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MMV211 Fluid Mechanics

Answers to theory questions; only a few figures


Pages refer to 7th Edition in SI Units (F. M. White, Fluid Mechanics).
(C. Norberg, August 27, 2014)
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 What is the fundamental difference between a solid and a fluid?
A solid can resist a shear stress by static deformation; a fluid can not. Any shear stress applied
to a fluid, whatever small it may be, will result in motion.
1.2 Give a practical definition of the density of a fluid. Illustrate with a figure.
See Fig. 1.4. Consider a fluid that is known to be non-homogeneous, either a liquid or a gas at not
to low a pressure. We want to calculate the local density, the local mass per unit volume. When
considering, for instance, a cubical element surrounding a mathematical point, we can calculate
the ratio between the mass of the cubical element and its volume. For large elemental volumes
there are some variations due to the assumed non-homogeneity. With a successive decrease in the
volume the ratio (density) will become a constant, and remains so down to cube side lengths that
are indeed very small, of the order microns (m), i.e., a cube volume of the order V = 1 (m)3 .
This small length is called the continuum limit. However, for even smaller cubes the ratio will be
ill-defined, due to that the volume now contains too few molecules to get a well-defined value.
1.3 (a) For newtonian fluids, shear stresses are proportional to corresponding shear strain rates. For
a simple shear flow, V = u(y)i, show that the shear stress is proportional to du/dy.
Consider a small cubical element, at the continuum limit. As a thought experiment, now release
the fluid element, with its lower side at y, upper side at y + y. After a small time t the element
deforms in the xy-plane due to the shear action, see Fig. 1.6. If velocity increases with y, the
higher velocity on the upper side (u + u) means that this side slides further to the right (in
x-direction) compared to the lower side, shear angle , sliding length difference ut. Since t
is small, (u/y)t. In the limit t 0, d/dt = du/dy. Since d/dt is the shear strain
rate, the shear stress is proportional to du/dy (the proportionality constant being the dynamic
viscosity ).
(b) Discuss and illustrate with diagrams some possible characteristics of non-newtonian fluids.
See Fig. 1.9. When plotting shear stress vs. shear strain rate d/dt (Fig. 1.9, left), a newtonian
fluid appears as a straight line, the gradient (slope) being the viscosity. For a dilatant fluid, also
called a shear-thickening fluid, the gradient (the apparent viscosity) increases with d/dt. For
a pseudoplastic fluid, also called a shear-thinning fluid, the gradient (the apparent viscosity)
decreases with d/dt. The so-called Ideal Bingham fluid behaves like a solid up to a certain yield
stress, for higher stresses it behaves like a newtonian fluid. For a newtonian fluid, when exerted to
a constant shear rate, there is no time-dependency of the shear stress (Fig. 1.9, right). However,
for a rheopectic fluid, the shear stress increases with time; for a thixotropic fluid it decreases (the
apparent viscosity decreases).
1.4 State the SI-dimensions of dynamic and kinematic viscosity, respectively. Also provide approximate values (with two significant digits) for water and air at standard room conditions (20 C,
1 atm). At around standard room conditions, what are the separate effects of changing the
pressure and temperature, respectively?
[] = Pa s; [] = m2 /s ( = /). At standard room conditions (Table 1.4), water = 1.0
103 Pa s, water = 1.0 106 m2 /s; air = 18 106 Pa s, air = 15 106 m2 /s. water
decreases with temperature, air increases. For both water and air, is only dependent of temperature (except extreme conditions), as is for water since density is (more or less) only dependent on temperature. For air, increases with pressure so air decreases with pressure for a
given temperature; since decreases with temperature, air increases with temperature for a given
pressure.
1

1.5 Explain or define (a) streamline, (b) particle path, (c) streak line.
(a) Everywhere along a streamline the velocity vector is tangent vector, see Fig. 1.16. (b) A
particle path is the actual path of a fluid element. (c) A streak line is the locus of fluid elements
(combined to a line) that previously were released from a certain point in the flow field.
Chapter 2 Pressure Distribution in a Fluid
2.1 Derive the hydrostatic balance equation p = g, valid for a fluid at rest.

In general, the pressure is a scalar point function, p = p(x, y, z, t), and it acts inward on surfaces
surrounding a point. Consider a fluid element surrounding a specific point, see Fig. 2.2, but let
the point instead be at the center of the element with sides dx, dy and dz. Since the element is
so small the pressure can be treated as constant on each surface, but not necessarily equal to the
center pressure p if the pressure varies. On the surface at x+dx/2, with area dy dz, the pressure is
p+(p/x)(+dx/2), on surface at xdx/2 (same area) it is p+(p/x)(dx/2). The net pressure
(p)
(p)
force in the x-direction then is Fx = (p/x)dx dy dz. Similarly, Fy = (p/y)dx dy dz,
(p)
and Fz = (p/z)dx dy dz, i.e., F(p) = (dx dy dz)p. The gravity force on the element is
(dx dy dz)g, where g is the gravitational acceleration vector. Since the fluid is at rest, the net
force on the element is zero, which means that p = g.

2.2 Derive the manometer formula p = (m )g h , where h is the manometer reading (height), m
the density of the manometer liquid and p the pressure difference across two horizontal points
in the fluid of density (U-tube manometer, see Example 2.3).
Connect a U-tube manometer in between two points of a horizontal part of a pipe, across a flow
device with an assumed pressure difference, see Fig. E2.3. The horizontal points (a) and (b)
are at the connections of the U-tube legs, the pressure at (a) is assumed to be highest (pa > pb ).
The manometer liquid density is m , the pipe fluid density is , both assumed to be constant.
The height difference of the manometer is h; L is the vertical distance between the highest level
of the manometer liquid and the horizontal at (a) and (b). Within the manometer legs there is
a hydrostatic variation, since the fluids within them are at rest, with pressure increasing linearly
downwards. Within the same (connected) fluid at rest, the pressure is the same at a given
elevation (Pascals law). Starting from (a), the pressure at the level for the manometer liquid is
pa + gL + gh, which then must be the same pressure when coming to this horizontal from (b),
i.e., pb + gL + m gh = pa + gL + gh, which means that pa pb = p = (m )gh.
Chapter 3 Integral Analysis
3.1 (a) Provide general definitions of volume flow rate and mass flow rate through a surface. Illustrate
with a figure.
Consider an elemental area dA, with unit normal vector n, on an arbitrary surface S within a
flow field, see Fig. 3.1(a). The volume flow rate through this elemental area isR(V n) dA, where
n) dA. The
(V n) = Vn is the area normal velocity. The total volume flow rate is Q = S (V
R
mass flow rate through dA is Vn dA, which means that the total mass flux is m
= S (V n) dA.

