M 163

A486

None

A 296

Aii36

90

120

CA-15

60-40-18

60,000

95,000

65,000

40,000

Axial Tension

14,500

22,500

34,000

24,000

16,000

T'ension in extreme fibers

14,500

23,500

34,000

24,000

16,000

Axial Compression,
short columns
Compression in extreme fibers

20,000
20,000

30,000
30,000

45,000
45,000

32,000
32,000

22,000
22,000

Shear
Bearing, steel parte in contact
Bearing on pins not subject to
rotation
Bearing on pins subject to
rotation (such as used in
rockers and hinges)

9,000

13,500

21,000

14,000

10,000

30,000

4fi,000

68,000

48,000

33,000

26000

40000

60000

43000

28000

13000

20000

30,000

21800

14,000

When in contact with castings or steel o:I a different yield point,

the allowable unit bearing stress of the material with the lower yield point
shall vovern. For riveted or bolted connections, Art. 1.7.5 shall govern.

fBl Molleoble Costings


For malleable castings conforming to specifications for Malleable
Iron Hastings, AASHO M 106, (ASTM A 47) grade No. 35018, the following allowable stresses in pounds per square inch, shall be used :
Tension

. .

Bending in extreme fiber


Modulus of elasticity

18,000

18,000
25,000,000

DESIGN

1.7.6

125

fCJ Cost Iron

For cast iron castings conform in g to spec ifications for Gray Iron

Castings, AASHO M 105, Class 30, the Vol lowing al lowable stresses in
pou nds per square inch, shall be used :
Bending in extreme fiber

Shear

Direct

compression,

short

3,000

columns

3,000

. 12,000

J .7.7 BRONZE OR COPPER-ALLOY


Bronze castings, AASHO M 107 I ASTM B 22) Alloys A or B or Copperalloy Plates, AASHO M108 IASTM B 100 ) , shall be specified.
The allowable unit bearing stress in pounds per square inch on

Bronze castings or Copper-alloy plates shall be 2,000.


J .7.8

BEARING ON MASONRY

The allowable unit bearing stress in pounds per square inch, on the
following typee of masonry, shall be :

Granite '
Sandstone and Limestone
Concrete :
Bridge eeate, under hinged rockers and
bolsters Inot subjected to high edge loading
by deflecting beam, girder, or trust)
1,000
Bridge seats, under bearing plates or nonhinged shoes (subjec ted to high edge loading by the direct beat ing, upon the plate or
shoe,

of

deflecting

beam

or

girder) ,

average
.
700
The above bridge seat un it stresses will apply only where the edge
of the bridge seat projects at least 3 inches (average) beyond edge of shoe
or plate. Otherwise, the unit stresses permitted will be 75 percent of the
above amounts.

DETAILS OF DESIGN

J .7.9

EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF SPAN

For the ca lcu lation of stresses, span lengths shall be assumed as the
distance between centers of bearings or other points of support.

1.7.1 O DEPTH RATIOS


For beams or girders the ratio of depth to length of span, preferably
shall not be less than ':-.
For composite girders the ratio of the over-all depth of gi rder (con-

crete slab, plus steel girder) to the length of span preferably shal I not be

126

less than 3_- , and the ratio of depth of steel girder alone to length of span

shall not be less than '/o.

For trusses the ratio of: depth to length of span shall not be less
than'/i.
For continuous span depth ratios, the epan length shall be considered
ae the distance between the dead load points of contraflexure.

J .7.J I

LIMITING LENGTHS OF MEMBERS

For compression members, the ratio of unsupported length to radius


of gyration shall not exceed 120 for main members, or those in which the
major stresses result from dead or live load, or both ; and shall not exceed
140 for secondary members, or those whose primary purpose is to brace
the structure against lateral or long itu dinal forces, or to brace or reduce
the unsupported length of: other members, main or secondary.
In determining the radius of gyration for the purpose of applying the
limitations of the l/r ratio, the area of any portion of a member may be
neglected provided that the strength of: the member as calculated without

using the area thus neglected and the strength of the member as computed
:for the entire section with the

ratio applicable thereto, both equal or

exceed the computed total stress that the member must sustain.
The rad ius of gy ration and the effective area for carrying stress of a
member contain ing perforated cover plates shall be computed for a
transverse section through the maximum width o:I perforation. When
perforations are staggered in opposite cover plates the cross-sectional
area of the member shall be considered the same as for a section having
perforations in the same transverse plane.
Unsupported length shall be assumed as follows :
For the top chords of half-through trusses, the length between
panel points laterally supported as indicated under At ticle 1.7.85 ; for
other main members, the len gth between panel point intersection s or
centers of braced points or centers of end connections ; for secondary
members, the length between the centers of the en d connections of
such members or centers of braced points.
For tension members, except rods, eyebars, cables and plates, the
rati o of u nsu pported length to radius of gyration sha 11 no I exceed 200 for
main members, shall not exceed 240 for bracing members, and shall not
exceed 140 for main members subject to a reversal of stress.

J .7.12 DEFLECTION
The term de Section as used herein shall be the deflect ion computed
in accordance with the ass u mption made for loading when comput in g the
stress in the member.
Members havin g simple or contin uous spans shall be designed so that
the deflection due to l we load pl us impact shall not exceed 'ie of the span,
except on bridges in u rban areas used in part by pedestrians whereon the
rati o preferably shall be /iuac.

The deflection of cantilever arms due to I we load plus impact shall be


limited to ' ii of the canti levo r arm except for the case i nclud ing pedestrian use, where the ratio preferably shall be'?i- ,

1.7. 12

DE SIGN

When span s have cross-bracing or diaphragms su the i ent in depth or

strength to insu re lateral d istri bu Ii on of loads, the deflection may be


computed I:or the standard H or H5 loadin g, cons iden ng all beams or
str in gers as acting together and having equal deflection.
The moment o:I inertia of the grose cross-sectional area shall be used
for compu ti ng the deflection s of beams and girders. When the beam or
gi rder is a part of a compost te member, the live load may be cons idered as
acting upon the compos ite sect ion.
The gross area of each truss me mber shall be used in computing
deflections of trusses. If perforated plates are used the effective area shall
be the net vol u me d ivided by the len gth from center to center of
perforati one.

J.Z. J 3 MINIMUM THICKNESS OF METAL


5tructu rat steel ( includ ing bracing, cross frames and all types of
gusset plates , except for webs of certain rolled shapes, closed ribs in

orthotropic decks, fillers and in railings, shall be not less than 'ie in
thickness. I'he web thickness of rolled beams or channels shall not be
less than 0.23. The thickness of closed ribs in orthotropic decks shall not
be less than '?i,.
Where the metal wiI l be exposed to marked corrosive influences, it
shall be increased in thickness or specially protected against corros ion.
It should be noted that there are other provisions in this section
pertain i rig to th ickness for fillers, segments of compression members,
gusset plates, etc. As stated above fillers need not be '? in in.
For stiffeners and ou tstand i rig legs ot angles, etc., refer to Article
1.7.15.
For str ffen ers and other plates refer to Plate Girders.
For compress ion members refer to Trusses.

J .7.14 EFFECTIVE AREA OF ANGLES AND TEE SECTIONS IN TENSION


The effective area of a single angle tension member, a tee section
tens ion member, or each angle of a double angle tension member in which
the shapes are connected back to back on the same side of a gusset plate,
shall be ass umed as the net area of the connected leg or flange plus onehalf of the area of the ou tstand ing leg.
If a double angle or tee section tension member is connected with the
angles or flanges back to back on opposite sides of a gusset plate, the full

net area of the shapes shall be considered as effective.

When angles connect to separate gusset plates, as in the case of a


double webbed truss, ani the angles are connected by stay plates located
as near the gusset as practicable, or by other adequate means, the fu 11 net
area of the angles shall be considered effective. If the angles are not so
connected, only 80 percent of the net area shall be cons idered effective.
Lug angles may be considered as effective in transmitting stress,
provided they are connected w ith at least one-third more fasteners than
reQ uired by the stress to be carried by the I ug angle.

128

J .7. J 5

OUTSTANDING LEGS OF ANGLES

The widths o:I outstanding legs of angles in compression


where reinforced by plates) shall not exceed the following :

(except

In main members carrying axial stress, 12 times the thickness.

In braci rig an'd other secondary members, 16 times the thickness.

For other limitations see Article 1.7.88.

I .7.J 6

EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION

The design shall be such as to allow for total thermal movement at


the rate of Ui in 100 feet. P rovis ions s hall be made for changes in length
of span resu lting :f rom live load stresses. In spans more than 300 feet
long, allow ance shall be made for expansion and contraction in the floor.
The expansion end shall be secured against lateral movement.

J .7.17

COMBINED STRESSES

A 11 members su bject to combined bend ing and d irect stresses shall be


proportioned for the maxi mum unit stress s;ecified in Appendix C.

When bend in g s tresses are induced by the component of externally applied

loads actin g perpend icular to the axis of the member, shal I be assumed
equal to +1.

I .7.I 8

ECCENTRIC CONNECTIONS

Mem bers, i nclud i ng brac i n g, preferab ly shall be so connected that

ther r gravity axes wit I inte rsect i n a point. Eccent ric connections shall
be avo ided, if pract icabl e, but if unavoidable the members shall be so
proport ioned that the combined fibe r stresses w i 11 not exceed the allowed
axial strew.

J .7. IR SPLICES AND CONNECTIONS


Spl ices may be macl e wi th ri vets, by h igh strength bolts or by the
use of we Id in g. Splices, whether in tension, compression, bending or
shear, shal l be designed for not less thin the average of the calcu lated
s trees at th e point of spl ice and the strength of the member at the same
pot nt but, in any event, not less than 75"? of the strength of the member.
Where a section changes at a spl ice, the strength of the smaller section is
to be used for the above splice requ i resents. The st rength of the member
shall be determ tried by the gross sect ion I or compression members and
by the net section for tension mem bers and members primarily in bend ing.
As an alternate, splices of rolled flexural members may be poporhoned for a shear ejual to actual maximum shear multipl ied by the
ratio of the splice design moment and the actual moment at the splice.
Web spl ice Jlates and their connection s shall be designed for the portion
of the dest gn moment resisted by the web and for the moment due to the
eccenti icity of shear introduced by the splice connection. Flange splice
plates need be designed only for the portion of the design moment not
resisted by the web.

1.7.19

DESIGN

129

Web plates shal I be spliced symmetrica fly by plates on each side. The
spI ice plates for shear shall extend the full depth of the girder between
flanges. In the splice there shall be not less than 2 rows of rivets or bolts
on each side of the joint.
Compression members, such as columns and chords, shall have ends
in close contact at riveted and bolted splices. Splices of such members,
wh ich will be fabricated and erected with close inspection and detailed
with milled ends in full contact bearing at the spl ices, may be held in place
by means of spl ice plates and rivets or high strength bolts proportioned
for not less than 50 percent of the lower allowable stress of the sections
spliced.
Tension and compress ion members may be spliced by means of full
penetration butt welds preferably wi th out the use of splice plates.
Spl ices in truss chords and columns shall be located as near to the
panel points as practicable and usually on that side where the smaller
etress occu rs. The arran gement of plates, angles and other splice elements
shall be such as to make proper prov is ion for the stresses, both axial and
bend in g, in the component parts of the members s pl iced.
For riveted an d bolted flexural members, splices in flan ge parts .shall
not be used between field spI ices except by special permission of the Engineer. In any one flange not more than one part shall be spl iced at the
same cross-section. If practicable, splices shall be located at points where
there is an excess of section. Riveted and bol ted flange angle splices shall
include two angles, one on each side of the flexural member.
In continuous spans, splices preferably shall be made at or near points
of contraflexure.
Welded field spl ices p refc rably should be arranged to minimize overhead weld ing.
If spl ice plates are not in direct contact wi th the parts which they
connect, the n umber of fasteners on each side of the joint shal I be in excess
of the number requ ired for a d i rect contact splice to the extent of at least
two extra transverse lines of fasteners for each intervening plate, except
as provided below.
If fasteners carrying stress pass through fillers, the fillers preferably
ehall be extended beyond the gusset or splice material, and the extension
secured by enough additional fasteners to carry the stress in the filler,
wh ich stress is to be calculated as the total stress in the member divided

by the comb ined area of the member plus the fillers. As an alternate, the

additional fasteners may be passed through the gusset or splice material


without extending the filler.
If the filler is less than '/i inch th ick it shall not be extended beyond
the spl icing material and additional fasteners are not required. Fillers
'/i inch or more in thick ness shall consist of not more than two plates,
unless special permission is given by the Engineer.
In welded splices any filler '/i in. or more in thickness shal I extend
beyond the edges of the splice plate and shall be welded to the part on
which it is fitted with sufficient weld to transmit the splice plate stress
applied at the s urface of the filler as an eccentric load.
The welds joining the splice plate to the filler shall be sufficient to
transmit the splice plate stress and shall be long enough to avoid over-

II I GH WAY B RI DCE S

130

stressing the filler along the toe of the weld. Any filler less than '/i in.
thick shall have its edges made flush with the edges of the splice plate.
The weld size necessary to carry the splice plate stress shall be increased
by the th ickness of the filler plate.
Fillers in high strength bolted friction type connections need not be
extended and developed, but eccentricity of forces at short thick fillers

must be considered.

Material of different widths spliced by butt welds shall have transitions conf or min g to Figure 1.7.19 except that for A514 and A517 steels
o nly the transiti on illustrated in Fig. 1.7.19a is permitted. At butt weld
splices joining writer ml of diffei-ent thicknesses there shall be a uniform
slope between the offset surfaces of not more than 1 in 2_ with respect
to the surface of either part.

DETA IL 0F THICKNESS TRAN SITION

Ib J S tr oight To per ed Tronsit ion

Fig. I.? I9 SPLICE DETAILS

1.7.20

STRENGTH OF CONNECTIONS

Except as otherwise proc ided herein, connections shall be designed


for the average of the calculated stress and the strength of the member,
but they shall be designed for not less than 75 percent of the strength of
the member.
Connections shall be made symmetrical about the axis of the members
insofar as practicable. Gon nections, except for lacing bars and handrails,
shall contain not less than two fasteners or equivalent weld.

1.7.21

DESIGN

J .7.2 J DIAPHRAGMS, CROSS FRAMES AND LATERAL BRACING


Rolled beam and plate girder spans shall be provided with cross
frames or diaphi agms at each end and with intermediate cross frames or
diaphragms spaced at intervals not to exceed 25 feet. Cross frames shall
be :is deep as practicable. Diaphragms shall be at least and pre:ferably
_ the gii der depth. End cross frames or diaphragms shall be proportioned to adequately transmit all the lateral :forces to the bearings. Special
consideration shall be given to the design of cross frames used on
horizontally curved steel girder bridges. These cross frames shall be
designed as main members with adequate provisions for transfer of
lateral forces from the girder flanges.
On spans 125 feet or longer with a concrete floor or other floor of
equal rigidity, which is adequately attached to the top flanges, one
plane or system of lateral bracing shall be provided near the bottom
flange. Spans with timber or other nonrigid flooring shall have one
system of lateral bracing near the bottom flange for spans longer than
40 feet and two systems of lateral bracing for spans 125 feet or longer.
The lateral bracing shall be placed in at least one-third of the bays.
Cross frames or diaphragms shall be placed in all bays.

Where beams or girders comprise the main members of through

spans, such members shall be stiffened against lateral deformation by


means o1 gusset plates or knee braces with solid webs which shall be
connected to the stiff eners on the main members and the floor beams.
I:I the unsu pported length of the edge of the gusset plate (or solid web)
exceeds 60 times its thickness, the plate or web shall have a stiffen ing
plate or angles connected along its unsupported edge.
Through ti uss spans, deck truss spans and spandrel braced
shall have top and bottom lateral bracing.

arches

Bracing shall be composed of angles, other shapes or welded sections.


ID a double system of bracing is used, both systems may be considered effective simultaneously iI the members meet the requirements
both as tension and compression members. The members shall be connected at their intersections.
The lateral bracing of compression chords, prefer':ibly shall be as
deep as the chords and effectively connected to both flanges.
The smallest angle used in bracing shall be 3 by 2' a inches. There
shall be not less than 2 fasteners or equivalent weld in each end connec
tion of the angles.

J .7.22

NUMBER OF MAIN MEMBERS ON THROUGH SPANS

Where beams, girders or trusses are used for through spans, the
spans preferably shal I have only two main members. Such members shall
be spaced a sufhc rent d istance apart (center to center) to be secure
against overturn ing by the assumed lateral forces.

132

I .7.23 ACCESSIBILITY OF PARTS


The accessib il ity of all parts of a structure for inspection, cleaning
and painting shall be secured by the proper proportioning of members
and th e design of: thei r details.

J .7.24 CLOSED SECTIONS AND POCKETS


Closed sections, and pockets or depressions which will retain water,
shall be avoided where practicable. Pockets shall be provided with
effective drain holes or be hlled with waterproofing material.
Iletails shall be so arranged that the destructive effects of bird life,
the retention of d irt, leaves, and other foreign matter will be reduced to
a minimu m. Where angles are used, either singly or in pairs, they
preferably sh all be placed with the x'ertical legs extending downward.

J .7.25 WELDING, GENERAL


Welding symbols and :fabrication shall conform to the current Speci-

fications for Welded Highway and Railvay Bridges of the American Weld-

ing Society and Art. 2.10.23 except that welding of steels not covered by

this specification shall conform to established welding procedures for

those steels.

Material for structural members which is designed and specified to

be welded shall con:form to AASHO M183 (AS'IM A36) , AASHO M161

( ASTM A242 of a weldable grade) , or AASH O M188 (AISTM A441) .


In addition to the steels named above and covered in Article 1.7.1, other
weldable steels may be considered a:fter the suitability and weldability of:
same has been thoroughly established.

1.7.26 MINIMUM SIZE OF FILLET WELDS


,

The minimum fillet weld size shall be :is shown in the followin g
table. Weld size is determined by the thicker of the two parts joined
unless a larger size is required by calculated stress. The weld size need
not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.

Material 'Ihickness of Thicker


Piirt Joined

(Inches)

Minimum Size of F'i1let \\'e1d


( Inches)

To jinclusive

The minimum size seal weld shall be "i, fillet weld.

DE SICN

J .7.27

MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE SIZE OF FILLET WELDS

The maxim um s ize of a fillet weJd that may- be assu med in the des ign

of a connection shall be such that the stresses in the adjacent base


material do not exceed the val ues all owed in Article 1.7.1. The maximu in
size that may be used along edges of connected parts shal I be :
(1) ) A long edges of material less than '? inch th ick, the maxim u
in size may be equal to the thickness of the material.
( 2) Along edges of material 'ii inch or more in th ickness, the
maximum size shal I be '/n inch less than the th redness of the
material, un less the weld is espec rat l y des i gnated on the
drawi ngs to be b u ilt out to obtain full th roat thickness.

J .7.28

EFFECTIVE WELD AREAS

IA I Butt Welds
The effective area shal I be the effective weld length mu ltipl red by

the effective throat thickness.


( I) The effective weld length for any butt weld, square or
skewed, shal I be the width of the part joined, perpend icular
to the d irection of stress.

12) The effective th roat th ickness shall be the th ickness of the

thinner piece of base metal joined. ( No increase is permitted for weld reinforcement.)

/Bl Fillet Welds


The effective area shall be the effective weld length mu]tipl ied by
the effective throat th ickness. (Stress in a fillet weld shal I be considered as applied to th is effective area, for any direction ot applied
load.)
(1 ) The effective length of straight fillet weld shall be the overall
lingth of the fu 11-size fillet incl ud ing end returns.
(2) The effective length of a curved fillet weld shal I be the length
of the line generated by the centerpoint of the effective
throat thickness.
3I The effective throat thickness shall be the shortest distance
from the root of the diagrammatic weld to the face,

J .7.29

MINIMUM EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF FILLET WELDS

The min imum effective length of a fillet weld shal I be four times its
size and in no case less than 1'3:inches.

J .7.30 FILLET WELD END RETURNS


Fillet welds wh ich support a tensi Ie force that is not pa raIle1 to the
axis of the weld, or wh ich are proport toned to w ithstand repeated stress
shall not terminate at corners of parts or members but shall be returned
cont in uously, fu II size, around the corner for a length equal to twice the
weld size where s uch retu rn can be made in the same plane. E nd returns
shall be indicated on design and detail drawings.

J .7.3J

LAP JOINTS

The mini mum width of laps on lap joints shall be 5 times the thickness of the th inner part joined and not less than 1 inch. Lap joints joining
plates or bars subjected to axial stress shall be fillet welded along the edge
of both lapped parts except where the deflection of the lapped parts is
sufficiently restrained to prevent opening of the joint under maximum
loading.

J .7.32

SEAL WELDS

Seal weld ing shall preferably be accomplished by a continuous weld


comb ining the functions of seal ing and strength, changing section only as
the requ ired strength or the requirements of minimu in size fillet weld,
based on material th ickness, may necessitate.

J .7.33

FILLET WELDS IN SKEWED TEE JOINTS

When joining material in skewed tee joints, fillet welds shall not be
used for joints that have an incl uded angle of less than 60 degrees.

J .7.34

FILLET WELDS IN HOLES AND SLOTS

Fillet welds in holes or slots may be used to transmit shear in lap


joints or to prevent the buckl ing or separation of lapped parts, and to join
components of built-up members. Such fillet welds may overlap, su bject

to the provisions of Article 1.7.28. Fillet welds in holes or slots are not to
be considered plug or slot welds.

J .7.35

SIZE OF FASTENERS PRIVETS OR HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS I

Fasteners shall be of the size shoix'n on the draw ings, but generally
shall be 'li inch or ? inch in diameter. Fasteners ?s inch in diameter shal I
not be used in members carry in g calculated stress except in 2'?_ i rich legs
of angles and in flanges of sections requi ring ?s inch fasteners.
The diameter of fasteners in angles carrying calculated stress shall
not exceed one-fourth the w idth of the leg in wh ich they are placed.
In angles whose size is not determined by calculated stress, s inch
fasteners may be used in 2 inch legs, '?i inch Iasteners in 2'?_ inch legs,
/s inch fasteners in 3 inch legs, and 1 inch Iastene re in 3,_ inch legs.
Structu rat shapes which do not admit the use of /s inch d iameter
fasteners shall not be used except in handrails.

J .7.36 SPACING OF FASTENERS


The pitch of fasteners is the distance along the l me of principal
stress, in inches, between centers of adjacent fasteners, measured along
one or more fastener lines. The gage of fasteners is the distance in inches
between adjacent lines of Iasteners or the distance from the back of angle
or other sh ape to the first I i ne of has teners. The pitch of fasteners shall
be governed by- the requ i resents for sealing or stitch, wh ichever is the

minimum.

1.7.36

DE SIGN

The min imum d istance between centers of fasteners shal l be th ree


times the diameter of the fastener but, preferably, shal l not be less than
the following :
For 1 inch fasteners, 3' inches.
p 7/8 inch fasteners, 3 inches.

For 2i i n ch Iasten ers, 2?a i nches.


For /s inch fasteners, 2fi inches.

1.7.37

MAXIMUM PITCH OF SEALING AND STITCH FASTENERS

IA I Sealing Fasteners
For sealing, the pitch on a single line adjacent to a I ree edge of an
outside plate or shape shall not exceed 4 inches + 4t or 7 inches. If
there is a second line of fasteners uniformly staggered with those in the
line adjacent to the free edge, at a gage g less than 1'/_ inches + 4t
therefrom, the staggered pitch in two such lines, considered together,
shal l not exceed 4 inches + 4t "fig or 7 inches 'fi g but need not be less

than one-half the req u meanest for a single l ine. t= the th redness in
inches of the thinner outside plate or shape.
IB J

Stitch Fasteners

In bu ilt- up members where two or more plates or shapes are in


contact, stitch tasteners shall be used to irisu re un iform action and, in
compress ion members, to prevent buckl ing. In compression members
the pi tch of stitch fasteners on any single line in the direction of stress
shall not exceed 121, KCpt that, if the fasteners on adjacent lines are
staggered and the gage g between the line under consideration and
the farther adjacent line ( if there are more than two lines ) is less than
241, the staggered pi tch in the two lines, considered together, shall
not exceed 121 or 151 "/sg. The gage between adjacent l ines of fasteners
shall not exceed 241. t=the thickness, in inches, of the th inner outside plate or shape. In tension members the pitch shall not exceed twice
that specified for compression members and the gage shall not exceed
that specified for compression members.
For pitch of fasteners in the ends of compression members, See
Article 1.7.86.

J .7.38
IA J

EDGE DISTANCE OF FASTENERS


General

The min imum distance f rom the center of any fastener to a sheared
or flame cut edge shal I be :
For 1 inch fasteners, 1/i inches.
For 7s inch fasteners, 1'/a inches.
For " /i inch fasteners, 1'/i i nches.
For 7s inch fasteners, 1'7e i nches.

The mini run in distance from the center of any fastener to a rol led
or planed edge, except in flanges of beams and channels, shall be :

For
For
For
For

1 inch fasteners, 1'3_ inches.


'lb inch fasteners, 1'/i inches.
/; inch fasteners, 1'/s inches.
/s inch fasteners, 1 inch.

In the flanges of beams an d channels the distance shall be :


For 1 inch fasteners, 1*i inches.
For /s inch fasteners, 1"s inches.

For ' inch :fasteners, 1 inch.

For / inch fasteners, /s inch.


The maximum distance from any edge shall be e ight times the

thickness of the thinnest outside plate, but shall not exceed 5 inches.
I BI Special
In connections des igned by bearing on the plates and
more than two lines of Iasteners parallel to the direction of
the distance between the center of the nearest fastener and
the connected member toward which the pressure from the

having no
the stress,
that end of
fastener is

di rected, shall not be less than the nominal shearing area of the fastener

( single or double shear, as the case may be) divided by two-thirds of


the plate thickness. This end distance may be proportionately less
where the stress per fastener is less than that of the maximum permitted, but not less than 1.5 times the fastener d iameter.
In bearing type connections having no more than two fasteners in
a line parallel to the direction of stress, the distance between the center
of the nearest fastener and that end of the connected member towards
which the pressure from the fastener is directed shall not be less than
AC/t for single shear or 2AC/I for double shear, where A is the
nominal cro9S-sectional area of the fastener, t is the thickness of the
connected part and C is the ratio of specified minimum tensile strength
of the Iastener to the specihed minimum tensile strength of the connected part. Th is end distance may be proportionately less where the
shear stress per fastener is less than that permitted in Article 1.7.5, but
not less than US times the fastener diameter. It need not exceed 1'
times the transverse spacing of the Iasteners.

1.7.39

LONG RIVETS

Rivets subjected to calculated stress and having a grip in excess of


4'7 diameters shall be increased in number at least 1 percent for each
add itional '/is inch of grip. If (he grip exceeds six times the d iameter o:I the
rivet, spec tally designed rivets shall be used.

1.7.40

LINKS AND HANGERS

In p in -connected tension members other than eyebars, the net section


across the pin hole shall be not less than 140 percent, and the net section
back of the pin hole not less than 100 percent of th Et?QU Ired net section of

the body of the member. The ratio of the net width through the pi n
hole transverse to the axis of the member) to the th ickness of the segment

D E SIGN
shall not be more than 8. Flanges not bearing on the pin shall not be
cons idered in the net section across the pin.

I .Z.41 LOCATION OF PINS


Pins shall be so located with respect to the gravity axie of
members as to reduce to a minimum the stresses due to bending.

the

I .7'.42 SIZE O - PINS


Pins shall be proportioned for the maximu in shears and bend ing
moments prod uced by the stresses in the members connected. If there
are eyebars among the parts connected, the diameter of the p in shall be
as specified in Article 1.7.46.

J .7.43 PIN PLATES


When necessary for the req u ired section or bearing area, the section
at the pin holes shal l be i ncreased on each segment by plates so arran ged
as to red uce to a in in imum the eccentricity of the segment. One plate on
each side shall be as wide as the outstanding flanges will allow. At least
one fu 11 w idth plate on each segment shal I extend to the far edge of the
stay plate and the others not less than 6 inches beyond the near edge.
These plates shall be con meeted by en ough rivets, bolts, or fillet and pl ug
welds to transmit the bearing pressure, and so arranged as to distribute it
uniformly over the fuI l section.

I .Z.44 PINS A ND PI N NUTS


Pins shall be of sullied ent length to seen re a f u 11 bear in g of all parts
connected u pon the turned body of the pin. They sha 11 be secured in position by hexagonal recessed n uts or by hexagon a I sol id n uts with washers.
If the pins are bored, th rough rods w i th cap washers may be used. Pin
nuts shall be malleabl e castings or steel. They shall be seen red by cotter
pins in the screw en ds or else the screw ends shal l be long enough to
permit burring the threads.
Members shall be held against lateral movement on the pins.

J .7.45 UPSET ENDS


Ba rs and rods with screw ends, where s pecified, sha II be u pset to
provide a section at the root of the th read, v'hich v'i ll exceed the net
section of the body of the member by at least 15 percent.

1.7.46 EYEBARS
Eyebars shall be of a uniform thickness without reinforcement at the
pin holes. The th ickness of eyebars sha'l be not less than 'pa of the width,
nor less than /_ inch, and not greater than 2 inches. The section o:I the
head through the center of the pin hole shall exceed the required section of
the body of the bar by at least 35 percent. The net section back of the pin
hole shall not be less than 75 percent of the requ ired net section of the body
of the member. The rad i us of transition between the head and body of the
eyebar shall be equal to or greater than the width of the head through the

centerline of the p in hole. The diameter of the pin shall be not less than
eld point of steel

rues the width of the body of the eyebar.

J .7.47 PACKING OF EYEBARS


The eyebars of a set shall be symmetrical about the central plane of
the tru ss and as nearly parallel as practi cable. Bars shall be as close
together as practicable and held against lateral movement, but they shall
be so arranged that adjacent bars in the same panel will be separated by
at least /e inch.
Intersectin g d iagonal bars not far enough apart to clear each other
at all times shal I be clamped together at the intersection.
Steel hlling rings shall be provided, if needed, to prevent lateral
movement of eyebars or other members connected on the pin.

1.7.48 FORKED ENDS


Forked ends will be permitted only where u navo idable. There shall
be enough pin plates on forked ends to make the section of each jaw equ at
to that of the member. The pin plates shall be long enough to develop the
;iin plate beyond the near edge of' the stay plate, but not less than the
length requlred by At ticle 1.7.43.

BEARINGS
\ .T.49

FIXED

BEARINGS

Fixed ends shall be firmly anchored. Bear in gs for spans less than
50 feet need have no provision for dePecti on. Spans of ii0 feet or greater
shall be prov ided wi th a type of bearing employing a h inge, curved bearing plates, elastomer ie pads, or pin arrangement for deflection purposes.

1.7.50

EXPANSION BEARINGS

Spans of less than 50 feet may be arran ged to slide u pon metal
plates with smooth su rfaces and no prov isions for de Section of the spans
need be made. Spans of 50 feet and greater shall be provided with rollers,
rockers or slid in g plates for expansion purposes and shall also be provided

with a type of bearing employing a hinge, curved bearing plates, or pin

arrangement for deflection purposes.


In lieu of the above requirements elastomeric bearings may be used.
See Section 12, Dlvi9ion I of this specification.

I .7.5 I

BRONZE OR

COPPER-ALLOY

SLIDING

EXPANSION

BEARINGS

Bronze or copper-alloy st iding plates shall be cha mfe red at the ends.
They shall be held securely in position, usually by being inset into the

1.7.51

DESIGN

metal of the pedestals or sole plates. Prov is ions shall be made against any

accu mu lation of d i rt wh ich will obstru ct free movement of the span.

J .7.52

ROLLERS

Expansion rollers shall be connected by substan tial s ide bars and sha II

be gu ided by gearing or other effectual means to prevent lateral movement, skewing and creeping. The rollers and bee ring plates shall be protected from di rt and water as far as practicable, and the des ign shall be
such that water will not be retained and that the roller nests may be
inspected and cleaned easily.

J .7.53

SOLE PLATES AND MASONRY PLATES

Sole plates and masonry plates shal l have a min imu in th ickne.ss of
inch.
For spans on i ncli ned grades greater than 1 * without hinged bearings the sole plates shall be beveled so that the bottom of the sole plate is
level, u nless the bottom of the sole plate is rad ial ly en rved.

I .7.54

MASONRY BEARINGS

Beams, gi rdere or trusses on mason ry sha 11 be so en pported that the


bottom chords or flanges wit I be above the bridge seat, prefers b ly not less
than 6 inches.

J .7.55

ANCHOR BOLTS

Trusses, girders and rolled beam spans preferably shall be securely

anchored to the substr uctu re. Anchor bolts shall be swedged or threaded
to secure a satisfactory grip upon the material used to embed them in
the holes.
The following are the minimum requirements for each bearing :
For rolled beam spans the outer beams shall be anchored at
each end with 2 bolts, 1 in diameter, set 10 in the masonry.
For trusses and git-ders :
Spans 50 feet in length or less ; 2 bolts, 1 in diameter, set
10 in the masonry.

Spans 51 to 100 feet ; 2 bolts, 11i in d iameter, set 12 in the

masonry.

Spans 101 to 150 :f eet ; 2 bolts, 1_ in diameter, set 15 in


the masonry.
Spans greater than 150 feet ; 4 bolts, 1t: in diameter, set
15 in the mason ry.

Anchor bolts shall be designed to resist uplift as specified in Article


1.2.16.

1.7.56 PEDESTALS AND SHOES


Pedestals and shoes preferably shall be made of: cast steel or structural steel. The difference in width between the top and bottom bearing
surfaces shall not exceed twice the distance between them. For hinged
bearings, th is distance shall be measured from the center of the pin. In
bu ilt-up pedestals and shoes, the web plates and anglee connecting them to
the base plate shall be not less than /s thick. If the size of the pedestal
permits, the webs shall be rigidly connected transversely. The minimum
thickness of the metal in cast steel pedestals shall be 1. Pedestals and
shoes shall be so designed that the load will be distributed uniformly over
the entire bearing.
Webs and pin holes in the webs shall be arranged to keep any eccentricity to a minimum. The net section through the hole shall provide
140 Jo of the net section required for the actual stress transmitted through

the pedestal or shoe. Pins shall be of su fficient length to secure a full

bearing. Pins shall be secured in position by appropriate nuts with


washers. All portions of pedestals and shoes shall be held against lateral
movement on the pins.

FLOOR SYSTEM
1.7.57 STRINGERS
Strin gers preferably shall be framed into floorbeams. Stringers sup-

ported on the top flanges of floorbeams preferably shall be continuous


over two or more panel9.

1.7.58 FLOORBEAMS
Floorbeams preferably shall be at right angles to the trusses or main
girders and shall be rigidly connected thereto. F loorbeam connections
preferably shall be located so the lateral bracing system will engage both
the floorbeam and the main supporting member. In pin-connected trusses,
if the floorbeams are located below the bottom chord pins, the vertical
posts shall be extended sufficiently below the pins to make a rigid connection to the floorbeam.

J .7.59

CROSS FRAMES

In bridges with wooden flors and steel stringers, intermediate cross


frames or diaphragms) shall be placed between stringers more than
20 feet long.

1.7.60

EXPANSION JOINTS

To provide for expans ion and contraction movement, floor expansion


joints shall be provided at all expansion ends of spans an d at other points
where they may be necessary.

Apron plates, when used, shall be designed to bridge the joint and to
prevent, so far as practicable, the accumulation of roadway debris upon

DESIGN

1.7.60

the bridge seats. Preferably, they shall be connected rigidly to the end
floorbeam.

1 .7.6J END CONNECTIONS OF FLOORBEAMS AND STRINGERS


The end connection shall be designed for the loads 9pecified. The end
connection angles of floo rbea ins and stringers shall be not less than is inch
in fin ished th i ckn ess. Except in cases of special end floorbeam details, each
end connection for floorbeams and stringers shall be made with two angles.
The length of these angles shall be as great as the flanges will permit.
Bracket or sheI f angles which may be used to furn ish su pport during
erection shal l not be considered in determ in ing the n u mber of fasteners
requ i red to transmit end shear.
End connection details shall be designed with special care to provide
clearance for making the field connection.
End connections of stringers and floorbea ins preferably shall be
bolted with Hi gh Strength Bof ts, however, they may be riveted or welded.
In the case of welded end connections, they shall be designed for the
vertical loads and the end bend ing moment resul ting from the deflection
of the members.

Where timber str in gers frame into steel floorbeams, shelf angles with
st iffeners shall be provided to carry the whole reaction. Shelf angles shall
be not less than 7 s inch thick.

J .7.62

END FLOORBEAMS

There shall be end floorbea ins in all square-ended trusses and girder
spans and preferably in skew spans. End floorbeams for truss spans
preferably shall be des igned to perm it the use of jacks for l ifting the
su perstruc tu re. For th i s case the allowable stresses may be increased
50 percent.
End floorbea ins shall be arranged to permit painting of the side of
the beam ad jace nt to the abutment backwa 11.

1.7.63

END PANEL OF SKEWED BRIDGES

In skew br idges without end Poorbeams, the end panel stringers


shal l be secured in correct pos it ion by end struts connected to the stringers
and to the main tru sees or gi rder. The end panel lateral b racing shall be
attached to the main trusses or gi rders and also to th e end struts. Ade-

quate provisions shall be made for the expansion movement of stringers.

J .7.64

SIDEWALK BRACKETS

Sidewalk brackets shal I be connected in such a way that the bending


stresses wil I be transferred directly to the floorbeams.

142

ROLLED BEAMS
J .7.65 ROLLED BEAMS, GENERAL
Rolled beams, including those with welded cover plates, shall be
designed by the moment of inertia method. Rolled beams with riveted
cover plates shall be designed on the same basis as riveted plate girders.
The compression flanges of rolled beams supporting timber floors
shall not be considered to be laterally supported by- the flooring unless the
floor and fastenings are specially designed to provide adeQuate support.

J .7.66 BEARING STIFFENERS


Suitable stiffeners shall be provided to stiffen the webs of rolled
beams at bearings when the unit shear in the web adjacent to the bearing
exceeds 7ii o of the allowable shear for girder webs. See the related
provisions of: Article 1.7.73.

1.7.67 COVER PLATES


The length of any cover plate added to a rolled beam shall be not less
than (2D -l3) i'eet where (D) is the depth of the beam in feet.
The maximum thickness of a single cover plate on a flange shall
not be greater than 2 times the thickness of the flange to which the
cover plate is attached. The total thickness o1 all cover plates should

not be greater than 2/_ times the Pange thickness. The thickness and

width of a cover plate may be varied by butt welding parts of different


thickness or width, with transitions conforming to the requirements of
Article 1.7.19. Such plates shall be assembled and welds ground smooth
before attaching to the Pange. Cover plates may be either wider or
narrower than the flange to which they are attached. Cover plates wider
than the flange to which they are attached must be provided with
transverse end welds. The end weld may be returned around the beam
Pange or stopped short of the Pange toes.
Any partial length welded cover plate shall extend beyond the theoretical end by the terminal distance, or it shall extend to a section where
the stress in the beam flange is equal to the allowable fatigue stress for
Base Metal adjacent to or connected by fillet welds, whichever is greater.

I'he Iheoreticnl end of the cover plate is the section at which the stress in
the flange without that cover plate equals the allowable stEt3S9 exclusive of
fatigue considerations. The term/nnl distotice is 2 times the nominal cover
plate width for cover plates not welded across their ends, and ID time9 IOP
cover plates welded across their ends. The width at ends of tapered cover
plates shall be not less than 3 inches. The weld connecting the cover plate

to the flange in its terminal distance shall be continuous and of sufficient


size to develop a total stress of not less than the computed stress in the

cover plate at its theoretical end. All welds connecting cover plates to
beam flanges shall be continuous and shall not be smaller than the mini-

mum size permitted by Article 1.7.26.

DESIGN

1.7.68

PLATE GIRDERS
J .7.68 PLATE GIRDERS, GENERAL
Girders shall be proportioned by the moment of inertia method. In
calculating the net moment of inertia of riveted plate girders, the gravity

axis of the gross section shal l be used and the moment of inertia of all

holes each s ide of the axis shall be deducted. The tensile stress shall be
computed from the moment of inertia of the entire net section and the
compressive s tress from the moment of inertia of the entire gross section.
The compression flanges of plate girders supporting timber floors
shal I not be considered to be late rally supported by the flooring u nless the
floor and fasten ings are specially designed to provide support.

J .7.69 FLANGES
fA J Welded Cirders
Each flange may compri9e a series of plates joined end to end by full
penetration butt welds. Changes in flange areas may be accompl ished by
varying the thicknes9 or width of the flange plate, or by adding cover
plates. Where plates of varying thicknesses or widths are connected, the
splice shall be made in accordance with Article 1.7.19 and welds ground
emooth before attaching to the web.

When cover plates are used, they shall be designed in accordance with

Article 1.7.67.
The ratio of compression flange plate width to thickneee shall not
exceed the value determined by the formula :

b/t

but in no case shall b/t exceed 24.

Where the calculated compressive bending stress equals .55 F the

b/t ratios :for the various grade9 Of steel shall not exceed the following :
36,000 Q9i, Y.P. Min.

42,000 to
46,000 psi, Y.P. Min.
50,000 psi, Y.P. Min.
55,000 psi, Y.P. Min.

60,000 psi, Y.P. Min.

b/t =23

b/t= 21

b/t= 20
b/t = 19

b/t= 18

65,000 psi, Y.P. Min.


b/t 17
90,000 psi, Y.P. Min.
b/t= 15
100,000 psi, Y.P. Min.
b/t= 14
In the above b is the flange plate wid th, t is the thickness, and I is
the calculated maximum compressive bending stresses (see Art. 1.7.112 for

Hybrid Girders) .

fBl Rivefed or Bolfed Girders


Flange angles shall form as large a part of the area of the flange as
practicable. Side plates shall not be used except where flange an glee
exceeding 7/g inch in thickness otherwise wou Id be required.

Width of outstanding legs of flange angles in compression, except

those reinforced by plates, shall not exceed the value determined by


the formula :

b/t=

but in no case shall b/t exceed 12.

Where the calculated compressive bending stress equals .55 F, the


b'/t ratios for the various grades of steel shall not exceed the following :
36,000 psi Y.P. Min.
b/t= 11
42,000 to
50,000 psi Y.P. Min.
55,000 to
65,000 psi Y.P. Min.
90,000 psi Y.P. Min.

100,000 psi Y.P. Min.

b'/I= 10

b'/t= 9
b/I= 7.5

b/t7

In the above b' is the width of a flange angle, t is the thickness, and
is the calculated maximum compressive stress.
The gross area of the compression flange, except for composite
design, shall be not less than the gross area of the tension flange.
Flange plates shall be of equal thickness, or shall decrease in
thickness from the flan ge angles outward. No plate shall have a thickness greater than that of the flange angles.
At least one cover plate of the top flange shall extend the full length
of the girder except when the flange is covered with concrete. Any
cover plate which is not full length shall extend beyond the theoretical
cut off point far enough to develop the capacity of the plate or shall
extend to a section where the stress in the remainder of the g irder
flange is equal to the allowable fatigue stress, whichever is greater.
The theoretical cut off point of the cover plate is the section at which
the stress in the flange without that cover plate equals the allowable
stress, exclusive of fatigue considerations.

The number of fasteners connecting the flange angles to the web

plate shall be sufficient to develop the increment of flange stress transmitted to the flange anglee, combined with any load that is applied
directly to the flange.

Legs of angles 6 inches or greater in width, connected to web plates

shall have two lines of :f asteners. Cover plates over 14 inches wide shall
have four lines o:I fasteners.

1.7.70 THICKNESS OF WEB PLATES


IAJ Girders Not Stiffened Longitudinolly
The web plate thickness of plate g irders without ton gitudinal
stiffeners shall not be less than that determined by the formula :

23,000
but in no case shall the thickness be less than D/170.

1.7.70

DE SIGN

h
\ I

| | | | | | | || |
I I I 1 1 1 J I l .l

hI I I I I I I I I

|
|
| | )

| |

| | ||

| |t

||| |

&

wcs Tnicxxcss aso si9ocn oEnni


t< fvncfive vf bending atrvm)

f$ cvlcvlofv4 cvmprccsivc bcndhg etrccs In flange

Figure I.7 70

Where the calculated compressive bending stress in the flange


equals the allowable bending stress, the thickness of' the web plate, (with
the web stiffened or not stiffened depending upon the requirements for
transverse stiffeners) , shall not be less than (where the Y.P. ie for the
flange material) :

36,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/16$

50,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/140

90,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/105

42,000 psi. Y.P. Min.


45,000 & 46,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
55,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
60,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
65,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

100.Oflfl ri.st . V.P. Mi n

D/150
D/145

D/133
D/127
D/121
ri / i rin

IBJ Girders StiRened Longitudinolly


The web plate thickness of plate girders equ ipped with longitud inal
stiffeners shall not be less than that determined by the formula :

D
46,
but in no case shall the thickness be less than D/340.

Where the calculated bending stress in the flange equals the allow-

able bending stress, the thickness of: the web plate stiffened with transverse stiffeners in combination with one longitudinal stiffener, shall not
be less than (where the Y.P. is for the flange material) :
36,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
42,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/330
D/300

50,000 psi. Y.P. J\/Lin.


55,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
60,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/280
D/266
D/253

45,000 & 46,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

65,000 psi. Y.P. Min.

D/290

D/242

90,000 psi. Y.P. Min.


D/210
100,000 psi. Y.P. Min.
D/200
In the above, D (depth of web) is the clear unsupported distance,
in inches, between flange components, t is the web thickness and I,
is the calculateil flange bending stress.

J .7.7J TRANSVERSE INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS


Except as otheriv ise provided below, the webs of plate girders shall
be stiffened at inte rvals not greater than the distance given by the
formula :

11,0001

( See Figure 1.7.71A)

but n.ot greater than the clear unsupported depth of the web plate between
flanges, in which :
d=the requ ired distance between str ffeners, in inches
t==the thickness of the web plate, in inches
f, the average calculated unit shearing stress in the gross

section of the web plate at the point considered.

The first two stiffener spaces at the simply supported ends of girders
shall be one-half the val ue specified above.
Transverse intermediate stiffeners may be omitted if the web plate
thickness is not less than the thickness determined by the formula :
Figure 1.7.71B)
7500
but in no case shall t be less than D/ 150.
Where the calculated shear stress equals the allowable shear streS9,

1.7.71

147

DE SIGN

transverse in termed rate stiffeners may be omitted if the thickness of the

web is not less than :


36,000 psi. Y.P.
42,000 psi. Y.P.
45,000 & 46,000 psi. Y.P.
50,000 psi. Y.P.
55,000 psi. Y.P.
60,000 psi. Y.P.
65,000 psi. Y.P.
90,000 psi. Y.P.
100,000 psi. Y.P.

Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.

D/68
D/64
D/60
D/58
D/56
D/53
D/51
D/43
D/41

Intermediate stiffeners preferably shall be made of plates for welded


plate girders and shall be made of an gles for riveted plate girders. They
may be in pairs, one st iffener fastened on each side o:I the web plate, with
a ti ght fit at the compression flange. They may however be made a single
stiff ener fastened to one side of the web plate. When siiffeners are used
on one eide only of the web plate, they shall be fastened to the compression
flange.
The moment of inertia of any type of transverse stiffener shall not
be less than :

where I 25

20, but not less than 5.0.

fn these expressions,

I the in inimu in permissible moment of inertia of any type of


transverse intermediate stiffener.
I the requ ired ratio of rigidity of one transverse st iffener to

that of the web plate.

d -the requ ired d istance between stiffeners, i n inches.


d,== the actual d istance between stiffeners, in inches.
D the u nsu pported depth of web plate between flange components, in inches.
t= the thickness of the web plate, in inches.
When stiffeners are in pairs, the moment of inertia shall be taken
about the center I me of the web plate. When single stiffeners are used,
the moment of inertia shall be taken abou t the face in contact with the
web plate.
Stiffeners at points of concentrated load ing shall be placed in pairs
and shall be designed in accordance with Article 1.7.73.
The wid th of a plate or the outstanding leg of an angle intermediate
st iffe ner shall not be less than 2 inches plus ? the depth of the girder,
and it shall preferably not be less than 'fi the ful I width of the girder
flange. The th ickness of a plate or the outstanding leg of an angle inter
med rate stiffener shall not be less than 'in its width. Intermediate
stiffeners may be A36 steel.

48

FIGURE 1.7.71 A
( See page 149 for Figure 1.7.7 IB)

J .7.72 LONGITUDINAL STIFFENERS


The centerline of a plate longitudinal stiffener or the gage line of an
angle longitudinal stiffener shall be D/5 from the inner surface or leg of
the compression flange component. The longitudinal stiffener shall be
proportioned so that :

I Dt( 2.4
where

do

Ithe minimum moment of inertia of the longitudinal stiffener


about its edge in contact with the web plate.

D the unsupported d istance between flange components, in inches


t the thickness of the web plate, in inches
d, the actual distance between transverse stiffeners, in inches
The thickness of the ton gitudinal stiff ener shall not be less than :
bQf
2250

where

b= width of stiffeners
f calculated compressive bending stress in the flange

The stress in the stiffener shall not be greater than the basic allowable bending streS9 IOT the material used in the stiffener.
Longitud inal stiffeners are usually placed on one side only of the web
plate. They need not be continuous and may be cut at their intersections
with the transverse stiffeners.

DE 5I GN
WE6

PL AT E

W I TH OUT

149
STI FFEN E RS

I overoge coJcu loted unit she or s tress in web


I" thickness of web plote

4O

S0

6O

7O

8O

90

!0O

D (inchesi

FI G U R E

J .7.73
IA I

1. 7.71 B

BEARING STIFFENERS
Welded Girders
Over the end bearings of welded plate pi rders and over the inter-

med rate bearings of conti n uous welded plate g i rders there shall be
str ffeners. They sha 11 extend as nearly as pract icable to the outer edges

of the flange plates. They preferably shal I be made of plates placed on


both sides of the web plate. Bea ring stiffeners shall be des igned as
col u runs, and the ir connecti on to the web shal I be des i gned to transmit

the entire end reaction to the b ea r in gs. For stiffeners consisti rig o:I two
plates, the column section shal l be ass umed to comprise the two plates

and a centrally located strip of the web plate whose width is equal to
not more than 18 times its thickness. For stiffeners consisting of four
or more plates, the column section shall be assumed to comprise the four
or more plates and a centrally located strip of the web plate whose width
is equal to that enclosed bj' the four or more plates plus a width of not
more than 18 times the web plate thickness. (See Art. 1.7.113 for Hybrid

Girders.) The radius of gyration shall be computed about the axis

through the center line of the web plate. The stiffeners shall be ground
to fit against the flange through which they receive their reaction, or
attached to the flange by full penetration groove welds. Only the portions of the stiffeners outside the flange-to-web plate welds shall be
considered effective in bearing. The thickness of the bearing stiffener
plates shall not be less than
b
F,

12

33,000

The allowable compressive stress and the bearing pressure on the


stiffeners shall not exceed the values specified in Article 1.7.1.
IBJ Riveted or Bolted Girders
Over the end bearings of riveted or bolted plate girders there shall
be stiffener angles, the outstanding legs of which shall extend as nearly

as practicable to the outer edge on the flange angle. Bearing stiffener

angles shall be proportioned for bearing on the outstanding legs of


flange angles, no allowance being made for the portions of the legs being
fitted to the fillets of the flange angles. Bearing stiffeners shall be
arranged, and their connections to the web shall be designed to transmit
the entire end reaction to the bearings. They shall not be crimped. The
thickness of the bearing stiffener angles shall not be less than

The allowable compressive stress and the bearing pressure on the


stiffeners shall not exceed the values specified in Article 1.7.1.

J .7.74

CAMBER

Girders should be cambered to compensate for dead load deflections


and in addition thereto the camber preferably shou ld be increased and/or
decreased for the flanges to parallel the profile grade line when i t is on a
vertical curve.

TRUSSES
J .7.75

TRUSSES, GENERAL

Component parts of individual truss members may be connected by


welds, rivets or high strength bolts.
Preference should be given to trusses with single intersection web
systems. Members shall be symmetrical about the central plane of the
truss.
Trusses preferably shall have inclined end posts. Laterally unsupported h ip joints shall be avoided.

Main trusses shall be spaced a sufficient dista rice apart center to


center, to be secure again st overturning by the ass umed lateral forces.
For the calculat ion of stresses, effective depths shall be ass umed as
foIlows :

Riveted trusses, distance between centers of gravity of the chords.


Pin-connected trusses, distance between centers of chord pins.

\.7.7b TRUSS MEMBERS


Chord and web truss members shall usually be made in the follow ing
shapes :
H Sections, made with two side segments Icomposed of an gles
or plates) with solid web, perforated v'eb, or web of stay plates and
lacing.
Channel sections, made with two angle segments, with solid web,
perforated web, or web of stay plates and lacing.
Single Box sections made wi th s ide channels, beams, angles and
plates or side segments of plates on ly, connected top and bottom with
perforated plates or stay plates and lacing.
Single Box sections, made with side chan nels, beams, an glee and
plates or side segments of plates on ly, connected at top with solid

cover plates and at the bottom with perforated plates or stay plates

and I aei ng.


Double Box section s, made with side ch an nets, beams, angles an d
p fates or side segments of plates only, connected w ith a conventional
eolid web, together with top and bottom perforated cover plates or
stay plates and lacing.
If the shape of the truss permits, compress ion chords shall be con -

tinu ous.
In chords composed of an gles in chan nel shaped members, the vertical
legs of the angles p referably shall extend downward.
If web members are su bject to reversal of stress, their end connections shall not be pinned. Counters preferably s hall be rigid. Adj us table
counters, if used, shall have open turnb uckles, and in the desig n of these
members an allowance of 10,000 pou nds shall be made for initia I stress.
On l y one set of d iagona 1s in a ny panel shall be adjus table. Sleeve nu ts
and loop bals shall n ot be used.

1.7.77 SECONDARY STRESSES


The design and details shall be such that secon dary stresses w ill be
as smal I as practicable. Seeon dary stresses d ue to tru s.s d i sPortion or floorbeam deflection usually need not be considered in any member, the width
of which, measured parallel to the plane of distortion, is less than onetenth of its len gth. If the secondary stress exceeds 4,000 pou rids per
square inch for tension me mbers and 3,000 for compress ion members,
the excess shall be treated as a primary stress. St resses d ue to the flex ural
dead load moment of the member sha 11 be considered as additional secondary

stress.

1.7.78 DIAPHRAGMS
There shall be diaphragms in the trusses at the end connections of
floor beams.
The queset plates en:aging the pedestal ;iin at the end of the truss
shall be connected by a diaphragm. 5inn ila rly, the webs of the pedestal
shall, if practicable, be connected by a diaphragm.
There shall be a diaphragm between gusset plates engaging main
members if the end tie plate is 4 feet or more from the point of intersection of the members.

1.7.79 CAMBER
The length of the truss members shall be sue.h that the camber will
b eQual to or greater than the deflection produced by the dead load.

J .7.80 WORKING LINES AND GRAVITY AXES


Main members shall be proportioned so that their gravity axes will
be as nearly as practicable in the center of the section.
In compression members of unsymmetrical section, such as chord
sections formed of side segments and a cover plate, the gravity axis of the
section shall coincide as nearly as pract icable with the working line, except
that eccentricity may be introduced to counteract dead load bending.
In 2-angle bottom chord or diagonal members, the working I ine may be
taken as the gage line nearest the back of the angle or at center of grav ity
for welded trusses.

1.7.8 J

PORTAL AND SWAY BRACING

Through truss spans shall have portal bracing, preferabl y, of the 2plane or box type, rigidly connected to the end post and the top chord flanges,
and as deep as the clearance will all ow. If a single plane portal is used, it
shall be located, preferably, in the central transverse plane of the end posts,
wi th diaph ragms between the webs of the posts to provide for a d
istribution of the portal stresses. The portal bracing shall be designed to
take the full end reaction of the top chord lateral system and the end posts
shall be designed to transfer this reaction to the truss bearings.
Through truss spans shall have sway bracing 5 feet or more deep at
each intermediate panel point. Top lateral struts shall be at least as deep
as the top chord.

Deck truss spans shall have sway bracing in the plane of the end
posts and at all intermediate panel points. This bracing shall extend the
full depth of the trusses below the floor system. The end sway bracing
shall be proportioned to carry the entire upper lateral stress to the sup
ports through the end posts of the truss.

J .7.82

FILLERS, DEVELOPMENT, MAXIMUM NUMBERS, ETC.

For Fillers refer to Article 1.7.19.

1.7.83

1.7.83

DE SIGN

PERFORATED COVER PLATES AND LACING BARS

The shearing force normal to the member in the planes of lacing or


continuous perforated plates shal I be assumed divided equally between all
such parallel planes. The shearing force shall incl ude that d ue to the
weight of the member plus any other external force. For compression
members, an add it tonal force shall be added as obtained by the following
formula :

l
3,300,000

F,.
In the above expression :
V normal shearing stress in pou nds.
P=allowable compressi ve axial load on members, in pounds.
1=: length of member in inches.

r -rad ius of gyration of section about the ax is pe rpendic u far


to plane of lacing or perforated plate i n inches.
F;= specified minimu in yield point of type of steel being used.

fA J Perforated Cover Plofes


When perforated cover plates are used, the follow in g provisions
shall govern ther r des ign :
( 1) The ratio of length, in d irection of strew, to width of
perforation, shall not exceed two.
f 2) The clear d istance between perforations in the d irection
of stress, shall not be less than the d istance between points
of en pport.
(3) The c lear d istance between the end perforation and the
end of the cover plate s hall not be less than 1.25 times the
distance between points of support.
(4 ) The point of support shall be the inner line of fasteners or
fillet welds connecting the pe rforated plate to the flanges.
For plates butt welded to the flange edge of rolled segments the po int of support may be taken as the weld when ever the ratio of the on tstandinp flange width to flange
th ickness of the rolled segment is less than se ven. Otherwise point of su pport shall be the root of the flange of the
rol led segment.
(5) The periphery of the perforation at all points shall have a
min imu in rad ius of 1/_ inches.
(6) For thickness of metal see Article 1.7.88.
IBI

Locing Bors
When lac in g bars are u sed, the followi ng prov ision s shal I govern
their design :
( 1) Lacing bars of compres.sion members shal I be so spaced
that the stenderness ratio of the portion of the flange in-

clu ded between the lacing bar connections will be not more
than 40 nor more than of the slenderness ratio of the
member.
(2) The section of the lacing bars shall be determined by the

formula for axial compression in which I is taken as the

distance along the bar between its connections tp the main


segments for single lacing, and as 70 percent of that distance for double lacing.
If the distance across the member between fastener lines
in the flanges is more than 15 inches, and a bar with a
single fastener in the connection is used, the lacing shall
be double and fastened at the intersections.
(4) The angle between the lacing bars and the axis of the
member shall be approximately 45 degrees for double lac
ing and 60 degrees for single lacing.
Lacing bars may be shapes or flat bars. For main members the minimum thickness of flat bars shall be /io of the
distance along the bar between its connections for single
lacing and 'no for double lacing. For bracing members the
limits shall be /so for single lacing and '7 for double
lacing.
(6) The diameter of fasteners in lacing bars shall not exceed
one-third the width of the bar. There shall be at least two
fasteners in each end of lacing bars connected to flanges
more than 5 inches in width.

1.7.84 GUSSET PLATES

Gusset or connection plates preferably shall be used for connecting


main members, except when the members are pin-connected. The fasteners
connecting each member shall be symmetrical wi th the axis of the member,
so far as practicable, an d the fu 11 development of the elements of the
member shall be given consideration. The gusset plates shall be of ample
thickness to resist shear, direct stress, and flexu re, acting on the weakest
or critical section of maximum stress.
Re-entrant cuts, except curves made for appearance, shall be avoided
as far as practicable.
If the length of unsupported edge of a gusset plate exceeds the value
of the expression

times its thickness, the edge shall be stiffened.

Listed below are the values of the expression


grades of steel :
36,000 psi., Y.P. Min. 58

42,000 psi., Y.P. Min. 54

45,000 & 46,000


50,000
55,000
60,000
65,000
90,000
100,000

psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
p9i.,
psi.,

Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.

Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.

51
49
47
45
45
37
35

for the :folloiving

DE 5I GN

J .7.85

HALF-THROUGH TRUSS SPANS

The vertical truss members and the floorbea ins and th em con nections
in half-through truss spans shall be proportioned to resist a lateral force
of not less than 300 pounds per I in ear foot, applied at the top chord panel
points of each truss.
The top chord shall be considered as a col u run with elastic lateral
supports at the panel points. The critical buckling force of the col u run,
so determ incd, shal I exceed the maximu in force from dead load, I we load
and impact in any panel of th e top chord by not less than 50 percent.

J .7.86

FASTENER PITCH IN ENDS OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

In the ends of compression members, the pitch of fasteners connecting


the componeh t parts- of the member shall not exceed fou r times the
d iameter of the fastener for a length equal to 1': ti rues the max imum

width of the member. Beyond this point, the pitch shall be increased
grad uaI ly for a length equal to I'm times the maximu in width of the
member u nti I the maxi mum pi tch is reached.
J .7.87

NET SECTION OF RIVETED OR HIGH STRENGTH BOLTED TENSION

MEMBERS
The net section of a riveted or h igh strength bolted tension member
is the su in of the net sections of its com ponen t parts. The net section of a
part is the Jirod uct of the th ickn ess of the part multiplied by i ts least net
wid th.
The net wid th for any ch am of holes extend ing prop ress i ve l y across
the part sh all be obtained by dcd uctin g from the gross width the en in of
the d iameters of all the holes i n the cha in and adding, for each gage space
in the chain, the q u a nti ty :
s
4g
where S = pitch of any tw'o successive hot es in the chain
g= ;,a9o of the same holes
The net sec I ion of the part is obta i ned from the chain wh ich gives
the J eas I net wid th.
For angles, the gross w idth sh all be the s u rn of the wi dth s of th e

legs less th e th ickn ess. Th e gage for ho les i n oppos i te legs sh at I be the
eu in of gages from back of angle less the th i ckness.
At a splice, the total stress in the member being spliced is transferred
by :f asteners to the spI ice ma terial.
When determ in ing the un it stress on any least net wid th of e it her
spl ice materi a I or member being spl iced, the amou nt of the stress previ ou 9l y tr.i n starred by fasten en adjacent to the secti on being i n ves tigated
shall be cont idered in determ in ing the u n it stress on the net sect ion .
The d iameter of the hole shal I be taken as 'Zs inch greater than the
nominal diameter of the rivet or high strength bolt, unless larger holes
are permitted in accordance with Art. 1.7.5.
'

rcl9r tO li WOShtn O, lheoly 0f

1.7.88

COMPRESSION MEMBERS

THICKNESS OF METAL

Compressi on members shall be so designed that the main elements


of the section will be Con nected d meekly to the gusset plates, pins, or
othei members.
The center of gravity of a built-up section shall coincide as nearly
as practicable w ith the center of the section. Preferably, segments shall
be connected by solid webs or perforated cover plates.
Plat s S1t@j9Ort id on Oflt? Side, Out Stoftdiiip ie QS OJ ang I es and per;fo-

roted plotes. For outstanding plates, the outstanding legs of angles, and
perforated plates at the perforations, the b/t ratio of the plates or angle
segments, when used in compress ion, shall not be greater than the value
obtained by use of the formula :

b/t

1625
but in no case shall b/t be greater than 12 for main

members and 16 for secondary members.


(Noteb is the distance I:rom the edge of plate or edge of perforation

to the point of support.)

When the compressive stress equals the limiting factor

, the

b/t ratio of the segments indicated above shall not be greater than the
ratios shown for the following grades of steel :

36,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t= 12

42,000 to 50,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t= 11


55,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t= 10.5
60,000 to 6fi,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t= 10
90,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t= 8.0
100,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t 7.5
IO I P i3 i3H @flO Y P d 011 ( SO Q Q 8 DI' RP S O/ fltotll COlltQ O1'2 Pf2 5PQ 222 f2 S.
For members of box shape, consisting of main plates, rolled sections,. or
made up component segments, with cover plates, the 6/t ratio of: the main
plates or webs of: the segments, when used in compression shall not be
greater than the value obtained by use of the formula :

4000

in no case shall b/t be greater than 45.

(Notch is the distance between points of support for the plate and
between roots of flanges for the webs of rolled segments.)
W. hen the compressive stresses equal the limiting
',
the F
.
factor
b/t ratio of the plates and segments indicated above shall not be greater
than the ratios shown for the following grades of steel :

36,000 psi., Y.P. Min.

42,000 psi.,
45,000 & 46,000 psi.,
50,000 psi.,
55,000 psi.,
60,000 psi.,
65,000 psi.,
90,000 psi.,
100,000 psi.,

Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.

Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.

b/t= 32

b/t= 29
b/t= 28
b/t= 27
b/t= 26
b/t= 25
b/t= 23
b/t= 20
b/t= 19

1.7.88

1ii7

DE SI GN

Sotid cor er p/otes enpport ed ott two ed g es or uebs rozinectinp mciii


rue rub er s or s e go ents . For members of H or box shape consist in g of solid
cover plates or sol id webs connecting main plates or segments, the b/t
ratio of the solid cover plates or webs when used in compress ion shall not
be greater than the val u e obtained by use of the formula :

but in no case shall b/t bl? gfeater than 50.


, f.
( Not
b is the unsupported distance between points of support.)
'F
When the compressive .stresses equal the l Smiting factor
, the
b/t

b/t ratio of the cover plate and webs indicated above shal l not be greater
than the ratios shown for the following grades of steel :
36,000 psi., Y.P. Min. b/t =40

42,000 psi., Y.P. Min.

45,000 & 46,000


50,000
55,000
60,000
65,000
90,000
100,000

psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,

Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.
Y.P. Min.

b/t =37

b/t =35
b/t =34
b/t =32
b/t =31
b/t =29
b/t =25
b/t 24

P erJ orat ed corcr p/otc.s support cd or two ed g es . For members of box


shape cons isting of perforated cover plates con necking ma in plates or
segments, the b /t ratio of the perforated cover plates when used in compression shall not be greater than the value obtained by use of the
formula :

6000

but in no case shalt b/t be greater than 55.

(Noteb is the d istance between points of support. Attention is


d irected to requ i resents for plate thickness at perforations, n amely plate
supported on one side, wh ich also shall be satisfied. )

When the compress we stresses equal the limiting factor

the

b/t ratio of the perforated cover plates shall not be greater than the rat ios
shown for the follow ing grades of steel :
36,000 psi., Y.P. Min.
42,000 psi., Y.P. Min.

45,000 & 46,000 psi., Y.P. Min.


50,000
55,000
60,000
65,000
90,000

p9i., Y.P.
psi., Y.P.
psi., Y.P.
psi., Y.P.
psi., Yg.P.

b/t =48
b/t =44

b/t =42

Min. b/t =41


Min. b/t =39
Min. b/t= 37
Min. b/t 35
Min. b/t 30

158

In the above expressions


I,=the eaten lated compressive stress
b= is the width (defined as indicated for each expression)
I-is the plate or web thickness
The point of support shall be the inner line of fasteners or fillet
welds connecting the plate to the main segment. For plates butt welded to
the flange edge of rolled segments the point of support may be taken as
the weld whenever the ratio of outstanding flan ge width to Pange th ickness of the rolled segment is less than seven. Otherwise point of support
shall be the root of flange of rolled segment. Terminations of the butt
welds are to be ground smooth.

J .7.89

STAY PLATES

Where the open sides of compression members are not connected by


perforated plates, such members shall be provided with lacing bars and
shall have stay plates as near each end as practicable. Stay plates shall
be provided at intermed rate points where the lacing is interrupted. In
main members, the length of the end stay plates between end fasteners
shall be not less than I'm times the distance between points of support and
the length of in termed rate stay plates not less than ?i of that d istance. In
lateral struts and other secondary members, the over-all length of end and
in termed iate stay plates shall be not less than " i of the distance between
points of support.
The point of support shall be the inner line of fasteners or hllet
welds connecting the stay plates to the flanges. For stay plates butt
welded to the flange edge o:I rolled segments, the point of support may be
taken as the weld whenever the ratio of out stand in g flange w idth to flange
thickness of the rolled segment is less than seven. Otherwise the point of
support shall be the root of flange of rolled segment. When stay plates are
butt welded to rolled segments of a member, the allowable stress in the
member shall be :letermined in accordance with Article 1.7.3. T'erminations of butt welds shall be ground smooth.
The separate segments of tension members composed of shapes may
be connected by perforated plates or by stay plates or end stay plates and
lacing. End stay plates shall have the same min imum length as speci fied
for end stay plates on main compression members and intermediate stay
plates shall have a minimum length of /i of that specified for intermediate
stay plates on main compression members. The clear d istance between
stay plates on tension members shall not exceed 3 feet.
The th ickness of stay plates shall be not less than 1 a of the d istance
between points of support for main members, and 'he of that distance for
bracing members. Stay plates shall be connected by not less than three
fasteners on each side, and in members having lacing bars the last
fastener in the stay plates, preferably shall also pass through the end of
the adjacent bar.

RIBBED ARCHES
J .7.90 THICKNESS OF WEB PLATES, SOLID RIB ARCHES
The th ick ness ratio D/t of each web plate in sol id rib arches having

DE 5I GN

1.7.90

no longitudinal st i ff eners shall not be greater than the val ue obtained by


use o:I the following formu la :

D/ t =

7200

but in no case shall D/t be greater than 60.

The th redness ratio D/t of web plates in soft d rib arches eg u i pped

with longitud inal stiffeners, that is when the web is rein forced along its
axis with a longitud inal stiffener of am plc cross-sectional area and
rigid ity, sha II not be greater than twice the vaI u e obtai tied by use of the
above formula.
When the compress we stresses equal the lim i ting factor $' the
D/t ratio of the web plates shall not be greater than the ratios shown for
the follow in g grades of steel :
W ithout
Longit.

36,000 psi., Y.P. Min.

42,000
45,000 & 46,000
50,000
5fi,000
60,000
65,000
90,000
100,000

psi.,
psi .,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,
psi.,

Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.
Y.P.

Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.
Min.

\\'ith

Lori git.

Stiffeners

Stiffeners

D/t= 57

D/t= 114

D/t=53
D/t= 51
D/t= 48
D/t 46
D/t =45
D/t= 42
D/t =36
D/t= 34

D/t i06
D/t 102
D/t= 96
D/t 92
D/t 90
D/t= 84
D/t 72
D/t= 68

BENTS AND TOWERS


J .Z.9 J BENTS AND TOWERS, GENERAL
Bents, preferably shall be composed of two supporting colu runs, and
the bents usually shall be united in pairs to form towers. The design of
members for beats and towers is governed by the appl icable artic les i..ider
Trusses and Details of Design.

J .7.92 SINGLE BENTS


Single bents shal l have h inged ends or else shall be designed
resist bending.

J .7.93

to

BATTER

Bents, preferably, shall have a su the i ent spread at the base to prevent
uplift under the assumed lateral load ings. In general, the width of a bent
at its base shall be not less than one-third of its height.

J .7.94 BRACING
Towers shall be

both

an it

HIG HWAY BRIDGE S

stiff members having either welded, high strength bolted or riveted connections. The sections of members of longitudinal braci rig in each panel
shall not be less than those of the members in correspond ing panels of the
transverse bracing.
The bracing of long col umns shall be designed to hx the column about
both axes at or near the same point.
Column splices shal I be at or close above the panel points of the
bracing.

Horizontal diagonal bracing shall be placed in all towers having more


than two vertical panels, at alternate intermed rate panel points.

J .7.95 BOTTOM STRUTS


The bottom struts of towers shall be strong enough to slide the mov-

able shoes with the structure un loaded, the coefficient of Inction being
assu med at 0.25. Provision for expansion of the tower bracing shal I be
made in the column bearings.

COMPOSITE GIRDERS

1.7.96 COMPOSITE I-GIRDERS, GENERAL


This section pertains to struc tures composed of steel girders with
cone rete slabs connected by shear connectors.
General specifications pertaining to the design of concrete and steel

structu res sha 11 apply to structu re s utili zi rig composi te gi rders where such

specifications are applicable. Compos ite girders :ind slabs shall be designed
and the stresses computed by the composite moment of inertia method
and shall be consistent with the predetermined properties of the various
materials used.
The ratio of the modu li of elasticity of steel (29,000,000 psi) to those
of concrete of various design strengths shall be as follows :
I, un it ultimate compressive strength of concrete as determ ined by cylinder tests at the age of 28 days, psi.
n ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to that of concrete. The val ue of n, as a function of the ultimate cylinder strength of concrete, shall be assumed as follows :
I, 2000-2400
n -15
-2500-2900
== 12
== 3000-3900
=10
4000-4900
=8
5000 or more
6
The effect of creep shall be considered in the design of composite
girders which have dead loads acting on the composite section. In such
structures, stresses and horizontal shears produced by dead loads acting
on the compost te section shall be computed for n as given above or for
this value multiplied by 3, whichever gives the higher stresses and shears.

If concrete with expansive characteristics is used, composite design

D E SI GN

should be used with caution and provision must be made in the design to
accommodate the expansion.

Composite sections shou Id preferably be proportioned so that the

neutral axis lies below the top surface of the steel beam. If concrete ie
on the tension s ide of the neutral axis, it shall not be cons idered in
computi ng women ts of i nertia or resisti rig moments except for deflection
calcu lations. Meehan ical anchorages shall be provided to tie the sections
together and to develop stresses on the plane join ing the concrete and the
steel.
The steel beams, especially if not supported by intermediate falsework shall be investigated for stab iI ity during the time the concrete is in
place and before it has hardened.

J .7.97 SHEAR CONNECTORS


The mech an ical means wh ich are used at the junction of the girder
and slab for the purpose of developi rig the shear resistance necessary to
produce composite action shall conform to the spec ifications of the respective materials as provided in Division II. The shear connectors shall be
of types wh ich permit a thorough compaction of the concrete in order to
insure that ther r entire surfaces are in contact wi th the concrete. They
shall be capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical movement be-

tween the concrete and the steel.

The capacity of stud and channel ehear connectors welded to the


girders is given in Article 1.7.100. Channel shear connectors shall have at
least die inch fillet welds placed along the heel and toe of the channel.
The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear connectors
shall be not less than 2 inches. Shear connectors shall penetrate at leaet
2 inches above bottom of slab,
The clear d istance between the edge of a girder flange and the edge
of the shear connectors shal I be not less than one inch.

J .7.98 EFFECTIVE FLANGE WIDTH


in compos ite gi rder construction the assu med effective width of the
slab ae a T-beam flange shall not exceed the fol lowing :
( 1 ) One-fou rth of the span length of the girder.
12) The distance center to center of girders.
13) ) Twelve times the least th ickness of the slab.
For gi rders having a flange on one side only, the effecti ve flange

width shall not exceed one twe lfth of the span length of the girder, nor
cix times the th ickness of the slab, nor one-half the d istance center to
center of the next girder.

I .Z.99 STRESSES
Maximu in compressive and tensile strlSse9 in girders which are not
provided with temporary supports d uring the placing of the permanent
dead load, shall be the su in of the stresses produced by the dead loade acting on the steel girders alone and the stresses prod uced by the superimposed loads acting or the composite girder. When girders are provided

,'

with effective intermediate supports which are kept in place until the concrete ha9 attained 75 percent of its required 28-day strength, the dead and
live load stresses shall be computed on the basis of the composite section.
In continuous span9, the positive moment portion may be designed
with composite sections as in simple spana. Shear connectors shall be provided in the negative moment portion in which the reinforcement steel
embedded in the concrete is considered a part of the composite section. In

case the reinforcement steel embedded in the concrete is not used in com-

puting section properties for negative moments, ehear connectors need not
be provided in these portions of the spans, but add itional connectors
9hall be placed in the region of the point of dead load contraflexure in
accor ilance with Art. 1.7.100 (A) 3) . Shear connectors shall be provided
in accoi dance with At-ticle 1.7.100.

1.7.J 00 SHEAR
lAJ Horizontal Sheor
The maximum pitch of shear connectors shall not exceed 24 inches,
except over the interior supports of continuous beams where wider
spacing may be used to avoid placing connectors at locations of high

stresses in the tension flange.

Resistance to horizontal shear shall be provided by mechanical shear


connectors at the junction of the concrete slab and the steel girder. The
shear connectors shall be mechanical devices placed transversely across
the Pange of the girder spaced at requ far or variable intervals. The
shear connectors shall be designed :for fatigue * and checked I:or ulti-

mate strength.
( 1)

Fotigue

The range of horizontal shear shall be computed by the


formu la :

where S, = the range of horizontal shear per linear inch at the


junction of: the slab and girder at the point in the span
under consideration.
the range of shear due to live loads and impact. At any

section, the range of shear shall be taken as the differ


ence in the minimum and maximum shear envelopes
( excluding dead loads) .
The statical moment about the neutral axis of the com
posite section, of the transformed compressive concrete area or the area of reinforcement embedded in

the concrete for negative moment.

* Reference ia made to the paper titled Fatigue Strength of Shear Connectors by Roger G.
5! 'ter an d Joh n W. Fisher in HI GHWAY RESEARCH RECORD, No. 147. nublished by the
Hi$h $y Rsearch Board. Washington , D .C.. 1966.

DE SIGN

1.7. 100

163

I= The moment o:I inertia of the transformed composite


girder in positive moment regions or the moment of

inertia provided by the steel beam including or excluding the area of reinforcement embedded in the concrete in negative moment regions.

(In the above, the compressive concrete area is transformed

into an equivalent area of steel by dividing the effective concrete


flange width by the modular ratio, n.)
The al lowable i ange of horizontal shear, Z,, in pounds on an
individual connector is as follows :
Channels

Z,=Bw

Welded studs (for ratios of H/d equal to or greater than 4)


where w the length of a channel shear connector in inches
measured in a transverse direction on the flange of
a girder.
d diameter of stud, in inches

13,000 for 100,000 cJ'cles

10,600 for 500,000 cycles


7,850 for 2,000,000 cycles

B = 4,000 :for 100,000 cycles


3,000 for 500,000 cycles
2,400 for 2,000,000 cycles
H = height of stu d in inches
The requ ired pitch of shear connectors is determined by dividing the allowable range of horizontal shear of all connectors at one
transverse girder crossecti on (EZ, by the horizontal range of shear

S, per linear i rich. Over the interior supports of continuous beams

the pitch may be mod ified to avoid placing the connectors at locations of h igh str esses in the tension flange provided that the total
number of connectors remains unchanged.
(2) Ulfim ote Strength

The number of connectors so provided for fatigue shall be


checked to ensure that adeq u ate connectors are provided for ultimate strength. The n umber of shear connectors required between

the points of maximu in positive moment and the en d supports or


dead load points of contraflex ure, and between points of maximum

negative moment and the dead load points of cori traflexure shall
equal or exceed the number given by the formula :

HI GHWAY B RI DGE S

where

N the number of: connectors between points of maximum


positive moment and aclj acent end supports or dead load
points of contraflexure, or between points of maximum
negatis'e moment and adjacent dead load points of contraflexure.

u' the ultimate strength of the shear connecter as given


below.
Q = a reduction factor =0.85.
P = force in the slab as defined hereafter as P,, P,, or P,.

At points of maximum positive moment, the :force in the slab is

taken as the smaller value of the :f ormu1as :

P,=A, F
Or
P =0.85 I, be
where A,= total area of the steel section including coverplates.
F, specified minimum yield point of the steel being used.
I,= compressive strength of concrete at age of 28 days.
b effective flange width given in Art. 1.7.99.
c thickness o:I the concrete slab.

At points of maximum negative moment the force in the 9lab

is taken ae :

where A( = total area of longitudinal reinforcing steel at the interior support within the effective flange width.
F) specified minimum yield point of the reinf orcing steel.
The ultimate strength of the shear connecter is given as follows :
Channels :
5,, = 550 (h +t/2) w

:I',

Welded Studs (H/d 4) :

where

5,= ultimate strength of individual shear connector, in


pounds.
h = the average flange thickness of: the channel flange, in
inches.
I= the thickness of the web of a channel, in inches.
w = length of a channel shear connector, in inches.
I, compressive strength of the concrete at 28 days, psi.

d= diameter of stud, in inches.

DE SIGN

1.7.100

13 J

Additionol Con nectors fo Develop Slob Sfress


The nu mber of add it tonal connectors required at points of
contraflexure, when reinforcement steel embedded in the concrete
is not used in computing section properties for negative moments,
shall be computed by the formula :

where N,= number of additional connectors for each beam at point


of contraflexure.

A, total area of longit udinal slab reinforcement steel for


each beam over interior support.

range of stress d ue to live load plus impact, in the slab


reinforcement over the support (in lieu of more accu rate computations, I, may be taken as equal to
10,000 psi) .
the all owable range of horizontal shear on an individual
shear connector.
The additional connectors, N,, shall be placed adjacent to the

point of dead load contraflexu re within a distance equal to H the

effective slab width, i.e., placed either side of this point or centered

about it.

fBJ Verficol Sheor


The intensity of unit shearing stress in a composite girder may be
determined on the basis that the web of the steel girder carries the total
external shear, neglecting the effects of the steel flanges and of' the con-

crete slab. The shear may be assumed to be uniformly distributed


throughout the gross area o:I the web.

J .7. J OJ DEFLECTION
The provisions of Article 1.7.12, in regard to deflections from live
Road plus impact also shall be applicable to composite girders.
When the girders are not provided with falsework or other effective
intermediate su pport durin g the placing of the concrete slab, the detection
due to the weight o:I the slab and other permanent dead loads added before
the concrete has attained 75 per cent of its reQuired 28-day strength shall
be computed on the basis of non-composite action.

J.Z. JO2 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS, GENERAL


This section pertains to the design of simple and continuous span

steel-conci-ete composite multi-box girder bridges of moderate length. It is

applicable to box girders of single cell, having width center to center of top
steel flanges approximately equal to the distance center to center of adjacent top steel flanges of adjacent box girders. The cantilever overh arig of

the deck slab (including curbs and parapets) beyond the exterior web,

lfiG

shall be limited to 60 percent of the distance between the centers of

adjacent top steel flanges of adjacent box girders, but in no case greater
than 6 :feet.
The provisions of Division I, Design, shall govern where applicable,
except as specifically modified by Articles 1.7.102 through 1.7.109.

1 .7.J 03 LATERAL DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS FOR BENDING MOMENT


The live load bending moment for each box girder shall be determined

by applying to the girder, the fraction W L f a wheel load (both :front and

rear) , determined by the following equation :


L

0.1 + 1.7R +

0.85
N

N
where R=
Number o:I Box Girders
Ng = W,/12, reduced to the nearest whole number

W, = Roadway width between curbs

in feet) , or barriers if curbs

are not used. R shall not be less than 0.5 nor greater than 1.5.
The provision of Article 1.2.9, Reduction in Load Intensity, shall not

apply in the design of box girders when using the design load Wp given
by the above equation.

.7.JO4 DESIGN OF WEB PLATES


IAJ Vertical Sheor

The design shear Vp for a web shall be calculated using the follow-

ing equation :

where V,= vertical shear


8= angle of inclination of: the web plate to the vertical
IBJ Secondary Bending Stresses

Web plates may be plumb (90O Jo bottom of flange) or inclined. If

the inclination of the web plates to a plane normal to bottom flange is no

greater than 1 to 4, and the width of the bottom flange is no greater


than 20 percent of the span, the transverse bending stresses resulting
from distortion of the girder cross section and from vibrations of the
bottom plate, need not be considered. For structures in this category
transverse bending stresses due to supplementary loadings, such as
utilities, shall not exceed 5,000 psi.

For structures exceeding these I twits, a detailed evaluation of the

transverse bending stresses due to all causes shall be made. These

stresses shall be limited to a maximum stress or range of stress of


20,000 psi.

167

DESIGN

J .7.105 DESIGN OF BOTTOM FLANGE PLATES


fAJ Tension Flanges

In cases of simply supported epans, the bottom flange shall be considered completely effective in resisting bending if its width does not
exceed one-fif th ('s) the span length. If the flange plate width exceeds
one-fifth ( s) of the span, an amount equal to one-fifth ( k ) of the span
only shall be considered effective.
For continuous spans, the criteria above shall be applied to the
lengths between-points of contraflexure.
fBl Compression Flanges Unsti9ened
Unstiffened compression flanges designed for the basic allowable

stress of 0.55 F, shall have a width to thickness ratio equal to or less


than the value obtained by the use of the formula :
64
where

b flange width betu'een webs in inches


I= flange thickness in inches

FOt' greater b/t ratios, but not exceeding 60, the stress in an unstiffened bottom Pange shal I not exceed the value determined by the use
of the formula :

1 sin (/2)

13,300

7160
For val ues of b/t exceed ing 13,300/9 F,, the stress in the Pange
shall not exceed the value given by the formula :
The b/t ratio preferably should not exceed 60 except in areas of
low stress near points of dead load contraflexure.

Should b/t ratio exceed 45, lcingitudinal stiffeners should be con-

sidered.

I.Cl Compression Flanges Sti9ened Longitudinolly *


Longitudinal stiffeners shall be at equal spacings across the flange
width and shall be proportioned so that the moment of inertia of each
stiffener abo ut an axis parallel to the flange and at the base of the
stiffener is at least equal to :

where

$ 0.07 kn for values of n greater than 1


I 0.125 k for a value of n = 1
w= width of flange between longitud inal stiffeners or distance
from a web to the nearest longitudi nal stiffener

In solving these equations a value of k between 2 and 4 generall y should be resumed.

HI( H)VAY BR]DGES

1H8

, ,.,

n = number of longitudinal stiffeners


k= buckling coefficient which shall not exceed 4
For the flange, including stiffeners, to be designed for the basic

allowable stress of 0.55 F,, the ratio w/t shall not exceed the value given
by the :formula :

For greater values of w/t but not exceeding 6650 k/ QF, or 60,
whichever is less, the stress in the flange, including stiffeners, shall not
exceed the value determined by the formula:

For values of w/t exceeding 6650 \/lc/ F, but not exceeding 60,
the stress in the Pange, incl uding stiffeners, shall not exceed the value
given by the formula :

'b'14.4 k (t/w) 10
When longitudinal stiffeners are used, it is preferable to have at
least one transverse stiffener placed near the point of dead load contraflexure. The stiffener should have a size equal to that o:I a longitudi-

nal stiffener.

If the longitudinal stiffeners are placed at their maximum w/t ratio

to be designed l'or the basic allowable design stresses of 0.55 F,. and the

number of longitudinal stiffeners exceeds 2, then transverse stiffeners

should lie considered.

IDJ Compression Flonges Sfiffened Longitudinolly ond Tronsvcrsely


The longitudinal stiffeners shall be at equal spacings across the
flange width and shall be proportioned so that the moment of inertia of
each stiffener about an axis pai allel to the flange and at the base of the
stiffener is at least equal to :

I,=8 tw
The transverse stiffeners shall be proportioned so that the moment
of inertia o:I each stiffener about an axis through the centroid of the

section and parallel to its bottom edge is at least equal to :

I,=0.10 (n + 1) w
where A,= area of bottom flange including longi tud inal stiffeners
a spacing of transverse stiffeners
I,= maximum longitudinal bending stress in the flange o:I the
panels on either side of the transverse stiffened
E modulu.s of elasticity o:I steel
For the flange, including stiffeners, to be designed :for the basic

DESICN

1.7.105

169

allowable stress of 0.55 F,., the ratio w/t for the longitudinal stiffeners
shall not exceed the value given by the formula :

where k, =
For greater values of w/t, but not exceeding 6650
whichever is the less, the stress in the flange, including stiffeners, shall
not exceed the value determined by the formula :
6650

b = 0.55 F, 0.224 F, 1 sin (r/2)


For values of w/t exceeding 6650
but n ot exceeding 60,
the stress in the Pange, including stiffeners, shall not exceed the val ue
given by the formula :

I = 14.4 k, I t/w 10
The maximu in val ue of the buckl ing coefficient k,, shall be 4. When
k , has its maximum v'alue, the transverse stiffeners shall have a spacing,

a, equal to or less than 4 vv. If the ratio a/b exceeds 3, transverse

stiffeners are not necessary.


The transverse Qtr ffeners need not be con nected to the flange plate
but shall be connected to the webs of the box an d to each l ongitud inal
stiffener. The connection to the web shall be designed to resist the
vertical force determined by the formu la :

2b
where S, = section modulus of the transverse stiffener
The connection to each longitudinal s tiff ener shall be designed
resist the vertical force determined by the formula :

,
to

IEJ Compression Flonge StifFeners, General

The width to thickness ratio of any outstanding element of the


flange stiffeners shall not exceed the value determined by the formula :

where b= width of any outstand ing str ffener element


U = th ickness of outstanding st iffener element
Longitudinal stiffeners shall be extended to locations where the
maximu in stress in the flange does not exceed that allowed for base
metal adjacent to or connected by fillet welds.

HIGHWAY

17O

BRIDGE S

17106

J .7.J 06 DESIGN OF FLANGE TO WEB WELDS


The total effective thickness of the web-flange welds shall be not less
than the thickness of the web. If fillet welds are used, they shall be on both

sides of the connecting flange or web plate.


J .7. J 07 DIAPHRAGMS

Diaphragms, cross-frames, or other means shall be provided within

the box girders at each support to resist transverse rotation, displacement,


and distortion.

Intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames are not requ ired for steel


box girder bridges designed in accordance with this specification.

J .7.108 LATERAL BRACING


Generally no lateral bracing system is required between box girders.
A horizontal load equal to 25 pounds per square foot acting on the area
exposed in elevation shall be applied in the plane o:I the bottom flange.
The section assumed to resist the horizontal load shall consist of the
bottom flange acting as a web and 12 times the thickness of the webs acting as flanges. A lateral bracing system shall be provided if the combined

stresses due to the specified horizontal force and dead load of steel and
deck exceed 150 percent of the allowable design stress.

J .7.109 ACCESS AND DRAINAGE


Consistent with climate, location, and materials, consideration shall

be given to the providing of man-holes or other openings, either in the

deck slab or in the steel box for form removal, inspection, maintenance,
drainage,

etc.

HYBRID GIRDERS
1.7.J J J 0 HYBRID GIRDERS, GENERAL
This section pertains to the design of (1 ) noncomposite girders that

have both flanges of the same minimum specified yield strength and a web
with a lower minimum specified yield strength, (2) composite girders
that have a tension flange with a higher minimum specified yield strength

than the web and a compression flange with a minimum specified yield
strength not less than that o:I the web and (3) girders that utilize an
orthotropic deck as the top flange and have a web with a lower minimum
specified yield strength than the bottom flange. It is applicable to both
simple and continuous span girders. In noncomposite girders and in the
negative moment portion of continuous span composite girders, the compression flange area shall be equal to the tension flange area or larger
than the tension flange area by an amount not exceeding 15 percent. In
composite girders, excluding the negatlve moment portion in continuous
span girders, the compression flange area shall be equal to or smaller
than the tension flange area. Steel girders that support the dead weight
of the slab without composite action, but act compositely with the slab in

171

DES IGN

1.7.110

supporting the live load, shall be considered to be composite

girders.

In

either composite or noncomposite girders, the minimum specified yield


strength of the web shall not be less than 35 percent of the minimum
specified yield strength o1 the tension flange.
In girders that utilize an orthotropic deck as the top flange,
the
minimum specified yield strength of the web shall not be less than 3Ii
percent of the minimum specified yield strength of the bottom flange in
regions of positive bending moment and 50 percent of the minimum
specified yield strength of the bottom flange in regions of negative

bending moment. As used in this section, flange refers to the flange of


the steel girder and excludes the slab and reinforcing bars.
The provision s- of Division I, Design, shall govern where applicable,
except as specifically modified by Articles 1.7.110 through 1.7.113.

J .7.1 J J

ALLOWABLE STRESSES

f AJ

Bending

The bending stress in the web may exceed the allowable stre9s for
the web steel provided that the stress in each flange does not exceed the
allowable sts-ess from Art. 1.7.1 or 1.7.3 for the steel in that flange

multiplied by the reduction factor

R= 1
(See Figures 1.7.111A and 1.7.111B)
where
n

the min imum specified yield strength of the web divided by the
minimum specified yield strength of the tension flange.

the area of the web divided by the area of the tension flange.
the distance from the outer edge of the tension flange " to the

neutral axis (of the transformed section for composite girders)


divided by the deplh of the steel section.

The bending stress in the concrete slab in composite girders shall


not exceed the a lloivable stress for the concrete multiplied by R.

I BJ

Sheor

The shear stress in the web (the shear force divided by the web
area) shall not exceed the allowable shear stress for the web steel.

Hybrid girders shall be designed for fatigue as i:I they were homo-

geneous girders of the flange steel. The allowable fatigue stresses :for
web sp1ic.s and for attachments to the web shall be based on the web
steel, except that stiff ener to web and flangeweb hllet weld connections
shall be based on the flange steel.
Bottom flange of orthotroii ie deck briclges.

172

7
.

75

70

I.5

Z.0

.5

5.0

3.5

RATIO OF FEB AREA TO 7EKSION FLANGE AREA, ,3

FIGURE 1. 7. Ill A

75

I.5

Z.O

2.5

3.O

3.5

RATIO OF FEB AREA TO TENSION FLANGEAREA, ,D

FIGURE I.7.III B
* Dottom flange of orthotrop ic deck: bri1ges.

1.7.112

DES IGN

1.7.1 J 2

PLATE THICKNESS REQUIREMENTS

In calculating the maximum width-to-thickness ratio of the flange


plate according to Article 1.7.69 and the minimum thickness o1 the
web plate according to Article 1.7.70, :f,, shall be taken as the catch lated
bending strese in the compression flange divided by the reduction :factor, R.

J .7.1 J 3 BEARING STIFFENER REQUIREMENTS


In design ing bearing stiffeners at interior supports of continuous
hybrid girders for which = is less than 0.7, no part of the web shall be assumed to act in bearing.

HEAT-CURVED ROLLED BEAMS AND WELDED PLATE GIRDERS


1 .7.J 14

SCOPE

This section pertains to rolled beams and welded I-section plato


girders heat-curved to obt:tin a horizontal curvature. Steels that are
manufactu red to a specified minimum yield point greater than 50,000 psi
shall not be heat-curved.

J .7. J J 5

MINIMUM RADIUS OF CURVATURE

For heat-curved beams and girders, the horizontal radius of curvatui e measured to the centerline of the girder web shall not be less than
150 feet, and shall not be less than the larger of the values calcu lated
(at any and all cross sections th roughout the length of the girder)

from the following two equations :

7500 b

In these equations, F,. is the specified minimum yield point in ksi


Of steel in the girder web, D is the ratio o:I the total crosssectional area
to the crosssectional area of both flanges, b is the widest flange width
in inches, D is the clear distance between flanges in inches, I is the web
thickness in inches, and R is the radius in inches.
In addition to the above requirements, the radius shall not be less
than 1000 feet when the flange thickness exceeds 3 inches or the flange
width exceeds 30 inches.