(b) Show that the mean (average) velocity for laminar fully developed flow in a pipe of circular
cross section is equal to half the velocity at the centerline. The velocity profile is parabolic.

In general, the mean (average) velocity through an arbitrary surface is V = Q/A, where Q is the
volume flow rate and A is the area of the surface. For a surface normal to the flow within a pipe
of radius R, the cross-sectional area is A = R2 . With
a mean velocity profile u(r) across the
RR
u(r)
2r
dr. For fully developed laminar
pipe, r being the local radius, the flow rate is Q =
 0

flow, the parabolic velocity profile is u(r) = uCL 1 (r/R)2 ,Rwhere uCL is the velocity at the
centerline. Introducing = r/R, the flow rate is Q = 2R2 uCL 01 (1 2 ) d = R2 uCL /2. This
shows that V = uCL /2.
3.2 Let B be an arbitrary extensive property and b the same property but expressed per unit mass.
For a fixed and non-deforming control volume with one inlet (1) and one outlet (2), both assumed
one-dimensional, the Reynolds transport theorem, at stationary conditions, reads:
2

d
Bsys = (b V A)2 (b V A)1
dt
State without proof the Reynolds transport theorem for an arbitrarily moving but still nondeforming control volume, at non-stationary conditions. Illustrate the convective part in a figure.
For an arbitrarily moving but non-deformable control volume (CV):
d
Bsys =
dt

(b ) dV +
t

CV

CS

b (V n)dA

where n is a unit normal vector corresponding to the surface element dA on the control surface
(CS), pointing out from the control volume; dV is a volume element within the control volume; V
is the local fluid velocity vector relative to a coordinate system fixed to the control volume. [When
using some other (non-moving) coordinate system, V should be replaced with the control-surface
relative velocity vector Vr = V Vs , where V is the local fluid velocity vector and Vs is the local
surface velocity vector, see Fig. 3.4].
3.3 (a) Explain briefly what is meant by the concept of incompressible flow.
Incompressible flow means that the density of the fluid can be treated as a constant.
(b) Assuming stationary one-dimensional incompressible flow, state without proof the momentum
integral equation applicable to a control volume with one inlet and one outlet. Give a full
account for different terms and properties. How can this equation be modified to include velocity
variations across the inlet and outlet? Calculate the correction coefficient () for the case of fully
developed laminar flow in a straight pipe (circular cross section).
The sum of forces acting on the control volume equals the net outflow of momentum per unit
time, i.e.,
X

F = m(V

out Vin )

where m
is the mass flow rate through CV and V is the fluid velocity vector with respect to a
coordinate system fixed to CV. When accounting for velocity variations across inlet and outlet
the equation can be written as
X

F=m
[(V)out (V)in ]

where V is the velocity vector based on the mean velocity V = Q/A; is the momentum flux
correction factor, which for a cross-section perpendicular to the flow is
1

=A

(u/V )2 dA

where
u is the local velocity. For fully developed laminar flow in a pipe of radius R, u(r) =

uCL 1 (r/R)2 . For this flow,R uCL /V = 2. The cross-section area is A = R2 ; dA = 2r dr.
By introducing = r/R, = 8 01 (1 2 )2 d = 4/3.

3.4 Assuming stationary one-dimensional incompressible flow, state without proof the energy integral
equation applicable to a control volume with one inlet and one outlet (extended Bernoulli equation). Give a full account for different terms and properties. How can this equation be modified
to include velocity variations across the inlet and outlet? Calculate the correction coefficient ()
for the case of fully developed laminar flow in a straight pipe of circular cross section.
The energy equation reads
V2
p
+
+z
g
2g

=
in

p
V2
+
+z
g
2g
3

out

+ hf hP + hT

p is the static pressure; is the fluid density, g is the gravitational acceleration; V is the velocity; z
is the mid-section vertical coordinate (upwards); hf is the head loss; hP and hT are the pump and
turbine heads, respectively. The terms within the parentheses are called the total head, V 2 /(2g)
is called the dynamic head. When accounting for cross-sectional velocity variations, the dynamic
head can be written as V 2 /(2g), where V is the mean velocity (V = Q/A), and is the kinetic
energy correction factor, which can be calculated from
1

=A

(u/V )3 dA

where
u is the local velocity. For fully developed laminar flow in a pipe of radius R, u(r) =

uCL 1 (r/R)2 . For this flow, RuCL /V = 2. The cross-section area is A = R2 ; dA = 2r dr.
By introducing = r/R, = 16 01 (1 2 )3 d = 2, since (1 2 )3 = 3 3 + 3 5 7 .

Chapter 4 Differential Analysis

4.1 A velocity field is described in a cartesian coordinate system xyz. Use the rule of chains to
express the material (substantial) acceleration in local and convective terms. Give a physical
description of each term.
The acceleration a of a fluid particle is equal to the time derivative of its velocity, a = dV/dt. In
cartesian coordinates, V = (u, v, w), where u = dx/dt, v = dy/dt, w = dz/dt. The coordinates
of the particle are dependent on time, i.e.,
a=

V V dx V dy V dz
d
V[ t, x(t), y(t), z(t) ] =
+
+
+
dt
t
x dt
y dt
z dt

This means that


a=

V
+ (V )V
t

where = (/x, /y, /z) is the gradient operator. The first term is acceleration due to local
time variations, it vanishes in steady flow. The second term is called the convective derivative
and it expresses the acceleration of a fluid particle when it moves (convects) in the flow field.
4.2 Derive the differential form of the continuity equation using a cartesian coordinate system. After
this, specialize to incompressible flow conditions.
Consider a fixed control volume (CV) surrounding a specific point, see Fig. 4.1. Through
Reynolds transport theorem (with b = 1), mass balance requires
Z

(/t) dV +

CV

CS

(V n) dA =

dmsys
=0
dt

For a differential CV in cartesian coordinates, there is no need for a volume integration in the
first term, it can be replaced with (/t)dx dy dz. The second term is the net mass flux out of the
P
CV, m
net,out . Consider first the x-direction. The net mass flux out of CV in this direction is
( m
x /x) dx. Variations over the control surfaces (CS) can be neglected, i.e., m
x = ( u)dy dz.
Other two directions in the same manner gives the total net outflow of mass per unit time:


( u) +
( v) +
( w) dx dy dz = [(V)] dx dy dz
x
y
z


Dividing with the constant volume (dx dy dz) gives

+ (V) = 0
t
Incompressible conditions means that density can be treated as a constant, i.e.,
V =

u v w
+
+
=0
x y
z
4

4.3 Show that Ma2 1 is a necessary condition for incompressible flow. Provide an engineering
estimate of Ma for which the flow has to be treated as compressible.
Consider, as a special case, one-dimensional steady flow along a horizontal streamline. The
differential continuity equation (local mass balance) requires
d
dV
d
(V ) =
+V
=0
dx
dx
dx
A constant fluid density ( = const.) implies |V (d/dx)| | dV /dx|, which means |/|
|V /V |. Neglect viscous forces. Local momentum balance then requires dp + V dV = 0 (Bernoulli
equation). Also neglect heat transfer, i.e., isentropic flow. Then dp = a2 d, where a is the velocity
of sound. When combined with Bernoulli equation, after division with a2 ,
dV
d
+ (V /a)2
= 0 |/| = Ma2 |V /V |

V
Combined with |/| |V /V | yields Ma2 1, which then is a necessary condition for incompressible flow. The engineering estimate is that the flow has to be treated as compressible if
Ma > 0.3.
4.4 (a) Define the stress tensor ij in a flowing fluid, expressed in terms of the viscous stress tensor
ij and the pressure p. What symmetry condition is normally valid for ij ?
(a) The stress tensor can be written as ij = pij + ij , where p is the pressure, ij is the
Kronecker delta; ij = 1 for i = j, zero otherwise, and ij is the viscous stress tensor. Unless the
fluid exhibits local moments, the stress tensor is symmetric, ji = ij .
(b) Illustrate the components 11 , 22 , 12 and 21 in a figure (12 = xy , . . . ).
See Fig. 4.3. In general, ij is the force per unit area acting in the j-direction on a surface
i = const. For instance, 12 = xy is the (viscous shear) stress component in the y-direction
that acts in a plane x = const. Stresses with i = j are called normal stresses, others are shear
stresses.
(c) Define xy for a newtonian fluid using cartesian coordinates.
xy = yx = (u/y + v/x), where is the dynamic viscosity.
4.5 Using cartesian coordinates, write out the continuity equation as well as the x-component of the
momentum equation for incompressible flow of a newtonian fluid with constant fluid properties.
Continuity equation, incompressible flow: V = 0, which means u/x + v/y + w/z = 0.
Momentum equation, incompressible flow of a newtonian fluid with constant fluid properties,
cartesian coordinates: dV/dt = p + 2 V. Out-written in the x-direction:
u
u
u
u
du
=
+u
+v
+w

dt
t
x
y
z


2u 2u 2u
p
+
+ 2 + 2
=
x
x2
y
z

4.6 Write out the divergence applied to the velocity field V = (u, v, w) in cartesian coordinates.
What does this scalar quantity represent physically?
With = (/x, /y, /z), V = u/x + v/y + w/z, which represents the relative
volume change of a fluid element, per unit time. It equals zero in incompressible flow.
4.7 Consider, at zero time, a cubical infinitesimal fluid element in a flow field. Kinematically, the
instantaneous effects on this element from the flow field can be sub-divided into four elementary
motions. Define and describe these elementary motions. Illustrate with a figure.
Decomposition of the general motion (dt 0): 1. pure translation (no deformation or rotation);
2. linear deformation (normal strain rate); 3. rotation (no deformation); 4. angular deformation
(shear strain rate).
5

4.8 (a) State the general definition of the vorticity vector at a point in a flow field. What does
it represent physically? Write out, in cartesian coordinates, the components of this vector.
Verify that the vorticity vector only has one component for two-dimensional flow in a plane;
V = (u, v, 0), where u(x, y), v(x, y).
= V represents twice the instantaneous anti-clockwise rotational rate of a fluid element.

The curl of the velocity vector, V, can be written as a determinant,


i

w v

y
z

i+

u w

z
x

j+

u
v

x y

If V = (u, v, 0), where u(x, y) and v(x, y), the vorticity vector is = V = (0, 0, v/x
u/y), i.e., x = y = 0, z = v/x u/y.

(b) Show that the only component of the vorticity vector for two-dimensional flow in a plane
can be interpreted as twice the instantaneous anti-clockwise rotational rate of the diagonal in a
infinitesimal fluid element, initially being quadratic.
See Fig. 4.10. Consider infinitesimal deformations of the fluid element, during a vanishing time
increment dt 0. Due to the differential change in the vertical velocity v in the x-direction, the
material line BC turns, the anti-clockwise turning angle for dt 0 being d = (v/x)dx dt/dx.
Similarly, due to the change of u in y-direction, the clock-wise turning angle of the material line
BA is d = (u/y)dy dt/dy. For dx = dy, the anti-clockwise turning angle of the diagonal is
(d d)/2. The diagonal turning rate (around the z-axis) is (d/dt d/dt)/2 = (v/x
u/y)/2 = z .
(c) How is it possible for an initially irrotational flow to become locally rotational, i.e., to possess
vorticity? State at least two mechanisms.
A fluid element might exhibit a tendency to rotate due to: 1. viscous shear forces (Fig. 4.11a);
2. density gradients (stratification); 3. non-inertial effects such as the Coriolis acceleration from
the earths rotation; 4. entropy gradients caused by curved shock waves (Fig. 4.11b).
4.9 Consider two-dimensional incompressible flow in a plane, V = (u, v, 0), where u(x, y), v(x, y).
(a) Define the stream function through implicit expressions using u and v. Also show that
satisfies the Laplace equation 2 = 0 when the the flow is irrotational.

is defined so that the continuity equation is fulfilled identically. In cartesian coordinates, the
continuity equation reads: u/x + v/y = 0, which is satisfied if u = /y, v = /x.
Irrotational flow means that z = v/x u/y = 0, which implies 2 /x2 2 /y 2 =
2 = 0, i.e., 2 = 0.
(b) Show that = const. represents streamlines and that the difference in between two
streamlines is equal to the volume rate per unit width.