1.7.J 16

CAMBER

To compensate for possible loss of camber of heat-curved girders in


service as residual stresses dissipate, the amount of camber in inches,

174

HI CiHWAY BRIDGE S

1.7.116

a, at any section along the length of the girder shall le equal to :

where a,,; is the camber in inches at any point along the span calculated
by us url procedures to compensate for ileflection due to dead loads or
any other specified loads, s,, is the maximum value of A D, in inches within
the span, E is the modulus of elasticity in ksi, F,. is the specified minimum
yield point in ksi of the girder flange, Y, is the distance from the neutral
axis to the extieme outer fiber in inches maximum distance for non
and L is the span length or distance between
points of dead-load contraflexu re in inches."

LOAD FACTOR DESIGN

Load Factor design is an alternate method for design of simple and


con tinuous beam and girder structures of moderate length. It is a method
of propor tion in g structu rat members for multiples of the design loads.
To insure serviceab il ity and durability, consideration is gis'on to the
control of permanent deformations under overloads, to the fatigue
ch racteri stics under service loadings and to the control of live load

deflections under service loadings.


J .7.J 18

NOTATION
A = urea of cross section (1n.)

A = area of one flange of beam or girder (in.)


A,= total at-ea of steel section including cover plates (in.)
A,= gross effectiv e area of column cross section (in.)
A,, area of web of beam (in.)
b'= width of projecting flange element (in. )
6 width of outstanding stiffener element (in.)

D = dead load

D distance center to center of box girder flange pliites (in.)


d depth of member (in.)
, = depth of beam
J depth of column
J,, -distance between tranverse stiffeners (in. )
d,, -depth of steel web of a composite section (in.)
(I -modulus of elasticity (29,000,000 psi)
y' stress (psi)
F,, = buckling stress (psi)
* Pa rt of the cam be r loss is att ributable to con st ruction load s and will occur iluring cont tru ction of the b riJ ge; total e:inn ber loss will be com iIete aftc r several months of in-service tea 1s.
The ref o re, a p o rtion of the cambe r in crease ( apJi reximately 60 Jercent ) should be i n cl udcd in
the b ridge p rofile. Cambe r losses o I this nature ( but, general I - , smalle r in in agnitud o ) aie at so
known to occu r in straight beams anl at rders.

DES IGN

1.7.118

specified minimum yield point or yield strength of the type


of steel being used (psi)

specified 28-day compressive strength of concrete (psi)

impact
moment of inertia (in.")
length of a compression member (in.)

distance between points of bracing of compression flange


(in.)

L= live load

moment on a cross section (in.-lb)

maximum moment capacity (in.-lb)


axial compression on the member (lb)

maximum axial compression capacity (lb)


radius of gyration (in.)
radius of gyration with respect to Y-Y axis (in.)
section modulus (in.)
flange thickness (in.)
thickness of thlnnest part connected by bolts (in.)
web thickness ( in.)
shear force on the cross section (lb)
maximum shear capacity (lb)
Plastic Section Modulus (in.)
i eduction factor

J .7.119

LOADS

Service live loads are vehicles which may operate on a


legally without special load permlt.

highway

For design purposes, the service loads are taken as the dead, live
and impact loadings described in Section 1.2 (except Art. 1.2.4) .
Overloads are the live loads that can be allowed on a structure on
i nf requ ent occasions without c:iusing permanent damage. For design

purposes the maximum overload is taken as " I L + I) .

The maximum loads are the loadings specified in Article 1.7.123.

1.7.120

DESIGN THEORY

The moments, shears and other forces shall be determined by assum-

ing elastic beh:ivior of the structure except as modified in Article

1.7.124 (A) (3) .

The members shall be proportioned by the methods specified in


Articles 1.7.124 through 1.7.135 so that their computed maximum strengths
shall be at least equal to the total effects o:I design loads multiplied by
their respective load factors specified in Groups I, II and III of Article
1.7.123.
Service behavior shall be investigated as specified in Articles 1.7.136

through 1.7.138.

17ti

1.7.1?1

1.7.J 21

ASSUMPTIONS

( 1) Strain in flexural members shall be assumed directly propor-

tional to thP distance from the neutral axis.

(2) Stress in steel below the yield strength, F,., of the grade of
steel used shall be taken as 29,000,000 psi times the steel strain. For
strain greater than that corresponding to the yield strength, F ,,, the
stress shall be considered independent of strain and equal to the yield
strength, F,.. This assumption shall apply also to the longitudinal
reinforcement in the concrete floor slab in the rep=ion of negative

moment when shear developers are provided tO secure composlte action


in this region.

(3) At maximum strength the compressive stress in the concrete

slab of a composite beam shall be assumed independent of strain and


equal to 0.85f ,

(4) Tensile strength o:I concrete shall be neglected in Pexural calculations.

1.7.122

DESIGN STRENGTH FOR STEEL

The design strength for steel shall be the specified minimum yield
point or yield strength, F,., of the steel used as set forth in Article 1.7.1.

1 .7.J 23

MAXIMUM DESIGN LOADS

The maximum moments, shears or forces to be sustained by a stresscarrying steel member shall be computed from formulas listed below.
Members subject to combinations of loads and forces shall be designed for
the combined effects.

For all loadings less than //20, provision shall be made for an
in frequent heavy load by applying Group IA loading, with the live load
assumed to occupy a single lane without concurrent loading in any other

When earthquake loading is taken into account, the Group II loading

shall be used sit bsti tu ting E :for 11'. \\'hen ice pressure is taken into

account, the Group II loading shall be used substituting ICE for SF.

The symbols in the above formu las represent the moments, shears or
forces caused by the toads and effects described in Article 1.2.22.

1.7.124

J .7.1 24
lA J

177

DE SIGN

SYMMETRICAL BEAMS AND GIRDERS


Compocf

Sections

Symmetrical I-shaped beams with high resistance to local buckling

and proper bracing to

resist

comp:ict sectlone. Compact

lateral

sections

at-e

which rotate at near constant moment.

to rsional buckling qualify


:ible to

Koi-in plastic

as

hin ges

Rolled or fabi icated I-shaped beams meeting the requirements of


paragraph ( 1) below shall be considered compact sections and the

maximum strength shall be as computed :


where F,. is the specified yield point of the steel being used,
Z is the plastic section modulus.*
(1) Beams designed as compact sections shall meet the following
requirements : I for certain frequently used steels these requirements

are listed in Table 1) .

(a) Projecting flange element

b/t

1600

whei e b is the width of the projecting flange element,


I is the flange th ickness.

(b) Web thickness


d/t i
where d is the depth of the beam,
I,,. is the web th ickness.

(c) Lateral bracing


when M.. fi 0.7M ,

WhPre L , is the distance between points of bracing of the compres

sion flange,

r,. is the radius of gyration with respect to the Y-Y axis,


M and M.. are the moments at the to o adjacent braced points.
In no case shall L , exceed the value given in Article 1.7.124
(B) (1 ) Ic) .
* See Commen tary of AISI Bulleti n I G for method of com ju ting Z. Values I or rolled section s
:irc listed i n the M annal of S tecl C on stru ct i o n, Seventh Elition , TO 7 0, A me iie:in Insti tuto of
5teel Construe tion,

12.124

The required lateral bracing shall be provided by braces capable

of preventing lateral displacement and twisting of the main


members or by embedment of the top and sides of the compression flange in concrete.

(d) Maximum axial compression


P 0.15F,.A
where A is the area of the cross section.
(e)

Maximum shear force


V 0.55F,,dtg

( 2) -ii-tiCle 1.7.124 (A) is applicable to steels with stressstrain


d iagrams which exhibit a yield plateau :followed by a strain hardening
range.
Steels such as ASTM A3 6, A242, A440, A441, A 572 and A 588 meet
these requ memento. The limitations set North in Article 1.7.124 (A) are
gis en in Table 1.

8.4
70
37
68

7.8
65
34
69

7.5
62
33
56

7.2
59
31
54

6.8
67
30
51

(3) In the design of a continuous beam of compact section com


plying with the provisions of Article 1.7.124 (A) (1) , negative moments
over supports determined by elastic analysis may be reduced by a maximum of 10 o Stlth reduction shall be accompanied by an increase in
maximum positive moment in the span equal to the average decrease
of the negative moments in the span. The reduction shall not apply
to negative moments produced by cantilever loading.
I BJ

Broced Non-Compocf

Sections

For rolled or fabricated I-shaped beams not meeting the require-

ments of Article 1.7.124 (A) (1) but meeting the requirements of


paragraph ( 1) below, the maximum strength shall be computed as :
where S is the section modulus.
( 1) The aboVe eQuation is appliCltble to beams meeting the follow-

ing requirements :

DESIGN

1.7.124

When
M < M,,, b/t may be i nci eased by the ratio 9M,,/M
(b) Web thickness
D/t,,. 150
where II is the clear unsupported distance between flange com
ponents.
(ct

Spacing of lateral bracing for compression flange


20,000,000 A,

where d is the depth of beam or girder,


A is the flange area.
(d) Maximum axial compression
Axial compression shall not exceed the value given by

Article 1.7.124 (A) (1) (d) .

(e)

Maximum shear force

but not more than 0.58F,.Dt,,


(2) The limitations set North in paragraph (1) above are given
in Table 2.
TABLE1 2
F, (psi)

36,000

42,000

46,000

50,000

5b,0t00

9fl,00f1

100,000

b/t
Li,d
A,

11.6

10.7

10.3

9.8

9.4

7.?

7.0

556

476

4B5

400

B64

222

200

ICJ

Tronsition

The maximum strength of members with geometric properties


falling between the limits of Articles 1.7.124 (A) and (B) may be
computed by str aight line interpolation, except that the web thickness

must always satisfy Article 1.7.124 (A) (1) (b) .


IDJ

Unbroced Sections
(1) For members not meeting the lateral bracing requirement of
Article 1.7.124 (B) (1 ) (c) the maximum strength shall be computed
as :

M,, F, S 1
When the ratio of stresses at the two ends of the braced length,
L ,, is less than 0.7, the maximum strength, M,, as computed by the
above formula may be increased 20 j but not to exceed F,.S.

( 2) In members not meeting the roqui rements of Article 1.7.124


( D ) ( 1) (e) the web shall be provided with transverse stiffeners as
specified in Article 1.'7.124 (E ) .
(3) Members with axial loads in excess of 0.15F,.A should be
designed as beam-columns as specified in Article 1.'7.134
IEJ

Tronsversely

Sti9ened

Girders

( 1) For gii ders not meeting the shear requ moments of Articles
1.7.124 (A) (1) Ie ) and 1.7. 124 (B) 11) (e) transverse stiffeners are
requ ired for the web. For girders with transverse stiffeners but
without longitudinal stiffeners the thickness of the web shall meet
the requi rement :

For different grades of steel this limit is :


F,. (]lS1)

92
8
6
6
122
1

36,000

42,000
46,000
50,000
55,000
50,000
100,000

(2) The maximum bending strength of transversely stiffened


girders meeting the requirements of Article 1.7.124 E) ( 1) shall be
computed by Articles 1.'7.124 B ) or 1.7.124 (D) ( 1) as applicable sub
.ject to the requ irement of Article 1.7. 124 (E) (4) .
(3) The shear capacity of beams and girdei s with webs fulfilling
the requ memento of Article 1.7.124 (E) (1) shall be computed as

where :

D =clear, unsuppoi ted distance between Pange components.


d,,= distance betw-een transverse stiffeners.
(4) ID a gii der panel is subjected to simultaneous action of shear
and bentling moment ss ith the magn itude of the shear higher than
0.6V,,, then the moment shall be limited to not more than :

1.7,124

DESIGN

(5) Transverse stiffeners shall be spaced at a distance, d,,, accord


ing to shear capacity as specified in Article 1.7. 124 (E) (3) but not

more than 1.SD. T ransverse stiffenei s may bP omitted in those portions

of the girders where the maximum shear force is less than the value
given by Article 1.7.124 ( B) 11) (e) .
The first stiffener space at the ends of girders with simple suyi-

OI-ts shall not be greater than D nor :

d = 14,500 Dt,,./V

that

T'he width-to-thickness ratio of transverse stiffener s- shall be such

where b is the projecting width o1 the stiffener.


The gross crosssectional area of intermed rate transverse stiffeners
shall not be less than :
where F is the ratio o:I web plate yield strength to stiffener plate yield sti ength
B = 1.0 for stiffener pain,

1.8 for single angles,

2.4 for single plates.

C is computed by Article 1.7.124 ( E ) (3)

The moment o:I inertia of transverse stiffeners with reference to

the midplane of the web shall be not less th:in :

Transverse stiffeners need not be in bearing with the tension


flange. The maximum distance between the stiffenerto-web connection and the face of the tension flange shall not be more than 41,,
Stiffeners provided on only one side o:I the web must be in bearing
against but need not be attached to the compression flange.
IFJ Longitudinolly Sfi9ened Girders
(1) ) Longitudinal stiffeners shall be required when the
thick ness is less than that specified by Article 1.7.124 (E) (1)
shall be placed at a distance D/5 from the inner surface of
compression flange.
The web th ickness of plate gii ders with transverse stiffeners
one longitudinal stiffener shall meet the requirement :

For different grades of steel, this limit is :

web
and

the

and

182

386
356
340
326

B11

36,000
42,000
46,000
50,000
55,000

248
231

100,000

90,000

(2) The maximum bending strength of longitudinally stiffened girdeis meeting the i equ i rements of Ai ticle 1.7. 124 ( F) ( 1) shall be computed
by Articles 1.'7.124 ( B ) or Ai ticle 1.7.124 (D) (1) as appli- cable, subject
to the requirement of Article 1.7.124 (E) (4) .
13) The shear capacity of girders with one longitud inal stiffener
shall be computed by Article 1.7. 124 (E) (3) .
The dimensi one of the longitudinal stiffener shall be such that :
( a) the width-tothickness ratio is not greater than that given
by At-ticle 1.7.124 (E) (5) .
(b) the rigidity of the stiffener is not less than :

I fi Dt,,"' 2.4 D 0.13


(c) the radius of gyration of the stiffener is not less than :
' 23,000
In comp uting I and r values above, a centrally located web strip not
more than 181,,. in width shall be considered as a part of the longitudinal stiffener. Transverse stiffeners for girder panels with longitudinal stiffeners shall be designed accord ing to Article 1.7.124 (E) (5)
except that the depth o:I subpanels shall be used instead of the total

panel depth, D. In addition the section modulus of the transverse


stiffener shall be not less than :

where D is the total panel depth (clear distance between flange components) and S, is the section modulus of the longitudinal stiffener at

D/5.

J .7.125

UNSYMMETRICAL BEAMS AND GIRDERS

fAl Generol
For be:inns and gi rde rs symmetrical about the vertical axis of the

cross section but unsymmetrical with respect to the horizontal centroidal ax is, the provisions of Articles 1.7.124 (A) through 1.7.124 (D)
shall be applicable except that in computing the maximum strength by
ArtiCl 1.7.124 (D) ( 1) the term b is replaced by 0.9b'.

1.7.125

DESIGN

IBJ Unsymmetricol Sections with Transverse StiReners

Girders with transverse stiffeners shall be designed and evaluated


by the provisions of Article 1.7.124 (E ) except that when D , the clear
d istance between the neutral axis and the compi ession flange, exceeds
D /2 the web thickness, I,., shall meet the requirement :
D
18,250

ICl Longitudinolly Sti9ened Unsymmetricol Sections


Lonyitudin:it stiffeners shall be required on unsymmetrical sections
when the web thickness is less than that specified by Articles
1.7.124 (E ) ( 1) or 1.7.125 (B ) .
For girders with one longitud incl stiffener and transverse stiffenfirs, the provisions of Article 1.7.124 ( F) :for symmetrical sections
shall be applicable provided that :
(a) the longitud inal stiffener is placed 2D,/5 from the inner

surface or the leg o:I the compression flange element.

(b) When D, exceeds D/2, the web thickness, I,., shall meet the
requirement :

J .7.126 COMPOSITE BEAMS AND GIRDERS


Composite beams shall be so proportioned that the following criteria

are satisfied :
(a) The maximum strength of any section shall not be less than the
sum of the computed moments at that section multiplied by the
appropriate load factors.
(b) The web of the steel section shall be designed to carry the total
external shear and must satisfy the applicable provisions of
Articles 1.7.124 and 1.7.125. In such application the value of
D, shall be taken as the clear distance between the neutral axis
of the composite section for live loads and the compression
flange.

1.7.127 POSITIVE MOMENT SECTIONS OF COMPOSITE BEAMS AND


GIRDERS
I AJ

Compact Sections

When the steel section satisfies the compactness requirements of


Article 1.7.127 (A) (2) , the maximum strength shall be computed as
the resultant moment of the Iully plastic stress distribution acting on
the section (Figure 1.7.127) .
(1) The resultant moment of the fully plastic stress distribution
may be computed as :follows :
(a) the compressive force in the slab, C, is equal to the smallest
of the values given by the following Equations :
( 1 ) r' ri s.u f ml w r a v

where 6 is the effective width of slab,

I, is the slab thickness.


(A F,.) , is the product of the area and yield point of that

part of i einf oicement which lies in the compression


zone of the slab.

where (A F,.) ;, is the product of area and yield point for bottom flange
of steel section (including cover plate if any) ,
(A F,. j ,, is the product of area and yield point for top flange of
steel section,
(A F,.) ,,. is the product of area and yield point :for web of steel

where 2Q,, is sum of ultimate strengths of shear connectors between


the section under consideration and the section
moment.
(b) the ilepth of the stress block is computed from the
pressive f'orce in the slab.

of

zero
com

'0.85f b
(c) when the compressive force in the slab is less than the value
given by Equation (2) abos'e the top portion of the steel
section will be subjected to the following compressive :force :

(d) The location of the neutral axis within the steel section
measured from the top of the steel section may be determined as follows :

be) the maximum strength of the section in bending is the first

DESIGN

1.7.127

moment of all :forces about the neutral axis, taking all forces
and moment arms as positive quantities.
(2) Composite beams quality as compact when their steel section
meets the requ irements of Articles 1.7.124 ( A) ( 1) (b) and 1.7.124
(A ( 1) ( e) , and the stress-strain d iagram of the steel exhibits a yield
pl:it eau followed by a strain hardening

range .

IBJ Non-compoct Secfions


When the steel section does not satisfy the compactness requirements of Article 1.7.127 (A) (2) the maximum strength of the section

shall be taken as the moment at first yielding.


I CJ

General

Maximum compressive and tensile stresses in girdei s which are not


provided with temporary supports during the placing of dead loads
shall be the sum of the stresses produced by 1.30D cting on the steel
girder alone and the stresses produced by 1.80 (D, + 5/3 (L + I) ) acting
on the composite girder, where D, and D at-e the moment caused by the
dead load acting on the steel girder and composite girder, respectively.
When the girders are provided with effectiv e intermediate sup
ports which are kept in place until the concrete has attained 75 %c of its

i equ ired 28-day strength, stresses are produced by the loading,


1.30 ( D q 5/3 (L + I) ) , acting on the composite girder.

J .7.J 28

NEGATIVE MOMENT SECTIONS OF COMPOSITE BEAMS AND


GIRDERS

The maximum strength of beams and girders in the negative moment


regions shall be computed in accoi-dance with Articles 1.7.124 and 1.7.125
as applicab Ie. It shall be assumed that the concrete slab does not carry
tensile stresses. In cases where Ihe slab reinforcement is continuous over
interior supports, the reinforcement may be considered to act compos itely
with the steel section.

J .7.129 COMPOSITE BOX GIRDERS


This section pertains to the design of simple and continuous bridges
of moderate length supported by two or more single-cell composite box

girders. It is applicable to box girders, having width centerto-center of


top steel flanges approximately equal to the distance

center-to -center

of

adjacent top steel flanges of adjacent box girders. The cantilever overhang of the deck slab, inclu ding curbs and parapet, shall be limited to
60 percent of the distance between the centers of adjacent top steel
flanges of adjacent box girders, but in no case greater than 6 feet.
IA J

Moximum

Strength

The maximum strength of box girders shall be determined accord-

ing to the applicable provisions of Article 1.7.126, 1.7.127 and 1.7.128.


In addition, the maximum strength of the negative moment sections
shall be limited by

M,,= F ,S

1.7.12il

18B

where F , is the buckling stress of the bottom flange plate as given in


Article 1.7.129 (E) .
IBJ

Loterol

Distribution

The live load bending moment for each box girder shall be deter
mined in accordance with Article 1.7.103.

ICJ Web Plofes


The design shear V :for a web shall be calcu lated using the following equation :

where V = one hal:I of the total vertical shear :force on one box girder,
0 = the angle of inclination of the web plate to the vertical.
The i ncli nation of the web plates to the vertical shall not exceed 1 to 4.
ID ) Tension Flonges

In the case of simply supported spans, the bottom flange shall be


considered fully effective in resisting bending if its width does not
exceed one-fifth the span length. ID the flange plate width exceeds onefif th of the span, only an amount equal to one-hf th of the span shall be
considered effective.
For contin uous spans, the requirements above shall be applied to

the d istance between points o:I contraflexure.


IE J

Compression

Flanges

(1) Unstiffened compression Panges designed for the yield stress,


F,., shall have a width-to-thickness ratio equal to or less than the value

where b flange width between webs in inches,


I= flange thickness in inches.
(2) For greater b/t ratios, but not exceeding 13,300/QF,,, the
buckling stress of an unstiffened bottom flange is given by the formula :
F,, 0.592 F, 1+0.687 sin

2
in which c shall be taken as

(3) For' values of b/t exceeding 13,3009F,., the buckling stress


of the flange is given by the formula :

1.7.129

DESIGN

187

(4) ID longitud inal stiffeners are used, they shat l be equally spaced
across the flange v idth and shall be proportioned so that the moment

of inertia of each stiffener about an axis parallel to the flange and at


the base of the stiffener is at least equal to :

I,=Qtw
where d 0.07k n' when n equals 2, 3, 4 or 5.
#= 0.125k when n =1.
w =width of Pange between longitudinal stiffeners or distance
ft-ore a web to the nearest longitudinal stiffener.
n = number of longitudinal sf iffeners.
k= buckling coefficient which shall not exceed 4.
For a longitu dinally stiffened flange designed for the yield stress

F ., the ratio w/t shall not exceed the value given by the :formula

For greater values of w/t, but not exceeding 6650 k/QF,., the
buckling stress of the Pange, including stiffeners is given by Article
1.7.129 (E ) (2) in which c shall be taken as :

For values o:I w/t exceeding 6650y'k/ F . the buckl ing stress o:I
the Pange, including sliffeners, is given by the formula :
\\'hen longitudinal stiffeners are used, it is preferable to have at

least one transverse stiffener placed near the point of dead load contraflexure. The stiffener should have a size equal to that of a longitudinal
stiffener.

5) The width-to -thickness ratio of any outstanding element of


the flange stiffeners shall not exceed the value determined by the
:formula :

where b width of any outstanding stiffener element,


I'=thickness of outstanding stiffener element.
IFJ Diophrogms
Diaph ragms, cross-frames, or other means shall be provided within
the box girders at each support to resist transverse rotation, displace-

ment and distortion.

Intermediate diaphragms or cross-frames are not required for box


gii d er bridges designed in accordance with this specification.

J .7.J 30
IA I

SHEAR CONNECTORS
General

The horizontal shear at the interface between the concrete slab


and the steel girder shall be provided for by mechanical shear connectors throughout the simple spans and the positive moment regions
of con tin u ous spans. In the negative moment regions, shear connectors
shall be provided when the reinf orcement steel Embedded in the concrete is considered a part of the composite section. In case the reinforcement steel imbedded in the concrete is not considered in computing section properties of' negative moment sections, shear connectors
need not be prov ided in these portions of the span, but additional connectors shall be placed in the region of the points of dead load contraflexure as specified in Article 1.7.100 (A) (3) .
IB J

Design of

Connectors

The nu mber of shear connectors shall be determined in accordance


with Article 1.7.100 (A) (2) , and checked for fatigue in accordance with
Article 1.7.100 (A) (1) and 1.7. 100 (AI (3) .
ICl Maximum Spocing

The maximum pitch shall not exceed 24 inches except over the
interior supports of continuous beams where wider spacing may be
used to avoid placing connectors at locations of high stresses in the
tension flange.

I .7.J 31 HYBRID GIRDERS


This section pertains to the design of ( 1) noncomposite beams and
girders that have flanges of the same minimum specified y ield strength
and a web with a lower minimum specified yield strength, and (2)
composite girders that have a tension flange with a higher minimum
specified yield strength than the web and a compression flange with a
minimum specified yield strength not less than that of the web. It is

applic:ible to both simple and continuous girders. In noncomposite girders

and in the negative moment portion of continuous composite girders,


the area of the compression flange shall be equal to the area of the
tension flange, or larger than the area of the tension flange by an amount
not exceeding 25 percent. In composite girders, excluding the negative
moment portion in continuous girder s-, the area of the compression flange
shall be equal to or smaller than the area of the tension flange. The
minimum specified yield strength of the v eb shall not be less than 35
percent of the minimum specified yield strength of the tension flange.
The provisions of Articles 1.7.124 through 1.7.130 shall apply to
hy brid beams and girders except as modified below. In all equations o:I
these Articles, F,. shall be taken as the minimum specified yield strength
of the steel of the element under consideration.

DESIGN

1.7.132

1.7.J 32 NONCOMPOSITE HYBRID GIRDERS


l Al

Compact Sections

The ejuation of Article 1.7.124 I A) for the maximum strength of


compact sections shall be replaced by the expression
v here F,. is the specified minimum yield strength of the Pange and Z
is the plastic section modulus.
In computing Z, the web thickness shall be multiplied by the ratio of
the minimum specified yield strength of the web, F,.g,, to the minimum
specified yield strength F,.,.
IBJ Broced Non-compoct Sections
The equation of Article 1.7.124 (B ) for the maximum strength of
compact sections shall be replaced by the expression
For symmetrical sections,
12 +Q (Up p" )

12 2Q
where

For unsymmetrical sections,

whlPt3 3 lS the distance :from the outer fiber of the tension flange to the
neutral axis divided by the depth o:I the steel section.
I CJ Unbroced Noncompoct Sections
The equation of Article 1.7.124 (D) (1) for the maximum strength
of unbraced noncompact sections shall be replaced by the expression

R
where the appropriate R is determined from (B) above.
IDJ Tronsversely Sti9ened Girders
The equation of Article 1.7.124 (E) (3) for the shear capacity of'

transversely stiffened girders shall be i eplacod by the expression

The equation for A in Article 1.7.124 (E) (5) is not applicable to


hybrid girders.

J .7. J 33 COMPOSITE HYBRID GIRDERS


at

The maximum stren gth of the compos ite section shall be the moment
first yielding of the flanges times R (for unsymmeti-ical sections)

ft ore Article 1.7.132 ( B) , in which ji is the distance from the outer fibei

of the tension flange to the neutral axis of the transformed section divided
by the depth of the steel section.

J .7. J 34 COMPRESSION MEMBERS


IA J

Axiol Loading
( I ) /V\ci xi in u in Copcicif y

The maximum strength of concentrically loaded columns shall


be computed as :
where A, is the gross effective area of the column cross section
and F is determined by one of the following two formulas :

for

KL

less than or equal to

where
K
L,

is effective length factor in the plane of buckling


is length o:I the member between points o:I support, in
inches
r
is radius of gyration in the plane of buckling, in inches
F, is yield stress of the steel, in psi
E
is 29,000,000 psi
F,, is buckling stress, in psi
1 2)

E9ecf we Le n9th

The effective length :factor K shall be determined as follows :


(a) For members having lateral support in both directions at its ends :

K 0.75 for riveted, bolted or welded end connections.


K= 0.875 :for pinned ends.

(b) For

members

having

ends

not

fully

supported

later ally by diagonal bracing or an attachment to an

DESIGN

1.7.134

adj:icent structure, the effective length factor shall


be determined by a rational procedu re.
I BJ Combined Axiol Lood ond Bending
( J )

Mo xim uin Co po city

The combined maximum axial force P and the maximum bending moment M acting on a beam-column subjected to eccentric
loading shall satisfy the following equations :

M
where
F ,. is buckling stress as determined by the equations of Article
1.7.134 (A) ( 1)
M, is the maximum strength as determined by Articles 1.7.124
(A) (B) or ( D)
the Euler buckling stress in
the plane of bending,
G is the eq u ivalent moment factor, as defined below.
M,, F,.Z the :full plastic moment of the section,

Z is the plastic section modulus,

Km

(2)

is the effective slenderness i-atio in the plane of bending.

Eq u i vo I e n f /r\ore e n I FoCfor C

If the ends of the beam-column are restrained from sidesway


in the plane of bend ing by diagonal bracing or attachment to an
adjacent laterally braced structure, then the value of equivalent
moment factor, C, may be computed by the formula :
C =0.6 + 0.4a, but not less than 0.4

where a is the ratio of the numerically smaller to the larger end

moment. The ratio a is positive when the two end moments act
in an opposing sense (i.e., one acts clockwise and the other acts
countei clockwise ) and negative when they act in the same sense.
In all cases, factor C may be taken conservatively as unify.

* B . G. Ioh nston , Guido to Design Crite ri a Ior Metal Com p session Members , John Wiley and
Sons, In '., New York , ltlfifi.

1.7.135 SPLICES, CONNECTIONS & DETAILS


I AJ

Connectors

General

Connectors shall be proportioned so that their maximum


stiength multiplied by the reduction factor, d, shall be at least
equal to the effects of design loads multiplled by their i-espective
load factors specified in Article 1.7.123. The maximum strengths
multiplied by the reduction factors are listed in Table 3.

1 2 I Wet ds
The ultimate strength oJ weld metal in groove welds
equal to or greater than that of the base metal. The

shall be
ultimate

strength of the weld metal in fillet welds need not match the
strength of the base metal. However, the welding procedure and
weld metal shall be selected to insure sound welds. The effective
weld area shall be taken as dehned in Article 1.7.28.
(3)

Bo I ts o n d Rivefs

In proportion ing fasteners, the nominal diameter shall be

used except when a shear plane intersects the threads.

High-strength bolts preferably shall be used for fasteners subj ect to tension or combined shear and tension.

Strength ( gF )
1.00 F,
0.45 :f.

Type of Fastener
Groove Weld '

Fillet Weld '

Low-Carbon Steel Bolts


ASTM A307
Tension

27 ksi
2 ksi

Shear
Power-Driven Rivets

ASTM A502
Shear Grade 1
Shear Grade 2

26 ksi
30 ksi

High-Strength Bolts
ASTM A 325
Tension "
Shear ( Bearing-Type) " "

76 ksi
54 ksi

( 1 ) F
yield point of con necteil inaterial.
( 2 ) F minimum strength pf the wet ding rod metal but not greater than the
tensile strength of: the connected p:irts.
( 3 ) When a shear j1ane i ntersects the bolt threads, th roll urea shall be used.

( 4 ) Bearing

stresses

in

bearing-tyne

connections

shall

not

exceeil

the

tensile

strength of the con n ectecl materi at.


( 6 ) For A235 bolts the tens ile strength docreases for diameters greater tha 7 ; J
Th e 1esin value listet is for bolts un t 7/ ) . diameter. For d iameters greater than
@ in . diameter the lesign vslue shall be computed as 0.6 6 Fri f or tension and 0.46 Fri
for s hear w here Ei, i s the ASTM minimum tensile strength of the bolt.

D E S I GN

For combined tension and shear in bearing type connections,


bolts and rivets shall be proportioned so that the shear stress does
not exceed :
where F,. = shear strength of the fastener, QF, as given in Table 8.

I,= tensile stress due to the applied load.

(4)

Friction

Joints

Friction joints shall be designed to prevent slip at the overload


in accordance with Article 1.7.136 (C) . Maximum strength of
bolts need not be considered in the design of such joints.

the

l B J Connections
( I )

Sp I ices

Splices retry be made with rivets, with high-strength bolts or

by the use of welding. Splices, whether in tension, compression,


bending or shear, shall be designed for not less than the average
of the calculated stress res ul tant at the point of the splice and the
strength of the member at the same point, but in any event not

less than 75 of the maximum strength of the member. Where a


section changes at a splice, the maximum strength
shall be at least 7G 'c of the smaller section spliced.

o:I the

splice

The maximum strength of the member shall be determined by


the gross section for compression members. For members primarily in bending, the gross section shall be used, except that if
more than 15j of each flange area is removed, that amount
iemoved in excess of 15% shall be deducted. For tension members
and splice material, the gross section shall be used unless the net
section area is less than 85 (? of the corresponding gross area, in
which case that amount removed in excess of 15 shall be
deducted.
( 2 )

Bolts Sub|ecfed

to

Prying Action

by Con nected

Bolts requ ired to support applied load

by

Porfs

means

o:I direct

tension shall be proportioned :for the sum of the external load and
tension resulting :f rom prying action produced by deformiition of
the connected parts. The total tension should not exceed the values
given in Table 3 of Article 1.7.135.
The tension due to prying actions shall be computed as :

Bb
8a

20

where
Q = the prying :force per bolt (taken as zero when negative) ,
T the direct tension per bolt due to external load,
a distance :f rom center o:I bolt to edge of plate,

H HH\VAY BPIDGE 5

1.7.13

b= distance :from center of bolt to toe of fillet of connected part,


I
thickness of thinnest part connected, in.
(3)

Rigid Con necfions

All rigid frame connections, the rigidity of which is essential


to the continuity assumed as the basis of design, shall be capable
of resisting the moments, shears, and axial loads to which they
are subjected by maximum loads.

The beam web shall equal or exceed the thickness given by :


M,
where

M is the column moment,

d;, the beam depth,


d, the column depth.

When the thickness o:I the connection web is less than that
given by the above formula, the web shall be strengthened by
d iagonal stiffeners or by a reinforcing plate in contact vv'ith the

web over the connection area.


At joints where the flanges of one member are rigidly framed
into one flange of another member, the thickness of the web (tp )
stipporting the latter flange and the thickness of the latter flange

t,) shall be checked by the :formulas below. Stiffeners are


requ ired on the web of the second member opposite the compression flange of the first member when

and opposite the tension flange of the first member when


I, < 0.4 A,
where
tg = thickness of web to be stiffened.
k= distance from outer face of flange to toe of web fillet of
member to be stiffened,
b= thickness of flange delivering concentrated :force,
I, thickness of Pange of member to be stiffened,
A,= area of Pange delivering concentrated load.

1.7.136 OVERLOAD
iA J Noncomposite Beoms
For noncomposite beams the moment caused by D
(L -l- I)
shall not exceed 0.8 F,.S. For such beams designed :for Group IA
loading, the moment caused by D +2.2 (L + I) shall not exceed 0.8

F,S. In the

DESICN

1.7.16

case o:I moment redistribution under the provisions of Article


1.7.124 (A) (3), the above limitation shall apply to the modified mo

ments but not to the original moments.


IBJ Composite Beoms

For composite beams the moment caused by D +

(L + I) shall

not exceed 95 % of the moment at first yielding in the section. For


such beams designed for Group IA loading, the moment caused by

D + 2.2 t L + I) shall not exceed SS o:I the moment at first yielding in


the section. In computing dead load stresses the presence or absence
of temporary supports during the construction shall be considered.
IC J Friction Joints
The shear caused by the loading, D +

(L + I) in friction-type

high-strength bolted joints shall not exceed 21,000 psi for ASTM
325 bolts.
For combined shear and tension in frictiontype joints where
applied forces reduce the total clamping force on the friction plane, the

maximum shear stress shall not exceed the values obt:iined from the
following equations :
For A325 bolts
1,.= 21,000 [1 f,/0.53F,)
where F,, is the tensile strength of the bolt,
I, is the applied tensile stress.

J .7. J 37 FATIGUE
IA) General
The analysis of the pr obability of fatigue of steel members or
connections under working loads and the allowable fatigue stresses,
F,., shall conform to Article 1.7.3, except that Ihe limitati on imposed
by the ba9ic design criteria given in Articles 1.7. 1 :iiid 1.7.2, shall not
apply.
IBJ

Composite

Construction

( \ ) SI o b Rei nfo rce me nf

When composite action is provided in the negative moment


region, the range of stress in slab reinforcement shall be limited
to 20,000 psi.
( 2)

Sh eo r Con necfors

The shear connectors shall be designed for fatigue in accordance with .4rticle 1.7.100 (A) .

1.7.137

IC J

Hybrid Beoms ond Girders

Hybrid girders shall be designed for fatigue in accordance with


Article 1.7.111 IC) .
1.7.J J 38

DEFLECTION

The control of detection of sleek or of composite steel and concrete


structures shal I conform to the provis ion of At ticle 1.7.12.

ORTHOTROPIC-DECK BRIDGES

J .7.J 39

ORTHOTROPIC-DECK BRIDGES, GENERAL

This section perta ins to the design of steel bridges that utilize a
stiffened steel plate as a deck. Usually the deck plate is stiffened by
longitu din:il ribs an d transverse beams ; effective widths of deck plate
act as the top flan ges of these ribs and beims. Usually the deck, including
ton gitudin al ribs, acts as the top flange of the main box or plate girders.
As used in Articles 1.7.139 through 1.7.148, the terms, rib and beam,
refer to sections that include an effective width of deck plate.
The provisions of Division I, Design, shall govern where applicable,
except as spec ifical ly modified by Articles 1.7.139 through 1.7.148.
An appropi-iate method of elastic analys is, such as the

equivalent

orthotropic-slab method r the eq u ivalent-grid method, shall be used in


designing the deck. The equivalent stiffness properties shall be selected
to correctly s inn u late the actual deck. An appropriate method of elastic
analys is, such as the thin-walledbeam method, that accounts for the
effects o1 tors ional d istortions of the crosssectional shape shall be used
iii designing the girders of or thotropic-ileck box-girder bridges. The box
girder design shall be checked for lane or truck loading arrangements that
produce maximum distortional I to rs ional ) effects.

J .7. J 40

WHEEL-LOAD CONTACT AREA

The wheel loads specified in Article 1.2.5 shall be un if ormly distributed to the deck plate over the rectangular area defined bclow :
Wheel Load,
kip

Width
Perpendicular
to Traffic, inch

Length
in D irection
of Traffic, inch

In the above table, t is the lh ickness of the wearing surface in

inches.

1.7.141

1.7.J 4J EFFECTIVE WIDTH OF DECK PLATE


fA J

Ribs ond Beoms

i'he effective wid th of deck plate acting as the top flange o:I a
longitudinal rib or a transvei-se beam may be calculated by accepted
approximate methods.*
IBJ

Cirders

The full width of deck plate may be cons idered effective in acting
as the top flange of the girders if the effective span of the girders is
not less than : ( 1) 5 times the maximum distance between girder wCbS
:ind (2) 10 times the maximum distance from edge of the deck to the
nearest girder web. The effective span shall be taken as the actual
span for simple spans and the distance between points of contraflexure
for continuous spans. Alternatively, the effective width
may be
determined by accepted analytical method s-.
The effective width of the bottom flange of a box girder shall be

determined according to the prov isions of Article 1.7.105 (A) .


1.7.J 42 ALLOWABLE STRESSES
fA J

Locol Bending Stresses in Deck Plote

The term local bending stresses refers to the stresses caused in


the deck plate as it carries a wheel load to the ribs and beams. The
local transverse bending str-esses can sed in the deck plate by the specified wheel load plus 30 percent impact shall not exceed 30,000 psi
unless a higher allowable stress is justified by a detailed fatigue analy
sis or by applicable fatigue-test results. For deck con figurations in
which the spacing of transverse beams is at least 3 times the spacing
of longitudinalrib webs, the local longitudinal and transverse bending
stresses in the deck plate need not be combined with the other bending
stresses covered in paragraphs ( B) and (C) below.
IB J

Bending Stresses in Longitudinal

Ribs

The total bending stres-ses in longitudinal ribs due to a combination of ( 1) bending of the rib and, (2) bending o:I the girders may
exceed the allowab le bending stresses in At-ticles 1.7.1 and 1.7.3 by
25 percent. The bending stress due to each of the two individual modes
shall not exceed the allowable bending stresses in Articles 1.7.1 and

1.7.3.

ICJ Bending Stresses in Transverse Beoms


The bending stresses in transverse beams shall not exceed the

allowable bending stresses in Articles 1.7.1 and 1.7.3.

Desipn Mann:it for O rthotrop ie Steel Plate Deck B ricIg:es, AIS C, 196 3 o r O rth ct nip ie
B riclges , Theory and D osign, by M.S. T re its ky, Lincoln Arc Well ing Fo un da I ie n , 196 i.

\ DJ Intersections of Ribs, Beoms, ond Girders


Gonne ctions between ribs and the webs of beams, holes in the
webs of beams to permit passage of ribs, connections of beams to the
wCbs of girders, and rib splices may affect the fatigue like of the
bridge when they occur in i egions of tensile stress. Where applicable,

the number of cycles of maximum stress and the allowable fatigue


stresses given in Section 1.7.3 shall be applied in designing these
details ; el sewhPre, a rational fatigue analysis shall be made in designing the details. Connections between webs of longitu dinal ribs and
Ihe deck plate shall be designed Io sustain the transverse bending
fatigue stresses caused in the webs by wheel loads.
1.7.J 43 THICKNESS OF PLATE ELEMENTS

IAJ Longifudinol Ribs ond Deck Plote


Plate elements comprising ton gitud inal ribs, and deck-plate elements between webs of these ribs, shall meet the minimum th ickness

iequiiements of Ai ticle 1.7.88 ; I,, may be taken as 75 percent of the


sum of the compress we stresses duo to ( 1) bending o:I the rib and, (2)
bending of the girder, but not less than the compressive stress due
to either of these two individual bond ing modes.
IBJ

Girders ond Transverse Beoms


Plate elements of box girders, plate g irders, and transverse beams
shall meet the i equirements of Articles 1.7.65, 1.7.70, 1.7.71, 1.7.72,
1.7.73, and 1.7.105.

1.7.144 MAXIMUM SLENDERNESS OF LONGITUDINAL RIBS


The slenderness, L/r, of a longitudinal rib shall not exceed the value
given by the following formula unless it can be shown by a detailed
inalys is that overall buckling of the deck will not occur as a result of
compressive stress ind uced by bending of the girders :

-1000
where
L= distance between transverse beams
r= rad ius of gyration about the horizontal centroi dat axls Of the rib
including an effective width of deck plate
F = maximum compressive stress (in psi) in the deck plate as a result
of the deck acting as the top flange of the girders ; this stress
shall be taken as positive
F,. yield strength of rib material in psi

J .7. J 45 DIAPHRAGMS
D iaphragms, cross f r:trees, or other means shall be provided at each
support to transmit lateral forces to the bear in gs and to resist transverse

DESIGN

1.7.14?

rotation, displacement, and distortion. Intermediate diaphragms or cross


frames shall be provided at locations consistent with the analysis of the

girders. The stiffness and strength of the intermediate and support

diaphragms or cross frames shall be consistent with the analysis of the


girders.

J .7.J 46

STIFFNESS REQUIREMENTS

IAJ Deflections
The deflections of ribs, beams, and girders due to live load plus
impact may exceed the limit:it ions in At-ticle 1.7.12, but preferably shall
not exceed i of their span. The calculation of the deflections shall be
consistent with the analysis used to calculate the stresses.
To prevent excessive deterioration of the wearing surface, the
deflection of the deck plate due to the specified wheel load plus 30 percent impact preferably shall be less than Tiu of the distance between
webs of ribs. The stiffening effect of the wearing surface shall not be
included in calculating the deflection of the deck plate.

I Bl

Vibretiens

The vibrational characteristics of the bridge shall be considered in


arriving at a pi oper design.

J .7.147 WEARING SURFACE


A su itable wearing surface shall be adequately bonded to the top
of the deck plate to provide a smooth, nonskid riding surface and to
protect the top of the plate against corrosion and abrasion. The wearing
surface material shall Jn ovide (1) sufficient ductil ity to accommodate,
without cracking or debond ing, expansion and contraction imposed by
the deck plate, (2) sufficient fatigue strength to withstand flexural
cracking d ue to deckplate deflections, (3) sufficient durability to resist
rutting, shoving, and v ear ing, (4) imperviousness to water and motorvehicle fuels and oils, and (5) res isdance to deterioration :f rom deicing
salts, oils, gasolines, diesel fuels, and kerosenes.

J .7.148 CLOSED RIBS


GlosPd ribs without access holes for inspection, cleaning, and painting are permitted. Such ribs shall be sealed against the entrance of
moisture by continuously welding (1 i the rib webs to the deck plate, (2)
splices in the ribs, and 13) d iaphragms, or transverse beam webs, to the

ends of the ribs.

1.8.1

Section 8CORRUGATED METAL AND STRUCTURAL


PLATE PIPES AND PIPE-ARCHES
I .8. I GENERAL
The materials :for the structure shall conform to the specifications eet
forth below, and the construction and installation shall conform to Section
23, Division II. The min imum gage or thickness shall be as determined by

design in accordance with Art. 1.8,2, except that such thickness shall be

increased i n accordance with Art. 1.8.4 to provide for corros ion or abrasion
unless there i9 evidence that corros ion or abrasion is not likely to occur.
Corrugated metal pipe composed o:I a smooth liner and corrugated
sheI I attached integrally at seams spaced not more than 30 inches apart
may be designed in accordance with Article 1.8.2 on the same basis as a
st:indard corrugated metal pipe having the same corrugations as the shell
and a vv eight per foot equal to the sum of' the weights per :foot of liner
and corru gated shell. This shall be limited to a maximum pipe diameter
of 84 inches, the thickness of the corrugated shell shall be at least 60 %
of the total thickness of shell and liner, and the specified backfill compac
tion shall be a minimum of 85 o of standard density. Where corrosion or
abrasion are anticipated, thickness of shell and liner shall be increased in
accordance with Article 1.8.4 or suitable coatings shall be specified.

Corrugated metal pipe and pipe-arches may be of riveted, welded,

or helical fabrication. The specifications are :


Aluminum

Riveted

Continuous Welded
Spot Welded

AASHO M 196

Helical Underdrai n
Culvert

Steel
AASHO M 36

AASHO M 197
Specification
Pending

AASHO M 56

AASHO M 197 or

AASHO M 36

AA SHO M 211

AASHO M 36

Structural plate pipe and pipe-arches shall be bolted. The specifica-

tion9 are

Bolted

Aluminum

AASHO M 219

Steel

AASHO M 167

(6x2 Corrugations)

Noth ing inclu ded in this section shall be interpreted its prohibiting
the use of new develop me nts vv'here usefulness can be substantiated.

I .8.2 DESI GN
Four criteria must be considered in the structural design of a flexible
buried conduit. Each considers the mu tual function of the metal ring
and the soil envelope surround ing it ; interaction of these two materials
produces a composite structure.
The criteria are :

(A) Seam Strength

(B) Han d ling and Installation Strength

For 3 x 1 cor r ugatio us an equal n umber of / ;5 ASTM A 326 bolts may be subst it uted
Ior rivete.

18.2

LE SIGN
(C) Fail ure of the Cond uit Wall
(D) Deflection or Flattening

fA J

Seom Strength

Seam Strength must be sufficient to withstand the thrust developing


from the total load supported by the condu it.

This th rust, in lbs. per lineal ft. of structure is :


pa

T=(LL+DL)x

where LL = Design Live Load, p9f. See Art. 1.3.3


DL= Dead Load, psf. See Arts. 1.2.2 (A) and 1.8.8
Span I or diameter) , in ft.
Thrust, T, multiplied by the safety factor, (See Art. 1.8.8) should
not exceed the seam strength. The strengths shown in Table 1.8.2 are
recommended in the determination of fill heights. Longitudinal seams
:for corrugated metal pipe and pipe-arch shall develop the minimums

shown in Table 1.8.2.

IBI Handling ond lnstollofion Strength


Handling and installation strength must be sufficient to withstand
impact forces assoc iated with shipping and placing of pipe. Both shop
and field assembled pipe must have strength ItdeQuate to withstand
compaction of the backfill without interior bracing to maintain pipe
shape.
Handling rigid ity is measured by a Flexibility Factor determined
by the formula

FF =D/E I
where

D pipe diameter or max imum span, inchee

E modu lus of elasticity of the pipe material, psi (see Art.