Along a line = const., d = 0; = (x, y) d = (/x) dx+(/y) dy. According to the


definition of : d = v dx + u dy = 0. An infinitesimal vector along a streamline, (dx, dy, 0), is
parallel to the velocity vector (u, v, 0), i.e., v/u = dy/dx or u dy v dx = 0 = d. Now consider
two nearby streamlines, the differential difference in the stream function being d. Since there
can not be any velocity component across a streamline the volume flow rate per unit width between
these two lines is a constant; and
it can be calculated as dQ/b = dq = u dyv dx = d (Fig. 4.8),
R
which means that Q/b = q = 12 d = 2 1 .
6

Chapter 5 Dimensional Analysis and Similarity


5.1 (a) What is the principle of dimensional homogeneity, PDH?
All terms in a valid physical-mathematical expression must have the same dimensions. This is
the principle of dimensional homogeneity, PDH.
(b) What are the MLT-dimensions for dynamic (absolute) viscosity , heat conductivity k and
power P (work per unit time)?
See Table 5.1. Simple shear flow: = (du/dy), which from PDH in (a) means that {} =
{ }/{du/dy}, where { } means the dimension of. Primary MLT-dimensions: M for mass,
L for length, T for time, and for temperature, respectively. Shear stress is shear force per unit
area, i.e., in SI-units, { } = N/m2 . Since force (N) is mass (kg) times acceleration (m/s2 ),
N/m2 = kg/(ms2 ) = ML1 T2 . Finally, since {du/dy} = {u}/{y} = (m/s)/m = s1 = T1 ,
{} = ML1 T1 . Simple heat conduction: Q = k(dT /dy)A, where Q is heat flux per unit

= J/s =
time, {k} = {Q}{dT
/dy}1 {A}1 . Heat has the same dimension as energy, i.e., {Q}
2
2
3
Nm/s. {dT /dy} = K/m, and {A } = m , {k} = N/(s K) = kg m/(s K), which means that
{k} = MLT3 1 , where is the primary dimension for temperature. Power P is work per unit
time; work has same dimension as energy (J = Nm), i.e. {P } = Nm/s, i.e., {P } = kg m2 /s3 =
ML2 T3 .
(c) State the -theorem, in words.
A physical process described as a valid relation between n dimensional variables that satisfies
PDH can be reduced to an equally valid relation between k = n j non-dimensional variables, socalled -groups. The reduction j is the number of dimensional variables, containing all prevailing
primary dimensions, that among themselves cannot form a -group, and it is always less than
or equal to the number of primary dimensions in the original relation.
5.2 Define the Strouhal number (St) for periodic vortex shedding downstream of a circular cylinder
of diameter d, exposed to a constant flow velocity U perpendicular to the cylinder axis. Assuming
incompressible flow, state an approximate value of the Strouhal number over the interval Re =
U d/ = 300 105 .
Strouhal number, St = fS d/U , where fS is the vortex shedding (or Strouhal) frequency. For
incompressible flow and Re = U d/ = 300 105 , St 0.2; see Fig. 5.2, or Fig. 7 in PM for
Lab 2b.

5.3 Explain briefly


(a) homologous points and homologous times
Assume that all physical coordinates of a certain geometrical situation are made dimensionless
using a length scale L. A specific point in this dimensionless coordinate system is then a homologous point to all other coordinate systems, whatever L may be; same relative location, see
Fig. 5.7. Assume that the flow within the specific geometry also involves a velocity scale U . A
dimensionless time tU/L is then a homologous time for this flow-geometry situation, whatever
(the time scale) L/U may be.
(b) geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity

For geometric similarity all spatial dimensions in model and prototype conditions should be scaled
in the same linear scale ratio, = Lm /Lp , where L is a (characteristic) length scale. If geometric
similarity is fulfilled and all fluid velocities at homologous points and times are in the same ratio,
in model and prototype scales, then the flow-geometric situation is kinematically similar. As
stated in the text-book (page 331): The motions of two systems are kinematically similar if
homologous particles lie at homologous points at homologous times. If geometric similarity is
fulfilled and all forces acting on fluid particles are in the same ratio at homologous points and
times, in model and prototype scales, then the flow-geometric situation is dynamically similar,
i.e., force polygons look the same (are similar) at homologous points and homologous times, see
Fig. 5.7. If the flow is dynamically similar it is also kinematically so, at least for incompressible
flow.
5.4 In practical cases concerning free-surface flows, most model tests have to renounce on the principle
of dynamic similarity. Explain why.
For dynamic similarity it is required that both Froude and Reynolds numbers are equal at model
and prototype
conditions, Frm = Frp and Rem = Rep . Since Fr = U 2 /(gL) this requires that
q

Um /Up = Lm /Lp = (assuming gm = gp ). Since Re = U L/, it is also required to have

m /p = (Lm /Lp )(Um /Up ) = . Most model test are carried out with models that are smaller
than the prototype, <
1. For easy numbers, assume = Lm /Lp = 0.09. Equal Froude number
then requires Um /Up = 0.09 = 0.3; since velocity now is fixed, an equal Reynolds number then
requires m /p = 0.30.09 = 0.027. However, since p is mostly for water the kinematic viscosity
in the model tests then should be only about 3% of this value, and it is in fact impossible to find
such a liquid. Even mercury, the liquid with the lowest kinematic viscosity, only has about oneninth the kinematic viscosity of water. (Free-surface flow model tests are usually carried out in
water at the correct Froude number, but at a much to low Reynolds number; effects of Reynolds
number then need to be estimated from extrapolation.)
5.5 For incompressible flow conditions, the drag D on a smooth spherical (and solid) object depends
only on the diameter d, fluid viscosity , fluid density and flow velocity U .
(a) Define the conventional drag coefficient CD , and show, using dimensional analysis, that CD
only depends on the Reynolds number.
By definition:
CD =

8D
2D
= {A = d2 /4} =
2
U A
U 2 d2

Dimensional relation: D = f (d, , , U ); five independent variables, n = 5. By inspection of


dimensions it can be seen that the relation only contains three primary dimensions, M, L, and
T, e.g., {} = ML1 T1 . , U and d contain all three primary dimensions and they cannot
be combined to a dimensionless quantity (only contains M, only U contains T). Thus, the
reduction is j = 3; k = n j = 2 means that the relation can be reduced to 1 = g(2 ),
where 1 and 2 are dimensionless. By inspection it can be seen that U 2 d2 has the same
dimension as D; for instance V 2 has the same dimension as pressure, which is a force per unit
area; 1 = D/(U 2 d2 ). A (well-known) non-dimensional combination of , U , d and is the
Reynolds number, Re = U d/ = 2 . Comparison with the above definition above shows that
CD = CD (Re).
(b) Suggest an alternative drag coefficient that does not include the flow velocity. Explain why
this coefficient could be more appropriate to use, in some cases.
See Example 5.11. If CD is a function of Re only, it means that that also CD Re2 is. Since Re V ,
CD U 2 , CD = CD Re2 does not contain the velocity. In this case, CD = CD Re2 = 8D/(2 ).
When plotted against Re the graph (or functional relationship) can be used conveniently to get
the velocity directly from a measurement of the drag (for a certain diameter and known fluid
properties); , , D CD Re (graph, formula) U using d; see Fig. 5.11.
8