1.8.3.)

I = moment of inertia per unit length of cross section of the pipe


wall, inches to the 4th power per inch.
For steel conduits, FF should generally not exceed the :fo1lowing

values :

2 'Z and
2 s x "e corrugation FF =4.3 10
3 1 corrugation FF =3.3 10'
6 2 corr ugation FF =2.0 10
For aluminum conduits, FF should generally not exceed the following values :
2 K and
2/s x'Z corrugation FF =9.5 10
9 2'/ corrugation FF =2.5 10
I CJ Failure of the Conduit Woil
Failure of the wall by wall crushing may occur if the wall flexibility is low (regardless of the quality of backfill) . Failure of the wall

202

TABLE 1.8.2
Minimum Lon9itudinnl Seem Strengths Ultimate strength in kips
per foot)

3 x 1 Corrugated
Steel Pipe

Thickness

Single
Rivets

Double
Rivets *

Thicknes s

Double
Rivete

0.064

16.7

21.6

0.064

28.7

0.079
0.109
0.138
0.168

18.2
29.8
0.079
23.4
46.8
0.109
24.5
49.0
0.138
25.6
51.3
0.168
6 2 Structural Plate Steel Pipe

Thickness
0.109
0.138
0.168
0.188
0.218
0.249

0.280

4 Bolts/ft
42.0

6 Bolts/it

62.0
81.0
93.0
112.0
132.0

144.0

180

2 Ye and 2/s x Fz Corrugated

194
9 2'/e Structural Plata
Aluminum Pipe

Aluminum Pipe

Aluminum

Thickness
0.060
0.075
0.105
0.135
0.164

35.7
53.0
63.7
70.7

Single
Rivets

Double
Rivet9

9.0
9.0
15.6
16.2
16.8

14.0
18.0
31.5
33.0
34.0

Bolts
5/s Bolts
Thickness
per :ft
0.09
0.10
0.125
0.15
0.175
0.20
0.225
0.250

22.2
26.4
34.8
44.4
52.8

Steel

Bolts
5/s Bolts
per ft

6 .
66.

72.

Pipes of 42 or larger diameter require double rivete.

by elastic buckling may occur if the wall flexibility is high and the backfill is comp ressible (poorly consolidated) . Interaction of these two failure cond it ions, crushing and buckling, may develop in a zone between
h igh and low wall flexibi lity.
It is assu med that a flexible condu it in a soil-structure interac-

tions system does not I:tit at a specific stress defined by bending, since

DESIGN

1.8.2

203

the cond u it in yielding may transfer more of its load to the surrounding

soil.
For diameters less than D, where

24E

r
D =
k

, the ring compres-

sion stress, f,, at which buckling becomes critical, in the interaction

zone is
f ,,

kD

48E
r

For diameters greater than D, where

D =

24E

, the ring com-

pression stress, I,, at which buckling becomes critical, in the elastic

buckling zone is

12E
kD
where I,= minimum tensile strength, psi
I,= critical stress, psi, not to exceed the yield strength
k soil stiffness factor

D = pipe diameter or span, in.


r = rad ius of gyration (corrugation)
E = modulus of elastici ty, psi
Design for buckling is accomplished by limiting the ring compression thrust, T, to the buckling stress multiplied by the conduit wall area
per lineal :foot of structure divided by the safety :factor.
IDJ Deflection or Floftening
The Iowa Deflection Formula provides one approach to prediction
of ri ng deflection. It i elates ring deflecti on to the passive side pressure
resist in g horiz ontal movement of the pipe wall and to the inherent
strength of the pipe. Pipe arches need not be checked for deflection.
The Iowa Deflection Formula is :
KW,R

X-D, EI +0.061 ER
where X = horizontal deflection of the pipe, in.
D, = deflection lag factor

HICiH\\'AY BPII1G ?

1.82

K= a bedding constant (depends on bedding angle)


W,= vertical load per u nit length of pipe, lb/lin in.
R= mean radius of pipe, in.
E = modulus of elasticity of pipe, psi (see Art. 1.8.3)
I = moment of inertia per unit length of cross section o:I pipe
wall, inches to the fourth power per inch
E= horizontal soil modulus, psi/in.
Other methods are available for predicting ring deflection.

1.8.3
CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS
IAJ ALUMINUM Corrugated Metol Pipe ond Pipe-orch
Chemical AASH O M 196 (ASTM C478) an d M 197
Mechan ical

Th ickRS9,

Minimum
Tensi Ie

Min imum
Yield

psi

psi

Strength

in.

0.051 I 0.113
0.114 to 0.249

EIon gation

24,000
24,000

4*
Qo

31,000
31,000

IBJ ALUMINUM

Minimum

Strength

in 2 inches

Mod. of:

Elast.
psi

10 10
10 X 10

Sfructurol plote pipe ond pipe-orch

Chemical AASHO

215, Alloy 5052

Mechanical
Minimum
Tensile
Strength
psi
0.09 0 to 0. 175
0.175 to 0.250
,

IC) STEEL

35,500
34,000

Corrugated

Metol

Min imurri
Yield
Strength
psi

Min imum
Eto npati on
in 2 inches

Mod. of
Elast.
psi

28,000
26,000

6 9p
8 9p

10x 10
10 10

Pipe

ond

Pipe-orch

Chemical AASHO M 36
Mechanical

Minimum

Tensile

Strength,
psi
4 5,000

Min imum

Yield
Strcn gth,
psi

Min imum
Elongat ion
in 2 inches

Mod. of
Elast.
psi

29 x 10

DESIGN
( D I STEEL

Strucf urol

Plote

Pipe ond

Pipe-orch

Chemical-AA SHO M 167


Mechanical
Minimum
Tensile
Strength,

42,000

Minimum
Yield
Strength,

Minimum
Elongation
in 2 inches

Mod. of

28,000

30 o

29 10

Elast.

psi

The mechanical properties shown above are for the flat material
prior to corru gating. A certificate of compliance shall be requ ired from

the manuf:acturer.

1.8.4

ABRASIVE OR CORROSIVE CONDITIONS

For corrugated metal and structural plate pipes and pipe-arches


having a thickness less than 0.25, the entire conduit, or bottom plates only
in the case of structural plate pipe, shall be of greater thickness, or protected by other means, when required i'or resistance to abrasion or
corrosion.

1.8.5

RIVETS AND BOLTS

Rivets I:or corrugated sections and bolts for structural plate sections
shall conform with the following :
Aluminum Corrugated Section :
Rivets-Aluminum, ASTM B 316, Alloy 6053-T4
Aluminum Structural Plates :

Bolts-Aluminum, ASTM B 211, Alloy 6061-TG

Bolts-Steel, AASHO M 164 (ASTM A 325)


Steel Corrugated Section :
Rivets-Steel, AASHO M 36
Steel Structural Plates :
Bolts-Steel, AASHO M 164 ( ASTM A 325)
Where end

treatment

requires a rigid headwall, the

plates or

pipe

shall be anchored to the headwall with not less than /i inch anchor bolts at
not more than 19 inch centers. Steel bolts for structural plate sections
shall be torqued during installation to a minimum of 100 it-lbs. and a
maximum of 300 ft-lbs. Aluminum bolts for structural plate sections shall
be torqued during installation to a minimum o1 100 ft-lbs., and a maximum
of: 150 ft-lbs. For power driven tools, the holdon period may vary from
2 to 5 seconds.
Bolts shall be of sufficient length to provide for a full nut.

1.8.6

MULTIPLE STRUCTURES

Where multiple lines of: pipes or pipe-arches greater than 48 inches in


diameter or span are used, they shall be spaced so that adjacent sides of

the pipe shall be at least one-half d iameter or 3 feet ap:irt, whichever is


less, to permit adequate compaction of backfill material. For diameters
up to 48 inches, the minimum spacing shall be not less than 24 inches.

1.8.7 SLOPED ENDS SKEWED


\\'hen the skew angle exceeds 20 degrees and the structure has the

ends cut to fit the slope, the ends shall be reinforced.

1.8.8 MAXIMUM DEPTHS OF COVER


The maximum depths of cover may be determined by use of the Iowa
Deflection Formula and the following basic data. (Nothing included
herein shall proh ibit the use of other appropriate basic values.)
Weight of embankment100 lbs/cu. ft.

k 0.44, soil stiffness coefficient for good side fiI I material compacted

to 85 percent of standard density based on AASHO 5pecification


(ASTM D 698) .
E'= Modulus of passive soil (side fill) resistance : 700 psi.
Elongat ion :

99

5 percent of nominal diameter

Maximum deflection :
5 percent of nominal diameter below circular shape
Safety factors used :
Longitudinal test seam strength 4.0
Pipe wall buckling
2.0
For pipe-arch structures placed on a stable foundation, the confining
backfill must be capable of supporting a corner pressure of 2 tons per
square :foot. Marginally stable or compress i ble foundations requ ire special investigation. Fill heights exceeding 100 feet shall be used only after
a thorough investigation of the foundation material.

Section 9STRUCTURAL PLATE ARCHES


J .9. J GENERAL
Structural Plate Arches shall conf oi-in to Section 8, Division I, and to
the specificati ons set North below, and the construction and installation
shall conform to Section 23, Division I I.

J .9.2 RATIO, RISE TO SPAN


The design of s ingle radius structural plate arches should be based
on r:it toe of rise to span vat-ying from 0.3 to 0. 5.

J .9.3 MINIMUM HEIGHT OF COVER


The minimum cover for design loads shall be Span/6 but not less

than 12. For construction requ irements see Section 2.23.10.

1.9.4

DE SIGN

1.9.4 SCOUR CONDITIONS


Invert slabs shall be provided when scour is anticipated.
J .9.5 MULTIPLE ARCHES
Where multiple arch spans are used, the distance tetween plates shall

be not less than '/i of the lonsei adjoining span.

J .9.6 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN


The substructure shall be designed according to specification s herein
for substructures of bridges.

Section i0

TIMBER STRUCTURES

1.IO.1 ALLOWABLE STRESSES


fAJ

Allowoble Unit Stresses for Stress-Grode Lumber

The allowable unit stresses given in Table 1.10.1 are for normal
duration of loading for stress grade9 of sawn lumber used under continuously dry conditions as in most covered structu res. For other service conditions, the following modification shall apply. For lumber used

under conditions in which the moisture content of the wood is at or

above the fiber saturation point, as when continuou sly submerged, the
allowable unit stresses in Table 1.10. 1 in compression parallel to the
grain shall be reduced 10 percent, in compression perpendicular to the
grain shall be reduced one-third, and the values for the modulu9 Of
elasticity shall be reiluced one-eleventh.
( 1) Use of stress grades in flexure :
Allowable unit stresses in flexure for Iout and Plank gradee
apply to material with the load appl red to either the narrow or wide
face.
Allowable unit stresses in flexure for Beam and Stringer
grades apply only to material with the load applied to the narrow
I ace.
Beam grades ordinarily are graded for use on simple spans.
When used as a cont in uous beam the grad ing provisions cueto man ly appl ied to the middle thi rd of the length of simple spane
shall be applied to the middle two-thirds of the length of pieces to
be used over double spans and to the entire length of pieces to be

used over three or more spans.


(2) Modi fixation for cond ition of use for bearing perpend icular to
grain :
The allowable u n it stresses for compress ion perpend icular to
the grain assu me the material will be surface seasoned when installed. When used under cont in uously wet cond i t ions, the tabulated values should be red uced one-thi rd.
Allowoble Unit Sfresses for Glued Lominofed Timber

(1) The at lowable unit stresses for softwood species shall be as


recommended in American Institute of Timber Construction

203-70 Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Lami


nated Timber of Douglas Fir, \'estern Larch, Southern Pine
and Galifoi-nia Redwood, and as given in Tables 1.10.1 (A)
and 1.10.1 (B) herein. For hardwood species, the allowable

unit stresses shall be as given in Table 2.10 of the Timber

Construction Manual, by the American Institute of Timber


Construction, published by John Wiley & Sons, New York City,
New York.
The stress tables given in AITC 203-70 are divided into sections :for dry-use or wet-use conditions. Allowable unit
stresses for dry-use conditions are applicable when the mois-

ture content in set-vice is less than 16 as in most covered

structu res. Allowable unit stresses for wet-use conditions are


applicab le when the moisture content in service is 16 Jo or
more, as may occur in exterior or submerged construction,
and in some structures housing wet processes or otherwise
havin g constant high relative humidities.

The stress tables in AITG 20370 give stresses for members

stressed primarily in bending (load applied perpendicular to


the wide face of the lamination) and for members stressed
primarily in axial tension, axial compression or loaded in
bending parallel or perpendicular to the wide face o:I lamination. Edge joints shall be glued only in members loaded normal
to the lamination edges or in members where torsion is a sig
nificant design consideration.
Slope of grain, type and location of end joints, and other
requ irements, together with certain manufacturing require

ments, must be met for these allowable unit stresses to apply.


The requ irements for slope of grain for softwoods are given
in AITC 203-70, whereas these requirements :for hardwoods
are incorporated in Table 2. 10 of the A ITC Timber Construction Manual. Other requirements are given in U.S. Commercial Standard 253-63.

Species other than those specifically included herein may be


used provided allowable unit stresses are established for them
in accordance with U.S. Commercial Standard 253-63.

ICl Allowoble Unit Stresses for Normol Loading Conditions


The tabulated allowable unit stresses are for normal load duration which contemplates fully stressing a member to the allowable
unit stress by the application of the full design load for a duration of
appi oximately ten years ( either continuously or cumulatively) . For
other load ing conditions, adjustments should be made as given in the
following sections.
ID J Allowoble Unif Stresses for Permanent Loading

When a member is fully stressed to the maximum allowable stress

for long term loading conditions (greater than ten years either con-

UE SIGN

209

tin uously or cu mulatively) , use 90 percent of the tabulated all owable


un it stresses. The pi ovisions of this paragraph do not apply to modulus

of elasticity.

IEJ Allowoble Unit Stresses for Wind, Eorfhquoke or Short Time Loading
When the duration of the full maximum load does not exceed the

period i n d icated, increase th e tabulated allowable unit stresses


fOllOWS '
15 per cent for 2 months du ration, as for snow

as

25 per cent for 7 days duration


33/s per cent I:or wind or earthquake
The above increases are not cumulative. The resulting structural
members shall not be smaller than requ ired for a longer duration of
load ing. The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to modulus
of elasticity. The increases apply to mechanical fasten ings except as
otherwise noted.
I F I Combined Stresses
These spec ifications do not cover the application of loadings which
prod uce comb tried axial and bending stresses, nor the effective reductions in the tabulated stresses a.s a resu It of these load ings.
For th is condition, attention is directed to Section 4, page 11, of
the Timber Construction Manual, 1966, by the American Institute of
Timber Construction, published by John Wiley & Sons, New York , N.Y.

1.J 0.2 FORMULAS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF STRESSES IN TIMBER


In calcu latin g I we load stresses in timber, impact shall be neglected.
See Article 1.2. 12 B ) .
IA I

Horizontol Sheor in Beoms


Horizontal shear in beams shall be computed Irom the max imu in
shear occu rring at a d is tance Irom the support equal to th ree times
the depth of the beam, or at the quarter point, wh iehever is the lesser
d istance f rom the support. The live load used in cornpu tin g horizontal
shear shall be placed so as to produce max imum external shear at th is
d istance Irom the support. This external l we load shear shall be onehalf the su in of 60 per cent of the shear from the und istr ibuted wheel
leads and of the shear from the wheel loads d istribu ted late rally as
specified for moment in Article 1.3. 1. For und istr i bu ted wheel loads,
one l me of wheels is assu med to be carried by one beam.
The shear shall be calcu lated according to the following formula :

3V
2bd

Where
I,.= h orizontal shear stress in pounds per square inch
b= width of beam in inches
d = depth of beam in inches
V= vert ical shear in pou n de

TABLE 1.1 0.1

Allowable Unit Stresses for Structuia1 Lumber V isu ll5 C1iaded


See other p rev isions of Article 1. 10.1 :for ad jus tin ents of these tabula te d
Note : Th is rep resen ts onl y- partial listing of av ailable s i ee tea an d gi a des. 1or a complete hsti n a see the Suii1em ent to i 0 7 1 Ed it ion of N atie n at Des ign S9ecifi cation :for Stress Grade Lumbe r an1 its Fasten ings, NFPA
Alloxva ble uni I stress i n p ouncls pe r square in ch
Extreme :fiber i n
ben d ing ' Fri

Spccies a nd commer cial


e ra de

E
w.n
uses
( s ingle )

Reppeti-

Tension
n ara11e1
to, gra|n
Fi

Horizontal
sheair
F,

3cm p res sion


ierpeni up a
F

member
uses

Comp session
p arallel
top g ai

Mod ulus
of
e1astic,itv
E

Grading

CA LIFORNJA REDWOOD ( Surfaced di y, Used at lS /n max. m. c. )


Clear Heart Structural
ectStructural

N;
N.
No. 3

c Structural

N.e
N 2
o

uny vnIth

2300

1860

146

' and less thik


ant wide

)70
1400
800

1oAA
800
450

100
80
80

421
426
425

4' anl !ess thik


6 tn lt wide

l(D
1
700

1oAA

1Ao

z(
)

450

600
1,400, 0 0 0
1, 40 0, 00 0

26

1,100000
1850
IG 0 0
1450
125 0

Lumber
I n spectres
Bu rcau an I
As so ciati o n

]85
385
4?5

,
,

Produts "

456

386
385

West Coast
,
,

1250
10?0

Table JNo. 1.tO.1 (cont'd)


Allow able unit stress in pounds per square
Ext reme fiber in
bend inc Fs
Eng i-

neered

T errs ion
narallel
to grain
F i

Ccren iession
nernendicular

to grain

uses
( sinele )

F c _|_

1900
1600
1550

Dense Select Stru c tu r at


Sele ct Stru ctural
me N o. 1
N.
Posts an1
T imbe re

ch
Comn ress in n
; arallel
to grain

45 5
385
385

455

386

1400

14 0 0
120 0

85

1,600.000

1201

1,800,0 0 0
1,800, 00 0

2000
1660

Decking

Modulus
of
elastic ity
E

Dense Select Structuia1


Select Str uctu ial
en e No. 1
N

85

Posts an d
Timbers
Selected Deck inP
Comme rci at Deck in g

Deecki n

Selectel Decking
Comme rci at Deck ing

Decking

14 0 0
120 0

180 0

( Stresses a pnlY at
15 "/, moistu re
con ten I)

OOO

1,900, 0 0 0
1,'? 00, 0 0 0

Grading
rules
agency

Table No . I . 10.1 ( contd )

80

1400

e$t Stru ctural


N.

?70

Posts and
Timbers

8?6

80
80

Decking
EAST E RN SPRUCE ( S url a ced d ry- o r surf acel p reen. Used at TO 9 max . rn. c. )
NO.2

2[o 4thick

100

TO.

2 tO 4 thitk

1100

I:3eIect
Commerc rat

Deck i up

No. 3

-" to 4 ,vide

625

)TD

3B6

05
66

255
253

'?00
426

1,200,000
1,100,000

7o0

1 , 4 0 0, 0 00
1,?00, 0 00

EN GLEMANN SPRU CE ( Err glean an n S; rucc-Lolqepole P me)


Selected Decking
Commercial Decking

( Surf a cel d rv o r su rf a cert preeb.


1300
.
14 00

Set ected Decking


Com medial Deck in g

HE M -F IR ( Surf ace I ct r y o r s u rface1 p men . Us c1 at 19'? in ax . in . c . )


Select S tru ctural
J 55 g
No. 1
2 to 4 thick
1400

Uso1 at ltt 9e max . in . c. )


1,200,000

(S(resscs apply nt

246

245
246

25

57 5

l,Z00,000

24

-4?
2 to 4 thick
C an I vv rder

'

Wcs tern Wood


1000

Association
I see I oot n ot c s

Table No. 1. 10. 1 ( contd )


Allowable un it stress in p ounds per square inch
Grading
rules
agen eg

Species and commercial


gra de

70

Beams an d
Str inpers

70

ect St ructu rat

Beams and
S tringe re

e t Structural

Pus(s nd

N/
N.

1,40 0,00 0
1,4 0 0,0 0 0
1,40 0, 0 0 0
1,400, 0 0 0

1600
1300

1,40 0, 0 0 0

Deck ing:

(Stresses apply rit


16 "/, moisture
content )

1,600,000
1,50 0, 00 0

( Stresses ap p ip at

1,4 00, 00 0

Decking

L OD GE PO LE PINE ( Surfaced try or s urfaced g reen . Used a 1 19c max. m. c. )


Setc ctel Deck ing
Deck ing
Commerc rat Decking
Selected Deck trip
Comment at Decking

1 , 4 0 0, 00 0
1.4 0 0, 00 0

Beams an d
Syringe rs

I see f oon otes


? through 9 )

1,400,000

Timbers

TDA HO WHITE PINE ( Surface I I rv or sit rf aoed green . Used at 199 ma x. m. c. )


Se1ectel D ecki ng
1400
Decking
Commeic rat Deck ing
Se1ectel De cki ng
Commeic rat Deck ing

Lumber
Inc p ection hui-.

1,400, 0 0 9
1,40 0, 0 0 0

Selected Decking
Commercial Decki rig
Selected De ck ing
Commercial Decki up

245

800

97
Decking

243

126 0

86 0
1|3 0 0 !0 0 0

2 through 11 )

TbleNo. 1.10.1 (cont'J)

Species a n1 comm ci cial


grade

Si ze
class i ficat in n

Alto vv'able un it stress in


Extreme fiber in
Tenets ri
bend i ng ii
p:ira11e1
- to giain
En giRe;'eti -Fr
( s ingle )

p ouncls pe r squa re inch


H or i ComComzo rita I
p reset on p ress ion
sheaipc i-penp at allel
F
licular
to y rat n

uses
2P 0
280

Select

M o1u1u.s
of
elastic ity
E

( sec :footnotes
? th rough iI )

800
1,4 0 0,000
1, 3 00, 00 0

Deck i rig

PONDER OSA PINESUGAR PINE (Ponderosa Fiuc-Lodgero!e Pinc) (SufuccJ Jry or sufated qruen. UsnJ at 1O/ rnn. nn. c)
Selects it Deck rug
Com me rci at D ecki n q

Decking

P roluc ts
A see nation

Deckng
content)

RED PIN E ( S url acecl


2 to l think

1100

1150

Select Str-uctu ia1


Np. 1 5I ructural

7O

2 80
2 80

280
Posts an1
Timbers

1000
800

SI TKA S PRUC E ( Su iface1 d re or s u rtaced preen . Used at 19in max. in .c. )


Select D ex
Commo rcial Dex

2 P0
2 80

Lumber
I n sp action Bit r.

280

14 6 0

West Coast

280

4'

to 4 xv i1e
No. 2 I\ted rum G iiin

TO

1G00
1850
TO 6 0

Table No. 1. 10. 1 ( cc ntd )

Extreme 5berin
bending Fs
E ng i -

neered
uses
( single)
2 to 4 thick
2 to 4 wide

Dens$ se.ut ist


No. 1

tive-

member
uses

170 0
825

ctural

Dense

N.: 2
No. 2 Melium ;:rain
d 2 Den se
Ne
No. 3 Dense

180(I
6 and wider
860

Dense Stiuctura1 86
Den se Structural 72

2 to 4 thick

Select Dex
Commerc ia1 Dex

Deck in g

Selected Decki rig


Ccmin erm at T1ec1i rig

Deckin g

Selected Deck ing


Commercial Decking

Decking

90

475

1150

1,700,000

550

90

475

700

1 500 000

1400
1000
1200
700

90
90
90
75

47?
405
475
346

1650
1260
1450
900

1900000
1800 000
1,900,000
1,400,000

976

90

47s

1w
650
750

1,400,000
1,500,000

'825

so

4o/

1000
1160
1000
1160

1,600,000
1,700,000
1,600,000
1,700,000

2050
1700

1,900,000
1,900,000

976
826
975

2 to 4 th ick
2 to 4 wide

2 to 4 thick
6 an d wide r

1000

476
EU

'728

D ense SId. Factory


No. 1 Factory
No. 1 Dense Factory
No. 2 Factory
life. 2 Dense Factors

rules
a gen cv

Repeti-

75
90

90
90
90

346
475

476
405
475

1'ioo'ooo

1450

dry or surfaced green. UseJ at l9Q,rnax. u.c.)

1200
1050

West Coast
Lumber
Inspection B ur.

1400
1200

1250

( 5tree see an n1y at


15 / moisture
content )

1, 100,00 0
1, 00 0, 0 00

216

1.10.2

H IG HWAY BRIDGE S
FO O TNO T ES F O R TAB LE 1.10.I

Values for Fo, Ft ,' ' n d F for the grades of Const i u ction and Stan da ref air ii I y only
Th c values in T:ib1e 1.10. 1 are based on ed pewiso use. For th men s ion 2 " to 4 in th i ck ness .
wh en usel Al atw i so, th e rccommen led design values No r hber stress in ben d in y in ay be muJ tiplie1

by the follow in x factors :

2"
n

4 Click device in
n

Et rom e fi bcr i n
Len I in 3 Ft

a u

Tension

p ara11e1
to grai n
Ft

maximum
n

Hori zonIat
shy air

control

d s

Comn reset on
pcrpen1icuI ar
in grain
..y
.

Com n ression
par a1Ie1
to g rat n
.. y ..

Mo1ulus
of
Elasti city
. ;.,

1. I7

1.08

W hen 2 to 4 thick lumber is des igncl for use v'Ec re the mon ture content will exceeil 19
ii crcen I for an exten Ic1 jerioI of time, tLie values shown i n Table 1. 10, 1 should be multipl ie1

Tension
perpeuJiculai

0.8 G
J
'

i arallel
to grain
F

of
El asti city
E'

0.7 0

0.84

When lumber 5 and thicker is 1esigne1 for use where the mci sturc content will excec1 1 fi
iiercent for an exten ded reriod of time. the values shown in T:ib1e 1.10. I shou11 be mu1ti;1iel

Ex Irem e ft be r in
hen li n f: Fi
I . 00

Tension

1.0 0

1.0 0

0. 07

The I:ib u1atol hon zon ta1 s hear v al ues s frown he rein a re ba sett n the con se rv atis'e :issum i tion of the most severe checks , shaken or srlits ross ible, as if ii I an c were si1it full len gth .
When I urnbe r 4 an it thi n ner is man uf act urecl un Lea soncd the tabul atel values s houlrt be in tuft i1ic1

21.7

DESIGN

POOT1'IOTES FOR TABLE 1.10.1 ( 14)


Specihc hoiizontal shear values for uny graJe and species ot lumber muy be estab1isbel by use
of the following tobles svhen the length of sput or chccl is k nown :
J\I ultiplx tabulated

When length of rlit is:

( Nom ii:tl 2 Lumber' )

M uJtinlY tobtlteJ

When length o sjIit on wicle oce is :

"F" value Ly :

('Jtnd Thicker umberJ


No split

*fi X ttfirrow face

1.67

rerommvndc4 drsi& vn!ues shvvvn for Se|urt StrsrturaL No. t, No. 2 swJ Mn. 3 sradrs as shw

in 2 tc 4 thicL, 2 to 4 wide s nJ z" to 4 thicl, nd wider ctcg ice when gruJecl i n


ccordncc with those giaIe requirements.

'' When MC IS" Decking is usef where the misturc content will exceed 15 pcrcenL fui in
cxtendcJ pencil of time, the dcsien 'oIue tahuloteI to npply at 15 petent mulsLurc content.

shoulI be mltipl ict by the following tnctnis . Extiemc Fiber in DenJing F'i.-0.?9; Mclulus nT
Elnsticitx

E"-0.92.

National Lumber Grades A utbority is the Ganalian rules-writine gcncy responsible for

preia ration, main tenance and ihssem i nation of a uniform softwooil lumbei- c ral ing rule to r :ill

tBl Secondory Stresses in Curved Glued Lominotcd Members


( I )

Curvoture Foctor

For the cu rved portion of members, the allowable stress in


bend ing shall be mod i fied by mu ltiplication by the following curvature factor:

in wh ich

1 2000 It/R

t= th ickness of lamination in inches


R= rad ius of cu rvatu re of a lam mation in inches

and UR shou Id not exceed 1/125 for Douglas fii-, larch and California redwood and 1/100 foi- Southern pine.

No curvature factor shall be applied to str-ess in the straight


portion of an assembly regardless of curvature elsewhere.
1 2 ) Rodiol Tension or Compression
The radial stress, I,., induced by a bending moment in a cu i-ved
member, shall be defined by the following equation :
where

I,,=3M/2Rbd

M = bending moment in inch pounds

R= radius of curvature at centei-line of membei- in inches

TABLE 1.10.1A
Allov able Unit Stresses for Structural Glued Laminated Timber, Members Stressed Principally in Bending, Loaded Perpendicular to the \\'ide Face of the Laminations ' ' '
( S tresses she w n belov' are to r normal con di tions of macho g.

See o ther p rev is ions or' Article


uri it s tresses. )

1. 1 0. 1 for al] ustments of these tab ulate d allowabl e

(1) Dou8las Fir and Western Larch

DRYGONDITIONSOFUSEE 1900O00

24F

4-10
11-20
21-26
26-35
36-40
41 ormore

2400
2400
2400
2400
24 00
2400

1600
1600
1600
1600
16 00
1600

1500
1500
1500
1600
HO0
1300

16 00
$
16 0
16 0O
$60 0
1600

1500
1500

450
460
450
450
4? CI
460

385
3811
385
38S
385
38h

450
450
450

410
410
410
410
410

410

165
165
165
166
165
16f

( 1) Douglas Fir and Western La rch

4-10

11-20
21-30
31-40
4l orm0re

22F

.6:.

1600
1600
1600
1600

$o
.

1300
1300
1300
1300

J0$
1100
1100
1100
1100

:.:

305
306
305
305

:60

260
260
260
260

14G

14G
145
145
145

24F

ip ag$
comNnations a

Fn eraII

:.bl:arom allba

g available and the de signer sFioul d check on availabili ty prior to sp ecif y ing.
aato
1300
13 0 0

The 22F and 24F

145

1100

TABLE 1.10.1A
12)

( contd)

Southei-n P i ne

DRY CONDITIONS OF USE E


4 or more
12 or more

l8F

6 or more '
14 or more

1,800,000 ;I

1800
1800

1600
1600

J6I10
1500

385
386

2000
2009

1600
1600

1500
1500

385
886

2200
2200

1600
1600

1500
1600

450
?86

200
200

Note : The 2 6 F combination may ri ct be read ilp av enable arid th c den gner shou1'1 checlc on av a ilab i l i ty p nor to sweetly ing.
listed are z en erally av at table I rom all lam in ators.
1500
1600
1500

6
WET CONDITIONS OF USE E

1,6 0 0,000 1
260

:
12 or mor
6 or' more
14 or more
18 or more

2?F

1600
1C00

1300
1300

1100
1100

81
8

00

260

4 or in ore
24i'

Not e : The 2tiF c om1i nation may- not be rea1il' a x-at table an d the les i gne i shoulil check on v-ailab ili I' p nor to sr cert y my.
I rated are j en e ra11 ' av'uila11o I rom all I amin ators.
2

14 or more

1100

260

O ther comb in ation s

DESIGN
FOOTNOTES FOE iADLE :.(0.:A
The tebulateil stresses in thie table nre irimarily apiil icable to members st i-essetl in bcniline

member's ereter thiin I Z inches in dpth. the rciui remepts of Article 1.Ip.2 on Size factor a1uli'.
compression members. tension mcm
The ending i Ist ri ctiott:: us cotit:iined in A ITC 30tZ2, 30 124 en I 'ltl 1Zfi tension lam i nation
req\Jirements shnll he follov'J For the outermost tension laminutions representing ?,7 cf thn
thtal rlcTth of glued lnminrtel bcnling members 1 f inches or more in Ipth. J' rr oil nlitins
f ' A ITC 30122 to np9l itabli: to combination 22F , A lIC 3(I I-24 is ppl textile to combi nation
letn i 1s of these tension lam mutton requ i remen is.

Den.sc ter the


For combi nation 2IiP ( 1 1 . six ir fewer lure matrons. the allowable u n it st resses fr tension

rerallel to grain and romprcesion jiirallel to gruin can be met-eased to i s00 psi :ind i see pei
rmrrcUve!r for thv Jry cowJiflow of use und to 1500 psi sd t2J0 psi cpectivo|y fvr the wrt
tonJitiow vf use.
h i her

b= width of cross section in inches


d = depth of cross section in inches
When M is in the direction tending to de:i-ease curvature (increase the rad ius) , the sti-ess is tension across the gi-am. For this
condition, the tension stress acrow the gi-am shall be limited to
1/3 the allov'able unit sti-ess in hoi-izontal shear for Southern pine
and Galifoi-ma redwood for all load cond itions and for Douglas liiand larch for- wind or earthquake loadings. The li init shall be
IS psi for Douglas fir and larch for other types of load. These
values at-e subject to modifications for dui-ation of load. If these
values are exceeded, mechanical reinfoi-:ing shall be used and shall
be sufficien t to resist all radial ten:ion stresses.
When M is in the direction tending to increase curvatiii-e
Idecrease the radius) , the stress is compression across the grain
and shal I be limited to the allow'able unit stre.ss in compression
perpendicular to the grain for at I species included herein.

Compression or Bearing Perpendicular to Groin


The at lowable u n i I stresses for compression perpendicular to the
grain apply to bearings of any length at the ends of the beam, and to
all bearings 6 inchea or more in length at any other loca tion. When
calcu lat ing the bearing area at the ends of beams, no allowance shall
be made for the fact that, as the beam bends, the pressure upon the
inner edge of the bearing is gre:iter than at the end of the beam.

TABLE 1.1 0.1B


A
b
nd

b
n

u
D

(ioug1:is Fi r an1 Western Larch

( 1)

1
2

AH
AH

1200
1800

3
5

AH
AH

2400
2600

u
a
Ar c

n
.

P
.

.
r

S
h

DRY CONDITION S OF U SE E

P n p
b

n b

145
2200

2300

2600
1,6 0 0, 0 00 1 I

260

D RY COND I TIO NS O F USE E


1400
1900
2200
2100
2200

950
1700
2000
1960
2300

wEv cONDITiON S OF USE E


210 0
1900
2 100

410
450

260

220 0
2 6 09
240 0
26 0 0

n
St

I , 80 0, 0 0 0 is i

1400
1800

Southern Pme

tr

145

WEP CON DITION 5 G F USE E

( 2)

120

120

1,80 0, 00 0 ; 1
1100
1800
2100
2400
2600

165

1,60o, 000 psi


6
6
6

145

223

DESIGN
FO O TNO TES FOR TABLE 1.10.1B

' The tab ulated stresses i n th is table are p rim at'iI v nnli cable to members I carted ax iaI Iz o r
parallel to the wide face , of the ,lam i nat ions. For combi nations anl stro?s s arjlic:ible to mem-

baminat

n$,see Tab

al

n
due to a to.id Pj1ie1 periendicular to the wide fiice of the
.a A--"

" T h c tab idatcd etress es a re ai;l i cable to members conta in i rig th ree (3) oi mo re lam i n at ions.
'T lie ta bulated stresses arc ap iI i cable to members conta inin q four ( 4 ) or more tannin ation s .

For bearin gs of less than 6 inches in length and not nearer than
3 inches to the end of a member, the maximum allowable load per
square inch is obtained by in ul tip lying the allowable un i I stresses in
com press ion perpen d ie u far to grain by the following f actor :

in wh ich L is the length of bearing in inches measured along the grain


of the wood.
The in u lt ipl yi ng factors for ind icated lengths of bearing on s uch
small areas as pI ates and washers become :
Lengthofbeaiing
in inches
Factor

/_

. . . . . . . . 1.75

1'?

6or
more

1.88

1.25

1.19

1.13

1.10

1.00

In using the preced ing formu la and table for rou nd washers or
bearing areas, use a length equ at to the diameter.
ID I Simple Solid Column Design
I'hese formulas to r simple solid col umns are based on pin-end
conditions b ut shal l be appl red also to squ are-end cond i t ions.
Allowable unit sti esses in pounds per square inch of cross-sectional
area of simple solid columns shall be determined by the :following
form ula, but s uch unit stresses shall not exceed the tabular values for
compression parallel to grain, F ,, as provided in Article 1.10.1 and
ad.) usted in accordance with the applicable provisions of Al-tiCle 1.10.1

where F

a lloivable unit stress in compression parallel to grain, in psi,


ad justed for l/d ratio

E = mod ulus of elasticity, psi

unsupported overall length, in inches, between points o:I


lateral support of simple columns
r= least radius of gyration of section

For columns of square or rectangu lai- cross-section, this :formula becomes :

IE I Spoced Column Design

G .?0E

F,.
For an assembly of members having a lesser l /d ratio, the ind i v idu ml members are den pried as simple soI id colu runs. Spaced columns
are elasn fied as to fix i ty, i.e., cond it ion c r couch ti on 6, which
introduces a mul I ipl y ing factor a pplicab Ie in the lesign of its ind iv id ual in embers. ( See F i gu re I . 10,2
For individual members of a spaced colu run, /d shall not exceed
80, nor shall .,/d exceed 40. (See Figure 1.10.2) .
The ind iv idu ml members in a spaced colu in n on con ordered to act
together to carry the total column load. Each member is des i gned
separately on the basis of its l /d ratio.
A greater l/d ratio than ml lowed for simple solid colu runs is perm i tterl beeau se of the end fixi ty developed by the connect or s and end
blocks. Th is fixity is effective only in the th ickness di rect ion. The I 'd
ratio in the il irect ion of width is subject to the proh'isi on s for st mple
solid col um ns.
When a s in gle spacer block is I ocated with in the middle I on th cat
the column leng th I l I , connectors are not requ i red for th i s block. If
t here are two or more spacer blocks, conn ectors are iQU i red and the
distance between two adjacent blocks shal l not exceed one-half the
distance between centers of con nectors in the end b locks.
F"or spaced colu mm used as com preset on members of a tru ss, a
panel point wh ich is s ta5'ed lateral ly shall be cons icl e red a> the end of
the spaced colu run, and the portion of the web members, between the
ind ivid ual pi eces maki n g up a spaced col u run, may be con s idered as the
end blocks.
If there are two or more con nectors i n a contact face, the center of
grav ity of the grou p shal I be u sed in measu ring the d is tance I rom connectors in the end bl ock to the end of the colu run for dete rant n i n g fixi t j'
eonditi on a or b. (Figure 1.10.24 .
Th ickness of spacer and end blocks shall not be ten than that of
ind iv id ual members of the spaced colu run, nor sha 11 th redness, w idth,
and length of spacer and end blocks be less than requ ired for connectors

DESIGN

1.10.2

of a size and n umber capable of carrying the load compu ted in accordance w ith Article 1.10.2 I I ) . Blocks th ieker than a side member do not
appreciably increase load capac ity.
The total at lowal1e Road for a spaced colu run is the sum of the
allowable loads for- each of its ind ividual members. Allowable unit
stresses shal l be determ i ned as f oJlows, b u I the max i run in u n it stress

shall not exceed the values for compression parallel to grain F . in

Table 1.10.1, or as tabu lated in the reference listed in Article 1.10.1


( B ) (1 ) , and as adjusted in accordance with provisions of Article 1.10.1,
nor shall the load exceed that permitted by the follow in g prov is ions.
The net section shall be determined by subtracting, from the fu 11 crosssectional area of the timber, the projected area of that portion of the
connector groove wi thin the members and that portion of the bolt hole
not wi th in the connector groove located at the critical plane. (See Table
2.20. 1 for typical d imens ion s for Timber Connectors) . Where con- nectors
are stagge red, adjacent connectors, with parallel-to-grain spac ing eQUal
to or less than one connector d iameter, shall be considered as occurring at
the same critical section.
In tension and compress ion members the requ ired net area, in
squ arc inches, shall be determined by dividing the total load transferred
throu gh the critical section by the allow able tension stress for tension
membei s, or by the al lowable compression parallel to grain stress for
comp i ession members, foi- the species ind grade of lumber used.
For condition a, the al lowable unit stress for ind ividual members
of a spaced col umn, in wh ich the connectors in end blocks are placed
at a distance not exceeding l/20 from the ends, shal I be determined by
the formula :

0.75E
(l/d)
For condition b, the al lowable load for the individ ua1 members
of a spaced colu run in which the connectors in en d blocks are placed
a distance of l/20 to l /10 from the ends and the blocks extend to the
ends of the col umn shall be determined by the formula :

0.90E
(l/d)
The

total

load

capacity determined

by the

forego i n g

procedu re

shou ld be checked against the su in of the load capacities of the ind ivid ual members taken as s i nip Ie solid colu runs with out regard to fixity,
using their greater d and the I between the lateral supports which provide restraint in a d irection paral lel to the greater d.
The values for F,., as above defei-mined, are subject to the dui ation o:I load adJ ustments as provided in Article 1.10.1.
I FJ Sole Lood on Round Columns
The s ate load on a round column shall not Pxceed that permitted
for a square column of the same cross-sectional area, or as determined
by the torrent a :

3.619E

The values for F',. determined by the formula may not exceed the
values for compress ion parallel to the grain, F',., adjusted for service
conditions and duration of load in accordance with Article 1.10.1. The
allowable unit stress values as determined from the :formula are subject to the duration of loading adjustments as given in Articles 1.10. 1
(D) and 1.10.1 (E) .
In determin ing the least di minsi on, d, for tapered columns, the
diameter of a round column or the least dimension of a rectangular
column, tapered at one or both ends, is taken as the sum of the mini
mum diameter or least dimension and onethird the difference between
the minimum and maximum diameters or lesser and greater dimensions.
IG J

Notched Beoms

Beams notched u pward in the bearing face on supports shall be


limited to maximum end load R as determined by the formula :

R=
R= maximu in end load
F,

allowable un it horizontal shear stress

b breadth of beam
d= depth of beam above the notch
h -total depth of beam
IH I Bearing on Inclined Surfaces

P sin + Q cos O
N unit bearing on an inclined surface

P= unit stress in compression parallel to the grain


Q == u nit stress in compression perpend icular to the grain
8= angle in degrees between the direction of load and the
direction of grain
III Timber Connectors
Timber connectors shall consist of devices to be used at surfaces of
contact in bolted timber joints, to increase the strength or shear resistance of wood-to-wood or wood-to-steel connections.
Allowable loads, spacing of connectors, edge and end distance, bolt
and washer sizes and other details of: design shall be those recommended or approved by the DPsign Manual for Timber Connector
Construction, 1970, Timber Engineering Company ; or the allowable
loads way be determined by actual tests of full size ,j oints for each
condition of connector used in accordance with standard procedure.

1.10.2

DESIGN

I II Size Fuctor
When the depth of a rectangu lar beam exceeds 12 inches, the
tabu lated unit stress in bending F,,, shall be reduced by mu ltiplying the
tabulated stress by the size factor, C;., as determined from the following rel at ionsh ip
where C,. size factor
d = depth of member in inches
The size factor relationship as given above is appl icab Ie to a bending member satisfying the following basic a.ssumptions : fa) simply
supported beam, (b) uniformly distributed load, and (c) span to
depth ratio (P/d) of 21. This factor can thus be applied u ith reasonable accuracy to most commonly encoun tered design situ at ions.
Where greater accii racy is desired for other sizes and conditions of
loading, the percentage changes given in the following table may be
applied directly to the size factor calculated for the basic conditions
as previou sly stated. Stiaight line i nterpolati on may be used for other
9/d ratios.
Span to
Depth Ratio
P/d

Loading Condition
for Simply

Change

Supported Beams

Change

+2.3
1.6

Center Point
Third Point

-B 2

14

24

+78

For more detailed analysis of the size factor tnd its appl ication to
the design of bending members, the designer is referred to the AITC
Timber Construction Manu al. The red uction in bending stresses

for

deep members based on the size effect factor is only applicable to


glued lam i nated members.
IKI

Lofercil Sfci bility

( 1) The tabu lated allowab le unit bending stresses given under


Article 1.10.1 are spp l icable to members which are adequately briced.
When deep, blender members not adejuately braced are used, a reduction to the allowable tin it bending stresses must be applied based on
a computa ti on of the slend enters factor of the member. In the check
o:I lateral stabil ity, the slend erness factor is computed by the relationsh ip :

where C, slenderness factor


9,. effective length o1 beam, in. ( see table below)
d = depth of beam, in.
b breadth of beam, in.

228

EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF GLUED LAMINATED BEAMS


Type of Peam Span and
N:iture of Load

Value of'
Effective Length, 9,,'

Single s;an beam, load concentrated at center


Single spun beam, uniformly distributed load
Single span beam, equal end moments
Ganti lever beam, load concentrated at
u nsupported end
Can ti lex-er beam,

uniformly d i stributed load

Single span oi cantilever beam, any load


( eonseivative value)

(2) Beams with V:iriotis Lateral Support Gon ditions


(a I \V ithout lateral support. When the depth of a beam does
not exceed its breadth, no lateral support is required and
the allowable unit strew is determined by applying the
:ippi opriate prov is ions of Articles 1.10.1 and 1.10.2.
I b) With lateral support. If lateral movement of the compression Pange is prevented by a continuous support,
there is no danger of' lateral buckling, and the allowable
stresses require no reduction based on a slenderness ralio
concept. Also, there is no need to limit the depth-breadth
ratio to 5 or 6.
Ic) When the depth of a beam exceeds the breadth, bracing
must be provided at the points of bearing, and it must
be so arranged as to prevent rotation of the beam at those
points in a plane perpendicular to its longitu dinal axis.
The allowable stresses are calculated by the formulae
contained in the following paragraphs for short, intei-mediate and long beams.
13) The allowable unit stresses are determined ii om the following
equation s :
Ia) Short beams. When the slen dei ness factor, C,, does not
exceed 10, the tabular allowable unit stress in bending,
F, , adju sted in accordance with the applicable provisions
of Articles 1.10.1 I D) , 1.10.1 (E) , 1.10.2 I B) and 1.10.2 (I)
i s used lor design.
(b\ Intermediate beams. When the slenderness factor, C,, is
greater than 10 but does not exceed C,,, a unit sti ess in
bending based on slenderness considerations, F ,', is calculated by the formula :

1.10.2

DE SIGN
where F , = tabulai- al lowable unit stress in bending, psi

E = modulus of elasticity, psi


Long Petms. When the slender ne ss factor, C , is greater
than C;, but less than 50, the unit stress in bending is
calcu litcd by the formula :

040E

SPACED COLUMN , CONN EGTOR


FIGUR E

1. 10. 2

JOI NED

J .10.3 GENERAL
All wood used in timber structures shall be prese rvat ivel y treated
as provided in D wisi on I I, Section 21, unless otherv'ise spec ified.

I . I O.4 8OLTS
Bolts shall be spaced center to center not closer than 4 times the
bolt diameter. The d istance f rom the center of a bolt to the end of
any timbPr shall be not less than 7 times the bolt diameter if loaded in
tension parallel to grain, nor 4 times the bolt diameter if loaded in compiessi on parallel to the gram or in tension oi- compression perpen dicular to
the grain. For parallel to gi=ain loading in tension or compres- sion, the
distance from any edge of the timber to the center of the nearest bolt
shal l be at least 1/_ times the bolt diameter, except that 1or
/'/d ratios moi e than 6, use one-half the distance between rows of bolts.
For perpend ie u lar to grain loading, the ed ge distance toward which the
load is acting shall be at least 4 times the bolt diameter and the edge
distance on the opposite edge shall be at least 1/e bolt diameters.
1 . J 0.5 WASHERS
A washer shall be used u irder all bolt heads and nu ts wh ich wou Id
otherwise come in contact with wood. Eit her cast or plate washers may

be u sed and they shal 1 be designed to prevent excessive cm shi ng of the

wood when the bob Is at e tightened. For bolts or rods in tension, washers
shal I be su flicient size to develop the tension stress in the bolt or rod
without exceeding the allowable unit stress in compress ion perpen dicular
to grain for the species and grade of l umber used.
A standard circu lar washer shall be used u nder the heads of all lag
screws.

1 .10.6 HARDWARE FOR SEACOAST STRUCTURES


The hardware for structures on the seacoast shall be galvanized or
cadmium plated.

1.J 0.7 COLUMNS AND POSTS


No column shall have an unsupported length greater than 50 times
its least dimens ion.
The strength of bu i It-up columns composed of two or more sticks
bolted together, either with o r wi th out packing blocks, shal l be considered
as equal to the combined strength of tire single sticks each considered as
an in depend ent co lumn.

The strength of connector-joined spaced columns shall be determined


as provided in Article 1.10.2 ( I) .
J .1 0.8 PILE AND FRAMED BENTS
I Al Pile Bents
Pile bents generally shall not exceed 40 feet in height. Pile bents
over 10 feet h igh shall be sway-braced tran sversely wi th diagonal
braces on each side of the bent, and shall bl adeQu ately braced longi-

DESIGN
tud inally. In general, pi Ie bents shall contain not less than four piles
each and the outside piles, preferably, shall be battered. The piles shall
be designed for safe bearing and for column action.
I BI Fromed Benfs
Framed bents may be supported on piles, concrete pedestal >
- or mud

sills. All bents shall be away-braced


vision shall be made for longitudinal
shall contain not less than four posts
bent shall be battered. The posts shall

transversely and adequate probracing. In general, Irained bents


each and the outside posts of the
be designed as columns.

PCI Sills ond Mud Sills


When possible, sills shall be located clear of all earth so that there
may be a free ci re ulation of air around them. Sills shall be fastened to
mud sills or piles with drift bolts of not less than "i-inch diameter and
extending into the mud bills or piles at least 6 inches. Sills shall be
fastened to pedestals with dowels of' not less than !fi-inch diameter,
set in the pedestals and extending into the sills at least 6 inches.
Posts shall be fastened to sills by dowels of not less than ;-inch
diameter, extending at least 6 inches into the posts and sills, or by drift
bolts of not less than 'Ft-inch diameter driven diagonally through the
base of the posts and extending at least 9 inches into the sill. Posts

shall be fastened to pedestals with dowels of not less than /i-inch


diameter an d exten ding into the posts at least 6 inches.

Timber caps shall be not less in size than 10 by 10 inches. They


shall be fastened with drift bolts of not less than ?i-inch diameter,
extending at least 9 inch9 lntO the piles or posts.
I EA

Bracing
Singlestory bracing shall not exceed 20 feet in height. The min i -

mum size of tran sverse sway braces shal l be 3 by 8 inches. All bracing
i ntershall be bol ted th rough the piles, posts or caps at the ends

mediate intersections, it may be bolted or spiked. In all cas'es, spike9

shall be provided in ad dition to bolts. The bolts used shal l be not less
than /s-inch d iameter.
IFI Pile Bent Abutments
Pile ben I abu tments shall be adequ ately braced or anchored to resist earth press ure. Bulkhead plank shall be not less than 3 inches

thick. II shall be fastened to the pi les wi th spi kev, the length cif wh ich

shall be at least 3 inches greater than the th ickness of the plank.

1 .J O.9 TRUSSES
I Al

Joints ond Splices


Joints shall be detai led to shed water to the max imu in degree prac
ticable. Joints and splices shall be des i gned to develop the computed
stresses in the members connected and, preferabl y , to develop the fu 11
strength of the members. Posts or struts bearing a;,ainst the sides of

timber members, preferably, shall be provided with meta I end bear i rigs.
loints involving end bearing on inclined surfaces sha 11 be avoided,
prefe rance be i rig g iven to squ are-cut ends of timbers bearing against
blocks.

Bearing su rfaces of casti rigs con nesting I imber members shall be


in iI led to prov ide s mooth, even su rfaces perm itting accu rate fitting and
complete contact of the vv'ood and metal bearing su rfaces. Rolled plates,
bars and sh apes u sed in chord spl ice plates, or other parts bearing upon
wood su rfaees, shall be t rue and even. The wood su rfaces taking
bean up u pon metal parts shall be not less than is inch in wi dth. Bolts
on gag in g wet.i n gs and stru ctu rat parts shal I hold them rigid ly in posi t ion so that bend ing on the parts in contact will be reduced to a in in imu m. The jot n t deta i ls at trust panel pot rite shall provid e defin i te l in es
of action ind sh ml I be simple and as s u sccpt ible as possible of dehn ite
strength anal ys is. When incl tried bolts are used to connect end posts
or web members with chord members, they shall be placed approx i matel y a I an an gle of not more than 60 degrees with the latter and
when u sed in con junction w i th joint cast in gs, the holes in one of the
con nected members shall be bored / inch larger than the nominal
d iameter of the bolts. No daps i n chords for butt blocks shal l be less
than '?; inch deep.
Spl ices for ten sia n members shall be ties igned to red uce to a
in in imum the effects of c ron sh ri nkage of the timber. Neither steel
splice plates of the batten type nor shear pin spl ices shall be used when
the timbers to be spl reed are more than 8 inches th ick, since the
sh r inkage w ill pe ran it the joint to become loose. Shear pin joints shall
be used on ly w ith f u lly reasoned timber.
IBI

Floor Beoms

Flor beams shall be sized at bearing points. In floor beams composed of two or more timbers, th o timbers preferably shall be separated
by at least 2 inches for air circulation. Floor beams shall be connected
to the main truss members by means of rods or structural shapes.
IC J

Hongers
Hangers generally shall be rods having upset ends with a suitably

designed washer or bearing plate at each end. Upset ends shall conform to the requirements specified for Structural Steel Design, Division I.
ID J Eyebars ond Counters
The requirements specified for Structural Steel Dest gn, Division I,
for counters, eyebars an d eyebar packing shall apply to s uch members
when used in timber trusses.

IEI

Bracing

Timber trusses shall be provided with a rigid system of laterals in


the plane of the loaded chord. When the details will permit, this lateral
bracing shall be secu rely fastened to all longitudinal stringers. Lateral
bracing, preferably rigid, in the plane of the unloaded chord, and rigid

portal and sway-bracing shall be provided in all trusses having sufficient

DESIGN
headroom. Outrigger brackets connected to extensions of the Poor
beams shall be used for bracing through-trussses having headroom
insufficient for a top lateral system.

RFI

Comber
Camber, in addition to that required to provide for dead load and

shrinkage, shall be provided in timber trusses in suflic rent amount to


give the structure a good appearance.

J .J 0.J 0 FLOORS AND RAILINGS


lA J Stringers
Stringers shall be of sufficient length to take bearing over the :fu 11
width of caps or floor beams, except outside stringers which may have
butt joints. Pref ei ablj', they shall be of two panel lengths placed with
staggered jo ints. The lapped ends of untreated stringers shall be
separated at least '/e inch :for air circulation. Stringers shall be secured
to caps or floor beams.
IBI Bridging
Stringers shall be braced by cross bridging in each panel. The
bridging shall be not less in size than 2 by 4 inches.
ICJ

Nailing Strips
When timber floors are supported by steel joists, the joists shall be
provided with nailing strips which shall be bolted either to the top
flanges or the webs.
When nat ling strips are bolted to the flanges, they shall be used
on all joists. They shall be not less than 4 inches deep and shall be
wider than the supporting flange. They shall be secured with '/ -inch
bolts through the flan ges, spaced not more than 4 feet apart and not
more than 18 inches from the ends of the strips.
Nailing strips bolted to the webs shall be not less than 4 inches
thick and shall be fastened with bolts spaced not farther apart than 5
feet. They shal I be held e lear of the flanges by blocks between the web

and strip, and bolted throu gh the web with /s inch bolts sJiaced not
more than 4 feet apart and not more than IP inches from the ends
of the strips.
IDI

Flooring

Roadway floor plank shall have a nominal th ickness of not less


than 3 inches. Sidewalk floor plank shall have a nom in al th i ckness of
not less than 2 inches.
The mini mum size of material u sed for- lam in ated or strip floors
shall be 2 by 4 inches.
I El

Retaining

Pieces

Reta in ing p wees, where requ ired, shal I be rot less than 6 inches in
width. In general, they shall be secured in place by ?s-inch bolts at 3foot intervals and spiked at 1foot i ntorvals.

I FJ Wheel Guords
Wheel guards having a cross section of not less th an 4 by 6 inches
shall be provided on each side of the roadway. The gua rd timbers shall
be in lengths of not less than 12 feet. They shil l be secured with /sinch bolts at the end an cl at in termed rate points not moie than 4 feet
apart.
In str ip floors or cambered tloors, not prov ided wi th retain ing
pieces, the wheel puards sha 11 be placed d irectly on the flooring with
scu pper holes at su itable i nterva ls. In other floors the wheel guards
sh all be su ppo rted by scu pper blocks not loss than 4 inches th ick an d 1
foot long, held in place by sp ikes and a bolt th rough the wheel guard
and flooring, and spaced n ct more than 4 feet center to center.
IG J

Droinoge

AdeQu te prov is ion shall be made for the proper d ra i nage of I imber

floors.
IH I Railings
Wood railings shall consist of not less than 2 horizontal lines of
rails. Rails, rail posts and has ten in gs shall be designed for the load9
specified in Article 1.1.9 Rail ings.
P ref eiably, rat ls shall be .s u rfaced

st des

1 54 5' )

and

pa in ted.

J .10. J J FIRE STOPS


To check the spread of fi re lengths we of the stru e tu re, t imber
floors or trestles of any con siderab Ie length, prefo rabl y shall be provided w ith fire stops.
In t imber flors these fi re stops shou Id be prov i ded a t i nte rvals of
not over 75 feet. They may consist of d iaph ragms of wood or fireres is tant material at least as thick as the flooring, located over caps or
floorbeam an d completely fill in g the open ing between the joists.
In timber trestle bridges, in addition to the ft re stops in the floor,
fi re curt a ins shou ld be prov ided at in tervals of 100 feet or more. These
curtains may consist of plank or asbestos-covered metal spiked to the
bents. 'They should extend downward from the bottom of the joists at

least 5 feet and horizontally at least to the ends of the caps. A fire stop
between the joists shou Id be located over each curtain.

Section lJ

LOAD CAPACITY RATING OF


EXISTING BRIDGES

1.J 1.1 OVERLOAD UNDER PERMIT


The unit working stresses used in determining the load-carrying
capacity of each member of a structure to be crossed by a vehicle operat-

DE SIGN
ing under a special permit shal I take into account the type of material
from which the member is made and the physical condition of the

member. For structural elements for which p!ans are available and the

properties of materials are known, the tensile stress produced by any


such special permit load (including impact, if any) and dead load for
structures in good condition shall not exceed :
1. 75 percent of the yield point of structural steel members or
of the bars in the reinforced concrete members. Th is percentage
should be reduced for h igh strength steels.
2. For prestressed concrete members, 90 percent of the yield
point stress of the Jirestres s- ing steel in the layer of tendons nearest
the extreme tension fiber of the member ; or 75 percent of the
prestress i ng steel stress at the center of gravity of the tendons due
to the ultimate moment, whichever governs.
3. A 53 percent increase in the allowable Design Stress of
treated timber. For untreated timber, no overst ress is to be permitted.
Compressive stresses shall be checked on a correspond ing basis.

1.1 1.2 IMPACT


If the condition of the permit does not eliminate the likelihood of
impact, i mpact shall be considered as provided under Article 1.2.12.

J .1 1.3 ADJUSTABLE LOADS


Overweight permits should not be approved

for

vehicles

carrying

loads such as gravel, cement, lumber, petroleum products, pipe or any


other product, material or equipment which can be reduced in weight to
the design or legal limit.

J .J J .4 STRESS ANALYSIS
For the load under consideration, the stress analysis used shall be
in conform a rice wi th the provi sions of Division I, except that a more
reasonable distribution may be assumed for vehicles of unusual width
or wheels of unusual size such as those used in the construction industry.

J .J J .S ALLOWABLE STRESSES
No modification in allowable stresses for the appropriate material
and those hereinafter given shall be made except as provided in Article
1.11.1.

I . J 1.5 ALLOWABLE STRESSES


Allowable u n it stresses are shown in pounds per square inch. The modulus of elasticity of all grades of steel shall

be assumed to be 29,000,000 psi and the coefficient o:I linear expans ion 0.0000065 per degree Fahrenheit.

AASHO Designation (4)


ASTM Designation (4)

Carbon
Steel

Silicon
steel

Nickel

M-94 ( 1961)

M-95 ( 1961)

M-96 ( 1961)

A7 ( 1967 )

A94 ( 1966)

A8 ( 1961)

Min imum Tensile Streiig th

60,000

Mi n imum Yield Point

33,000

steel

Axial tension, net section

Tension in extreme fiber of rolled shapes, girders


and built-up sections subj ect to bending

18,000

Ax ial Compression, gross section : Stiffene rs


of pl ate gi rders
Comp ression in splice material, gross section
Comp ress ion in exticme fibers

of

rod led

gi rders ancl built-up sections, subject to


gross section, v'hen com press ion flan ge is :

( A) Su pported lateially its fu 11 length by


embedm ent in cone i ete.

shapes,

bending,

0.55 F,

(B) ( 1) Partially supported or unsupported

20

g reater than :

with n of greater than :


r'

24,000

132

M-96

M-94
Compression in concentrically loaded columns (2)

Riveted ends

1.25

.55F,

Pinned ends

20,000-0.46

L ' 20,000-0.61

L
24,000 -0.86 L'-

F,

15,000-0.32

1.25 l

with not greater than

' 21,000-0.66 L '

140

Shear in girder webs, gross sect ion .

14,000

Bearing on rn illed stiffeners and other steel parts in

contact
Stress in extreme fiber of pins

Beai-ing on p ins not subj ect to rotation ( 3) ( 5 )

Bearing on pins subject


rocket s and hinges) .

36,000

26,000

32,000

44,000

40,000

to rotation (3) ( such as

Shear in pins .

16,000
18,000

Shear in turned & ribbed bolts


Bearing on power driven rivets and H.S. bolts

See Article 1.7.5

Bearing on expansion rollers and rockers .

Se Article 1.7.4

22,000

238

I length, in inches, of unsup ported II ange betvs'een lateral connections, knee braces or other
points of sup port. F'or con Iinuous beams and girders, I may be taken as the dista rice
Irom interior sup port to point of dead load contraPex ure if th is distan ce is tess than that
designated above.
For cantilever beams and g irders, I may be taken as twice the distan ce from the su pport to
the end of the cantilever if th is distance is less than designated above.
r
radius of g y ra tion, in in ches of a tee section comp need of the comp reset on Pange plus onesixth of the web area, about the cx is in the plane of the web :
for welded girders ( r)_ b/l2

for riveted girders ( r )


0. 1b
where b flange width. in inches
Aw
area of the web, in.
A r = area of the flange. in.

12 ) Comi session in con centri cally loaded columns havin a valuee not greater then stovpn
in a;y be com puted Irom these an prox inn ate formulae, or Irom the more exact formulae given in
L- len gth of member, in i n ches
r least radius of ay ration of member, in in ches
For comp session members v'ith values of greater than those shoxs'n or of known eccentri city,

see Apiendix G. The factor of safetY to be used when using Ap pendix C is 1.76, 1.80 and 1.83
for M 9 4, M 95 an d M9 6 steels Yes p ectivel y.
( 3 ) The effecti ve bearing area of a p in sh all be its I i awe Ie r mull i plt d b 9 th+ th i Ok bus of
the metal on which it bers.
( 4 ) Number in pren thee js represents the last year these siecifi cations were p rinted.
(j) y;j shnfl ppp]y p p]pj pp@ } |jrfly in ax{sfly ]onded rnernbcrs suuh as truss rnem5PrS

a nd cable :idjus ting links. It shall not aj pl ' to p in s uset i n members havi ng rotation
ex; an s ion o r it effect ion.

crime it be

Section J2ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS


1 .J 2.1 GENERAL
Elastomeric bearings shall be subject to the requirements of this section and to the sections applicable to the particular types of construction
with which they are used.
The elastomers to be used shall conform to requirements given in
Section 2.25 of this specification.
I .I 2.2 DESIGI'4

Bearings may be plain (consisting of elastomer only) or laminated

(consisting of layers of elastomer restrained at their interfaces by bonded

laminates) . Elastomer compounds of nominal 70 durometer hardness

shall not be used in laminated bearings. Plain bearings generally will be

1.12.2

DE SIGN

restricted by the requirements of this specification to conditions where


little movement is anticipated.
The following terms will be used :
L Length of a rectangular bearing parallel to the direction of
translation

Width of a rectangular bearing perpendicular to the direction


of translation

R= Radius of a circular bearing


Average thickness of a plain bearing or the thickness of any

indivi dual layer of elastomer in a laminated bearing (including

the top and bottom layer)


Total effective elastomer thickness (summation of t's)

Shape :factor (the area of the loaded face divided by the side
area free to bulge)

for rectangular bearings

circular bearings
2t
The size of the elastomeric pad shall be euch that both surfaces are in

complete contact with the bearing areas.

The compressive strain o:I a plain bearing or of any individual layer

of a laminated bearing is a function of the average un it compressive

stress, the hardness o:I the elastomer and the shape factor. The compressive deflection of each layei is the product of the strain and the thickness of the layer. The total deflection o:I the bearing is the sum of the

layer deflections. The shear strain of a bearing is a function of the tem-

perature, hardness of the elastomer and average shearing unit stress. The
shear deflection of a bearing is the product of the shear strain and the
total effective elastomer thickness. These relationships may be taken from

existing test reports, but for large bearings or groups of standard designs,
they shall preferably be verified by tests of the particular designs involved.
Bearings shall have built in taper when nonparallel load sur:faces
would otherwise produce a compressive deflection of .06 T under dead load.
Such taper shall be limited to'/8 ]3er foot.
To insure stability the following limits shall be observed :
Plain BearingsMinimum L or R ST
Minimum W
=5 T

Laminated BearingsM in imum L or R =3 T


Minimum W

=2 T

The total of the positive and negative movements caused by anticipated temperature change shall not exceed .5 T.
The average u nit pressure on elastomeric bearings shall not exceed
800 psi under a combination of dead load plus l we load, not including im-

pact. The average un it pressure due to dead load only shall not exceed

500 psi. When dead load plus live load upli(t reduce the average pressure
to less than 200 psi the bearing shall be secured against horizontal crawling prefe rably by positive attachment to the top surface or to the top and
bottom su rf aces. When secured to the top and bottom surfaces the bearing may be subject to momentary light tension.
Th e initial conip res swe dePecti on i n a plai n bearing or in any layer

of a lam i riated bearing, under dead load plu s live load, not including impact
shall not exceed .07 t. The detection can be determined from a plot showing the rel at ionsh ip of Shape Factor, load and the durometer hardness
of the elastomer under cen.>i deration. These curves are generally a ar!able from manu factu rers for their product.

Section 13 STEEL TUNNEL LINER PLATES


1 .1 3.J GENERAL
These ci itei-ii cover the design of cold for med panel steel tunnel linel
platCs. The minimum thickness shall be as determined by design in
acc oi-da rice with Art icles 1.13.2, 3, 4, 5, 6 an cl the construction shall
eonfoim to Section 26 of Division II. The supporting capacity of a
non-rigid tunne! Iining such :is a steel l iner plate results from its ability
to deflect under load so that side restraint developed by the lateral
i est stance of the soil constrains fit rther deflecti on. Deflection thus tends
to equali ze i dial press u res and to load the tunnel liner as a compression
The loacl to be ciii-iied by the tunnel liner is a function of the type o:I

soil. In a granular soil, with little or no cohesion, the load is a function


of the angle of internal friction of the soil and the diameter of' the
tunnel being constructed. In cohesive soils such as clays and silty clays
the load to be carried by the tunnel liner is dependent on the shear ing
strength of Ihe soil above thP roof of the tunnel.
A s ubsurf ace exploi ation program and appropriate soil tests should
be perl or med at each installation before undertaking a design.
Nothin g included in this section shall be interpreted as prohib it in g
the use of new developments where u set u lness can be s ubstanti ated.

1 .13.2 LOADS
External load on a circulai- tunnel liner made up of tunnel liner
plates may be predicted by various methods including actual tests. In
cases where more precise methods of analys- is are not employed, the
external load P can be predicted by the following :
1. ID the grouting pressure is greater than the computed externiil
load, the external load P on the tunnel liner shall be the grouting
pressu re.
2. In general the external load can be computed by the formula

DF'SIGN
Where : P the external load on the tunnel liner ;
P;= the vertical load at the level of: the top of the tunnel

liner due to live loads ;


Pg = the vertical load at the level of the top of the tunnel liner
due to dead load.
For an H20 load on an u n surfaced fill, values of P; are :ipproxirnate1y
the following :
H (ft)
P; (lbs per sq. ft)

4
375

5
2Ii0

6
190

7
140

8
110

9
90

10
75

H is the height of soil fill above the top of the tunnel liner.
Values o:I P; may be calculated using Marstons formula for load
or any other s u itable method.
In the absence of adequate borings and soil tests, the full overfill
height should be the basis for P; in the tunnel liner plate design.
The following is one form of Marstons formula :
Where : P,, = C,WD

C,= coefficient for tunnel liner, Figure 1.13.1


W= total (moist) unit weight of soil
D = horizontal diameter or span of the tunnel
H = height o:I soil fill over Ihe top of the tunnel

Vol ues of coefficient Cd


Fi q u re I . IS. I

242

HI GH WAY BRIDGE 5

J .13.3 DESIGN
The Iollowing criteria must be considered in the design o:I liner
plates :
(A)
(B)
(C)
(D)

I oini strength
Handling and installation strength
Critical buckling of liner plate wall
Deflection or flattening of tunnel section.

J .13.4 JOINT STRENGTH


Seam strength for liner plates must be sufficient to withstand the

thrust developed from the total load supported by the liner plate. This
thrust, T, in pounds per lineal foot is T =PD/2

Where P =1oad as defined in 1.13.2


D = diameter or span in feet
Ultimate design longitudinal seam strengths are :
Plate thickness,
inches

Ultimate strength,
kips/f t

0.075
0.105
0.135

2 Flange
20.0
30.0
47.0

0.179

62.O

54.0

0.239
0.313
0.375

92.0

81.0
115.0
119.0

0.164

55.0

0.209

87.0

4 Flange
26.0
43.0

50.0

67.0

Thrust T, multiplied by the safety factor, should not exceed the

ultimate seam strength.

1. J 3.5 HANDLING AND INSTALLATION STRENGTH


The liner plate ring shall have enough rigidity to resist the unbalanced loadings of normal construction : grouting pressures, local sloughins and miscellaneous concentrated loads. This rigidity is mea sured by a
Flexibil ity Factor determined by the formula :

FFWhere FF = Flexibility factor


D = Diameter, Inches
E = Modulus of elasticity, psi

I= Moment of inertia, inches to the 4th power per inch

For ordinary installations FF should not exceed


2.0 x 10 for 2 flange
0.9 10 for 4 flange

DE SIGN

1.13.6

J .13.6

243

CRITICAL BUCKLING OF LINER PLATE WALL

Wall buckling stresses are determined from the following formulae :


For diameters less than D,, the ring compression stress at which
buckl ing becomes critical is :
in psi
For diameters greater than D,. .

12E in psi
kD
\Vhere :

24E

=critical pipe diameter, inches

f,, minimum specified tensile strength, psi


I, buckling stress, psi., not to exceed minimum specified yield
strength
k soil stiffness :factoi , 0.22, unless more precise values are obtained

D = pipe diameter, inches

r= radius of gyration of section, inches per foot


E modulus of elasticity, psi
Design for buckling is accompl ished by limiting the ring compression

thrust T to the buckling stress multiplied by the cross section ai ea o:I


the liner plate divided by the factor of sa:fety :

f A
Where T thrust per lineal foot from Article 1.13.4
A = cross section area of l iner plrite, sq. in. per :foot.
FS = factor of safety for buckling

J .J 3.7

DEFLECTION OR FLATTENING

Deflecti on of a tunnel depends si gn ificantly on the amount of over


excavation of the bore and is affected by delay in backpacking or inadequate backpacking. The magnitude of deflection is not primarily a
function of soil modul us or the liner plate properties, so it cannot be
computed with usual deflection formulae.
Where the tunnel clearances are important, the designer should
oversize the structu re to provide for a normal deflecti on. Good construction methods should result in deflecti ons of not more than 3 c o:I the
normal diameter.

1.13.8 CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS


IA J

Chemical Composifion
Base metal shall

to ASTM A 569

244

IBJ Minimum mechonicol properties of flof plote before cold forming:


Tensile strength =42,000 psi
Yield Strength
28,000 psi
Elongation, 2 inches 30 %c

J .J 3.9 SECTIONAL PROPERTIES


The moment of inertia in inches to the fourth power per inch of
plate width, based on the avei age of one ring of plates, shall conform
to the follow ing requirements :

4-Flanged

2-Flanged Plate

Gross

Required Moment
of Inertia

Thickness

Section
Area

0.031-0.035
0.0360.040

0.041-0.04

0.046-0.050
0.051 -0.055
0.056-0.0G0
0.061-0.065
0.06 6-0.070
0.071-0.075
0.076-0.080
0.081-0.085
0.0 860.090
0.091-0.095
0.096-0.100
0.1010.105
0.106-0. 110
0.111-0. 115
0.116-0. 120
0.1210. 125
0. 126-0. 130
0.13 1-0.135
0.13G-0. 140

\ .J 3.10

Cross

Thickness

Section
Area

in.

in.

in.

in.

0.105
0.105
0.105
0.135
0.135
0.164

0.134
0.134
0.134
0.172
0.172
0.209

0.075
0.105
0.105
0.135
0.135
0.135

0.096
0.135
0.135
0.174
0.174
0.174

0.164

0.209

0.164

0.213

0.164

0.209

0.164

0.179

0.227

0250
0250
0818

0.81B
03IB
0888

0209
0209
0235

0272
0272
0B12

0.313
0.313
0.313
0.375
0.375
0.375
0.375

0.388
0.388
0.388
0.461
0.461
0.461
0.461

0.239
0.239

0.312
0.312

0.209
0.209
0.250

0.264
0.264
0.313

0.164

0.213

0.179
0.179
0.209

0.213

0.233
0.233
0.272

COATINGS

Steel tunnel linei- plates shall be of heavier gage or thickness or

protected by coatings or other


abrasion or corrosion.

means

when

recluired

for

resistance to

1.13.1 J

BOLTS

Bolts and nuts used with lapped seams shall be not less than ?s inch
in diameter. The bolts shall conform to the specifications of ASTM A
449 for plate th rednesses equal to or greater than 0.209 inches and A 307
for plate thickness less than 0.209 inches. The nut shall conform to
ASTM Designation A 563, Grde C.
Bolts and nuts used
ID inch in diameter for
and not ten than is inch
bolts and n uts shall be
ASTM Specificttions A
J .J 3.1 2

SAFETY

with Your flan ged plates shall be not less than


plate th icknesses to and includ ing 0. 175 inches
in diameter for plates of greater thickness. The
q u ick acting coarse thread and shall conform to
307, Grade A.

FACTORS

Longitudinal test seam strength3


Pipe Wall Buckling
2

Division

II

CO NSTR U CTIO N
Section i EXCAVATION AND FILL
2.1. J GENERAL
Foundation excav t ion shal I include the removal of all material, of
whatever nature, necessary for the construction of to undat ions and
substructures in accordance with the pl:ins or as directed by the Engineer.
It shall incl ude the furn ish ing of all necessary eq u ipmcnt and the con
struction of all cribs, coff erdams, ca is sons, u nwaterin g, etc., wh ich may
be necessary for the execution of the work. It shall also include the s ubseq u ent removal of cofferdams and cribs and the pl acement of

all

necessary

backfi ll as hereinaf ter spec i fied. It shall also include the disposing of
excavated mate r rat, wh ich is not requ ired for backfi 11, in a manner and
in locations so as not to affect the carrying capac ity of the channel and
not to be unsigh tly.
C ompensat ion for a 11 clearing and grubbing contained within the
bridge site shall, u nless otherwise specified i n the contract, be incl uded
in the un i I price or prices bid for another item or other items. The bridge
site is defined as the entire area between the righ I of way lines and between lines parallel ing the bridge ends and passing through the longitud inal extrem i ties of the su bsf ructu re or su per structure, wh ichever is
greater, u nless a greater length is necessary for the requ i red construction
of the bridge, or unless othe rw i s. specified in the contract.
A ll substructures, where practicable, shal l be constructed in open
excavation and, where necessary, the excavation shal l be shored, braced
or protected by coff erdams in acco rdance with approved metho1s. When
footings can be placed in the d ry without the use of cribs or cofferdams,

backforms may be omitted with the approval of the Engineer and the
enti re excavation filled wi th concrete to the reQu ired e1ex'ation of the
top of the foot ing. The add i tional concrete requ ired shall be placed at
the expense of the Contractor.

2. J .2 PRESERVATION OF CHANNEL
Unless othervv ise spec ified, no excavat ion shall be made outside of
ca i ssons, cribs, cofferdams, steel piling or sheeti rig, and the natural
stream bed adjacent to the structu re shall not be disturbed without permission from the Engineer. If any excavation or dredging is made at
the site of the structure before caisson s, cribs or coffe rdams are sunk
or are in place, the Contractor shall, without extra charge, at:ter the foundation base is in place, backfill all such excavation to the original ground
surface or river bed with material satisfactory to the Engineer. Material
deposited with in the stream area from foun dation or other excavation
or from the filling of coffe rdams shall be removed and the stream area
l'reed from obstruction thereby.

248

HI GH WAY B RIDGE S

.+

2.1.3 DEPTH OF FOOTINGS


The elevati on of the bottoms of footi ngs, as shown on the plans,

shal I be cone i dered as approx i mate only and the en gi neer may order, in

wr i ti ng, s uch chan ges i n d imen sions or elevation of foot in gs as may be


necessa ry to secu re :t sati st act ory foundation.

2.1 .4 PREPARATION OF FOUNDATIONS FOR FOOTINGS


A 11 rock or othe r hard foun dation material shall be freed I rom all
loose water ml, cleaned and cut to a firm surface, e it her level, stepped,
or rou ghe ne d, as may be directed by the engineer. All seams shall be
cleaned ou t an d filled with cone rote, mortar or grout.
When mason ry is to rest on an excavated surface other than rock,
special care shall be taken not to disturb the bottom of the excavation

and the fi nal removal of the foundation materixl to grade sh:ill not be
made u nti l j ust before the masonry is to be placed.

2. J .5 COFFERDAMS AND CRIBS


IAJ

Generol
C off erdams and cribs for to u n d at ion construction shall be carried

to ad eQUate de the and her ghts, be safely des igned ind constr ucted, and
be made as water-tight as is necessa r j' for the proper performance of
the wo rk wh ich must be done in side them. In general, the interior
d imens ions of eofferda ins and cribs shall be such as to give suffic ient
clearance I or the const ructi o n of forms and the i n spect i on of ther r
exterio rs, and to perm it pu mping outs ido of the forms. Coff erdams or
cribs wh ich are tilted or moved late rally du ri rig the process of s inking
shall be righted, reset or enlarged so as to provide the necessary clearance and th is sha 11 be :it the sole expense of the contracto r.
When cond i tions are encou ntored which, in the opinion of the
engineer, render it impracticable to u nwater the to undation before
placin g mason ry, he may reju me the con sI ruction of a concrete foundation seal of such d ime ns ions as may be necessa ry. The ton ndation shall
then be pumped out and the balance of the masonry placed in the dry.
When weigh ted cribs are employed and the wei ght is utilized to partially overcome the hyd rostatic pressure acting agar net the bottom of
the fou ndation seal, special an th o rage such as dowels or keys shall be
prov ided to transf:er the entire weight of the crib into the f ou ndation
seal. During the placin g of a You n dation seal, the elevation of the
water ins ide the coff erdam shall be control led to prevent any flow
th rough the seal and if the coff e rda m is to remain in place, i I shall be
vented or ported at low water level.
IBJ

Protecf ion of Concrete

Cofferdams or cribs shall be con str ucted so as to p rotect green


concrete against damage from a sudden rising of the stream and to
prevent damage to the fou ndation by' erosion. No ti mber

or bracing

shall be left in coffe rdams or cribs in s uch a way as to extend i nto the
substructu re mason ry, w ithout written perm ission from the engi neer.

2. 1. 5

CONSTRUCTION

I CI

Drowings Required
For su bstructure work, the Con tractor shall submit, ripon request,
drawings showing h is proposed method of coffe rdam constr uction and
other details left open to h is choice or not fully shown on the engineers

draw ings. Such drawings shall be approved by the Engineer before


construction is started on work governed by them.

I DJ

Removol
Unless otherw isc provided, cofferdams or cribs with all sheeting
and bracing shall be removed after the completion of the substructure,
care being taken not to distu rb or otherwise inj ure the finished masonry.

2.J .6 PUMPING
Pumping I rom the interior of any You ndation enclosure shall be
done in such manner as to preclude the possibility of the movement of
water through any I resh concrete. No pump in g will be permitted d uring
the placing of concrete or for a period of at least 24 hours the reaftcr,
unless it be done from a s u it able sump separated from the concrete work
by a water-tight wall or other effective means.
Pu mping to unwater a sealed coff e rdam shal I not commence u ntil
the seal has set s ufficiently to withstand the hydrostatic pressure.

2.1.7 INSPECTION
After each excavation is completed the Contractor shall noti:fy the
Engineer, and no masoni-y shall be placed until the Engineer has :ipproved
the depth o:I the excavation and the character of the foundation material.

2. J .8 BACK-FILL
All material usei for back-fil I shall be of a quality acceptable to the

engineer and shall be free from large or frozen lumps, wood,

or

other

extraneous material.
All spaces excavated and not occupied by abutments, pier's, or other
permanent work shall be refilled with earth up to the surface of the surrounding ground, with a s uffic rent allowance for settlement. All back-fill
shall be thoroughly compacted and, in general, its top surface shall be
neatly graded.
The fill behind abutments and w i ng walls of all bridge structures
shall be depos ited in well-compacted, horizontal layers not to exceed 12
inches in thickness. The back-fill in front of such un its shall be placed
first to prevent the poss ibility of forward movement. Special precautions
shall be taken to prevent any wed ging action against the masonry, and
the s!ope bounding the excavation for abu tments and wing walls shall be
destroyed by stepping or roughen ing to prevent wedge action. Jetting
of the fill behind abutments and wing walls will not be permitted.
Fill placed arou nd culverts and piers shall be deposi ted on both
eides to approximately the same elevation at the same time.
Adequate provision shall be made for the thorough drainage of all
back-filling. French drains shall be placed at weep holes.

HIGHWAY BRIDGE S

218

No back-fi 11 shall be placed against any mason ry abutment, w ing


wall or culvert until permission shall have been given by the eng ineer
and p re her ably not u ntil the masonry has been in place 14 days, or until
test cylin den show the strength to be twice the working stress used
in the design.
Backfil l in g of sectional plate pipes anl arches shall be done in
accordance with Articles 2.23.5 and 2.23.6.

2. J .9 FILLED SPANDREL ARCHES


For filled spandrel arches, the filling shall

be

carefu fly

placed in

such manner as to load the ring un iformly and symmetrically. The


filling material shall be acceptable to the Engineer and shall be placed
in hor izontal layers, not to exceed 12 inches in thickness, carefully
tamped and brought up simu ltaneous ly from both haunches. Wedge
shaped sections of fil ling material against s-pand refs, w ings or abu tments
will not be permitted.

2.1. 10 APPROACH EMBANKMENT


When the contract for any bridge str uctu re reQu ires the placement

of app roach embankments, they shall be constructed and paid for in


acco rdan ce with th e hi gh way spec i heat i on s governing this class of con
str u ct ion.

2.J .1 J CLASSIFICATION OF EXCAVATION


Classi h cation, if any, of excavati on will be indicated on the plans

and set forth in the proposal.

2.1. J 2 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Pay ment for foundation excavation shal l include the cost of all
labor, material, eqn ipment, and other items that may be necessary or
con ven rent to the success f u l completion of the excavation to the elevation of the bottom of the footings. It .shal1 also include the cost of
removing coffe rdams and any surplus material which may have been
thrown up during the process of excavation, and shall incl ude the cost
of back-fil l ing in a compacted cond it ion an amou nt of materi a l eQu at to
th e amou nt of excav a ti on . Any back fil I reQu i red in excess of the amount

excavated shall be paid for as extra work unless a price for extra backfill
i s included in the contract.
The yardage to be paid for shali be the actua l nu in ber of cu bic yards
in original position, of material acceptabl y excavated in conform ity with
the plans or as directed by the Engineer, but no yardage shall be included
in the meas uremen I for payment wh ich is outside of a volume bou rided
by vertical planes 18 inches outside of and para llel to th e neat l ines of
the footing. The cross-sectional area measured shall not include water or
other l iQu ids, bu t shall include mu d, muck and other similar sew i -solids.
The top an d bottom l init ts of computed volume shall be the on ginal
grou nd or the top of the requ i red grading cross secti on, whichever is
lower, and the bottom of the completed footing.

2.1.12

CONSTRUC'I'ION

When it is necessary, in the opinion of the Engineer, to carry the

foun d at ions below the elevation s shown on the plans, the excavation fir

the first th ree feet of add it ion i l depth wi 11 be incl uded in the quantity
for wh ich payment wi 11 be made u nder the item Foun dation Excavation.
Excavation below this add it ional depth will be paid for as extra work,
unless the Contractor is willing to accept payment at conti act prices.

Secfion 2

SHEET PILES

2.2. J GENERAL
Th i s speci fication covers only sheet pil ing shown on

the plans, or

ordered by the Engineer, to be left in place so that it becomes a part of


the finished structure.

2.2.2 TIMBER SHEET PILES


The timber, unless otherwise noted, shall be preservative ly treated
in accordance with Division II, Section 21, an d may cons ist of any Creatable species which wi 11 satisfactorily stand driving. It shall be sawn or
hewn with square corners and shall be free from worm holes, loose knots,
wind shakes, decayed or unsound portio us, or other defects which might
impair its strength or tightness.
The piles shall be of the d i men sions shown on the plans either cut
from the solid material or made by b u ild ing up the piles of th ree planks
securely fastened together. The piles shal l be d rift sh arpened at their
lower ends so as to wedge the adjacent pi les tigh tly together.
The tops of the piles shal I be cut off to a straigh I line at the elevation
indicated and shall be braced with wal ing strips, properly lapped and
joined at all splices and corners. The wales shall preferably be in one
length between corners and shall be bolted near the tops of the piles.

2.2.3 CONCRETE SHEET PILES


Where concrete sheet piles -are requ ired, they shall be in strict
accordance with the deta iled design. The requ ire ments governing the
man ufacture and instal lation of concrete sheet piling shall conform, in
general, to those governing precast concrete bearing piles.

2.2.4 STEEL SHEET PILES


Steel sheet piles shall be of the type and weigh I indicated on the
plans or designated in the special provisions and of the material requ ired
below. The piles, when in place in the completed structure, shall be
practically xvater-tigh I at the joints. Painting of steel sheet p i les shall
conform to Article 2.3. 17.
Steel sheet piles shall conform to the requ irements of AASHO M202

(ASTM A 328) .

2.2.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


Payment for sheet p iles shall include the cost of turn ishing, driving
and cutting off. Payment w i 11 be made on the basis of the p iles driven as
approved by the E n pincer, except that a deduction from the payment will
be made in an amount equal to the salvage value of the material out off
:ifter driving.
T imber, cone rete, ind s teel sheet Jules w ill be paid for at the contract
pr we per squat e f oot.

Section 3BEARING PILES


2.3. J MATERIALS
Steel piles shall consist of structu rat steo I shapes of the section pro
vi ded on the plans or as othe rw ise specifi ed. The steel shall con form to

the Speci fixation for 5tr u ctu rat Steel, AA SHO M-1 b3 ( ASTM A36) .

2.3.2 DESIGN AND CONDITIONS OF USE


General and Design : Refer to D ivis ion I, Section 4.
Bearing Values, Design : Refer to Article 1.4.4.
P rese rvat we Treatment : Refer to D iv isi on I I, Section 21 .

2.3.3 PREPARATION FOR DRIVING


IAI

Excovof ion

I n gen ct al, pi let shall not be d riven u ntil after the excavation is
complete. Any material frree1 up betw'een the piles sh all be removed
to correct eleviti on w ith out cost to the State before

masci nry

for

the

found ation is plac r1.


I BI

Cups
The heads of all cone re te piles, an d the heads of timber p i1es, when
the natu re of the d i'iv i in is s u ch as to u nd uly i n j ure them, shall be
protected b caps of app roved den gn, prefer ably hav i n a rope or othe r

su it able c u sh i on next to the pi Ie head and fittin g i rite a casting wh ich


in turn supports a timber shock block. When the area of the head of
any I imber pi Ie is grette r than that of the I we of the hammer, a
su i table cap shall be prov i d el to d i stri bu te the b1w of the hammer
th rou g hout the ct oss sec ti cn f th e pile.
The head shall be cut sq u are and shall be shtped or eh amf e red to
prevPn t spl ittin g at its periph ery.
For spec ial types of pilin p, d riving heads, man drels, or other dev ice.s i n aw orda rice w ith the man u factu rem recomme ndation shall be
provided so tha t the p ile may be d riven w ithout injury.
For steel p ili rig the heads sha 11 be cu I sQu arely on d a driv in g cap
shall be prov ided to hold the axis of the pi le in line with the axis of the
hammer.

CONSTRUCTION

dollars, bands, or other devices, to protect timber piles


splitting and brooming shall be provided where necessary.

against

I D I Poinfing
Timber piles shal l be poin ted where soil cond it ions requ ire it.
When necessary, the pi les shall be shod with metal shoes of a design
sat is:factory to the Engineer, the points of the piles being carefully
shaped to secure an even rind uniform bearing on the shoes.
IEJ

Splicing Piles

Fu 11 length piles shall be used where practicable. In exception al


c ircu instances splicing of pi les may be permitted. The method of spl icing ehall be as shown on the plans or as approved by the Engineer.
When the splicing of steel piles or steel shel ls of special piles is done
by welding, the arc method shall be given preference.
IFJ Poinfing Steel Piles

Steel piles shall be painted as specified in Article 2.3.17.

2.3.4 METHODS OF DRIVING


IA J General
Piles may be driven with a gravity hammer, a steam hammer, or a
comb mation of water j ets and hammer but a steam hammer is pre:ferred. Precast concrete piles, prefe rably, shall be driven by means of
a combination of hammer and jet.
I BJ Hommers for Timber ond Steel Piles
Gravity hammers for driving timber piles shall weigh not less than
2,000 pounds, preferably 3,000 pounds, and for steel piles not less than
3,000 pounds, but in no case shal I the weight of the hammer be less than
the combined weight of driving head and pile. The Tal l shall be so
regulated as to avoid inJ u ry to the piles and in no case shal l exceed 15
feet. When a Steam hammer is used, the total energy developed by the
hammer shall be not less than 6,000 foot-pounde per blow.
IC J

Hommers for Concrete Piles

Unless otherwise provided, concrete piles, precast, or shel ls for cast-inplace piles, shall be driven w ith a steam hammer which shall develop an
energy per blow at each fu 11 stroke of the piston, of not less than one f ootpou nd for each pound of weight driven. In no case shall the total energy
developed by the hammer be less than 6,000 foot-pounds per blow.
If a gravity hammer is used, it shall have a weight not less than 50
per cent of the weight of the pile, b ut in no case less than 3,000 pounds ;
and the d rop of the hammer shall not exceed 8 feet.

H I GH WAY

IDJ

Additional

2.3.4

BRIDGE S

Equipment

In case tht? reQu ired penetration i s not obtained by the u se of a

hammer complying w ith the above minimum requ irements, the Contractor shall provide It heavier hammer, or resort to jetting at his own
expense.

I EA

Leods

Pile d river leads shall be con strncted in such a manner as to afford


freedom of movement of the hamme r, and they' shall be held in pos ition
by gu ys or stiff braces to insu re support to the p i Ie lu rin g

driving.

Except where p iles are driven through water, the leads, prefe rably, shall
be of suffic i ent len gth so that the u se of a follower w ill not be necessary.
Preferably, inclined lead s shall be used in driv in g battered piles.
(FJ

Followers
The driving of pil ing w ith Iollowe r s shall be avoided if p racti cable

and shall be done only under written permission of the Engineer. When
followers are used, one pile from each group of 10 shall be a long pile
driven without a hollower, and shall be u sed as a test pile to determine
the average bean ng power of the group.
G 1 Writer Jets
When water j ets are used, the n u mber of jets and the

volu me

and

pressure of water at th e j et nozzle s shall be su ffici c= nt to freely erode the


material adj acent to the pile. The plant shall have sufficient capac ity to
deliver :i I all ti rues at least 100 pou nds per sq u are inch pressure at two 'iinch jet nozzles. Before the den red penetration is reached, the jets shall
be w ithdrawn and the piles shall be driven w ith the hammer to sec u re
th e final pen c trat i o ri .
IHI

Accurocy of

Driving

Piles 8 hall be driven w ith it van ation of not more than "i inch per
foot from the vertical or from the better .shown on the plans, except
that pi let f c r tres tle bents shall be so dr iven that the cap in ay be placed

in its proper locati on w itho u I ind u c i n g excen we stresses i n the pi les,


and to u ndation p i1es shall no I be out of the post tion .shown on the plan
more than G i nche.s after d ri vin p.
2.3.5 DEFECTIVE

PILES

Th e procedu re i nc i dent to the rl riv i rig of piles shall

n ot

subject

them to excess we and u ndue abu se p reducing crush in g and spall in g of


the cc ncrete, in j u no us splitti n g, spli nte r ing and broomi n 5 f the woo it
or deform ation of the tee1. Man i pulatii n of piles to force them into
proper position, considered by the Engineer to be excessive, will not be
perm itted. Any p i lo damaged by reason of internal defects, or by imprcie r d r i v i n or d iiven o u I of i ts proffer locti on or tl r i v en be low the
elevation fixed by the plans or by the Engineer, shall be corrected at the
contracts rs expense by on e of the follow i n g me thoc1,s appr)ved by the
Engineer for the pile in question :

2.3.5

C ON STRUC TI ON

(1) ) The pile shall be withdrawn and replaced by a new and if

necessary, a longer pile.


(2) A second pile shall be driven adjacent to the defective or low
pile.
(3) ) The pile shall be spl iced or built up as otherwise provided
herein or a sufficient portion of the footing extended to properly
embed the pile. Timber piles shall not be spI iced without specific
permission of the Engineer. All piles pushed up by the driving of
adjacent piles or by any other cause shall be driven down again.
2.3.6 DETERMINATION

OF BEARING VALUES

( See of so Article

1 .4.4 )

IAI

Loading Tests
When requ ired, the size and nu mber of piles shall be determ ined by
act ual loading tests. In general, these tests shall consist of the appi ication of a test load placed upon a su itable platform s upported by the
pi Ie, with su itable apparatus for accurately measuring the test load and
the settlement of the pi Ie under each increment of load.
In lie u thereof hydraulic jacks with su itable yokes and pressure
gauges may be used.
The safe allowable load shall be considered as 50 per cent of that
load which, after a continuous appl ication of 48 hours, prod uces a permanent settlement not greater than i inch measured at the top of the
pile. Th is maximum settlement shall not be i ncreased by a continu ous
application of the test load for a period of 60 hours or longer.
At least one pile for each group of 100 piles preferably should be

tested.
IBI

Timber

Pile

Formulas

When not d riveri to pract ical refusal, the bearing val ues of piles
preferably shall be determ tried by load tests as specified above. In the
absence of load ing tests or su bstant rated adequate pile form ulas, the
9af e bearing values for timber piles- shall be determined by the following formulas :
2WH
for gravity hammers,

for single-acting steam hammers,


2H (W +Ap)
for double-acting steam hammers,

s=o.i

where

P safe bearing capacity in pounds,


W v'eigh I, in pounds, of striking parts of hammer,
H =height of fall in feet,
A area of piston in square inches,
p steam pressure in pounds per sjuare inch at the
hammer,
S the average penetration in inches per blow for the
last 5 to 10 blov's for gravity hammers and the last
10 to 20 blows for steam hammers.