5.6 Show that the Reynolds, Froude and Weber number, respectively, each is a measure of a ratio
between certain fluid forces in a flow field (mass times acceleration = inertia force; [] = N/m).
Definitions: Re = U L/, Fr = U 2 /(gL), We = U 2 L/, where U is a characteristic velocity,
L is a characteristic length; and are the density and dynamic viscosity of the fluid; is
the surface tension coefficient at the liquid (fluid)-gas interface. Let Fi = ma represent inertial
force, F viscous force, Fg = mg gravitational force, and F surface tension force, acting on a
fluid element in the flow. Since acceleration is change of velocity per unit time, a = dV /dt
U/(L/U ) = U 2 /L; mass is proportional to L3 , which means that Fi L2 U 2 . In simple shear
flow, F = (du/dy)A (U/L)L2 = U L. This shows that Fi /F U L/ = Re. Since
Fg L3 g it follows that Fi /Fg U 2 /(gL) = Fr. Finally, since F L it follows that
Fi /F U 2 L/ = We.
5.7 Ekman (Ek) and Rossby (Ro) numbers are of importance in rotating flows.1 Ekman number is a
measure of the ratio between frictional (viscous) and Coriolis (fictional) forces on a fluid element;
Rossby number correspondingly between inertial and Coriolis forces. Define these two numbers
if is a characteristic angular rate of rotation (characteristic velocity U ; length L).
Coriolis acceleration: 2 V.

Let Fi represent the inertial force on a fluid element, mass times (linear) acceleration. Like-wise,
let F represent the (fictional) Coriolis force. With characteristic length L, characteristic velocity
U , and fluid density , the mass is proportional to L3 . (Linear) acceleration is velocity change
per unit time, which means that it is proportional to U/(L/U ) = U 2 /L, i.e., Fi U 2 L2 . Let F
represent viscous force. In simple shear flow, F = (du/dy)A (U/L)L2 = U L. From the
given definition, the Coriolis acceleration is proportional to U , i.e., F L3 U . This shows
that (i) F /F /(L2 ) = /(L2 ) = Ek, (ii) Fi /F U/(L) = Ro.
Chapter 6 Viscous Flows in Ducts
6.1 Make a sketch on the variation of pressure and the velocity profile development for stationary
flow in a horizontal pipe connected to a large reservoir. The pipe inlet is well rounded. State an
approximate expression for the entrance length at laminar flow conditions.
See Fig. 6.6, (Le /d)lam 0.06 Re.
6.2 Define the hydraulic diameter Dh in pipe and duct flows. Find the hydraulic diameter for a
circular and a square cross-section. In engineering calculations, state the commonly accepted
Reynolds number over which the flow can be regarded as fully turbulent.
Hydraulic diameter, Dh = 4A/P, where A is the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the flow,
P is the wetted perimeter. For a circular cross-section, A = d2 /4, P = d Dh = d; square:
A = s2 , P = 4s Dh = s. With Reynolds number based on Dh , ReDh , it is commonly accepted
in engineering duct flows that the flow is fully turbulent when ReDh > 4000.
6.3 Derive the Hagen-Poiseuille formula for the volume flow rate in a straight circular pipe with fully
developed laminar flow. The suggested starting point is a force balance on a cylindrical (and
horizontal) element.
Force balance on a horizontal cylindrical element with radius r (pipe radius R) and length L:
(p1 p2 )r 2 2rL = 0, where = (du/dr). Cleaning up gives du/dr = C1 r, where
C1 = (p1 p2 )/(2L) > 0. Integration gives u = C1 r 2 /2 + C2 . For r = R the velocity is zero
(no-slip), i.e., C2 = C1 R2 /2, which gives u = (C1 R2 /2)[1 (r/R)2 ]. Maximum velocity for r = 0
(pipe center), C1 R2 /2 = umax . The volume flow rate is
Q=

u(r) 2r dr = 2umax R

(1 2 ) d = R2 umax /2

This shows that Q = R4 (p1 p2 )/(8L), which is the Hagen-Poiseuille formula.


1

Ekman and Rossby were Swedes; Vagn Walfrid Ekman (18741954) professor at Lund University 19101939.

6.4 Define the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f for pipe flow. How is the (major) pressure loss
calculated? What can be stated generally for f in fully developed laminar duct flow, regardless
of the cross section?
The pressure loss due to wall friction can be written as
pf = f

L V 2
Dh 2

This defines the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor f ; V is the mean velocity (V = Q/A), L is the
pipe length, and Dh is the hydraulic diameter (Dh = 4A/P). For fully developed laminar duct
flow, flam = C/ReDh , where C depends on the type of cross-section (circular: C = 64).
6.5 Make an account for the text-books recommended scheme of obtaining the pressure loss over
a certain length in a duct of constant but non-circular cross section, assuming fully developed
turbulent flow. The expression for the corresponding pressure loss in fully developed laminar
flow is known.
The recommended scheme is to use the concept of effective diameter to calculate the friction
factor, f = (Reeff , /Deff ), e.g. from Haalands formula, eq. (6.49); Reeff = V Deff /. By
definition, the frictional pressure loss (major loss) is calculated from pf = f (L/Dh )V 2 /2,
where Dh is the hydraulic diameter, and L is the pipe length. The concept is based on that the
laminar friction factor is forced to be flam = 64/Reeff . Since flam = C/ReDh , where C is known,
it follows that
64
Reeff
Deff
=
=
Dh
ReDh
C
6.6 (a) Make a sketch of mean velocity profiles in fully developed laminar and turbulent flow in a
pipe (circular cross section). In turbulent flow, what is the influence of Reynolds number?
See Fig. 6.11. The laminar profile is a parabolic curve. For turbulent flow, an increased
Reynolds number gives a more flat profile in the middle but a stronger variation closer to the
wall (steeper velocity gradient).
(b) State an approximate power-law expression for the mean velocity profile in fully developed
turbulent pipe flow. Use this expression to determine the ratio between the average velocity and
the mean velocity at the center of the pipe. What is the influence of Reynolds number?
Approximate velocity profile, fully turbulent flow: u/umax (1 r/R)m , where the exponent
0 < m < 1 decreases with increasing Re. Let = r/R, i.e., u/umax = (1 )m . The flow rate is
Q=

u 2r dr = 2R umax

(1 )m d

After the substitution (1 = , d = d) the integral becomes


Z

(1 ) d =

( m m+1 ) d =

1
1
1

=
m+1 m+2
(m + 1)(m + 2)

Since Q = R2 V , V /umax = 2(m + 1)1 (m + 2)1 . (Re 5 104 : m = 1/7, V /umax = 0.82.)
6.7 Make a sketch in a semi-logarithmic diagram of the time-mean velocity profile for pipe flow or a
fully developed turbulent boundary-layer. Use inner scaling for velocity and distance from wall,
u+ and y + , which both should be defined. Mark out different regions in the diagram and state,
if possible, pertinent expressions for the velocity in these regions. For boundary-layers, what is
the influence of pressure gradient? What is the influence of wall roughness?
See Fig. 6.10, linear vertical axis with u+ = u/u , logarithmic horizontal axis withpy + = u y/,
where y is the vertical distance from the wall; u is the friction velocity, u = w /. Very
10

close to the wall, in the viscous sublayer (y + 5), there is a linear velocity variation, u+ =
y + . For high enough Reynolds numbers, there is a layer (sometimes called the overlap layer)
with a logarithmic velocity variation, u+ = 1 ln y + + B, where 0.41; for a smooth wall
(u / = + < 5), B 5.0. The logarithmic variation is valid within 50/u < y < 0.25,
where is the boundary layer thickness; for a pipe = R. For y/ > 0.25, the velocity is higher
than indicated from the logarithmic function. For boundary layers, the deviation increases with
increasing pressure gradient. (For pipe flow, the maximum deviation only is about one unit of
u+ .) On roughness effects and if + > 5, there is a downward shift of the logarithmic function,
i.e., B decreases with increasing + , see Fig. 6.12(a).
6.8 Explain in detail how a Pitot-static tube (Prandtl tube) works and derive an expression for the
velocity. State an approximate condition for the expression to be valid and discuss advantages
and disadvantages of this method for measuring local velocity.
See Fig. 6.30. Neglecting viscous effects the Bernoulli equation along the (assumed horizontal)
stagnation streamline approaching the probe gives: p + U 2 /2 = p0 , where p0 is the stagnation pressure at the tip, U is the (undisturbed) fluid velocity, p is the (undisturbed) fluid static
pressure. By its special design, the pressure at the position of the circumferentialpholes on the
Prandtl tube, about 8 tip diameters downstream, is equal to p. This gives U = 2(p0 p)/.
A simple measurement of the pressure difference (p0 p), and known fluid density gives the
fluid velocity. The approximate condition for validity is ReD > 100, based on the tip diameter D
(not ReD > 1000 as stated in the book). The probe is robust, reliable, and rather insensitive to
yaw misalignment, see figure insert. A disadvantage is that it is only possible to measure slowly
varying velocities; another is that the probe is intrusive, it might affect the flow development.
6.9 Describe briefly the concept of hot-wire anemometry (HWA). State some advantages and disadvantages with this method of measuring local velocity, as compared with some other method.
See pages 421/2, and PM for lab 2b. The laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA, see page 422 and
Fig. 6.29h) is a candidate for comparison.
6.10 Describe two ways of measuring volume flow rate in a pipe. The two methods should be based
on different basic principles.
See pages 423 to 436; turbine meter (Figs. 6.32/3), vortex meter (Fig. 6.34), ultrasonic flowmeter (Fig. 6.35), rotameter (Fig. 6.36), Coriolis mass flowmeter (Fig. 6.37), laminar flow
element (Fig. 6.38), and flowmeters based on the Bernoulli obstruction theory, e.g. the Venturi
meter, the thin-plate orifice, or the flow nozzle (Fig. 6.40).
Chapter 7 Boundary Layers and Flow past Immersed Bodies
7.1 (a) Give a practical definition of the boundary layer thickness .
The most common practical definition: = 99 , where 99 is the vertical distance from the wall to
the point where the velocity equals 99% of the velocity outside the boundary layer, u(y = 99 ) =
0.99 U .
(b) How does vary along a flat, wide plate when exposed to a tangential oncoming flow?
Power-law expressions in different regions should be stated. Illustrate with a figure.
See Fig. 7.1. Close to the leading edge the boundary layer is laminar (laminar boundary layer,
LBL). Eventually, for a long enough plate, there will be transition to a turbulent boundary layer
(TBL). The transition normally starts within 5105 < Rex < 3106 , see Fig. 7.6; Rex = U x/
is based on the distance x from the leading edge. For a LBL and Rex > 500 (approx.), x1/2
(Blasius solution); for a TBL, increases more rapidly, approximately as x0.8 .
7.2 Define the displacement thickness , the momentum thickness and the shape factor H for a
flat-plate boundary layer assuming two-dimensional incompressible flow. Explain why is called
the displacement thickness.
From definitions, = 0 (1 u/U ) dy, = 0 (u/U )(1 u/U ) dy; H = /. is the (upward)
vertical displacement of the streamline that comes from the undisturbed flow and reaches the edge
of the boundary layer, at a specific distance x from the leading edge, see Fig. 7.4.
R

11

7.3 It can be shown from momentum-integral analysis that the skin-friction coefficient for the flatd
. The velocity outside the boundary layer is
plate boundary layer is cf = 2w /(U 2 ) = 2 dx
constant (= U ). For a laminar boundary layer of thickness the velocity profile can be roughly
approximated as a linear function: u/U = A + B, where = y/.
Determine the constants A, B and derive an expression for cf as a function of Rex = U x/.
Hint: = /C, where is a function of x and C is a constant (pure number).
A = 0 because of the no-slip
condition, B = 1 since at y = the velocity is U , u/U = y/.
R
From definition, = 01 ( 1) d = /6, which means that w /(U 2 ) = (1/6)d/dx. w
is the wall shear stress, w = (u/y)y=0 , in this case w = U/. Equality with w from
momentum analysis gives U/ = U 2 (1/6)d/dx, or with separated variables d = (6/U )dx,
2
where p= /. Integration from x = 0 where = 0, to position x with
p (x) gives /2 = 6x/U ,
) = /(3U x) = 1/ 3 Rex . (The
or = 12x/U . Combination with above gives cf = 2/(U

exact solution from Blasius gives 0.664 rather than 1/ 3 = 0.577.)