'

The above formulas are applicable only when


The hammer has a free fall.
The head of the pile is not broomed or crushed.
The penetrati on is reason ably qu ick and uniform.
There is no sensible bounce after the blow.
A follov er is not used.
Twice the height of the bounce shall be deducted from H to
determine its value in the formula.

Unlese otherwise ordered by the Engineer timber piling shall be

driven to the bearing value giv en on the plans or in the supple mental
spec i fixation s. If bearing /alues are not given, timber piling shall be
d riven to a min imum value of twenty tons.
In case water Jets are used in con nect ion with the d riving, the
bearing capacity ehall be determined by the above formulas from the
resu Its of driving at ter the jets hive been withdrawn, or a load test
may be applied.
ICI

Concrete ond Steel Piles


When not driven to practical refusal the bearing value for concrete
and steel piles pre f e rably shall be clctormined by means of loading tests

specified above. In the absence of loading tests, their

safe

bearing

values may be approximated by substanti ated adeQuate pile formulas


or those specified for timber piles. However, the character of the soil
penetrated, cond it ions of driving, d istribu tion, size, length and weight
of the piles, shells or cores d riven, and the computed load per pile shall
be g iven due consideration in determining their probable safe bear ing
value.
2.3.7 TEST Pl kS
When required, the Contractor shall drive tt29t Jules o:I a lenth
and at the location de9i gnated by the Engineer. These piles shall be of
greater length than the length assu med in the des ig n in order to provide for any variation in soil cond i ti one.
2.3.8 ORDER LISTS FOR PILING

The Contractor shall furnish piles in accordance wi th an itemized


list, which shall be furnished by the Engineer, showing the number and
length of all piles.
In determ in in g len gths of piles for order ing and for footage to be
included i n the contract, the len gths given in the order list shall be
based on the lengths wh ich are assumed to remain in the completed
structure. The Contractor 9hall, at his own expense, increase the lengths
given to provide for I resh heading and for such add it ional length as may
be necessary to su it the contractor's method of operation.
2.3.9 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF TIMBER PILES
The method of stori ng and handling shall be such as to avoid
injury to the piles. Special care shall be taken to avoid breaking the

OONSTRUGTION
surface of treated piles and cant-hooks, dogs or pikepoles shall not be

u sed. Cuts or breaks in the surface of treated piling shall be given three

brush coats of hot creosote oil of approved qual ity and hot creosote oil
shall be pou red into all bolt holes.
2.3.1 O CUTTIT'J G OFF TIMBER PILES

The tops of all piling shall be sawed to a true plane, as shown on


the plana, and at the elevation fixed by the Engineer. Piles which support timber caps or grillage shall be sawed to conform to the plane of
the bottom of the superimposed structure. In general, the length of pile
above the elevation of cutoff shall be sufficient to permit the complete
removal of all material inj ured by driving, but piles driven to very nearly
the cut-off elevation shall be carefu lly adzed or otherwise freed from at I

broomed, splintered or otherwise injured material.

2.3.1 J CUTTING OFF STEEL OR STEEL SHELL PILES


Piles shall be cut off at the requ ired elevation. If capping is re-

qu ired the connecti on shall be made according to details shown on the


plans.

2.3.1 2 CAPPING TIMBER PILES


After cut-off, the heads of timber piles shall be protected as specified
in Article 2.20.7.

2.3.13 MANUFACTURE OF PRECAST CONCRETE PILES


IA J

General

Pi Yes shal I be constructed in accordance with details shown on the


plans.
I BI

Cliiss of Concrete

Class A or A (AE) concrete shall be used :for precast concrete piles.


I CJ

Form Work
Forms :for precast concrete piles shall con:form to the general
requirements for concrete form work as provided in Art. 2.4.19.
Forms shall be accessi bIe for tamping and consolidation of the concrete.
Under good weather curing conditions side forms may be removed at
any time not less than 24 hours after placing the concrete, but the entire
pile shall remain supported for at least seven days and shall not be subjected to any handling stress until the concrete has set for at least 21
daye and for a longer period in cold weather, the additional time to be

determined by the Engineer.


\ DJ

Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall be placed in accordance with details shown


on the plans.

258

I El

Costing

The piles may be cast in either a horizontal or a vertical position.


Special care shall be taken to place the concrete so as to produce
satisfactory bond with the reinf orcement and avoid the formation of
stone pockets, honeycomb or other such defects.
To secure u n i formity and remove surplus water, the concrete in
each pile shal I be placed cont in u ousl y and shall be compacted by vibrat-

ing or by other means acceptable to the Engineer. The forms shall be

overfil led, the su rplus concrete screeded off, and the top su i Iaces
finished to a u n iform, even texture s imilar to that produced by the
forms.
iFI

Finish
Trestle piling exposed to view shall be finished above the ground
line in accordance with the prov i st ons govern ing the fin ishin g of concrete columns. Foundation pil ing, that portion of the trestle piling
wh ich will be below the ground surface, and piles for use in sea water
or alkali soils shall not be fin ished except by pointing as above set forth.
I G1

Curin9
Concrete piles sha!1 be cu red as prov ided e!sewhere in these specifications for concrete. As soon as the piles have set su fficiently they shall
be removed f rom the forms and piled in a curing pile separated from
each other by wood spacing blocks. No pi le shal I be driven until it has
set for at least 21 days an d,

in

cold weather, for

longer

period as

determined by the Engineer. Concrete pile9 for use in sea water or


alkal i soils shall be cu red for not less than 30 day s before being used.

2.3.J 4 STORAGE AND HANDLING OF PRECAST CONCRETE PILES


Removal of forms, cu ring, stori rig, transporting and handling precast
concrete piles shall be done in such a manner as to avoid excess we bending
st resses, cracking, spal l ing or ot her in ju rio us resu Its. The method of
handling shall be such as will not induce stresses exceed ing those specified
in Section 1.5 when computed according to Article 1.4. SG.
Piles to be used in sea 'ater or in alkal i soils shall be handled so as
to avoid surface ab rasions or other in j uriPs exposing the interior concrete.

2.3. 15 MANUFACTURE OF CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE PILES


IAI
'

General

Piles shall be constructed in accordance with details shown on the


plans.
IB J

Inspection of Metol Shells


At all times prior to the placing of concrete in the driven shells,
the Contractor shall have available a suitable light for the inspection of

each shell th rou ghout its entire le ngth. Any i nip rope rl y driven , broken

or otherwi se defective she 11 shall be corrected to the sati sfaction o:I the
Engineer, by removal and replacement, or the driving of an additional
pi Ie, at no extra cost to the State.

CONSTRUCTION

IC J

Closs of Concrete
Class A or A IAE) concrete shall be used for cast-in-place piles.

I D I Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall be placed in accordance with the plans or


special provisions.
IEJ Placing Concrete
No concrete shall be placed unti I all driving within a radius of 15
feet has been completed, nor until all the shells for any one bent have
been completely driven. If this cannot be done, all driving vv'ithin the
above l inn its shall be discontinued until the concrete in the last pile cast
has set at least seven days.
Concrete shall be placed as specified for piles precast in the vertical
position. Accumu lations of water in the shells shal l be removed before
the concrete is placed.

2.3.J 6 EXTENSIONS OR BUILD-UPS"


Extensions, splices or build-ups on concrete piles, when necessary, shall be made as follows :
After the driving is completed, the concrete at the end of the pile
shall be cu I away, leaving the reinforcement steel exposed for a length
of 40 diameters. The final cut of the concrete shall be perpendicular to
the axis of the pile. Reinforcement similar to that used in the pile
shall be securely fastened to the projecting steel and the necessary
form work shall be placed, care being taken to prevent leakage along the
pile. The concrete shall be of the same quality as that used in the pile.
Just prior to placin g concrete, the top of the pile shall be thoroughly
wetted and covered with a th in coating of neat cement, retempered
mortar or other suitable bonding material. The forms shal I remain in
place not less than seven days and shall then be carefully removed and
the entire exposed surface of the pile finished as previously specified.

2.3.17 PAINTING STEEL PILES AND STEEL PILE SHELLS


Unless otherwise provided, when steel piles or steel pile shells
extend above the ground surface or water surface they shall be protected by three coats of paint ae specified for Painting Metal Structures
in Section 2.14. This protection shall extend from an elevation 2 feet below the water or ground surface to the top of the exposed steel.

2.3.J 8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


fAl General
Piling, whether timber, concrete or steel, will be paid for according
to Method A or B as designated in the contract.

I BJ Mef hoJ A
foot.

For furnish ing and driving piles at the contract price per linear

The total cutoff of piling shall be paid for at the prices set
forth by the State in the special prov ision for th.so of the following items incorporated in the work :
Cutoff, untreated timber piles, per linear foot
Cutoff, treated timber piles, per l in ear foot
G utoff, precast concrete piles, per linear foot
Cutoff, steel shells for piles, per linear foot
Gu toff, steel piles, per pound
(?)

Furn ishi ng o nd Driv ing

The number of Iinear feet to be paid for shall Le the actual


length of piles remaining in the completed structure and the n um-

ber of linear feet of cutoff to be paid for shall be the actual n umber

of Iin ear feet cu t off, except that no allowance will be made for
lengths in excess of those ordered by the Engineer, and except that
if the Contractor masts concrete piles fu 11 length of the reinforce
ment bars to tacit itate d riving, no payment will be made for that
portion v here concrete must be removed in order that bars may
project as shown on the plans. II paid for as cu toff, cutoff mate
rial ( i f the cutoff is in excess of 3 feet in length ) shall become the
property of the State. Cu toff material 3 feet or less in length, and
other cutoff material which, in the opinion of the Err gineer, is not
worth salvaging shall be di sposed of to the sati sfacti on of the
Engineer.
13 )

Poyment fo r Fu rnish i ng o n d Driving Piles

Payment for I urn ish ing and driving piles shall include the
mate ria1 and work specified u nder Payment I or Furn ishing P iles
and Payment for Driving P ilesMethod B.
ICI

Method B
For turn ishing pi les at the contract price per linear foot.
driv ing piles at the contract price per l in ear foot.

For

( I ) Fu rnish ing

The nu mber of linear feet of timber, precast concrete or steel


piles to be paid for shall be the total ordered length of piles which

are driven and which have been Iu rn i sh ed in acco rdance with the

lengths designated by the Engineer, except that if the Contractor


casts concrete piles full len gth of the reinforcement bars to facilitate driving, no payment will be made for that portion where concrete must be removed i n order that bars may proj ect as shown on
the plans. Cutoff material ? feet or less in len gth and other cutoff

material which, in the opinion of the E ngineer, is not worth salvaging, shall be disposed of to the sati9:faction o:I the Engineer.
The number of linear feet of cast-in-place piles to be paid for
sha 11 be the actual n umber of l in ear feet of piles remaining in the
completed structu re. The len gth measured shall include both the
steel shell and the reinforced concrete extension as measured from
the point of the tip of the pile to the bottom of the cap or bottom
of t)ie footing, as the case may be.

CON STRUC'TION

2.3.18
(2)

D rivi ng

The number of linear feet to be paid for shall be the total


numbPr of linear feet of pil ing remain ing in the Completed struc
ture. For driving cast-in-place piles the length measured shal l
incl ude both the steel shell and the rei n forced concrete extens i ous

as measured from the point of the tip of the pile to the bottom of
the cap or bottom of the footing, as the case may be.
(3)

Poymen t for Fu rn is h in g Piles

Payment for I u rni sh i ng pi les shall include f u 11 compensation

for furnishing the pit ing and all material requ ired therefor ready
for placement, including all material nocessa ry for extens ions and
bu ild -u ps and for completion of the pile, and for ill labor, tools,
hau liRg, 9Q u i pment, handling, treatment and all work i nc idental to
the c on struction of the piling prior to driv in g or cont truction of
bu ild-u ps and extens ions. Payment shall also include I a) reinforcement in concrete piles re;u ired to extend beyond the end of
the pile for connecti on s ; (b) the fitting and attach ing of steel shoes
when they are specified for timber piles ; (c) the I urnish ing and
attachrrient of brackets, lugs, core stoppers and cap plates on steel
pi ling.
( d I Payment for Drivi ng Piles

Payment for driving piles per linear foot shall include full
compensation for I urn ish in g all labor, tools, materials, su pplies,
eqn ipmont and other n ecessa ry or

met dental

costs

of

handling,

driving, cutting off p iles, treatment of pile heads, constructing


bu ild - ups and extensions of concrete piles, painting of steel piles
an d all other inc i d enta I work connected therewith. It shall also
incl ude f u 11 compen sation for all jetting, dril!ing, blasting, or other
work necessa ry to obtain the requ ired penetration or bearing values
of piles.
ID I Folsework ond Defective Piles
No payment will be made for the f urn ish ing or driving of false
work piles, nor will payment be made for piles driven out of place, for
defective pi les, or for piles which are damaged in handling or driving.
\ EI

Additionol

Requirements

If the length of wood piles, steel piles or steel pile shells designated by the Engineer is not sufhcient, the splicing, including labor,
equ ipment and materi at, shall be paid for on the basis of extra work
unless a contract item is provided to cover the payment.
Brackets, plates or other reinforcement on steel pit es requ ired by'

the Engineer in addition to those shown on the plans will be paid for as
extra work.
If not covered by a contract item, metal shoes for piling, ordered by
the Engineer, will be paid :for at cost delivered to the site, plus 15
per cent.
No additional allowance, or adjustment, will be made in the con-

tract prices for Iu rni sh i ng or driv in g pi ling because of these addr tion at

requ i rements.

2.3.19 PAYMENT FOR TEST PILES


Test p iles ordered by the Engineer shall be paid for as follows :
I I piles are used i n the stru Ctu re as a result of the te.s t, the test

piles shall be paid for as i n the Case of other pi les.


If, however, pil i rig is not u sed i n the structu re, the test p iles v'i 11
be paid for as prov ided for extra work, due cons ide rat in being
given to the cost of br i n ging the pi le d rive r to the st te and remov
ing it from the work.

2.3.20 PAYMENT FOR LOADING TESTS


Payment f r load ing tests shal I i nc1u de the cost of al I mate r ml,
equ ipment and labor inc ident al t ma k ing the load i n g test or te.s ts .is
directed by the Engineer, or as speci fied in the Special provisions. Payment shall be made on the bas i s of the contract Price fo r p i le load in g
tests, or, in the absence of en ch i price, shall be made on the bas i s of
extra work.

Section 4

CONCRETE MASONRY

2.4.1 GENERAL

2.4.2 MATERIALS
\AJ

Cement
( \ )

Po rt I o n d Ce men t

E ight types of portland cement are recog n ized by th we specifi


cation s, des i in atec1 as follows :
Type I.

For u se i n general concrete con str ucti on


where the spec ia I prope rties spec ified u nd e r
types II, I I I , I V an d V are not requ i red.

Type IA.
Type

Type
Type
Type

Ai r-e ntra i n i n g po rtlan d ee ment for the same


uses as specified un dcr type I.
I I. For use in gene rat cone rete crn str u ctio n ex
posed to moderate sul fate acti on or where
moderate heat of hyd ration is requ ired.
I IA. A i r e ntrain in g piort la nd cement for the same
u ses as specified under ty pe I I.
I I I.
For use when high early s tr ng th is reju i red.
I I IA. A ir entrain ing portland ce ment for the same

CONSTRUC TION

2.4.2
Type IV.

Type V.

use as specified under type III.

For use when a low heat of hydration is re-

quired.
For use when high sulfate resistance is required.

NOTE : Atten tion is called to the fact that cements conformi rig to
the requ i remen ts to r ty pcs I V a n d V a re n ct u s uaI ly ca r rted i n stock.
I n ad va rice of s pecif y i rig their use j u rch ase rs o r ther r rep rosenta tiv:s should dete ran i n e

made av aiJabJe.

whether these txpes o cement are, or

can

be,

Portland cement of the type or types specified shall conform to


the requirements of AAS HO Specificati ons for Portland Cement,
M 85. Unless otherwise provided, or called for in the special provisions, type I shall be furnished.
Air-en training portland cement of the type or types specified
shall conform to the above requi resents. Unless otherwise provided or called :for in the special provisions, type IA shall be
furnished.
(2)

Porflo nd

BI ost - Furnoce

Slog

Cement

Two types of portland blast-furnace slag cement are recognized


by these specifications, as follows :
Type IS. Portland blast-furnace slag cement.
T'ype IS-A. Air-entraining portland blast-furnace slag
cement.
Portland blast-furnace slag cement of the type or types specified shall conform to the requ irements of AASHO 5pec ifications

for Portland Blast-Furnace Slag Cement, M 151.


( 3)

Mo son ry Cement

Two types of masonry cement are recognized by thesP specifi


cations, as follows :
Type I. For use in general purpose masonry.
Type I I. For use where high strength is requ i red.
Masonry cement of the type or types specified shall conform to
the requ i resents of AASHO Spec ifications for Masonry Cement,
M 150 (ASTM C91) .
(4)

It ofuro I Cemen I

Natural cement shall conform to the requ Cements of AASHO


Specifications for Natural Cement, M 15.
(5)

5 o in plin g o nd Tesfin g

Hydraulic cements shall be sampled and tested in accordance


with the standard methods referred to in the applicab le specifications of the American Association of State Highivay Officials.
Cement may be sampled either at the mill or at the site of the
work as provided in the abos'e specification. The seals of cars
contain ing cement which have been sampled shall not be broken
except by the Engineer ; otherwise additional samples 9hall be
taken from these cars.

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of dates of delivery ao


that there will be su fficient time for sampI ing the cement, e ither at
the mill or upon delivery. If this is not done or if additional tests
are necessary, the Contractor may be requ ired to rehandle the
cement in th.e sto rehouse for the purpose of obtain ing the req u ired
samples.
\ BI Woter ond Admixtures
I I )

Quo lity of Woter


Water for use with cement in mortar or cone rete shall be
subject to the approva l of the Engineer. It shall not be salty or
brackish and shall be reasonably Clear and f t-ee from oil, acid,
inj urious alkali or vegetable matte r.
1 2 I Tests for Woter

When required by the Engineer the quality of the mixing water


shall be determined by the Standard Method of Test for Quality
of Water to be Used in Concrete, AASHO I\Methods of Sampling
and Testing, Designation : T 26.
In sampling water 1or testin g, care snaii ne taien tnai inc
containers are clean and that samp les are representative.
When comparative tests are made with a water of known
sat isfactory quality, any ind ication of u nsou ndness, marked change
in time of setting, or a reduction of more than 10 per cent in mortar
stren gth, shal I be sufficient cause for rejection of the water under

test.
13 I

Ad mixtures
Adm ixtures in concrete shall be used only when approve1 by
the Engineer. Air-en training ad mixtures if specified or permitted
shall conform to the requ iremcnts of AAS H O Standaid Spec ifications for A ir-E ntrain ing Adm ixtu res for Gonc rote, M 1154
(ASTM C260) .
14)

Tesfs for Adm ixtu res

Air-entrain ing adm ixtu res shall be tested in accordance with


AASH O Standard Method of Testing Air-Entraining Admixtu red
for Concrete, T 157 (ASTM C 233) .
Fine Aggregote
( I)

Fine Ag g reg ote

All fine aggregate for concrete shall conform to the Specihcation for Fine Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete, AASHO
M 6. NOTE : Requ irements for soundness should be stipulated in
the special provisions (Refer to AASHO M 6, paragraph 4. 1, 4.2
(2)

Sond for Mortor

Sand for mortar shall conform to the Specifications for Mortar


Sand, AASHO M 45 (ASTM C 144) .

CONSTRUCTION
Coorse Aggregotes
I I I Coorse Aggregofes

All coarse aggregates for concrete shall conform to the Specification :for Coarse Aggregate for Portland Cement Concrete,
AASHO M 80 as to quality and to the Speci fiCtion for 5tandard
Sizes of Coarse Aggregate for Highway Construction, AASHO M
43 (ASTI\1 D 448) .is to size. NOTE : Requirements for soundness
should be stipu lated in the special provisions [Refer to AASHO
M 80, paragraph 6.1, 6.2, 6.3) .
Slag shall be used for- aggregate only it its use is provided for
in the s peer al provisions.
(2)

Ru bb ie or Cyclopeon Aggrego te

One-man and derrick stone used in rubble or cyclopean con


crete shall consist of tough, sound and durable rock. The stone
shall be free from coatings, drys, seams or flaws of any character.
In gene rat, the percentage of wear shall not exceed 50 when tested
in accordance with AASHO Standard Method of Test :for Abrasion
of Coarse Aggregate by the use of the Los Angeles Machine, T 56.
Preferably, stone shal l be angular in shape an d shall have a
rough surface such as will thorough ly bond with the surrounding
mortar.

2.4.3 CARE AND STORAGE OF CONCRETE AGGREGATES


The hand I ing and storage of concrete aggregates shal I be such as
to prevent segregati on or the adm ixture of foreign materials. The
Engineer may require that aggregates be stored on separate platforms
at satisfactory locations.
When spec ified in the special provis ions, the coarse a8gregate shall
be separated into two or more sizes in order to secure greater uniformity
of the concrete mixture. Di fferent sizes of aggregate shall be stored in
separate stock pi les sufficiently removed from each other to prevent the
material at the edges of the piles from becoming i nterm ixed.

2.4.4 STORAGE OF CEMENT


All cement shal I be stored in suitable weatherproof bu ild ings
which will protect the cement from dampness. These bu ridings shal l be
placed in locations approved by the Engineer. Pt-ovisions for storage
shall be ample, and the shipments of cement as received shall be separately
stored in such a manner as to provide easy access for the identification and
inspection of each shipment. Storage build ings shall have a capacity for
the storage of a sufficient quantity of cement to :illow samplin g at least
12 days before the cement is to be used. Stored cement shall meet the test
requ irements at any time after storage when a retest is ordered by the

Engineer.

On small jobs, storage in the open may be permitted by written


authorization ft-ore the Engineer, in which case a raised platform and
ample waterproo:I covering shall be provided.

When requ i red by' the terms of the contract, the Contractor shall
keep acc ti ratc records of the del i x eries of cement an d of it s use in the
work. Copies of these records shal l be supplied to the Engineer in such
form as maJ be req u i red.

2.4.5 CLASSES OF CONCRETE


Ten eI asses of concretc are provided for in these spec ifications, five
class's of non -a i renti-am cd concrete and five eo vre s p ond i n g classes of
ai r-en I i a in ed con orete. Each clan of concrete shall be used in that part
of t hC St ru ct u re v h ere Ca l1C'tl for on the p lan s or wh e i-e dcs ignated by

the Englneer. The classes arc as follows :


Non-air-enti a in ed
con crete
Cl ass A

Class E
Class C
Class X
Class Y

A ir-entrained
cone rete
Class A ( A E )
Class B ( A E)

Class C ( AE )
Glass X ( AE )
Class Y ( AE )

2.46

267

CONSTRUCTION

2.4. COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE


The cement content, coarse aggregate size, cons istency, at r content
I i n the case of AE mixes) and the approxi mate weights of fine and
coarse aggregate I saturated surface-dry basis) for each class of con
crete shall be as follows :
A p p rox inn
Ai r

Sacks

A qgreg to ner sack ( S4 lbs. ) of

Fine

Goame

Fue

Goame

Inches In ches Percent

The wei ghts of fine and coarse aggregate given in th e abov e table

are based on the u se of a g gregates h aving b ulk specific grav ities, i n a


sat u ratPd su rfaee d Y y cond it ion, of 2.65 05. I n the case of bl us tf u mace slag, the bu I k specific gravity, unless determi ned on the parties lar material be mg u sed, may be ass umed to be 2.25. For reas on ably wellgraded mater ia 1s of normal phys ical character istics, the u se of the above
ind icated proper tions, together with s u fficient water to ob twin the rPq u i red
con s i stency, will resu It in concrete of the specified cement content, pl u s or
mi nu s two percent. For a ggre gate s having specifi c rav iti es outside the
r.in gos ind icated abovc, the weights shall be corrected by mu lt i ply ing the
we igh ts shown in the table by the ratio of the specific gravity of the aggregate to be used and 2.65.
The relative weights of fine and coarse aggregate per sack of cement
given in the above table are based on the use of a natu ral sand havin g a
fineness mod ulu s with in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 and method s of p1ac ing
wh ich do not involve h i gh frequency vibration. When sharp, angular
manuf actu red sands or extremely coarsely graded sands are u sed, the
relative amount of fine aggregate shou ld be increased. For finer sands the
relative amount of' fine aggregato shou ld be decreased. In general, the
least amount of sand which will ins u re concrete of the req u i red workability for the placing con ditions i nvolved shou ld be used. Any change
in weight of fine aggregate made by the Engineer for the purpose of
adjusting work ab il i ty should always be compensated for by changing the
weight of coarse aggregate in the opposite direction by a correspond in g
amount.
When at r-entrai ned concrete is speci fied, and an air-entrain ing
admixture is to be used, the Engineer shall determine, by means of trial

batches on the project, th e amou tit of adm i xture req u i red to prod uce an

air content wi th in the ra n ge spec ifi ed. In case an air-en training cement
i 9 to be used, the E ngi nee r shall determine whether the cement when
u sed i n concrete i ri the requ i red propo rtions w i 11 entra i n at r in the
concrete w ith in the I inn i ts spec i fled. In case the at r content, thus deterinned, fall s on ts i de th e spec i fied ran be and i I is found i mposs ible to
obtai n the rec) ii i red a i r conten I by sl i ght ad j u stme n ts in the finecoarse
aggregate ratio and/or by changes in mixing p roced u res, the Contractor
way, i I the at r con ten t is too low, ftse an at r entra i n i n g adm ixtu re of
the same type as that u sed in the man ii fac tu n' of the a i r-entra i n in g
cPment, in an amou nt su fin i e nt to bi i n g the a i r cci ntent v i th i n the
required range. If the air content is too high, the Gontracto r, subject
to approva l by the Eng ineer, may use a non-air-entraining cement as a
rcJlaceme nt for a portion of the a i r-e ntrain in g cement in an amount
su ltte rent to br i n g the at i content w i th in the ieq u i red iange.

2.4.7 SAMPLING AND TESTING


Compliance with the requirements indicated in Article 2.4.6 shall be
determined in accordance with the following standard methods of
AASHO :
pa) Sampling fresh concrete
T 141 (ASTM C172)
T 121 (ASTM C138)
(b) Cement content
T 27
(c) Size of coarse aggregate
T 119 (ASTM C143)
(d) Consistency
T 152 (ASTM G231)
(e) Air content
(I) Bulk specific gravity and
absorption
Tests for strength (when required) shall be made in accordance with
the following :
a) Molding concrete specimens in
the field
T 23 (ASTM C31)

(b) Compressive strength of molded


cylinders

2.4.8 MEASUREMENT OF MATERIALS

22 (ASTM C39)

OONSTRUGTION

248

cases, s u itable allowance shall be made for van ation s in th e moisture


condition of the aggregates, in clu d i n g the bulk in g effect in the fine

aggregate.
When the aggregates contain more water than the q u:tntity neces
sary to produce a saturated s u rfaee-dry cond it ion in c on tomplated in
Article 2.4. 6, represen tative samples shall be taken and the moistu re
content determined for each kin d of aggregate.
When sack cement is used, the q u ant i ti es of aggregates for eaCh
batch shill be exactly s uflic ient for one or more fu 11 sacks of cemcnt
and no batch requ iring f racti on at sacks of cement will be perm i ttcd.

2.4.9 MIXING CONCRETE


I A I General
Unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, concrete shall be
machine mixed at the site.
IB J

Mixing ot Sife
Con crete shal I be th o rou gh ly mixed in a batch mi xe r of an approved

size and type which will insu i-e a u n i form d istr ibuti on of the mate r i als
th rough out the mass.
The mixer shall be eq u ipped with adeq u ate wate r storage and a
device for accu rt tCly measu ring and automati cal ly contriI li rig the
amount of water used in each batch. P rcfe rab ly', mech an ical mean s
shall be provi dcd for record i rig the n umber of i-evol utions for each
batch and au to ma tica l l y preventing the d recharge of the in ixe r unt il the
mate r ia ls have been mixed the s;ec ified mini mu in time.
The enti i e contents of the mixer shall be removed from the d ru in
hefore matPr ials for a succeed ing batch are placed tlierei n. No mi xer
h avi rig a i a ted cap an ty of lo.>s than a 1-bag batch sha I l be used nor
shal l a in ixe r be charged in excess of its rated ea pac i ly.
All cone rete shall be in ixed for a pei- rod of not less than 1'/_
minu tes after all mate r i a ls, incl u din g water, are in th e mixer. Du ring
the pen nd of in txt rig, the mixer shall operate at the speed for wh ich it
has been dest gned, but th is speed shall be not loss than 14 nor more
than 20 revol u tion s per min ute.
The fi re I batch of cone rete mate ria]s placed in the mixer sh all
contain a en the i ent excess of cement, sand and water to coat the inside
of the dru in without i ed uc i rig the requ ired mortar content of the mix.
Upon the ces sa I io n of mixing for a considerable period, the in ixe r shall
be thoroughly cleaned.
Truck mixers, unless otherwise authorized by the Engineer, shall

be of the revolving dru in type, waterti ght, and so con s trusted thit the

concrete can be mi xed to insu i e a un iform d i str i b ut i on of materi ale


th rou ghcut the mass. All solid materials for the c one re te shal l be
accu rately me:rsu red i n accordance with Article 2.4.8, a nd ch arged
into the di u in at the Ii oportion i n g plant. Except as en bseq uontly provided, the tr uck mixer shall be equ ipped with a tank for can-y ingr mi x
ing water. On ly the prescri bed amount of water shal l be placed in the

on ti me botxs'ee n the i n t i ocl u e tion


an d the leg inn i ug of the in i xi ii g may be
waived when, in the j u dgment of th e Engineer, the aggregates are
suffic e ii tly- free f rm mci stu ie, st I hat th ert' w ill be no hiim fu1 c fleets
o ii the cement.
I D I Po rtiol Mixing of the Centro I Plon t

IEI

Plont fdix

M ix i rig .it a cont r:i 1 plan I shall cn for in I o the reJ It i rei rients for
in ix i n g itt the s ite.
IF I Time of Hauling ond Placing Mixed Concref e

IG I Hond Mixing

CONSTRUCTION

271

IHI

Del ivery
The organization supplying concrete shall have suffic ient plant
capacity and transporting apparatus to insure continuous delivery at
the rate requ ired. The rate of delivery of concrete during concreting
operations shall be such as to provide for the proper handling, placing
and fin ishing of the concrete. The rate shall be such that the interval
between batches shall not exceed 20 min utes. The methods of delivering

and handling the concrete shall be such as w ill tacit itate placing with the
minimu in of rehan dling an d without damage to the structure or the
concrete.
11 I

Retemperin9
The concrete shall be in ixed on ly in s uch quanti ties as are requ ired
for i mmcd rate use and any wh ich has devo loped initial set shall not be
used. Concrete which has partially hardened shall not be retempered
or remixed.

2.4.10 HANDLING AND PLACING CONCRETE


IA J

Generol
In prep a ration for the placing of concrete all sawdust, chips, and
other constru ction debris and extraneou s matter shall be removed from

the interior of forms. Str uts, stays and braces, serv ing temporarily
to hold the forms in correct shape and al i gnment, pending the placing
of concrete at their locations, shall be removed when the concrete placing has reached an elevation ren dering their service unnecessary. These
temporary members shall be entirely removed from the forms and not
buried in the concrete.
No concrete shall be used which does not reach its final posi tion in
the forms with in the time stipulated under A rt icle 2.4.5 ( F .
Concrete shall be placed so as to avoid segregation of the mater ials
and the d i splacement of the reinf o rcement. The use of: long troughs,
chutes and pipes for conveying concrete from the mixer to the forms
shall be permitted onl) on written authorization of the Engineer. In
case an inferior quality of concrete is produced by the use of s u ch
conveyors, the Engineer may order discontinuance of their use and the
i n sti tu ti on of a sat is factory method of plac i ng.
Open troughs and chutes shall lie of metal or metal lined - where
steep slopes are reQu i red, the chutes shal I be eq u ipped with
in short lengths th at reverse the d irection of movement.
All ch utes, t rou g hs and pipes shall be kept clean and I ree from
coatings of hardened concrete by thorough ly flush ing with water at ter
each r un. Water used for fl ush ing shal I be d ischarged clear of the
str ueture.
W hew plicing operitions would involve droppi ng the concrete more
than 5 Acct, it shall be depos i ted through sheet metil or other approved
pipes. A.s far as pi act icable, the pipes shall be kept f u ll of concrete
d ui'in g placing ind ther r lower ends shall be kept bu riecl in

the newly

placed con e reto. Af tci- ini tial set of the conc rete, the forms shall not
be jarred and no s train shall be placed on the ends of re in forcement
bars wh ich proj ect.

HIGHWAY BRIDGE S

2410

Concrete, during and immediately after depositing, shall be thoroughly compacted. The compaction shall be done by mechanical vibration subject to the fol'ow ing provisions :
( 1) The vibration shall be internal unless special authorization
of other methods is given by the Engineer or as provided herein.
12) V i b rators sh all be of a type and design approved by the
E ngineer. They sha 11 be capable of transm i tti n g vi Aeration to the
concrete at ft-eg u e ncies of not less than 4500 impulses per minu te.
(3I The intensity of vibration shall be such as to visibly affect
a mass of concrete of 1inch slump over a radiu s of at least 18
inches.
(4) The Contractor shall provide a sufficient number o:I vibrators to properly compact each batch immediately after it is
place d in the forms.
(5) Vibrators shal l be man ipu lated so as to thoroughly work
the concrete around the reinforcement and imbedded fixtures, and
into the corners and angles of the for ins.
Vibration shall be appl red at the point of deposit and in the
area of fresh I y depos ited concrete. The vibrators shall be inserted
and withd rawn out of the concrete slowly. The vibration shall be of
su Lucien t d uration and in tens ity to thorou ghly compact the concrete,
bu I shall not be conti nued so as to cause segregation. Vibration
shall not be continued at any one point to the extent that local ized
areas of grou t are formed.
Appl ication of v ibrators shall be at points un iformly spaced
and not farther apai t than twice the rad ius over which the vibratie n i s visibly effect i ve.
(6 Vibrati on shall not be appl red di rectly or through the reinfo rcomon I to sections or layers of concrete wh ich have hardened to
the degree that the concrete ceases to be plastic under v ibration. It
shall not be u sed to make concrete flow in the forms over d istances
so great as to cau se seq repation, and vibrators sha 11 not be used to
tran spo rt concrete i n the forms.
17 I Vibration shall be su pp lemented by such spad ing as is
necessa ry to insure smooth su rfaces and dense concrete along l'orm
surfaces and in corners and location s imposs ible to reach with the
v i b rate rs.
18I The prov i sion s of this article shal l apply to the filler cone rete for steel grid floor except that the vibrator sha 11 be applied to
the steel.
19\ The prov is ions of th is article shall apply to precast pil ing,
conci-etc cri bb ing and other precast members except that, i f ap-

proved by the E ngineer, the man uf acturers' methods of vibrations


may be used.
Cone rete shall be placed in horizontal layers not more than 12
i nches th ick except as hereinafter provided. When less than a complete layer is plicec1 i n ono operation, it shall be termi nated in a vertical

bu lkhead. Each layer shall be placed an d compacted be for e the preced in p batch has taken initial set to prevent inj ury to the green con-

CON STRUC TION

273

cretc and avoid su rf accs of scpa rat i on between the batches. Each
layer shal l be com pacted so as to avoid the Iormation of a construction
joint w ith a preCed ing layer wh ich has not taken in it rat set.
When the plac ing of concrete is temporarily d i scontinti ed, the con-

crete, af too beeom my firm enough to retai n its form, shall be cleaned
of laitance and other ob.j ecti on at le material to a su fhcient d epth to
expose sound c on crete. To avoid vis ible joints as far as possible upon
exposed faces, the top surf aw of the concrete adjacent to the forms
shall be smoothed with a trowel. Where a feather edge might be
prod uced at a con struct i on joint, as in the sloped top surface of a wing
wall, an in set form shall be used to produce a blocked out portion
in the prec ed i n g layer wh ich shall produce an edge th ickness of not
less than 6 i nches in the s ucceed ing layer. Work shall not be disc on
tin ued with in 18 inches of the top of any face, unless prov is i on has been
made for a cop mg less than 18 inches thick, iii wh ich case, if permitted
by the E ngineer, the construction joint may be made at the under eide
of the coping.
Ian med ia tely followi ng the d i wont in uance of placing concrete at I
we u mu latin us of mortar splashed upon the reinforcemen t steel and the
su rf aces of forms shall be removed. D rted mortar ch ips and dust shall
not be pu idled into the u met concrete. If the aecumu lations are not
removed pr ior to the concrete becoming set, care shall be exercised not
to in j u i e or break the concrete-steel bond at and near the surface of
the concrete, v hile clean ing the rei n forcement steel.

IBI

Culverts

In general, the base slab or footings of box culverts shall be placed


and allowed to set before the remainder of the culvert is constr ucted.
In th is case en i ta blP prov is ion shall be made for bond ing the si dewalls
to the culvert bise, prefe rably by means of raised

longi tudi nal keys

so

con sti-u c ted as to prevent, as far as possible, the percolation of water


throii gh the constru ction joint.
Before cone rete is placed in the sidewalls, the culvert footings shal I
be thorough l y Cleaned of all shavings, sticks, sawdust, or other extraneous mateiial and the surface caref u lly chipped and roughened
in accordance with the method of bonding construction join ts as specified herein.
In the constr uction of box en lverts 4 feet or less in height, the
sideivalls and top slab may be constructed as a monol ith. When this
method of con struct ion is used, any necessary construction joints shall
be vertical and at right angles to the axis of the culvert.
I n the construction of box cul verts more than 4 feet in height, the
conc re te in the walls shall be placed and all owed to set before the top
slab is placed. In this case, appropriate keys shall be left in the side
xv lls for anchori rig the cover slab.
E;ich w ing wall shall be constructed, if possible, as a monolith.
Con Qtr uct ion joints, where u navo idable, shall be horizontal and so
I ocated that no joint vv i I l be visible in the exposed face of the win g wall
above the ground line.

274

ICI

Girders, Slobs and Columns

For simple spans, concrete, preferably, shall be depos ited by beginning at the center of the span and working from the centPr toward the
ends. Concrete in girders shall be deposited un if orml y for the full
length of the girder and brought

up even ly in horizontal

layers.

For

cont in uou s spans, wh t2re rPQU iFd by dest gn cons id e ration s, the concrete
(il win g seQuCne Shal l be shown on the plan s or in the special prov is ion s.
Concrete in girder hau nchPs less than 3 feet in height shall be
pined at the same time as that in the girder stem, and the column or
ibu tmen I tops shall be cut back to form seats for the hau nches. Whenever any haunch or fillet has a vertical height of 3 feet or more, the
abutment or columns, the haunch, and the girder shal I be placed in th ree
su cccs swe sta es first up to the lower side of the haunch ; socon d, to
the low er s ide of the girder ; and th ird, to completi on.
For haunched c ont in uo us girders, the girder stem I includ ing
haunch ) sh all be poured to the top of stem. Where the s we of the pou r
is such that it cannot be made i n one pour, vertical con sti u ction .jo.nts
shall preferably be located within the area of contraflex u re.
Concrete in slab spans shal I be placed in one cont in uous operation
for each span unless otherwise provided.
The floors and gi rders of th rough girder su pe rstr uctu res shall be

p!aced in one con tinu ous operati on unless otherw ise spec i fied, in which
case special shear a rich o i age shall be provided to insure monolithic
action between girder and floor.
Cone rete i n T-beam or deck girder spans may be placed in one
cont in uous operation or may be placed in two separate ope rati on s, each
of wh ich shall be continu ous ; first, to the top of the girder stems, and
secon d, to completion. I n the latter case, the bond between stem and
slab shal I be pos itive and mech an ical, and may be secured by means of
s u i table shear keys or by arti tic ially roughen ing the s u rface of the top
of the g irder stem. In general, su itable keys may be formed by the u se
of ti mber blocks app rox i mately 2 by 4 inches in cross-section and having
i length 4 inches few than the width of the gi rder s tern. Then key
blocks shall be spaced along the gi rder stems as reQu i red, but the
spacing shil l be not greater than 1 foot center to center. The blocks
shall be beveled an d or led in such manner as to insure their ready re
moval, an d th ey sha I I be removed as soon as the concrete has set suf
ficiently to retain its shape.
Concrete in box girders may be placed in two or three separate
oper at ion s. In either case the bottom slab shal l be poured first. Bond
between the bottom slab and stem shall be pos it we and mech a n ical. If
the webs me pou red separa tely from the top slab, bond between the top
slab and webs shall be secured in the same manner as for T-beams. Requ iremen ts for shear keys for T-beams shall also apply to box girders,
except that keys need n ot be deeper than the depth to the top of bottom
slab re i n to rce ment.
C'onc re te in colu run s shall be placed in one continuous operatio n,
u nless otherwise di rected. The concrete shall be at towed to set at least
12 hou rs before the caps are placed.
Unless otherw'ise permitted by the Engineer, no concrete shall be
placed in the superstructure until the column forms have been stripped

24.10

CONSTRUCTION

sufhciently to determine the character of the concrete in the columns.


The load of the superstructure shall not be allowed to come upon the
bents until they have been in place at least 14 days, unless otherwise
permitted by the Engineer.
I D I Arches
The concrete in arch rings shall be placed in such a manner as to
load the centering uniformly.
Arch ri rigs, preferably, shal I be cast in transverse sections of such
size that each section can be cast in a continuous operation. The
arrangement of the sections and the sequence of placing shal l be as
approved by the Engineer and shall be such as to avoid the creation of
initial stress i n the reinforcement. The sections shall be bonded
together by suitable keys or dowels. When permitted by the Engineer,
arch rings may be cast in a single continuous operation.

2.4. J 1 PNEUMATIC PLACING


Pneumatic placing of' concrete will be permitted only if specified
in the special provisions or if authorized by the Engineer. The equipment
shall be so arranged that vibrations will not damage freshly placed
concrete.
Where concrete is conveyed and placed by pneumatic means the
eQu ipment shall be su itable in kind and adequ ate in capacity for the
work. The machine shall be located as close as pract icable to the place
of deposit. The position of the discharge end of the line shal I not be
more than 10 feet from the point of deposit. The d ischarge linee shall
be horizontal or incl in ed upwards from the machine.
At the conclusion of placement the entire eqn ipment shall be thoroughly cleaned.

2.4.12 PUMPING
Placement of concrete by pu mping will be permitted only if speci-

fied in the special provisions or if authorized by the Engineer. The equip-

ment sh aJl be so arranged that vi brations will not damage freshly placed
concrete.
Where concrete is conveyed and placed by mechanically applied
pressure, the equipment shall be su itable in kind and adequate in capacity
for the work. The operation of the pump shall be such that a cont in uous
stream of concrete without air pockets is produced. When pu mping is
completed, the concrete remaining in the pipeline, if it is to be used, shall
be ejected in such a manner that there will be no contamination of the concrete or separat ion of the ingredients. After this operation, the entire
equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned.

2.4.13 DEPOSITING CONCRETE UNDER WATER


Concrete shall not be deposited in water except with the approval

of the Engineer and under his immediate su pervision ; and in this case
the method of placing shall be as hereinafter designated.

Concrete deposited in water shall be Class A with 10 per cent excess


cement. To prevent segregation, it shall be caref ully placed in a compact
mass, in its final position, by means of a trem ie, a bottom dump bucket or
other approved method, and shall not be disturbed after be ing depos ited.
Still water shall be maintained at the point of deposit and the forms under
water shall be water-tight.
For parts of structures under water, when possible, concrete seals
shall be placed con tinu ously from start to fin ish ; the surface of the concrete shall be kept as nearly horizon tal as practicable at all times. To
insure thorough bonding, each succeed ing layer of a seal shall be placed
before the preceding layer has taken i n itial set.

A tre in ie shall consist of a tube having a d iameter of not less than


10 inches, constructed in sections hav ing flanged couplings fitted with
gaskets. The tremies shall be supported so as to permit I ree movement
of the d ischa rge end over the entire top surface of the work and so as
to permit rap id lowering when neces sary to retard or stop the flow of
concrete. The d i sch arge end shall be closed at the start of work so as to
prevent water entering the tube and shall be en tirely sealed at all times ;
the trem ie tube sh all be kept full to the bottom of the hopper. When a
batch is du mped i nto the hopper, the flow of concrete shall be induced by
slightly rat sin g the di scha rge end, always keeping it in the deposited concrete. The ftow shall be continu ou s until the work is completed.
Depositi rig of cone rete by the drop bottom bucket method shall conform to the follow in g spec ification. The top of the bucket shall be open.
The bottom doors shall open freely downward and outward when tripped.
The bucket shall be completely filled and slowly lowered to avoid backwash.
It shall not be du mped u ntil it rests on the surface upon which the concrete is to be deposi ted and when di scharged shall be w i thdrawn slowly
u ntil well above the concrete. The slump of concrete shal I be maintained
between 4 and 8 inches.
Unwate r in g may proceed when the concrete seal is suffici ently hard
and strong. All tar tance or other unsatisf actory material shall be removed
from the exposed s urface by sc rap ing, ch i; ping r othe r means which will
not injure the surface of the con crete.

2.4.14 CONSTRUCTION JOINTS


IA J General

Construction joints shall be made only where located on the plans


or shown in the pou ri ng schedu Ie, unless otherwise approved by the

Engineer.
If not detailed on the plans, or in the case of ewe rpency, construction joints shall be placed as directed by the Engineer. Shear keys or
inclined rci nforcement shall be used where n ccessary to transmit shear
or bond the two secti on s together.
IBI

Bonding

Before depos it in g new concrete on or against concr.te which has


hardened, the forms shall be re ti ghtened. The surface of the hardened

24.14

GONSTRUGTION

27T

concrete shall be roughened as required by the Engineer, in a manner

that will not leave loosened particles of aggregate or damaged concrete


at the surface. It shall be thoroughly cleaned of foreign matter and
laitance, and saturated with water. To insure an excess of mortar at
the j uncture of the hardened and the newly deposited concrete, the
cleaned and satu rated surf aces, includ i ng vertical and in clined surfaces,
shall first be thorou gh ly covered with a coating of mortar or neat cement
grout against which the new concrete shall be placed before the grout
has attai ned its initial set.
The placing of concrete shall be carried continu ously from joint to
joint. The face edges of all joints which are exposed to view shall be
caref u lly finished true to line and elevation.

2.4.1 5 RUBBLE OR CYCLOPEAN CONCRETE


Rubble or cyclopean concrete shall consist of either Glass B or C
concrete, as spec ified, containing large embedded stones. It shall be used
only with the approval of the Engineer in massive piers, gravity abutments, and heavy footings. The stone for this class of work may be oneman stone or derrick stone conform in g to the requ irements of Article
2.7.2 (A ) .