7.4 Describe how the shape of the velocity profile in a boundary layer, close to the wall, is dependent
on the pressure gradient. Explain why boundary-layer separation only can occur in regions with
decelerating outer velocity.
At the wall, irrespective of whether the boundary layer is laminar or turbulent, ( 2 u/y 2 )y=0 =
dp/dx. This means that the pressure gradient dp/dx determines the curvature of the velocity
variation u(y) at wall. Bernoulli equation applies just outside the boundary layer, p + U 2 /2 =
const., and since the pressure variation across a boundary layer is negligible, dp/dx = dU/dx.
A decelerating outer velocity, dU/dx < 0, means that the pressure increases in the flow direction.
Boundary layer separation occurs for zero wall shear stress, w = (u/y)y=0 , and this situation
can occur only with dp/dx > 0 since it implies a positive curvature at the wall with zero gradient,
see Fig. 7.7.
7.5 Define the the drag coefficient CD in flow around a sphere. Describe in detail and in a diagram
how CD for a smooth sphere varies with the Reynolds number Re (in detail means that certain
values on the axes should be marked; logarithmic axes are preferred). What is the asymptotic
expression for CD when Re 1? What is the influence of surface roughness?

By definition, D = CD AU 2 /2. For flow around a sphere, A = d2 /4, where d is the diameter;
Reynolds number, Re = U d/ = U d/. In the limit Re 0, CD = 24/Re (Stokes solution).
In a log-log diagram, CD vs. Re, see Fig. 7.16, the Stokes solution is a straight line pointing
downwards, and it is valid up to Re 1. At higher Re, the drag coefficient decreases more slowly.
At around Re = 103 , it levels out at CD 0.5, and it stays at around this value up to about
Re = 2 105 . Within a very limited Re-range at around Re = 3 105 , the drag coefficient drops
rapidly, from CD 0.5 to CD 0.2 (drag crisis). With increasing Re, the CD recovers somewhat,
the indicated value at Re = 107 being CD 0.3. With a roughened surface, the drag crisis occurs
at a lower Re, otherwise the above sequence is similar; see Fig. 5.3 for the comparable case of
a circular cylinder in cross-flow.

7.6 Derive the integral condition D(x) = b U 2 (x), valid for a constant-pressure flat-plate boundary
layer ( is the momentum thickness, x the distance from the leading edge, b is the plate width
and U is the velocity outside the boundary layer).
See Example 3.11. Inflow at x = 0, velocity vector V = U i; outflow at x, V = u(y) i. Upper
control surface is along the streamline that passes through y = (where u = U ) at x, it joins
back to y = h at x = 0; lower surface at y = 0 (solid
wall, u = 0). Momentum balance in
R
P
Fx = D, where
x-direction, stationary conditions, constant pressure: CS u(V n) b dy =
D is the (one-sided, frictional) drag on theR plate. Along theR stream-surface, (V n) = 0; at
inflow, n = i; outflow, n = i, i.e., D = 0h U (U )b dy + 0 u2 b dy, or since is constant,
R
R
D = U 2 bh b 0 u2 dy. Mass balance requires U h = 0 u dy. Combining with previous result
R
R
gives D = b 0 u(U u) dy = b U 2 , where = 0 (u/U )(1 u/U ) dy.

7.7 The momentum equations for a two-dimensional boundary layer can be simplified drastically by
using order-of-magnitude arguments. Carry out these steps and show in particular the conse12

quences for the pressure field. The equations of motion for stationary, incompressible flow with
negligible effects of gravitation reads
u v
+
x y
u
u
+v
u
x
y
v
v
u
+v
x
y

= 0
=
=

1 p

x
1 p

2u 2u
+ 2
x2
y

2v
2v
+ 2
2
x
y

The boundary layer thickness is much smaller than some characteristic dimension of the body
L and the body surface radius of curvature, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the
oncoming constant velocity at large distances U and L, is very large (Re = U L/ 1).
Non-dimensional variables, with estimates of magnitude orders (U = U ): x
= x/L 1,
y = y/L /L = 1, u
= u/U 1, v = v/U , p = (p p )/(U 2 ); non-dimensional
equations:
v
u

+
= 0
x
y
p
=
+ Re1
x

2u
2u
+ 2
x
2
y

v
p
u

+ v
=
+ Re1
x

y
y

2 v 2 v
+
x
2 y2

+ v
x

/ x
) d
x = ( u
/ x
)avg x
( u
/ x
)avg 1, it follows that
Since at constant y, u
= 0x ( u
R y
n
n
u
/ x
1. With the same reasoning using u
= 0 ( u
/ y) d
y = ( u
/ y)avg y ( u
/ y)avg
n
n
n
1, u
/ y . u
/ x
1 in the the continuity equation requires that also
v / y 1,

i.e.,
since neither term can be neglected. But v = (
v / y)avg y (
v / y)avg , so v ,
v u. All terms in the x
-momentum equation must have the same order of magnitude, inertia must balance pressure and viscous forces. However, the first viscous term can be neglected
since 2 u
/ x
2 2 u
/ y2 . Both inertial terms in x
-momentum equation are 1, which shows
that p/ x
1, and therefore p 1. Also, since 2 u
/ y2 2 , it follows that Re1 2 ,
Other terms must have the
i.e., Re 1. Inertial terms in the y-momentum equation are .

same order of magnitude, which shows that p/ y , or | p/ y| 1; p depends on x


only. In
dimensional variables, p(x) only, which means that there is a negligible pressure variation across
the whole y-momentum equation can be
the boundary layer. Finally, since all terms are ,
dropped! The remains are the so-called boundary-layer equations, eq. (7.19):
R

u v
+
x y
u
u
u
+v
x
y

= 0
= 1

dp
2u
+ 2
dx
y

Also see lecture notes. Note: If given as an exam question, all steps above are not required; for
instance, orders of magnitudes for n u
/ x
n , n u
/ yn , etc., can be written out directly.
Introduction to Turbulence
T.1 Make a brief account of (at least) four characteristics of turbulence (fully developed turbulent
flow).