The stone shall be carefully placednot dropped or castso as


to avoid in jury to the forms or to the partially set adjacent mason ry.
SGratified stone shall be placed upon its natural bed. All stone shall be
washed and saturated with water before placing.
The total volume of the stone shall not be greater than one-third of
the total volumc of the portion of the work in which it is placed. For
walls or piers greater than 2 feet in thickness, one-man stone may be
used ; each stone shall be surrounded by at least 6 inches of concrete
and no stone shall be closer than 1 foot to any top sur:face nor any closer
than 6 inches to any coping. For walls or piers greater than 4 feet in
thiekn en, derrick stone may be used ; each stone shall be su rrou nded by

at Ie:est 1 foot of concrete ; and no stone shall be closer than 2 feet to


any top s urface nor closer than 8 inches to any coping.

2.4. J 6 CONCRETE EXPOSED TO SEA WATER


Unless otherwise specifically provided, concrete for structures exJiosed to sea water shall be Class A concrete as specified in Article 2.4.6.
The clear d istance from the face of the concrete to the nearest face
of re i rif orcement steel shall be not less than 4 inches. The concrete shall
be mixed for a period of not less than 2 minutes and the water content of
the mixture shall be carefully control led and regulated so as to produce
concrete of maximum impe rmeab ility. The concrete shall be thoroughly
compacted and stone pockets shall be avoided. No construction joints shall
be formed between levels of extreme low water and extreme h igh water
as determined by the Engineer. Between these levels sea water shall not
como in direct contact with the concrete for a period of not less than 30
days. The original surface, as the concrete comes from the forms, shall

be left undisturbed.

278

2.4.17 CONCRETE EXPOSED TO ALKALI SOILS OR ALKALI WATER


Where concrete may be exposed to the action of

alkali ne

waters or

soils, speci at care shall be taken to place it in accord ance with placing
spec theatre us herein. Whenever poss ible, placi ng shall be cont in uous until
comp le tion of the section or unti I the concrete i s at least IP inches above
ground or water level. Alkal me waters or soils shall be kept from contact
w ith the concrete durin g placement and for a period of at least 72 hours
th ereaf ter.

2.4. J 8 FALSEWORK AND CENTERING


Unle,ss otherw tee prov i dcd, detailed plans for Pa lsework or centering ehall be supplied to the Engineer on request, but, in no case shall
the Contractor be relieved of respons ib ility for resu lts obtained by the
use of th ese (ilans.
For des i gning falsework and center in g, a weight of 150 pounds
per cubic foot sh all be assumed for green concrete. All falsework shall
be dcs i gne1 and constructed to provide the necessary rigidity and to
support the loads wi thou t app rec table set Element or deformation. The
Engineer may require the Contractor to employ screw jacks or hardwood wecl ges to take up any settlomen t in the formwork ct ther before

or during th e placing of concrete.


False vvo rk wh ich cannot be foun dcd on a satisfactory footing shall
be su pported on pit in p wh ich shall be spaced, driven and removed in a
manner approved by the Engineer.
False work shall be set to give the fin ished str ucture the camber
specified or ind nated on the plans.
Arch cen tc ri n g shall be con s trusted according to centering plan s
approved by the E ngineer. Provision shall be made by means of suitable
wedges, sand boxes or other device for the gradual lowering of centers,
and renderi rig the arch self-support in g. When di rected, centering shall be
pliiced upon approved j wks i n order to take up and correct any slight
set Element wh ich may occur afte r the plac in g of masonry has begun.

2.4.19 FORMS
A 11 forms shall be of wood or metal and shall be built mortarti ght

'

an d of su the rent ri gid ity to prevent d i stortion d u.e to the pressure of the
concrete and other loads incident to the construction operations. Forms
shall be co nstrusted and mai nta i ned so as to prevent warping and the
open ing of joi rite due to sh ri nkage of the lu mber.
The form s shall be sub.stantial an d unyield i ng and shall be so
des igned that the finished concrete wi 11 conform to the proper dimen.sion,s a nd contou rs. The design of the forms shall take into account
the effect of v ibration of concrete as it is placed.
Forms for exposed surfaces shall be made of' d ressed lu mber of
uniform th redness, with or without a form liner of an approved type, and
shall be mo rta rt i ght. Forms shall be billeted at all sharp corners and shall
be gi ven a bevel or draft in the case of all projections, such as girders
and copings, to insure easy removal.

2.4.19

CONSTRUCTION

279

Metal ties or anchorages within the forms shall be so constructed


as to perm it their removal to a depth of at least 2 inches from the face
without injury to the concrete. I n cuse ordinary wire ties are per
mitted, all wires, u pon removal of the forms, shall be cut back at least
'Zi inch from the face of the concrete with chisels or n ippers , for green
concrete, n ippers are necessary. All fittings for metal ties shall be of
such desipn thit, upon ther r removal, the cav ities wh ich are left will be
of the smal les I possible size. The cavit red shall be filled with cement
mortar and the surface left sou nd, smooth, even and un iform in color.
All forms sh a I I be set and ma i nta i ned true to the line designated
until the cone rete is su ffic iently h ardened. Forms shal l remi in in place
for periods wh ich shal I be determined as he re i n at ter spec ified. W hen
form s :ippear to be un suti sf actory i n any way, ei ther before or during

the placing of concrete, the Engineer shall order the work stopped until
the defects have been corrected.
The shape, s I ren gth, rigidity, watertigh tn ess and surface smoothness of re-used forms shal l be ma i n tai ned at all times. Any warped or
b ulged lumber must be resized before being reused. Forms which are
unsatis:factory in any respect shall not be reused.
For narrow walls and colu runs, where the bottom of the :f orm is
in access i b Ie, the lower form boards shall be Ref t loose so th at they may
be removed for cleaning o ut extraneous material inn med iately before
placing the concrete.
All forms shall be treated with oil or saturated with water immediately before placing the concrete. For rail members or other members with exposed faces, the forms shall be treated with an approved
oil to prevent the adherence of concrete. Any material wh ich wi 11
adhere to or d iscolor the concrete shall not be used.
2.4.20 REMOVAL OF FALSEWORK, FORMS AND HOUSING
In the determination of the timc for the removal of falsework,
forms and hous rug, and the d iscont in u ance of heating, cone ideration
shall be give n to the location and ch arac ter of the structu re, the weather
and other cond it ions in fl u encin g the setting of the concrete, and the
materials used in the mix.
If field ope rations an not con trolled by beam or cylinder tests the
Toll oiv in g periods, excl us we of diys when the tempe rat ure is beI ow 40,
for removal of forms and su pports may be used as a gu ide :
Arch centers
14 days
Centering u nd e r beams
14 days
Floor slabs
7-14 days
Walls
12-24 hrs.
Columns
1- 7 days
Sid os of beams and all other parts
12-24 hrs.
If high-early strength cement is used these periods may be reduced

as directed by the Engineer.


If field operations are controlled by beam or cylinder tests, the
removal of forms, supports and housing, and the d i scon I inu ance of heat ing
and curing may be begun when the strength s reach values wh ich shall be
fixed by the Engineer for the particular method of testing which is to be

280

used. The 1eams or cy linders shall be cured under conditions which are
not more f avorable than the most unfavorable conditions for the portions
of the concrete which the beams rep resent.
Methods of form removal I ikely to cause over stressin g of' the concrete shall not be u sed. I n general, the forms shall be removed from
the bottom upwards. Formc> and thei r supports shall not be removed
without the approval of the Engineer. Supports shall be removed in
such a man ne r as to permit the cone rcte to uniformly and gradu ally
take the stresses l ue to its own weight.
In general, arch centering sha 11 be struck and the arch made selfsu pportin g before the rail m g or coping is placed. This p recaution i s
essenti at i n order to avoid jamming of the ex;ansion J or rite and variations in at inment. For filled spandrel arches, such portions o1 the
spandrel wal ls shall be left for construction subseq u ent to the striking
of centers, .n may be necessa ry to ax'oid jamming of t he expans to n
joints.
Centers shall be gradually and uniformly lowered in such a manner
as to iivoil in jii riou s s tresses i n any part of the struct u re. In arch
struc tures of two or more spans, the sequence of striking cente r.s shall
be specified or approved by the Engineer.

2.4.21 CONCRETING IN COLD WEATHER


No concrete shall be placed when the atmospher ie temperature is
below 35 F w'ithout written permission of the Engineer. When directed
by the Engineer, the Contractor shall enclose the structure in such a
w:iy that the concrete and air within the enclosu i e can be kept above
60 F for a period of seven days after placing the concrete.
If h igh early strength cement is used these periods in:iy be reduced, as directed by the Engineer.
'The Contractor shall supply such heating apparatus as stoves, sala-

manders or steam cQU ipment and the neee ssary Iuel. When dry heat

is

used, means of maintain ing atmospheric mo isture shall be prov ide1. All
aggre gates an d in ixing witcr shil1 be heated to a tompe retu re of at least
70 F but not more than 150 F ; the aggregates may be heated by either
steam or dry heat. If perm i tted by the Engineer the torch method of
heating mixed coneieto may be used, ;rov i ded the heating appar:it us
shall be nich as to heat the mass un iformly and avoid hot spots which w ill
bu rn the in:tteri ate. The temperatii re of the concrete shall be not less thtn
60 F at the time of placing in the forms. In case of extremely low temperatures, the Engineer may, at his discretion, raise the minimum limiting
te mpe ratu red for wate i-, ag gregates and mixed concrete.

2.4.22 CURING CONCRETE


Concrete Surf aces exposed to con dition s causin g premature d ry ing

shall be protects d by cover in g as soon as possible with canvas, straw,

burlap, sand or other satisf actory material and kept moist ; or if the
su nates are not covered, they shall be kept moist by Pushi rig or sprinkling. Curing shall continue for a Jeriod of not less th an seven days
after placing the concrete. If h igh -early strength cement is used, this

2.4.22

CONSTRUCTION

281

period may be red uced as directed by the Engineer. Other precautions

to insure the development of strength shall be taken as the Engineer


may diiect.

2.4.23 EXPANSION AND FIXED JOINTS AND BEARINGS


IA J

IBI

Open Joints

Filled Joints
Poured expans ion joints shall be con.sti ucted similar to open joints.

When p re mol d ed types ai-e spec i fit d, th e fil ter sh.t Il be in correct pos i -

tion vi hen thP concrete on one s id e nd the joint is placed. When the
form is removed, the cone i eto on the other s idP shall be placed. Ad eJ uate v atei- stops of mCtal, rubber or plastic shall be caref u fly placed
.is sh own on the plans.
I CJ

Premolded Exponsion Joint Fillers


Non-ex I i nd ing and i esil ient typcs sh all conform to the Specifiestrotfor Pref o rmed Expansion joint Fillers for Conciete of the AASHO
M 1?3 ( AS TI\1 D 1752) .
Bit uminous fiber types ehall conform to the Specificati on for Pre-

formed Expansion Joint Fillers for Concrete, AASHO M 153 (ASTM

D 1752 ) .
Bitu minou9 type filllr 9hall con:form to the Specificati on for Preformed Expansion Joint Filler for Concrete, AASHO M 33.
IDJ

Steel Joints

The pl a tes, an g1es or other structu ral shapes shall be accu rately
sh Jed, at the shop, to conf orm to the section of the concrete floor.
The fabrication and painting shall conform to the requ irements of the
spec ificati on s covering those items. When called for on the plans or in
the special provisions, the material shall be gal van ized in l ieu of painting. Care shall be taken to insu re th at the surface in the fin ished plane
is true and free of wa rp i ng. Positive methods shall be employed in
placing the joints to keep them in correct position during the placing
of the cone i ete. The open ing at expansion joints shall be that designated on the plans at normal temperatu re, and care shall be taken to
avoid impa irment of the clearance in any manner.

I EI

Water Stops

Adequate w'ate r stops of metal, rubber or plastic shall be placed as


shown on the plans. \\'here movement at the Joint is provided for, the

water stops shall be of a type permitting such movement without

HI GH WAY BRIDGE 5

in j ury. They shall be spliced, welded, or sol de red, to form continuous


watertight joints.
IFJ Sheet Copper
Sheet copper shall conform to the Speci fixations for Copper Sheet,
Strip and Plate, AA SHO M 138 (ASTM B 152) .

Sheet copper shall meet the Embrittlement Teet of Section 12 of

M 138.
IG J

Beoring Devices

Bear ing plates, rockers and other expansion devices shall be constructed accord ing to details shown on the plans. Unless set in plastic
co ncrete or as otherw we spc c i fled, they shall be set in grout to insure
un iform

bearing. Bronze or copper-alloy p lates shall conform

to

the

requ i cements of A t-ticles 2.11.2 I A ) or 2. I 1.2 I B ) . Structu rat steel


and painting shall conform to the spec ificati one for those items. \\'hen
called for on the plans or in the special prov is ions, the material shall be
galvan i zcd in lieu of paint in g. The rockers or other expan sion devices
shall be set to con form to the temperature at the time of c rection.

FINISHING CONCRETE SURFACES


2.4.24 GENERAL
Surface fin ishes shall be c lassified as follows :

Class 1. Ordinary surface fin ish.


Class 2. Rubbed finish.
C lass 3. Tooled finish.
Class 4. Sandblast fin ish.
G lass 5. Wire brush, or scrubbed finish.
Class 6. Floated surf ace fin ish.
All concrete sht1l be given Class 1, O rd in ary Surface Finish, and
In add it ion, if f u rther fin ishing i s reQ11 iEd, such other type of finish

as is spec ified. If not otherwise speci fied, the follow ing surfaces shall
be given a Glass 2, Rubbed Finish : The exposed laces of piers, abutments, wing walls and retaining
the outs ide laces of girders,
T-beams, slabs, colu runs, bracke ts,
headwalls, railings, arch
rings, .spand rel walls and parapets ; but not on the tops and bottoms of
floor slabs and sidewalks, bottoms of beams and gi rders, sides

of

in-

terior beams and girders, backwalls abox e bridge seat or the underside
of copings. The surface finish on piers and abu tments shall include all
exposed surfaces below bridge seat to 1 foot below. low water elevation
or 2 feet below finish groun d line when such ground line is above the
water surface. Wing walls shall be fin ished I rom the top to 2 feet
below the hn ish slope lines on the outside face and shall be finished on
top and for a depth of 1 foot below the top on the back sides.
Unless otherwise specified, roadway floors shall be given Class 6,
Floated Surface Fin ish.

2.4.25

CONSTRUCTION

2.4.25 CLASS J , ORDINARY SURFACE FINISH


Immediately following the removal of forms, all fins and irregular
projections shall be removed from all surfaces except from those which
are not to be exposed or are not to be waterproofed. On all s urfaces,

the cavities produced by form ties and at l other holes, honeycomb spots,

broken corners or edges and other defects shall be thorough ly cleaned,


and after having been kept satu rated with water for a period of not
less than three hours shall be caref u lly pointed and trued with a mortar
of cement and fine aggregate mixed in the proportions used in the grade
of the concrete beinp finished. Mortar used in pointing shall be not
more than one hour old. The mortar patches shall be cured as specified
under Article 2.4.22. All constr uction and expansion joints in the completed work shall be left careful ly tooled and free of all mortar and concrete. The joint fi fler shall be left exposed for its l'ull len gth with clean
and true edges.
The resul ting surfaces shall be tru e and u n iform. All repaired surfaces, the appearance of which is not satisfactory to the Engineer, 9hall
be i u bbed as spec ified under Article 2.4.26.

2.4.26 CLASS 2, RUBBED FINISH


After removal of forms, the rubb in g of concrete shall be started as
soon as its cond it ion will permit. I mined iately before starting th is
work the concrete shall be ke;t thoroughly sat u rated with water for a
minimum period of th ree hon is. Su fficient time shal I have elapsed
before the wettin g down to allow the mortar used in the pointing of
rod holes and defects to thoroughly set. Surfaces to be fi n ished shall
be rubbed wi th a med i u in course ca rboru n d u in stone, using a small
amo u nt of mortar on its face. The mortar shal l be composed of cement
and fine sand mixed in proper". ions used in the concrete being fi n ished.
R u bb in g shall be cont in ued until all form marks, projections and irregu
lan ti es havC been removed, all voids filled, and a uniform

su rface has

been obta in ed. The paste produced by this rubbing shall be le:ft in
place at this time.
After al l concrete above the surface being treated has been cast,
the final fin i sh shall be obtai ned by ru bbing with a fine carboru nd um
stone and water. This rubb ing shall be continued until the entire
surface is of a smooth texture and uniform color.
After the final rubbing is completed and the surface has dried,
i t shall be ru bbed with burlap to remove loose powder and shall be left
free from all unsound patches, paste, powder and objectionable marks.

2.4.27 CLASS 3, TOOLED FINISH


Finish of this character for panels and other like work may be
secured by the use of a bushham mer, pick, cranda ll, or other approved
tool. Air tools, preferably, shall be employed. No tooling shall be oone
unti l the concrete has set for at least 14 days and as much longer as
may be necessary to prevent the aggrega te particles from being picked
out of the sur:face. The finished surface shall show a grouping of broken
aggregate particles in a matrix of mortar, each aggregate particle being
in slight relief.

284

HI GHWAY BRIDGE 5

2428

2.4.28 CLASS 4, SAND BLASTED FINISH

2.4.29 CLASS 5, WIRE BRUSHED OR SCRUBBED FINISH

2.4.30 CLASS 6, FLOATED SURFACE FINISH


IAJ Striking OR

IBJ

Flooting

Af ter strikin g off .tnc1 con slid.i t trip as spec ifiPd above, the surface

Shall bC in:tdc u n i form by lon gi tu I inal or t ran eve rse floit ing, or both.
Long i tu dinal float i rig wi 11 be requ ired except i n places where thi s

mPthod is not fc asiblc.


IC J

Longitudinol

Flooting

Th e lori gitud in at float, ope rited from foot bri d qcs, shall be worked
w ilh a sa\x i rig moti on whi le hPld in i float i np position p:iral tel to the
roid ccnterli n c .i nd piss i up grd u il1y f rom one s ide of the pavement
to the other. T he float shall thCn be moved forward onehalf of its

length arid th P above ope rat i on repcated. Machine float in g wh ich pro
duces eq u ivalent results may be substitu ted for the above hand method.
iDJ

Tronsverse

Floating

The transvc rse float shall be operated across the pavement by start-

ONSTRUTION

24.30

28J

ing at the edge and slowly mov'in g to the ce nter and back again to the
edge. The float shall then be moved forward one-half of its len Mth and
the above operati one repeated. Care shall be taken to preserve the
crown and cross section of the paveme tit.
IE J

Stroighfedging

Af te r the lon gitu d ina l R ou I i n g has bPen complo ted and the CxcCSs
water removed, but wh i Ie the concrete is still plastic, the slab su rf ace
shall be tested for trueness with a st.ra igh tedgc. For th i s pu nose, the
contractor shall turn ish and u se an accu i ate 10foot straightedge
swung from han dles 3 fcet longer than one-half the width of the slab.
The Qtr a ih tedge shall be held in s uceess we positio us parallel to the
road centerline and in contact with the surface and the whole area gone
over :from one side of the slab to the other as necessary. Advancement
along the deck sh. 11 be in success we stages of not more than one-half the
length of

the s ti-aigh tedge.

Any depress ions ton nd

sh all be imme-

diately fil led v ith fresh ly mixed concrete, struck off, con sol idated an d
refin ished. High areas shal I be cut down and i-efin i shed. The str a ightedge testing and refloatin g shtll contiri ue until the entire surface is
found to be free from observable depart u res from the str:t ightcd ge and
the slab h.ts the reQu ird grade and contour, until there are no deviations of more than Ii i rich under the 10-foot straightedge.
iFJ Finol Finishing
When the concrete has hardened suffic icntly, the su i face shall be
given a broom fin ish. The broom sh all be of an t J proved type. The
strokes shall be square across the sItb, from cd ge to edge, with adjacent
strokes sI ihtly ove rl appcd, and shal l be made by di-awing the broom
without tearing the concrete, but so as to produce i egu far cori u Nations
not over s" of an inch in depth. The su rface as thus fin ished sh:tI I be
free from porous spots, irregu lan ties, dep re ssions and small pockets
or ro ugh spots s uch as may be caused by acci d enta I d istu rb inp, during
the final 6 room in g, of pirticles of course agg rcgate embedded near the
surface.

2.4.31 SIDEWALK FINISH


Af ter the concrete has been depos i ted in place, it sh all be com
pacted and the surface shall be struck off by means of a strike board
and floated with a wooden or cork float. An edging tool shall be used
on all edges and at all expans i on

j oints.

The

s urface

shal l not

vary

more than fs inch u rider a 10foot stra ightedge. The surface shal I
have a granular or matte tcxturc which will not be st ick when wet.
Sidewalk surfaces shall be laid out in blocks wi th an approved
grooving tool as shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer.

2.4.32 PNEUMATICALLY APPLIED MORTAR


IA I

General
This section refers to premixed sand

and

cement

pneu matical ly

applied by u itable mechanism and competent opcrators, and to which


mixture the water is added immediately previous to its expulsion from
the nozzle.

28?

HIGHWAY BRIDGE 5

I BJ

Proportions

The p roportion of' cement to sand shall be based on d ry and loose


volu mm and shal I not be less than one to four for encasement of steel
members, one to three for concrete repair, nor one to four and a half for
speci at linings.
ICJ

Woter

Content

The water content shall be maintai ned at a p racticable minimum


and not in excess of 3 gallons per sack of cement as p laced.
I DI

Mixing
The cement and san d shall

be

thorou ghly

mi xetl

before

being

charged into the mach me. The sand shall contain not less than 3 nor
more than 6 per cent moistu re by wPi ght.
I EA

Nozzle Velocity
T'he veloc ity of the material as it leaves the nozzle must be main

tamed u ni form at a rate determined for the g iven j ob condi tions to

produce min imu in rebound.


I FI

Nozzle

Position

The n ozzlo sh a 11 be hel1 i n such a position and at s It Ch d i s tance that

the stream of flow i ng materi al wi 11 impi nge at approxi mately right


angles to the surf ace bet rig covered w ithout oxcessi ve impact.
IGI

Rebound

Sond

Rebou nd or accu mutated loose sand shall be removed from the surface to be covered prior to placing of the orig i n at or succeedi rig layers
of mortar.
IHI

IIJ

Forms

Joinfs
The pneu in atically appli ed mortar at the end of any day's work or

s imilar stopping periods shall be slopecl off to a th in edge. Before


placi rig an adjscent section this sloped po rtion shall be thoroughly
cleaned and wette d.
I J I Bond

Surfaces to which pneu matically applied mortar i s to be bonded


shall be tho roughly cleaned of dirt, paint, grease, organic matter and
loose particles. Absorpt we surfaces shall be v etted before the application of the mortar.

2.432

CONSTRUCTION

2B7

I KJ Curing

Pneu matically appl ied mortar shall be so applied, protected, and

cured as to prevent its temperature falling below 50 F or a loss of


moisture from the surface for the periods indicated below :
( 1) Where normal portland cement is used, 7 days.
(2) Where high-early strength portland cement is used, 3 days.
Pneu matically applied mortar shall be applied only with the permission of the Err gineer if the air temperature is 50 F or less.

ILJ Reinforcement
The reinforcement, when requ ired, shall be adequate from the
standpoint of structural requ irements and shal I consist of mesh or
round bars, spaced not less than 2 inches nor more than 4 inches apart
either way, and having a diameter not less than that of No. 12 wire.
The area of the reinforcement shall be at least 0.2 per cent of the cross
sectional area of the mortar. The reinforcement shall be at least /i inch
from the unexposed surface of the mortar and at least 'i inch from the

exposed surface.

2.4.33 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


fA J

General

The construction of prestressed concrete members shall conform


to the requ irements of preceding articles in th is section except as those
requ irements are modified or supplemented by the provisions which
follow.
IBJ Supervision

Unless specifically permitted by the Engineer, the Contractor or

f abricator shall provide a techn ter an skilled in the use of the system
of prestress ing to be used who shall supervise the work and give the
Engineer such assistance as in his judgment may be necessary.
ICJ

Equipmenf
The Contractor or fabricatoi shall provide all equipment necessary
for the constr uction and th e prestress ing. Prestress ing shall be done
with approved jacking equipment. If hydrau I ic jacks are used, they
shall be equ ipped with accurately reading pressure gages. The combination of jack and gage shal l be calibrated and a graph or table
showing the calibration shall be furnished the Engineer. Should other
types of jacks be used, calibrated proving rings or other devices shall
be furnished so that the jacking forces may be accurately known.
IDI

Concrete

Concrete shall be controlled, mixed and handled as specified in


other articles of this section unless otherwise specified herein.
Concrete shall not be depos ited in the forms until the Engineer
has inspected the placing of the reinforcement, conduits, anchorages,
and prestressing steel and has given his approval thereof.

288

The concrete shall be vibrated i ntcrnally or externally, or both, as


ordered by the Engineer. The vibrating shall be done with care in such
a manner as to avoid d i spl acement of re in to re i n g, condu its, or wires.

IEA

Steom Curing

5te:inn curing shall be done under a suitable enclosure to conta in


the live steam and min imize moisture and heat losses. The in it rat
application of the steam shall be Irom two to four hou re after the
final place ment of concrete to allow the initial set of the concrete to
take place. If retarde re are u sed, the waiting period before appli
cation of the steam shall be i ncreased to from four to six hours. The
steam shall be at 100 per cent relative hu midity to prevent loss of
moisture an d to provide excess mo isture for proper hydration of the
cement. Appl motion of the steam shall not be d irectly on the concrete.
Du ring appl nation of the steam, the ambient air tempe rature shall
increase at a rate not to exceed 40 F per hour until a maximum
temperature of from 140 F to 160 F is reached. The maximum
temperate re sh all be held until the concrete has reached the desired
strength.
When the desired concrete strength has been reached, steam curing
may be discontinued. The member-s shall be detensioned immediately
after termination of steam curing, while the concrete and forms are
still wiirm. In discontinuing the steam, the ambient air temperature
9hall not decrease at a rate to exceed 40 F per hour until a temperature has been reached about 20 F above the temperature of the air
to wh ich the concrete w ill be exposed. The concrete shall not be ex
posed to temperatu red below f reezi rig for six days after casting.

I FJ

Tronsportotion

ond Storoge

P recast girders should be transpo rted i n an

'

u pright pos i ti on,

and

points of support anl d i rections of the reaction s w ith respect to the


girder shou ld be appr ox i mately the same during tran sportation and
storage as when the girder i s in its final pos iti on. In the event that
the contractor deems i I exped rent to tran sport or store precast girders
in other than th i s pos it ion, it shall be done at his own risk.
Care shall be taken during s to rage, ho uting, and handling of the
precast un i ts to Jrevent craeki rig or d a wage. Un i ts da miged by im
proper storing or handling shall be replaced by the Contractor at hi9
expense.
I GI

Pretensioning

Method

CONSTRUCTION

2.4.33

289

made and cured i de nt wally with the members, of at lent the min imu in
9trength shown on the plans or in the spec i ficati one for such transfer
of load. The elements shal l be cut or released in su ch an order that
lateral eccentric ity of prestress will be a minimum.
\ HI

Post-Tensioning

Method

The tens toning process shall be condu cted so that the tension being
applied and the cI ongation may be measured at all times. The friction
loss shall be estimated as provided in Article 1.6.7. A record shall
be kept of gage pressu res and elongati on s at all times and su bmitted
to the En gineer for his approval. Loads shall not be applied to the
concrete u ntil it h:is attained strength as specified in Article 2.4.33
G) for pretend toning method.
IIJ Grouting of Bonded Steel

Posttensioned prestressed bridge members preferably shall be of


the bonded tJ-pe in which the tens toned steel is installed in holes or
flexible metal rlucts cast in the concrete and bonded to the surrounding
concrete by filling the tubes or ducts with grout. The grout shall be a
mixture of cement and fine sand I passing a No. 30 sieve) in the

approximate proportions of one part cement to 0.75 part

sand, the

exact proportion to be adjusted to form a grout hax'ing the proper


cons istency.
All prestress in g reinforcement to be bonded shall be free of dirt,
loose rust, grease, or other delete r iou s substances. Before g rout in g,
the ducts shall be free of water, dirt or any other foreign substance.
T'he ducts shall be blown out with compressed air until no water comes
through the d uct. For long members with draped strands an open
tap at the low point of the d uct may be necessary.
The grout shall be flu id (consistency of th ick paint) but proportionel so that free water will not separate out of the mix. Unpolished
aluminum povv der may be added in an amount of one to two teaspoons
per sack of cement. Commercial plasticizers used in accordance with
the man u f acturers recommendation may be u sed pros'id ed they contain no ingredients that are corros we to steel. Su the ient pressure shall
be used in grouting to :force the grout completely th rough the duct,
care being taken that rupturing of the ducts does not occur.

IJI Prestressing Reinforcement

Prestress in g reinforcemen I shall be high-tens ile-strength steel


wire, high-tensilestrength sevenwire strand or high-tens ile-strength
alloy bars as called for on the plans or in the special prov is ions.
High-tensile-strength steel wire shall conform to AASHO M 204

(AST61 A 421) .

High-tensile-strength seven-wire strand shall conform to the requ irements of AASHO M 203 ( ASTM A 416) .
High-te nsilestrength alloy bars shall be st. ess relieved and then

cold st retchecl to a mi manure of 130,000 ps i. After cold stretch ing, the


physical properti e s shall be as follows :
145,000 psi
Minimum u ltimate tensile stren gth
Min imum yield stren gth, measured by
the II.7 percent exten sion under load
method shall be not less than
130,000 psi
Min imum modu lu.s of elast ie ity
25,0 00, 000 psi
M inimu in elongation in 20-bar diameters
after rupture
4 percent
II iameter tolerance
+ 0.03, 0.01
IK I Testing Prestressing Reinforcement ond Anchoroges

All w i re, strand, or bars to be shipped to the s ite shall be assigned


a lot number and tagged for i de nt ification p urposes. Anchorage assemblies to be sh ipped shall be I ikcwise i den ti fied.
All samples submitted shall be representative of the lot to be
I u rn i shed and, in the case of w me or strand, shall be taken from the

same master roll.


All of the materi als speci fied for testing shall be furni shed free
of cost and shall be delivered in time for tests to be in:tdP well in advance of on t i cuated time of use.
Where the Engineer intends to require nondestructive testing of
ono or more parts of thP str uetu re, special specifications shall be drawn
g iv in g the requ ired detai ls of the work.
The vendor shall Murni sh for testing the follow ing samples selected
from each lot. If ordered by the Engineer, the selection of samples shall
be made at the man u facturer's plant by the in spector.
P7 P I cii /Onap in ct kod,For pretensioned strands, one sample at
least 7 feet long shall be but-nished in accordance with the requirements
of par:igraph 7.1 of AASHO M-203.
f / /cn,s /rri t /r th, nd.The follow my lengths shall be furnished :
For w i res reQu i ring heading5 feet.
For wi red not requ inn g headingsufficient length to make
u p one parallellay cable 5 feet long cons uting of the same nu mber
of w ires as the cable to be turn ished.
For strand to be furn ished w ith fittings5 feet between near
ends f fittin gs.
For bars to be turn ished with th readed ends and nuts5 feet
between th reads at ends.
Anc k ora g e as s erm 6 li cs.Two anchorage assembl res shall be furnished, complete with distribution plates of each size or type to be used,
if anchorage assemblies are not attached to reinforcement samples.

2.4.34 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


The payment for concrete of the various classes shall rucfu de compensation for all eqn ipmerit, tools, mater il, falsework, forms, bracing,
labor, surface fin ish and all other item-s of expense required to complete the concrete work shown on the plans, with the exception of
rein:forcement steel. The payment for concrete shall include the cost

G ONS T RU CTION

291

of joint fillers, metal drains, expans ion joints and in iscella neou s metal
devices u nless they are covered by other items in the contract. The

q uanti ty of concrete involved in fillets, scorings and chambers 1 square


inch or less in cross-sectional area shall be neglected. Payment will be
made on the basis of the actual yardage within the neat I ines of the
structure as shown on the plans or revised by authority of the El ngineer, except that deduction shall be made as follows :
(1) ) The vol ume of structural steel, inc lu d in g steel piI ing,
encased in conerete.
(2 ) The volume of ti mber piles encased in concrete, assuming the
vol nine to be .8 cubic foot per- linear foot of pile.
(3) The volume of concrete piles encased in concrete.
No ded uction shall be made for the vol nine of concrete d i splaced
by steel reinforcement, floor d rains, or expansion joint material. If a
bid is asked on handrail ing, that portion of the railing above the top
of the roadiva j' curb or above the surface of the sidewal k, as the case
may be, shall not be incl uded in the yardage of concrete, but shall be
paid for as h and railing. Massive pylons or posts which are to be excepted
from hand rail ing payment shall be so noted on the plans.
Payment for pneu matically appl red mortar will be made on the
basis of the actual number o:I square feet placed and acee pted. The

payment for pne u matical ly ippl red mortar shal I incl ude eompenst ion

for all eqn ipment, tools, mater ia ls, labor and i nc i denials necessa ry to
complete the work and shall include metal rei n fo rcemen t u n less othe rwise provided.

Section 5

REINFORCEMENT

2.5.1 MATERIAL
fA J

Bor Reinforcement

Bar reinforcement for concrete in sizes up to and including No. 18


shall conform to the requ irements of the Specificatione for Deformed
Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement, AASHO M 31 (ASTM
A 615)
Rail-Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement AASHO M 42

with

following modifications :

(1) ) The use of cold twisted bars is not permitted.


(2) Steel :for :ill bars shall be made by the open-hearth, electric furnace or basic oxygen process, unless otherwise called for in
the special provisions or on the plans.

IBI

Wire ond Wire Mesh


W i re sh all conform to the Spec ificition for Cold-Drawn Stecl Wi ie

fo r C o ia c rete Rei n for cemen t, of thp AA SH O M 32 I A ST M A P2 .I .

Wire mesh, when us eel as i-einforcemenf in concrete shal l con foi m


to the Spec i fixation for Weldel Steel W i re Fabric fo r Cone rete Rein-

to rement of the A AS HO 1\1 55 I A STM A 185 I . The ty Jie of mesh


shall be approved by the Engineer.
I C I Bor Mot Reinforcement

Bar mat rein fo rcement for concrete sh:ill conform to the Specification fr Fab r i cated Steel Par or Ron Mats for Concrete Re in Iorcement
of the AA S H O M 54 I ASTM A 184
IDJ

Structurol Shopes
Stru ctu rat shapes u sed as rei nf orcement in concrete shall conform

to the requ i resents for structu rat steel as prov i led in th e.e speci fica-

2.5.2 ORDER LISTS


Defore order in g mate r ial, all order lists and ben ding diagrams
shall be furnished by the Contractor for the approval of the Engineer,
and no mate i ins shal l be ordered until such lists and ben d i rig d ia grams
have been app roved. The approval of rder l ists a nd ben d i rip d iagrams
by the Engineer shall in no way relieve the Contractor of responsibility
for the eorrcctn ess of s uch li sts an d cli agiams. A ny expen se i net d cut

to thc revi s ion of naatei ml fu rn ish ed i n accord an ee with such lists and
dia g rams to make it comply with the dest gn drawings shall be borne by
the Contractor.

2.5.3 PROTECTION OF MATERIAL

2.5.4 FABRICATION
Bar re i n Io rccment shall be bent to the shapes shown on the pl:in s.

All bare shall be bent cold, unless otherwise permitted by the Engineer. No bars partially Embedded in concrete shall be field bent except as
shown on .the plans or specifically permitted by the E ngineor.
The radi i of bend meas ured on the inside o1 the bar for standard
hooks sh.all be not ten than the fo11w ing :
B:ir Size

6, 7 oi P
9, 10 or 11

14 or 18

Min imum Radii

3 bar
4 bar

( br diameters

Special flrication is required for- bends exceeding 90 degrees :for


@ 14 and @ 18 sizes and grades having a specified yield point of 50,000

2. 5.4

CONSTRUCTION

Bends for stirrups and ties shall have radi i on the inside of the bar
not less than one bar d iameter. I3ends :for all other bars shall have rad i i
on the inside of the bar n ot low than the values tabu lated in the p reced in g
parag mph s.
Bar re in Iore owe tit shall be sh ipped in stiiiidard bundles, tagged
and marked in accordance with the Code of Stan dird Practice of the
Concrete Re in Iorcement Steel Institu te.

2.5.5 PLACING AND FASTENING


All steel re in to re e ment shall be accurately pl aced in th c positions
shown on the plans and firmly held during the placing and setting of
con c rete. When placed in the work it shall be free from d irt, detri oriental rust, loose scale, paint, il or other foreign mate rial. B mrs shall
be tiPd at all i ntersection s except where spacing is less than 1 foot in
each d irection, in which case alternate inte rsecti ons shall be tied.

Distances from the forms shall be maintained by means of stays,


blocks, ties, hangers, or other approved su pports. B locks for hold ing
reinf orcement from contact with the forms shal l be precast mortar
blocks of approved shape and d imens ions or approved metal chairs.
Metal chairs which are in contact with the exterior surface of the concrete shall be gul van ized . Layers of bars shall be separated by piecast
mortar blocks or by other eg u ally su itable devices. The use o:I pebbles,
pieces of broken stone or brick, metal pipe and wooden blocks shal l n ot
be permitted. The in inimu in spacing of bars shall be as specified in
Article 1.5.6 I A . Reinforcement in any member shall be placed and then
inspected and approved by the Engineer before the placing of concrete
begins. Concrete placed in violation of th is prov is ion may be rejected
and remov al requ i red.
If fabric reinforcement is shipped in rolls, it shall be str:tightened
into flat sheets before being placed.
Du ndled bars shall be tied together at not more than six feet centers.

2.5.6 SPLICING
All reinforcement shall be turn ished in the :fu ll lengths ind icited
on the plans. Splicing of bars, except where shown on the plans, will
not be permitted without the written approval of the Engineer. Spl ices
shall be staggered as :far as possible.
Unless otherwise shown on the plans, bars shall be spl iced in accordance with Article 1.5.6 IC ) . In lapped splices, the bars shall be placed in
contact and wired together in such a manner as to ma in tain a clearance
of not less than the minimum clear distance to other bars and the mini
mum distance to the sui face o:I the concrete specified in Article 1.5.6 (B) .

2.5.7 LAPPING
Sheets of mesh or bar mat reinforcement shall overlap each other
suffic iently to maintain a u n iform stren gth and sha!l be securely fastened at the en de and ed ges. The ed ge I ap sh all not be less than one

mesh in width.

2.5.8 SUBSTITUTIONS
Subst itu tion of d ifferent size bars will be permitted on ly with
specific authorization by the Engineer. The sub9titu ted bars ehall have
an area equ ivalent to the des i gn area, or larger.

2.5.9 MEASUREMENT
Steel rein to rce ment incorporated in the concrete masonry will be
measu red in pou rids based on the total computed weight :for the sizes
and lengths of bars, mesh or mats shown on the plans or au thor i zcd.

The we i ght of mesh wi 11 be computed I rom the theoretical weight


of pla in w i re. I f the we i g ht per- sq u are :foot i s given on the plan, that
weight shall be used.
The we ight of plain bars or bar mat or of deformed bars wh ich do
not comply with AASHO M 31 (ASTM A 615) will be computed from
the theoretical weight of plain roti nd or square bars of the same nominal
size as shown in the following table :

The weight of reinf orcement u sod in raili ngs shall not be included
when rat l in ps are paid f r on a I i near foot bas is. The we ight of reinforcement in precast p iles and other items w hero the reinforcement is included
in the contract price foi the item shall not be incl uded.
N o allowance wil I be made for e lips, vv'i re, separators, \vi re chairs,

and other material used in fasten mg the re in to rcement in place. I:I


bars are en bstituted u pon the conti actor"s req uec I and as a resu lt more
steel is u sed than spec ified, only the amount specified shall be incl uded.
When laps are made No r spl ices, other than those shown on the
plans, for the convenience of the Contractor, the extra steel shall not
be included.

2.5.10 PAYMENT
Payment for reinf orcemen t as determined under measurement shall

be made at the contract price per pound. Payment shall i nclude the cost of

fu rnish ing, fabricating and placing of the rei n forcement.

CO N STRU G TI O N

2.6.1

Section 6

ASHLAR MASONRY

2.6. J DESCRIPTION
Ashlar masonry shal I const st of first-class cut

stone

masonry

laid in

regular courses and shall incl u de all vork in which, as d istingu ished from
rubble ma so n ry, the ind ividual stories are dressed o r tooled to exact
d imens ions.

2.6.2 MATERIALS
fAl Ashlor Stone
Stone for ashlar masonry shall be of the kind specified on the plans
or in the contract. The stone shall be tough, dense, sound and durable,
resistant to weathering action, reasonably fine grained, uniform in
color, and free from seams, cracks, pyrite inclusions, or othe r structural
defects. Preferably, stone shall be from a quarry, the prod uct of wh ich
is known to be of satisfactory quality. Stone shall be of s uch character
that it can be wrought to such lines and surfaces, whether curved or

plane, as may be requ ired. Any stone having defects which have been
repaired with cement or other materi a Is shall be rej ected.
Each b idder shall submit with his bid a 6-inch cubical block of the
stone he proposes to furnish and shall designate the quarry from which
it is obtained. Th Quality o:I the stone furnished shall be at least equal
to that of the sample. The sample shall be squared an d dressed on
three sides ; one side shall be smooth-finished, one s ide finefin ished, and
one side shal l be given the finish ind icated on the plans for exposed
surfaces of face stone. The remaining sides shall be left with quarry
face.
When permitted by the Engineer, bidders may submit bids, accompanied by samples as specified above, on kinds of stone other than that
specified.
The stone shall be kept free from di rt, oil or any other injurious
material which may prevent the proper adhesion of the moItar or
detract from the appearance of the exposed surfaces.

IBI

Menem

Mortar for laying the stone and pointing shall be composed of one
part of portland cement and three parts of sand unless otherwise provided. The sand shall conform to the requirements of Article 2.4.2 (C) .

2.6.3 SIZE OF STON E

The individual stones shall be large and well proportioned. They

shal I not be less than 12 nor more than 30 inches in thickness. The thicknesses of course, if varied, shall diminish regularly from bottom to top of
wall. The size of ring stones in arches shall be as shown on the plans.

2.6.4 SURFACE FINISHES OF STONE


For the purpose of this specification the surface finishes of stone
are defined as follows :
Smoot h-/in/sFed . Having a surface in which the variations from
the pitch line do not exceed li6 inch.
Fix e -jinis h e d . Having a surface in which the variations f rom the
pitch line do not exceed /i inch.
loop h-/ti/sh rd. Having a surface in which the variati one from
the pitch line do not exceed 't inch.
Scoh b led : Having a surface in which the variations from the
pitch line do n ot exceed inch.
Re ck-Jac cd . Having an irregu la r projectin g face wi th out indications of tool marks. The proJ ecti on s beyond the pitch I ine shall not

exceed 3 inches and no part of the face shall recede back of the pitch
line.

2.6.5 DRESSING STOH E


Stones shall be dressed to exact sizes and shapes before being laid
and shall be cut to lie on thei r natural beds with top an d bottom truly
parallel. H ollosv beds will not be permitted. The bottom bed shall be
the full size of the stone and no s tone shall have an ove rhanging top.
In rock-face construction the :f ace side of any stone shall not present
an undercut contou r adjacent to its bottom :irris giving a top-heavy,
unstable appearance when laiil.
Bede of face stone shall be fine-fin ished for a depth of not less than
12 inches.
Vertical joints of face stone shall be fine-finished and f ul I to the
square for a depth of not less than 9 inches.
Exposed surfaces of the face stone shall be given the surface finish
ind icated on the plans, with edges p i tched to true lines and exact batter.
Chisel drafts 1/_ i nches wide shall be cu t at :+II exterior corners. Face
stone form in g the start ing or nos ing of piers shall be rou gh finished unless
otherw i se specified.
Holes for stone hooks shall not be pe ran itted to show in exposed
surfaces.

2.6.6 STRETCHERS
Stretchers sh:it I have a w id th of bed of not less than 1'l_ ti rues their
thickness. They shall have a length of led not less than twice nor more
than 3_ ti rues thei r th i ckness, and not less than 3 feet.

2.6.7 HEADERS
Hoade n shall be placed in each course and shall have a ivid th of not

less than 1/'_ times their th ickncss. In walls hav in g a th ickness of 4 feet

GON8TRUCTION

26.7

297

or less, the headers shall extend entirely through the wall. In walls o:I

greater th redness, the length of headers shal I be not less than 2'_' ti rues
their th icknes s when the course is 18 inches or less in heigh t, and not less
than 4 feet in courses of greater he ight. Headers shall bond with the core
or backing not less than 12 inches. Headers shall hold in the heart of the
wall the same size sh own in the face and shall be spaced not further apart
than 8 feet center to center. There shall be at least one header to every
two stretchers.

2.d.8 CORES AND BACKING


Cores and backing shall consist either of roughly bedded and jointed
headers and stretchers, as specified above, or of Class B or C concrete, as
may be specified.
When stone is used for cores or backing, at least _' of the stone sh all
be of the same size and character as the face stone, and with parallel ends.
No course shall be less than 8 inches thick.
Concrete used for cores and backing shall conform to the requirements
specified in Section 2.4.
The headers and stretchers in walls having a th ick ness of 3 feet or
less shall have a width or length equal to the full thickness of the wa 11.
No backing will be allowed.

2.6.9 MIXING MORTAR


The mortar shall be hand or mach ine mixed, as may be requ ired by
the Engineer. In the preparat ion of h and-mixed mortar, the sand and
cement shall be thoroughly mixed together in a clean, tight mortar box
until the mixture is of u n iform color, ai'ter which clean water shall be
added in such Quantity as to form a stiff plastic mass. Mach ine-mixed
mortar shall be prepared in an approved mixer and shall be mixed not less
than 1_ minutes. Mort:ir shall be used within 45 min utes afte r mixing.

Retempering of mortar will not be permitted.


2.6. J O LAYING STONE
fA J

General

Stone mason ry shall not be const ructed in freezing weather or


when the stone contains frost, except by iV'ritten permission of the
Engineer and en bject to such conditions as he may require.
IBI

Fcice Stone

Stone shall not be dropped upon, or slid over, the wall, nor will
hammering, roll in g or turn in g of stones on the wall be allowed. They
shall be caref u lI y set without jarring the stone at ready laid and they
shall be handled with a lewis or other appliance which will not cause
disfi g urement.
Each stone shall be cleaned and thoroughly saturated with water
before being set and the bed which is to receive it shall be cle.tried and
well moistened. All stones shall be well bedded in f reshly made mortar
and settled in place wi th a su itable wooden maul before the setting of
the mortar. Whenever possible, the face joints shall be properly pointed

298
before the mortar sets. Joints which cannot be so pointed shall be prepared for pointing by raking them out to a depth of 2 inches before the
mortar has set. The face surf'aces of stones shall not be smeared with
the mortar forced out of the joints or that used in pointing. No pinn ing u p of stones wi th spalls will be perm itted and no spalls will be
permitted in beds.
Joints and beds shall be not tess than ?s inch nor more than '/: inch
in thick ness and the I h redness of the jo int or bed shall be uniform
throu ghout.

The stones in any one course shall be placed so as to form bonds of


not less than 12 inches with the stones of adjoin ing courses. Headers
shall be placed over stretchers arid, in general, the headers of each
course shall eQ ually d wide the spaces between the headers of ad jo in in g
courses, but no header shal I be placed os ei a joint and no joint shall be
made over a header.
IC J

Stone Backing ond Cores


Stone backing shall be laid iii the .same manner as specified above

for face stone, with headers interlocking with I ace headers when the
th redness of the well wi 11 perm it. Backing shall be laid to break joints
with the face stone. Stone cores shi1l be laid in I u 11 mortar beds so as
to bond not ten than 12 i nches w ith face and backing stone and w ith
each othei . Ped joint s in cores an1 bieking shall not exceed 1 inch and
vertical joints shall not exceed 4 inches in th redness.
IDI

Concrete Cores ond Backing

The operati one involved in the handling and placing of concrete


used in core8 and back in p shal l conform to the requ moments specified in
Section 2.4. However, the pu ddlin g and compacting of concrete adj acent
to the :ish1ar masonry facing shall be done in a manner that w i 11 insure
the fi lling of all spaces :iround the stones and secure full contact and
efficient bond w ith all stone sur faces.

2.6.11 LEVELING COURSES


Stone cores and backing shall be carried up to the approximate level
of the face course before the succeeding course is started.
The constructi on jot nts produced in

concrete

cores or backing by

the intern ttent plac nig of concrete shall be located, in general, not less
than 6 inches below the top bed of any course of masonry.

2.. J 2 RESETTING
In case any stone is moved or the joint broken, the stone shall be
taken up, the mortar thoroughly cleaned from bed and jo ruts, and the
stone reset in fresh mortar.

2.5.J 3 DOWELS AND CRAMPS


Where required, coping stone, stone in the wings of abutments and
stone in piers shall be secured with wrought-iron cramps or dowels as
indicated on the plans.

CONSTRUCTION

299

Dowel holes shal I be dri fled through each stone before the stone is
placed and, after it is in place, such dowel holes shall be extended by
drill ing into the u nderlyin g con rse not less than 6 inches.
Cramps shall be of the shapes and dimensions shown on the plans
or approved by the Engineer. They shall be inset in the stone so as to be
flush with the surfaces.
Cramps and dowels shall be set in lead, care being taken to completely
fill the surrounding spaces with the molten metal.

2.6.J 4 COPINGS
Stones for copings of wall, pier and abutment bridge eeats shall
be carefu fly selected and fully d i mens toned stones. On piers, not more
th an two stones shall be used to make up the entire width of coping. The
copings of abutment bridge seats shall be of sufficient width to extend at
least 4 inches under the backwal 1. Each step forming the coping of a
wing wall shall be formed by a single stone which shall overlap the stone
form in g the step immediately below it at least 12 inches.
Tops of copin gs shall be given a bevel cut at least 2 inches wide,
and beds, bevel cuts and tops shall be fine-finished. The vertical joints
shall be smooth-finished and the copings shall be laid with joints not
more than 'Zi inch in thickness. The under sides of projecting copings,

preferably, shall have a drip bead.

Koi nts in copings shal l be located so as to provide not less than a 12


inch bond with the stones of the u nder course and so that no joint will
come directly under the su perst ructure masonry plates.

2.6.J 5 ARCHES
The nu mber of courses and the depth of voussoirs shall be as shown
on the plans. Von ssoirs shall be placed in the order ind icated, shall be

full size throughout, dressed true to template, and sh all have bond not
less than the thickness of the stone. Beds and j oints shall be finefin ished and mortar joints shall not exceed "/i inch in th ickness. Exposed
surfaces of the intrados and arch ring shall be given the surface finish
i nd icated on the plans.
Backing may consist of Class B concrete or of large stones shaped
to fit the arch, bonded to the spandre 1s, and laid in full beds of mortar.
The extrados and interior faces of the spandrel walls shall be given a
finishing coat of 1: 2'm cement mortar which shall be trowelled smooth
to receive the waterproofing.
Arch centering, waterproofing, drainage and filling shall be as
specified for concrete arches.

2.6.16 POINTING
Pointing shall not be done in freezing weather nor when the stone
contains frost.
Joints not pointed at the time the stone is laid shal l be thoroughly
wet with clean water and filled with mortar. The mortar shal I be well
driven into the joints and finished with an approved pointing tool. The

wall shall be kept wet while pointing is being done and


weather the pointed masonry shall be protected from the
wet for a period of at least three days after completion.
After the pointing is completed and the mortar set,
be thoroughly cleaned and left in a neat and workmanlike

in hot or dry
sun and kept
the wall shall
cond it ion.

2.6. 17 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


The qu antity of stone mason ry to be paid Ior under this item shall
be the n umber of cu bic yards measured in the completed work and the

I inn it i n g d i me net on s sh:ill not exceed those shown upon the plans or fixed

by the Engineer. The contract price shall include all labor, tools, materials and other expense incidental to the satisfactory comp letion of the
work.

Section 7

MORTAR RUBBLE MASONRY

2.7.1 DESCRIPTION
Morta r rubble masonry, as here spec ified, shall include the classes
commonly know n as courted, random and random ringe work and shall
consist of rou ghly squ a red an cl dressed stone I:iid in cement mortar.

2.7.2 MATERIALS
I AJ

Rubble Stone
Stone for mortar rubble or dry rubble masonry

shal l

be

of

ap-

proved q ii alit y-, so und and du rablc, and free from seq regations, seams,
c i icks, and ther structu rat tlef ccts or impe rfect ions ten d ing to destroy
i ts ns is tance to the ve cath er. I I shall be free from ro unded, worn, or
weathc red en rfaccs. All xv fathered stone shal I be rejected.
The stno shall be kept I ice f rom d i rt, oil, or any other in jurious
material wh ieh may prev ent the proper adhesion of the mortar.
I BI

Mortor

Th e mo i ti r used shall conform as regards materi all, proportions


an d in ix i rig to the moitar specified in Article 2.6.2 ( B .

2.7.3 SIZE

2.7.4 HEADERS
II eaders shall hold i n the heart of the wall the same s ize shown in

the face and sha 11 extend not less than 12 inches into the core or backing.

2.7.4

OONSTRUGTION

They shall occupy not less than "- of the face area of the wall and shall be

evenly d i stribu ted. Headers in walls 2 feet or less in thickness shal I extend
entirely through the wall.

2.7.5 SHAPING STONE


The stones shall be rough Iy squared on joints,

beds

and

I:ices.

Selected stone, roughly sq uared and pi tched to line, shall be used at all
angles and ends of walls. If specified, all corners or angles in extei-ior
surfaces shall be finished with a chisel draft.
All shaping or dressing of stone shall be done before the stone is
laid in the wall, and no dressing or hammering wh ich vv'ill I oosen the
stone will be permitted after it is placec'.

2.7.6 LAYING STONE


Stone masonry shall not be constructed in freezing weather or when
the stone contains fro9t, except by written permi scion of the Engineer and
subject to such cond it ions as he may requ ire.
The mason ry shall be laid to 1 ine and in courses roughly leveled up.
The bottom or fou ndation courses shall be composed of large, selected
stones and all courses shall be laid with bearing beds paral lel to the natural
bed of the material.
Each stone shall be cleaned and thoroughly sat urated with water
befor. being set and the bed which is to receive it shall be clean and
well mo istened. A 11 stones shall be well bed ded in freshly made mortar.
The mortar Joints shall be Iu 11 and the stones caref u fly settled in place
before the mortar has set. No spalls will be permitted in the beds.
Joints and beds shall have an average thickness of not more than 1 inch .
Whenever possible the face joints shall be properly pointed before
the mortar becomes set. Points wh ich cannot be so po intcd shall be
prepared for pointing by raking them out to a depth of 2 inches before
the mortar has set. The face surfaces of stones shall not be smeared
with the mortar forced out of the joints or that used in pointing.
The vertical joints in each course shall break with those in ad joining
courses at least 6 inches. In rio case shall a vertical joint be so located
as.to occur directly above or below a header.
In case any stone is moved or the j oint broken, the stone shall be
taken u p, the mortar thorough ly cleaned from bed and joints, and the
stone reset in :fresh mortar.

2.7.7 COPINGS, BRIDGE SEATS AND BACKWALLS


Copings, bridge seats and backwalls shall be of the materials shown
on the plans and when not otherwise specified shall be of Class A concrete
which shall conform to the requ irements of Section 2.4.
Concrete copings shall be made in sections extending the Iull wid th
of the wall, not less than 12 inches in thickness, and from 5 to 10 feet
long. The sections may be cast in place or precast and set in place in full
mortar beds.

2.7.8 ARCHES
The number of courses and the depth of vouseoire ehall be as shown
on the plans. Voussoi r9 shall be placed in the order indicated, shall be
full size throughout and 9hall have bond not less than their thickness.
Bede shall be roughly pointed to bring them to radial planes. Radial jointe
shall be in planee parallel to the transverse axi9 of the arch and, when
measured at the intrados, shall not exceed >i inch in thickness. Joints
perpendicular to the arch axis shall not exceed 1 inch in th ickneee when
measured at the intrados. The intradoe face shall be dressed sufhciently
to permit the stone to rest properly upon the centering. Exposed faces of
the arch ring shall be rock-faced with edges pitched to true lines.
The work ehall be carried up symmetrically about the crown, the
stone being laid in full mortar beds and the Joints grouted where necessary. Pinning by the use of stone spalls will not be permitted.
Backing may consist of Claes B concrete or o:I large stones shaped
to fit the arch, bonded to the spandrels, and laid in full beds of mortar.
The extrados and interior faces of the spandrel walls shall be given a
finished coat of 1 :Z4 cement mortar which shall be trowelled smooth to
receive the waterproofin g.
Arch centering, waterproofing, draining and filling shall be as
specified for concrete archee.

2.7'.9 POINTING
Pointing shall not be done in freezing weather or when the stone
contains frost.
Join ts not pointed at the time the stone is laid shall be thoroughly
wet with clean water and filled with mortar. The mortar shall be well

driven into the joints and finished with an approved pointing tool. The
wall ehall be kept wet while pointing is being done and in hot or dry
weather the pointed masonry shall be protected from the sun and kept
wet for a period of at least three days after completion.
After the pointing is completed and the mortar set, the wall shall be
thoroughly cleaned and left in a neat and workmanlike condition.

2.7.J 0 MEASUREMEHT AND PAYMENT


The quantity of stone masonry to be paid for under this item shall
be the number of cubic yards measured in the completed work and the
Jimiting dimensions shall not exceed thoee shown upon the plans or fixed
by the eng ineer. The contract price shall include all labor, tools, materials
and other items incidental to the satisfactory completion of the work.
Concrete used in connection with rubble masonry shal I be paid for
as in the case of other concrete construction.

2.8.1

CON STRUCT I ON

Section 8

DRY RUBBLE MASONRY

2.8. J DESCRIPTION
D ry rubble masonry as here specified shall include the classes commonly

known as coursed,

random

and

random

range

work and

shall

consist of roughly squared and d ressed stone laid without mortar.

2.8.2 MATERIALS
Stone for mortar rubble or dry rubble masonry shall be of approved quality, sound and durable, and free from segregations, seams,
cracks, and other structural defects or imperfections tending to destroy
its res istance to the weather. It shall be :free from rounded, worn, or

weathered surfaces. All weathered stone shall be rejected.

2.8.3 SIZE OF STONE


The stones shall conform in size to the requ irements specified in
Section 2.7.

2.8.4 HEADERS
Headers shall conform to the requirements specified in Section 2.7.

2.8.5 SHAPING STONE


The stones shall be roughly squared on joints, beds and laces.
Selected stone, roughly squared and pitched to line, shall be used at all
angle s- and ends of walls.

2.8.6 LAYING STONE


The masonry shall be laid to I me and in courses roughly leveled up.

The bottom or foundation courses shall be composed of large, selected


stones :ind al I courses shall be laid with bearing beds parallel to the
natural bed of the material. Face joints shall not exceed 1 inch in width.
In laying dry rubble masonry, care shall be taken that each stone
takes a firm bearing at not less than three separate points upon the

underlying course. Open joints, both Irout and rear, shall be ch in ked
with spalIs fitted to take firm bearing upon the ir top and bottom sur
faces, for the purpose of securing firm bearing throughout the length
of the stone.

When requ ired by the terms of the contract, the open joints on the

rear surfaces of abu tments or retain ing walls shall be slushed thoroughly with mortar to prevent seepage of water through the )oints.

2.8.7 COPINGS, BRIDGE SEATS AND BACKWALLS


Copings, bridge seats and backwalls, when used i n connect ion with
dry rubble masonry, shall conform to the requirements specified in Section

2.7.

HIGHWAY BEIIJUES

oo

2.8.8 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


The quantity of stone mason ry to be paid for under this item shall
be the nu mber of cubic yards measured in the completed work and the
limiti rig dimensions shall not exceed . those shown upon the plans or fixed
by the Engineer. The contract price shall include all labor, tools, materials
and other expense incidental to the satisfactory completion of the work.
Concrete used in connection with rubble masonry shall be paid for as
in the case of other concrete construction.

Section 9

BRICK MASONRY

2.9.J DESCRIPTION
Brick mason ry shall consist of brick laid in cement mortar and
shall inclu de such construction with bu ilding brick or ornamental brick
as may be speci fied. Brick pavements are not included under this
designation.
2.9.2 MATERIALS

lA J

Brick

Brick for masonry construction shall conform to the Specification


for Bu ild ing Brick (made from clay or shale) for the AASHO M 114.
The grade of brick to be furnished shall be as specified in the special
prov is ions.
The brick shall have a fine-grained, uniform, and dense structure,
free from lumps of lime, laminations, cracks, checks, soluble salts, or
other defects wh ich may in any way impair their strength, durability,
appearance, or usef ulness for the purpose intended. Bricks shall emit
a clear, metallic ring when struck with a hammer.
I BJ Mortor

The mortar used shall conform, as regards materials, proportions


and mixing, to the mortar 9pecified in Article 2.6.2 B) .

2.9.3 CONSTRUCTION
The brick shall be laid in such manner as will thoroughly bond
them into the mortar by means of the shove-joint method ; buttered
or plastered joints will not be permitted. All brick must be thoroughly
saturated with water before being laid. The arrangement of headers
and stretchers shal I be such as will thoroughly bond the mass and, unless otherwise spec ified, brick work shall be of alternate headers and
stretchers with consecutive courses breaking ioints. Other types of
bonding, as for ornamental work, shall be as specified on the plans.
All joints shall be completely filled with mortar. They shall not be

less than /i inch and not more than '/: inch in thickness and the thick-

ness shall be uniform throughout. All joints shall be finished properly as


the work progresses and on exposed faces they shall be neatly struck,
using the weather joint.

ONSTRU&TION
No spalls or bats sh all be used except for shaping around irregular
open ings or when u nave idab le to finish out a course, in wh ich case full
bricks shall be placed at the corners, the bats being placed in the interior
of the course.
Piers and walls may be bu ilt of solid brick work, or may consist of
a brick shell backed with concrete or other su itable material as specified
on the plans. None b ut expert brick layers shall be employed on the
work and all details of the construction shall be in accordance with the
most approved practice and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

2.9.4 COPINGS, BRIDGE SEATS AND BACKWALLS


The tops of retaining walls, abutment wing walls and st milarly
exposed brick work sh:ill be provided, in general, with either a stone
or concrete coping. The u ndei-s ide of the coping shal I have a batter or drip
bead, at least 1 inch beJ ond the face of the brick work wall. The coping
u pon an abutment backwall will commonly have no projection beyond its
bridge seat face. When concrete is used it shall be of Class A quality. For
thin cop ings, mortar of the same proportions as used for laying the brick
may be used to produce p recast sections not less than 3 feet nor more than
5 feet in length. No coping shall be less than 4 inches thick.

Copings of piers and abutment bridge seats shall be of Ashlar stone

work or of Class A concrete and shall conform to the requ irements for
Ashlar Masonry or Concrete Masonry as the plan may ind icate. When
not shown upon the plans, concrete shall be used.

2.9.5 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT


The qu antity of brick work to be paid for under th is item shall be
the number of cubic yards of brick masonry actually placed in the
structure i n accordance with the plans or as mod ified by written i nstructions from the Engineer. This price shall inclu de all labor, materials
and other expense inc idental to the satisfactory completion of the work.
Fil ling material for the interior of the wall, when not of brick, and
concrete or mortar copings, shall be paid :for on the basis of the number
of c ubic yards actually placed.

Section 10

STEEL STRUCTURES
FABRICATION

2.10. 1 TYPE OF FABRICATION


These specifications apply to riveted, bolted, and welded construction.

2. J 0.2 QUALITY OF WORKMANSHIP


Workmanship and fini9h shall be equal to the best general practice in
modern bridge shons.

HI GHWAY B RIDGE 5

2.10.B

2.10.3 MATERIALS
IAl Strufurol Steel
(J )

Genero I

Steel shall be furnished according to the following specifications. Unless otherwise specified, structural carbon steel and
structural rivet steel shall be furnished.
(2I

St ructu re I Steel

I o I Cci rbon Stee I


Unless otherwise specified, structural carbon steel for iiveted, bolted or welded construction shall conform to :
Structural Steel, AASHO M183 (ASTM A36) .
IbI

Eyeb n rs

Steel for eyebars shall be of: a weldable grade. These


grades include structural steel conforming to :
Structural Steel, AASHO M18S (ASTM A36)

High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel, of a weld-

able quality, AASHO M161 (ASTM A242)


HighStrength Low Alloy Structural Manganese Vanadium Steel, AASHO M188 (AS'TM A441)
High- Strength Low-Alloy Structu rat Steel with
50,000 psi Minimum Yield Point to 4 In. Th ick, AASHO
M222 (ASTM A 588 with Supplementary Requirement 51

o1 AASHO M222 mandatory.)

13 )

Hig h St ren gth Low Al toy 5t ructu r o I Stee I

High strength low alloy structural steel shall conform to :


High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel, AASHO M161
(ASTM A242)
Hi gh-Strength Structural Steel, AASHO M187 (ASTM

A 440)

High-Strength Low Alloy Structural I\Manganese Vanadrum Steel, AASHO M188 (ASTM A441)
High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels
of Structural Q u at ity, AA SHO M223 (ASTM A572)
High Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000
psi Minimum Yield Point to 4 In. Thick, AASH O M222

/ ASTM A588J

( 4 ) Hig h Strength Low Alloy Sfrucfur o I Steel for Wet ding

High strength low alloy structural steel for welding 9hall

conform to :

High-Strength Low Alloy Structural MangaRl9e Vanadrum Steel, AASHO M188 IASTM A441 )
High lstrength Low Alloy Structural Steel, AASHO M161
(ASTD\I A242) of a weldable quality.
High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels o:I
Structural Q ualitj', Gi-ades 42, 45, and 50, AASHO M223
(ASTM A572 with Su pplementary Requirement 52 of
AASHO M223 mandatory)

CONSTRUC TION

2.10.3

High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000 psi

Minimum Yield Point to 4 In. Thick, AASHO M222 (ASTM

A 588 with Supplementary Requirement S1 of AASHO M222

mandatory)
(5)

Hig h Strengfh Sfrucfu ro I Sfeel for Riveted or Boiled Construction

High strength structural steel for riveted or bolted construe-

tion shall conform to :

High-Strength Structural Steel, AASHO M187 (ASTM

A 440)
High Strength Low Alloy Structural Steel, AA SHO M161
(ASTM A242)
High-Strength Low-Alloy Columbium-Vanadium Steels

of Structural Quality, AASHO M223 (ASTM A572)

High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel with 50,000

psi Minimum Yield Point to 4 In. Thick, AASHO M222 (ASTM


A 588)

High-Strength Low Alloy 5tructural Manganese Vanadium Steel, AASHO M188 (ASTM A441)

High -Yield-Strength, Quenched ond Tempered Alloy Steel Plote

High yield strength, quenched and tempered alloy steel plate

shall conform to :

High-Yield-Strength,
Quenched and Tempered Alloy
Steel Plate, su itable for welding, ASTM A 514
High-Strength Alloy Steel Plates, Quenched and Tempered
for pressure vessels, ASTM A517
Quenched and tempered alloy steel structural shapes and
seamless mechanical tubing, meeting all of the mechanical and
chemical requirements of AS 14/A517 steel, except that the
specified maximum tensile strength may be 140,000 psi for
structural shapes and 145,000 psi for seamless mechanical tub-

ing, shall be considered as A514/A517 steel.


Sfructurol Rivef Steel

Structural rivet steel 9ha11 conform to :


Steel Structural Rivets AASHO M 228, Grade 1 (ASTM
A502, gr:ide 1) .

1 8 I High Strength Sfructu rot Rivet Steel

High strength structural rivet steel shall conform to :


Steel Structu ral Rivets AASHO M 228, Grade 2 (ASTM

A502, grade 2) .
(9)

High Sfrength

Bolts

Bolts, nuts and circular washers shall conform to :


High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel Joints, including
Suitable Nuts and Plain Hardened Washers, AASHO M164
(ASTM A325) . Bolts manufactured to AASHO M164 requirements are identified by marking on the top of the head with

308

HI GHWAY B RIDGE 5

three radial lines and the symbol A325, and nuts are marked

on one face with three similar circumf:erentia1 markings, 120


degrees apart, or alternatively, wi th C, 2, D, 2H or DH. Bolt
and nut dimension9 shall conform to the dimensions shown in
Table 2.10.3A, and to the requirements for Heavy Hexagon
Structural Bolts and for Heavy Semi-Finished Hexagon Nute
given in AN SI Stan dard B18.2.1 and B18.2.2, except as allowed in the following paragraph.
Subject to the approval o:I the Eng ineer, Sign strength
steel lock-pin and collar fasteners may be used as an alternate
for high strength bolts or rivets as shown on the plans. The
shank and head of the high strength steel lock-pin and collar
f ft9tener9 shall meet the chemical composition and mechanical
property requii ements of AASHO M 164 (ASTM A325)
Each fastener shall provide a solid shank body of sufficient
diameter to provide tensile and shear strength equivalent to
or greater than the bolt or rivet specified. shall have a cold
foi ged head on one end, of type and dimensions as approved
by the Err gineer, a shank length suitable for- material thickness hastened, locking grooves, breakneck groove and pull
grooves (all annular grooves) on the opposite end. Each
fastener shall provide a steel locking collar, of pl-Oper siZ
for shank diameter used, which, by means of' sri itable installation tools, i.s cold sw ged into the locking grooves forming a
head for the grooved end of the :f astener after the pull groove
section has been removed. The steel locking collar shall be a
standard product of an established manu facturer of lockpin
and collar fasteners, :is approved by the Engineer.
Circular washers shall be flat and smooth and their nominal di mension9 shall conform to the dimensions given in
Table 2.10.3B, except that for lock-pin and collar fasteners, flat
washers need not be used.
Beveled washers for American Standard beams and channels shall be square or rectangular, shall taper in th icknese, and
eha11 conform to the dlmen9ions given in Table 2.10.3B.
Where necessary, washers may be clipped on one side to
a point not closer than 7 of the bolt diameter from the center
of the washer.
( 10 )

Copper Beoring Steels

When copper bearing steel is specified, the steel shall contain


not less than 0.2 per cent of copper.
( \

Welded

Stud 5 heor Con nectors

(a) Shear connector stu de shall conform to the requirements


of Cold Finished-Carbon Steel Bars and Shaf ting, AASHO M 169
(ASTM A 108) , cold-drawn bars, grades 1015, 1018, Oi 1020, t2lthCl
semi- or fully-killed. If: flux retaining caps are u9ed, the steel for
the caps shall be of a low carbon grade su itable for welding and
shall comply with Cold-Rolled Carbon Steel Strip, ASTM A 109.

CON STRU CTION

2.10.3

Bolt Dimene tone, In Inches

Nut Dimens ions, In Inches

Heavr Hexagon St ruct u ref Bolts

Heavz Semi-Fi nished Hexagon Nuta

Width Across

Thread

y]gj

lUei8

Width Across

!ength

Height

TABLE 2.10 .8B


TYASHERDIMENST ONS
Sq ua re or Rectan gut a r Beveled

Ci rcular Washers

Washers for A men can


Sta n da rd Beams and C h an new
Th ick ness

Over 2 to

2D /

D +'$

.097
.122

.177
. l77

.136

. 177

.136
.136
.136
.136

.177
.177
.177
.177

.l86
.l78
.178

.l77
.28
.28
.34

I:6
l:6
1:6

1 :6

Dimensio us in inches
May be ex cee6ed by /j in .
9 in. nom i n at
/j i n. nom i nal

(b) Tensile properties as determined by tests of bar stock


after drawing or of finished studs ehall conform to the following
requ irements:

Tensile Strength
Yield Strength *
Elongation
Reduction of area

As determined bz a 0.2 9o
off8et method.

(min.)

(min.)
(min.)
(min. )

60,000
Ii0,000
20 in in 2 inches
50i

(c) Tensile properties shall be determined in accordance with


the applicable sections of A STM A 370, Mechanical Testing of Steel
Products. Tensile tests of finished stu ds shall be made on studs
welded to test plates using a test fixture similar to that shown in

Figure 2.10.23B. If fracture occurs outside of the middle half of


the gage length, the test shall be repeated.
(d) Finished studs shall be of uniform quality and condition,
free from injurious laps, fins, seams, cracks, twists, bends or other
injurious defects. Finish shall be as produced by cold drawing, cold
rolling or machining.
(e) The manufacturer shall certify that the studs as delivered
are i n accordance with the material requirements of this section.
Certified copies of in-plant quality control test reports shall be
furn isired to the Engineer upon request.
(I) The Engineer may select, at the Contractor's expense,
studs of: each type and size used under the contract, as necessary :for
checking the requ irements of this section.
1 2 ) Uni I led Tubulo r Steel Piles
Unfilled T lib ular Steel Piles shall con form to the i eqn moments
of Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Piles ASTM Designation A2b2,
Grade 2, with Chemical Requ i cements meeting ASTM Desimation
A53, Grade B.

IBJ

Steel Forgings ond Steel Shofting

Corbon Steel Forgings


5teel forgings shall conform to the Specifications for Carbon
Steel Forgings for General Ind ustrial Use, AASHO M 102 (ASTM
235I . Class C 1 forgings shall be turn ished unless otherwise
specified.
(2)

Cold Finished Corbon Steel Sho ffing

Cold finished carbon steel shafting shall conform to the

9 cifixations for Gold Finished Carbon Steel Bars and Shaft in g,


AASHO M 169 (ASTM A 108) . Grade Designation 1016-1030,
inclu9i ve, shall be f u rn ished unless otherwise specified.
1 3 ) Alloy Steel Forgi ngs

Alloy steel :forgings shall conform to the Speci fications for


Alloy Steel Forgings for General Industrial Use, ASTM A 237.
Class A forging shall be furn ished unless otherwise specified.
Steel Costings
( \ )

Eteel Costings

for

Highwoy

Bridges

Steel castings for use in highway bridge components shall


conform to Standard Specification I:or Steel Castings for Highway

Bridges, AASHO M 192 (ASTM A 486)

or

Mild-to-Medium-

Strength CarbonSteel Castings for General Applications AASHO


M 103 (ASTM A 27 . The class 70 or grade 7036 of steel, respectively, shall be used unless otherw ise spccified.

CONSTRUCTION

2.10.3

1 2 I Chrom rum Al I o'y-Steel Costings

Chromium alloy steel castings shall conform to the Specifica-

tion for Corrosion-Resistant Iron-Chromi um and Iron-Chromi um

Nickel Alloy Castings for General Appl ication, AASHO M

163

(ASTM A 296) . Grade CA 15 shall be furnished unlese otherwise


specified.
Iron Cosfings
III Generol
Iron castings shall be gray iron castings conforming to the
Specification for Gray Iron Castings, AASHO M 105, Class No. 30
unless otherwise specified.
( 2)

Workmonship

ond Finish

Iron ca9tings shall be true to pattern in form and dimensions,


free from pouring fau lts, sponginess, crack9, blow holes, and other
defects in positions affecting their strength and value for the service intended.
Castings shall be boldly billeted at angles and the arrives shall
be sharp and perfect.
(3)

Cleo ning

All castings must be sandblasted or otherwise effectively


cleaned of scale and sand so as to present a smooth, clean, and uniform surface.

I El

Ductile Iron Costings


( II Generol
Ductile iron castings shall conform to the Specification >
- for
Ductile Iron Hastings, ASI'M A 53G, Grade 60-4018 unless otherwise specified. In addition to the specified test coupons, test speci
mens from parts integral with the castings, such as risers, shall be
tested for castings weighing more than 1000 pounds to determine
that the requ ired quality is obtained in the castings in the
finished condition.
( 2)

Workm on ship ond

finish

Iron castings shall be true to pattern in form and dimensions,


free from pour in g faults, spong iness, cracks, blow holes, and
other defects in positions, affecting their strength and value for the
service intended.
Castings shall be boldly filleted at angles and the arrises shall

be sharp and perfect.


13 J

Cleoning

All castings must be sandblasted or otherwise


effectively
cleaned of scale and sand so as to present a smooth, clean, and
u niform surface.

IFI Molleoble Costings


( J I Generol
Malleable castings shall conform to the Specification for Malleable Iron Hastings, AASHO M 106 (ASTM A 47) ; Grade No.
3501 8 shall be furnished unless otherwise specified.
(2)

Work monship ond Finish

Malleable castings shall be true to pattern in form and dimensions, free from pouring faults, s;onginess, cracks, blow holes, and
other defects in positions affecting their strength and value for the

service intended.

The castings shall be boldly filleted at angles and the arrises


shall be sharp and perfect. The surfaces shall have a workmanlike
finish.
13 J

Cleoning
All castings must be sandblasted or otherwise effectively
cleaned of scale and sand so as to present a smooth, clean, and
uniform surface.
IGJ

Bronze Costings ond Copper-Alloy Plotes


( J )

Bronze Cosfings

BPOnze castin gs 9hall conform to Standard Specifications for


Bronze Castings for Bridges and Turntables, AASHO M 107
I ASTM B 22) Alloys A or B.
1 2 I Cop per-Al I oy Plci tes
Gopper alloy plates shall conform to Standard Specifications
for Rolled Copper-.4l toy Bearing and Expansion Plates and Sheets
for Bridge and other Structural Uses, AASHO M 108 (ASTM

B 100) .
IHI

Sheet Leod

Sheet lead shall conform to the requirements for Common Desilverized Lead of the Specihcation for Pig Lead, AASHO M 112 (ASTM

B 29) .
Il J

Sheet

Zinc

Sheet zinc shall conform to the requ irements for Type II o:I the
Specifications for Rolled Zinc, AASHO M 113 (ASTM B 69) .
I JJ

Golvonizing

When galvan izing is shown on the Jlans or specified in the special


provisions ferrous metal products shall be galvanized in accordance
with the Specifications for Zinc (Hot-Galvanized) Coatings on Products
Fabricated from Rolled, Pressed, and Forged Steel Shapes, Plates, Bars

and Strip, AASH O M 111 (ASTM A 123 .

210.3
IKJ

CONSTRUCTION

Convos ond Red Leod for Bedding Mosonry Plotes ond Equivolenf

Bearing Areos
The canvas shall conform to the Standard 5pecifications for
Numbered Cotton Duck and Army Duck, AASHO I\I 166 (ASTM D
230) , and to the weight specified. The red lead paint shall conform to
the specifications for paint for metals, Article 2.14.2.
ILI Preformed Fobric Pods
The pre:formed fabric pads shall be composed of multiple layers of 8ounce cotton duck impregnated and bound with high-quality natural rubber
or of equivalent and equally suitable materials compressed into resilient pads
of uni:form thickness. The number of plies shall be such as to produce
the specified thickness, after compression and vu lcan izing. The finished
pads shall withstand compression loads perpendicular to the plane of the
laminations of not less than 10,000 pounds per square inch without
detrimental reduction in thickness or extrusion.

2.10.4

STORAGE OF MATERIALS

Structural material, either plain or fabricated, shall be stored at the


bridge shop above the ground upon platfo rme, skids, or other supports. It

shall be kept fi-ee from dirt, grease and other foreign matter, and shall be
protected as far as practicable from corrosion.

2. J 0.5
IA J

STRAIGHTENING MATERIAL AND CURVING ROLLED BEAMS AND


WELDED GIRDERS
Sfroightening

Moteriol

Rolled material, before being laid off or worked, must be str:tight.


If sti-aightcni ng is necessary, it shall be done by methods that will not
inj u re the metal. Heat straighten ing of A STM AS 14/A517 steel shall
be done only under- rigidly controlled pi oced u res, each :ipplication subject to the approval of the En gineer. In no case shall the maximum
temperatu re of the stcel exceed 1125F. Sharp kinks and bends shall be
cause for reJ ection of the material.
IBJ Curving Rolled Beoms ond Welded Girders
( J ) lv\o ferio Is

Steels that ai e manufactured to a yield point greater than


50,000 psi shill noI be heat curved.
(2)

Type of Heo ting

Beams and girde1"s mtly be curved by either continuous or Vtype heating as approved by the E ngineer. For the continuous method,
a strip along the edge of the to; and bottom flange shall be hPated
s imu ltaneous ly ; the strip shall be of sufficient width and
temperature to obtain the required curvature. For the V-type heating,
the top and bottom flanges shall be heated in truncated triang It lar or
wedgeshaped areas having their base along the flange edge and
spaced at regular intervals along each flange ; the

HI GHWAY

B RI l9tifi IS

spacing and temperature shall be as required to obtain the required


curvature, and heating shall progress along the top and bottom
flinge at approximately the same rate.
For the Vtype heating, the apex of the tru ncated triangular
at ea applied to the inside flange sur:face shall terminate just before
the junclure of the web and the flange is- reached. When the
radius of curvature is 1000 feet or more, the apex of the truncated
triangular heating pattern applied to the outside flange surface
sh:ill extend to the juncture of the flange and web. When the
radiu s of curvature is less than 1000 feet, the apex of the truncated
triangular heating pattern applied to the outside flange surface

shall extend past the v'eb for a distance equ:il to '/s of the flange or
3 inches, whichever is less. The truncated ti iangular pattern shall
have an included angle of approximately 15 to 30 degrees, but the
base of the triangle shall not exceed 10 inches. \'ariations in the
patterns prescribed above may be made with the approval of the
Eng ineer.
For both types of heating, the flange edges to be heated are
those that will be on the inside of the horizontal curve alter cool
ing. Heating both inside and outside flange surfaces is only mandatory when the flange thickness is 1?i inches or greater, in which
case, the two sur:faces shall be heated concurrently. The maximum
tcmperatu re shall be as prescribed below.
1 3I

Te in p erci t tire

The heat-curving operation shall be conducted in such a


manner that the temperature of the steel does not exceed 1150 F
as measured by temperature indicating crayons or other suitable
means. The girder shall not be artificially cooled until after
naturally cooling to 600
method of artificial cooling is subject to the approval of the Engineer.
( 4 I Posifion for Heoting

The girder may be heat-curved with the web in either a vertical or a hor izontal position. When curved in the vertical position,
the girder must be braced or supported in such a manner that the
tendency of the girder to dePect laterally during the heatcurving
process will not cause the girder to overturn.
When curved in the horizontal position, the gir6er must be
su pported near its ends and at intermediate points, if required, to
obtain a uniform curvature ; the bending stress in the flanges due
to the dead weight of the girder must not exceed the usual allowable design stress. When the girder is positioned horizontally for
heating, intermediate safety .catch blocks must be maintained at
the midlength of the girder within 2 inches of the flanges at all

CONSTRUCTION

times during the heating pi ocess to guard against a sudden sag

due to plastic flange buckling.

( 5 ) Seq ue nce of Opero tions

The girder shall be heat-cui ved in the fabrication shop before


it is painted. The heat curving operation may be conducted either
before or after all the required welding of ti-ansverse intermediate
stiffeners is completed. However, unless provisions are made for
girder shrinkage, connection plates and bearing stiffeners shall be
located and attached after heat curving. ID longitud inal stiffeners
are required, they shall be heat-curved or oxygen-cut separately
and then welded to the curved girder. When cover plates are to be
attached to rolled beams, they may be attached before heat curving
i:I the total th icknPss of one flange and cover plate is less than
2''z inches and the radius o:I curvature is greater than 1000 :feet.
For other rolled beams with cover plates, the beams must be heat
curved before the cover plates are attached ; cover plates must be

either heat curved on oxygen-cut separately and then welded to the


curved beam.

1 6 I Co in ber
Girders shall be cambered before heat curving. Camber for
rolled beams may be obtained by heatcambering methods approved
by the Engineer. For plate girders, the web shall be cut to the
prescribed camber with su itable allowance for shrinkage due to
cutting, vv elding, and heat curving." However, subject to the
approval of the Engineer, moderate deviations from specified
camber may be corrected by a carefully supervised application of

heat.
1 7I

Meosuremenf

of Curvoture

o nd Co in ber

Horizontal curvature and vertical camber shall not be meinsured :for final acceptance before all welding and heating operations
are completed and the flanges have cooled to a uniform temperature. Horizontal curvature shall be checked with the girdei in the
vertical position by measuring off-sets from a string line or wire

attached to both flanges or by using other suitable means ; camber


shall be checked by adequate means.

2.I 0.G FINISH


Portions of the work exposed to view shall be finished neatly. Shearing, Paine cutting and chipping shall be done carefully and accurately.
* The heat-c ui v i ny p recess in av ten d to change th e vcrtie.it camber p resent bet ore heati n g.
'Fh i s efF:eel shall be most p re n nun ced when th e top anl bottom flan lies a re of unequal wid the on
a give n Iranve rse cross section .

HIGHWAY BRIDGE S

2.10.7

2.10.7 RIVET AND BOLT HOLES


lAJ Holes for Rivets, High Strength Boils ond Unfinished Bolts *
All holes for rivets or bolts shall be either punched or drilled.

Material forming parts of a member composed of not more than five


thicknesses of metal may be punched >i inch larger than the nominal
diameter of the rivets or bolts whenever the thickness of the material ie
not greater than ?i inch for structural steel, /8 iRch for high-strength
steel or , inch for quenched and temperecl alloy steel, unless subpunchin g
and reaming is required under Article 2.10.10.
When there are more than five th icknesse9 OP When any of: the main
material is thicker than 'i inch l'or structural steel, /s inch for highstrength steel, or /e inch for quenched and tempered alloy steel, all holt29
shall either be subdrilled or drilled fu 11 s ize.
When requ ired u nder Article 2.10. 10, all hole9 shall be either subpunched or su bdrilled I subd rifled if thickness limitation governs)
*is inch smaller and, after assembling, reamed /is inch larger or drilled
:ful1 size to in inch larger than the nominal diameter of the rivets or
bolts.
When permitted by Aitic1e 1.7.5, enlarged or slotted holes are
billowed with hi gh sticngth bolts.
IBJ Holes for Ribbed Bolfs, Turned Bolts or other Approved Beoring Type
Bolts

All holes :f or ribbed bolts, turned bolts or other approved bearing-

type bolts shall be su bpu nched or subdrilled /is inch smaller than the
nominal diameter of the bolt and reamed assembled or to a steel template or, after assembl ing, dri fled from the solid at the option of the
Fabr icator. In any case the finished holes shall prov ide a driving fit as
specified on the plans or in the special provisions.

2.10.8 PUNCHED HOLES


The d iameter of the die shall not exceed the diameter of the punch by
more than Ze inch. If any holes must be enlarged to admit the rivets or
bolts, such holes shall be reamed. Holes must be clean cut without torn or
ragged edges. Poor matching of holes will be cause for rejection.

2.10.9 REAMED OR DRILLED HOLES


Reamed or drilled holes shall be cylindrical, perpendicular to the member and shall comply with the requ memento of Article 2. 10.7 as to 9ize.
Where practicable, reamers shall be directed by mechanical means. Burn
on the outside s urfaces shall be removed. Poor matching of holes will be
cause for rejection. Reaming and drilling shall be done with twist drills.
If required by the Eng i neer, assembled parts shall be taken apart for removal of bu rrs caused by drilling. Connecting parts requ iring reamed or
drilled holes shall be assembled and securely held while being reamed or
drilled an d shall be match marked before d isassemblin g.
See Art. 2.10.19 for bolte ructu ded in designation U n fi n ished Bolts.

2. 10. 10

CONSTRUCTION

317

2.J O. J O SUBPUNCHING AND READING OF FIELD CONNECTIONS


Unless otherwise specified in the special provisions or on the plans,
holes in all field connections and field splices of main members of trusses,
arches, continuo us beam spans, bents, towers (each face) , plate girders

and rigid frames shall be en bpunched (or su bd riIled if su bdrilli ng is re-

qu ired according to Article 2.10.7) and subsequentl y reamed wh ile assembled or to a steel template, as required by Article 2.10.14. All ho]ee for
floor beam and stri nger field end connections shall be subpu nched and
reamed to a steel template or reamed while assembled. Reaming or drilling :fu 11 size of field connection holes through a steel template shall be done
after the template ha9 been located with utmost care as to position and
angle and firmly bolted in place. Templates used for reaming matching
members, or the opposite faces of a single member, shall be exact duplicates. Templates used for connections on like parts or members shal I be
so accu rately located that the parts or members are duplicates and require
no match-marking.
For any connec tion, in lieti of su bp unch ing and rearing or subcl ril Iin and rea in ink , the M:th neater may, at hic option, drill holes f iI 11
size with all th rednesses of niatoriil asscrub led in Jroper port tion.
If add it ional sub-punching arid teaming is requ ired, it shall be specified in the special provisions or on the plans.

2. J O.1 1 ACCURACY OF PUNCHED AND DRILLED HOLES


All holes pu nched full size, subpu nched, or subdrilled shall be so ac-

curately punched that after assembling (before any reaming is done) a

cylindrical pin *8 inch smaller in diameter than the nominal size of the
punched hole may be entered perpend icu far to the face of the member,
without drifting, in at least 75 per cent o:I the contiguous holes in the

same plane. If the requirement is not f u lfilJed, the bad ly punched pieces
will be rejected. II any hole will not pass a pin /i inch smaller i n diameter
than the nominal size of the punched hole, th is will be cause for rejection.

2.1 0.J 2 ACCURACY OF REAMED AND DRILLED HOLES


When holes are reamed or drilled, 85 per cent of the holes in any
contiguous group shall, after roaming or drill ing, show no offset greater
than *3e inch between adjacent thicknesses of metal.
All steel templates shall have hardened steel bushings in holes accurately d i mens toned from the center l mcs of the connection ae inscribed
on the template. The center lines shall be used in locating accurately the
template from the milled or scribed ends of the members.

2.1 0.J 3 FITTING FOR RIVETING AND BOLTING


Surfaces of metal in contact shall be cleaned before assembling. The
parts of a member shall be assembled, wet I pinned, and firmly drawn together with bolts before reaming or riveting is commenced. Assembled
pieces shal I be taken apart, if necessary, for the removal of burrs and
shavings produced by the rearing operation. The member shall be free

from twists, bends, and other deformation.

318

Preparatory to the shop riveting of I:ull-sized punched material, the

rivet holes, if necessary, shall be spear-reamed for the admission of the


rivets. The reamed holes shall not be more than 1s inch larger than the
nominal diameter of the rivets.
End connection angles, stiffener angles, and similar parts shall be
carefully adjusted to correct position and bolted, clamped, or otherwise
firmly held in place until riveted.
Parts not completely riveted in the shop shall be secured by bolts, in
so I:ar as practicable, to prevent damage in shipment and handling.

2.10.14 SHOP ASSEMBLING


The field connections of main members of trusses, arches, continuous
beam spans, bents, towers ( each face) , plate girders and risid :frames shall
be assembled in the shop with milled ends of compression members in full
bearing, and then shall have their sub-size holes reamed to specified size
while the connections are assembled. Assembly shall be Full Truss or
Girder Assembly unless Progressive Truss or Girder Assembly, Full Chord
Assembly, Progressive Chord Assembly, or Special Complete Structure
Assembly is specified in the special provisions or on the plans.
IAJ Full Truss or Girder Assembly
Full Truss or Girder Assembly shall consist of assembling all member9 of each truss, arch rib, bent, tower face, continuous beam line, plate
girder or rigid frame at one time.
( BI

Progressive Truss or Girder Assembly

Progressive Truss or Girder Assembly shall consist o:I assembling


initially :for each trust, arch rib, bent, tower face, continuous beam line,
plate girder, or rigid frame at least three contigu ous shop sections or all
members in at least three contiguous panels but not less than the number of panels associated with three contiguous chord len Bths (i.e.,
length between field splices) and not less than 1150 feet in the case of
9tructures longer than 150 feet. At least one shop section or panel or as
many panels as are ssoc iated with a chord length shall be added at the
advancing end of the assembly before any member is removed from the
rearward end, so that the assembled portion of the structure is never less
than that specified above.
I C I Full Chord Assembly
Full Chord Assembly shall consist o:I assembling, with geometric
angles at the joints, the full length of each chord of each truss or open
spandrel arch, or each log of o:ich bent or tower, then reaming their
field connection holes while the members are a9sembled anl reaming
the web member connection s to steel templates set at geometric knot
cambered ) angular relation to the chord lines.
Field connection holes in web members shall be reamed to steel templates. At least one end of cach web member shall be milled or shall be

9cribed normal to the longitudinal :ixis of the member and the tem-

CON ST RUCTION

2. 10.14

319

plates at both ends of the member shall be accurately located from one
of the milled ends or scribed lines.
ID J Progressive Chord Assembly
Progressive Chord Assembly shall convict of aesembl ing contiguous

chord members in the manner spec ifiod for Full Chord Assembly and in

the number and length specified for Progressive Truss or Girder


Assembly.
I EA

Special Complete Structure Assembly

Special Complete Structure Assembly shall consist of assembling


the entire structu re, including the floor system. (This procedure is ordinarily needed only for complicated structures such as those having

curved girders, or extreme skew in combination with severe grade or

camber.)
Each assembly, inclu ding camber, alignment, accuracy of holes and
fit of milled joints, shall be approved by the Engineer before reaming ie
commenced.
A camber diagram shall be furnished the Engineer by the Fabricator showing the camber at each panel point of each truse, arch rib,
cont in uoue beam l me, plate girder or rigid frame. When the shop assembly is Full Truss or Girder Assembly or Special Complete Structure
Assembly, the camber d iagram shall show the camber measured in assembly. When any of the other methods of shop assembly is used, the
camber d iagram shall show calculated camber.

2.10.15 DRIFTING OF HOLES


The drifting done d uririg assembling shall be only such as to bring the
parts into position, and not sufficient to enlarge the holes or distort the
metal. If any holes must be en largcd to admit the rivets, they shall be
reamed.

2.10.16 MATCH-MARKING
Connecting parts assembled in the shop for the purpose of reaming
holes in field connections shall be match-marked, and a diagram showing
such marks shall be furnished the Engineer.

2.10.J 7 RIVETS
The Size of rivets c:illed for on the plans shall be the size before heating. Rivet heads shall be of standard shape, unless otherwise specified,
and of uniform size for the same diameter of rivet. They shall be full,
neatly made, concentric with the rivet holes, and in full contact with the
surfaces of the member.

?.10.18 FIELD RIVETS


Sufficient field rivets shall be :furnished to rivet the entire structure

with an ample surplus to replace all rivets burned, lost or cut out.

2.10.19 BOLTS AND BOLTED CONNECTIONS


The specifications of this article do not pertain to the use of high
strength bolts. Bolted connections fabricated with high strength bolts
shall conform to Article 2.10.20.
I Al

Generol

Bolts shall be unfin ished, turned or ribbed bolts conforming to the


reQ u irements for Grade A Bolts of Specification for Low-Carbon Steel
Externally and Internally Threaded lstandard Fasteners, ASTM A 307.
Bolted connections shall be used only as indicated by the plans or special
provisions. Bolts shall have single self-locking nuts or double nuts unless otherwise shown on the plans or in the special provie ions. Beveled
washers shall be used where bearing faces have a slope of more than
1 :20 with respect to a plane normal to the bolt axis.

Except as otherwise provided in this article, construction shall

conform to applicable specificati ons for riveted structures.


IBI

Unfinished Bolts
Unfinished bolts shall be furnished unless other types are specified.

I CJ Turned Boils
The s u rface of the body of turned bolts shall meet the ANSI
rori ghness rating value of 126. Heads and nuts shall be hexagonal with
standard dimensions for bolts of the nominal size specified or the next

larger nominal size. Diameter of threads shall be equal to the body of


the