13

See page T-1, and pages 357360 in White. (i) irregularity or randomness; (ii) high diffusivity
or spreading rate; (iii) large Reynolds numbers, turbulence often originates as an instability
of laminar flow at high enough Re; the Re is always large if based on large-scale turbulence
characteristics; (iv) three-dimensional vorticity fluctuations; (v) high dissipation rate, rapid decay
if supply energy is lost.
T.2 Introduce the Reynolds decomposition of turbulent fluid motion (velocity and pressure) and carry
out the time-averaging procedure for the continuity equation in cartesian coordinates assuming
time-mean stationary, incompressible turbulent flow.
See page T-4, and page 371 in White. At a certain position in a flow field, the local velocity
components ui , where i = 1, 2, 3, and the local pressure p can be written as
ui (t) = ui + ui (t)
p(t) = p + p (t)

where the overline means time-averaging. The fluctuating components (with a prime) have a zero
time-average, e.g., p = 0. The continuity equation for incompressible flow reads
u v w
+
+
=0
x y
z
Now take the time-average of this whole equation. Since A + B = A + B for any quantities A
and B, it is enough to look at one term. Since the procedures of time-averaging and derivation
can be carried out in any order, and A = A, it follows that

u u
u
(u + u ) =
+
=
u+
u =
x
x
x
x
x
x
which means that
u v w
+
+
=0
x y
z
T.3 Consider a two-dimensional boundary layer of thickness over a smooth surface in stationary,
incompressible flow. Suppose that this boundary layer can be divided into two partially overlapping cross-flow regions: (1) the near-wall region with very high mean velocity gradients and (2)
the outer region with small mean velocity gradients.
(a) State and define a velocity scale that is characteristic for the turbulent motions across the
whole boundary layer.
p

See page T-12, and page 372 in White. The friction velocity, u = w /, where w is the local
time-mean wall shear stress, is a characteristic velocity scale of wall-bounded turbulence.
(b) State relevant length scales in the two regions and provide the basic criterion that motivates
the assumption of a sub-division of the boundary layer.
See page T-12, and page 372 in White. Inner region: = v = /u , viscous length scale;
outer: = y = (or = y = R for pipe flow), outer length scale. Since by observation
y /v = u / = Re 1, the basic assumption is that for Re the dynamically important
turbulent motions within the inner and outer region are loosely independent.
(c) At distances sufficiently far from the wall, viscous effects can be neglected. Together with
the above (+ some further reasoning) it can be inferred that the mean velocity gradient is
proportional to the ratio between the characteristic (turbulent) velocity scale and the prevalent
length scale. Show that this leads to that the velocity variation within the overlapping region
must be logarithmic, i.e., u = C1 ln y + C2 .
14

See pages T-15/6. Since u is a relevant velocity scale we have that du/dy u /, where is the
most characteristic length scale of the turbulent eddies. In the outer region (2) with small mean
velocity gradients and large eddies, , where is the boundary layer thickness; close to the
wall with large gradients, in the inner region (1), /u . For high enough ratio between and
/u , Re = u / 1, and within a layer that overlaps the two regions, neither one of these
two scales can be the most characteristic one. The only remaining possible length scale to use
then is the wall distance y, i.e., du/dy u /y, which by integration gives u = u (a ln y + b).
T.4 Define the root-mean-square value (RMS-value) of a quantity that has a non-zero time average.
Sketch how the RMS-values of the fluctuating components of the velocity vector vary across a
constant-pressure turbulent boundary layer. The velocities should be scaled using the friction
velocity u .
See page 371 in White and pages T-3/13;
uRMS is the standard deviation of the fluctuations
q

around the mean value u, uRMS = u = T 1 0T (u u)2 dt, where T . Across the constantpressure (flat-plate) TBL, the fluctuations are largest in the stream-wise direction (u ), smallest
perpendicular to the wall (v ); the levels of span-wise fluctuations are roughly in between, w
(u + v )/2. These RMS-components are of the same order of magnitude as the friction velocity,
the maximum value being u 2.5u (occurs very close to the wall).
R

Chapter 8 Incompressible Potential Flow


8.1 For irrotational flow ( V = 0) there exists a velocity potential function .

(a) Define and derive its differential equation for irrotational incompressible flow. What is
this equation called?

From mathematics its a fact that if a vector field has no curl it can be expressed as the gradient of
a scalar function. In this case the scalar is called the velocity potential, V = . Incompressible
flow means that V = 0. Combined with the definition of , () = 2 = 0. This is
called the Laplace equation.
(b) State boundary conditions for in flows around a body without any effect of free surfaces.
At the (assumed solid) body surface the velocity normal to the boundary is zero, /n = 0,
where n is perpendicular to the body surface. On outer boundaries, if sufficiently far away,
it can be inferred that the velocity vector is known, i.e., in cartesian coordinates that V =
(/x, /y, /z) is known.
(c) For a given potential field , how is the pressure field determined?
For incompressible flow with V = 0 inserted into the Navier-Stokes equation, the result is
the Bernoulli equation:

V 2

+p+
+ gz = C(t)
t
2

where p is the pressure, V = ||, and z is upwards. If the flow is stationary,


a pure constant, same at all locations (not only along a streamline).

= 0 and C is

8.2 (a) Define circulation along a closed curve C.


H

= C V ds, where ds is an anti-clockwise arc vector along the closed line C; V is the velocity
vector, see Fig. 8.7.
(b) The following applies for a line vortex placed at the origin: v = K/r, vr = vz = 0. Determine
the circulation along a closed curve that encompasses the origin.
R
Let the closed curve be a circle of radius a, ds = a d V ds = K d; = 2 K d = 2K.
0

8.3 Derive the governing equation for streamlines belonging to a doublet of strength = 2 am placed
at the origin, along the x-axis. Sketch some streamlines.
Hint: The stream function for a line source with strength m placed at x = a, y = 0:
15

k = m tan1

y
x+a

Trigonometric identity: tan( ) =


The sink at x = a has stream function s = m tan1
/m = tan1

y
xa .

tan tan
1 + tan tan
Superposition gives

y
y
tan1
=
x+a
xa

Taking the tangent on both sides and using the trigonometric identity gives
tan(/m) = tan( ) =

2ay
y/(x + a) y/(x a)
= 2
2
2
2
1 + y /(x a )
x a2 + y 2

When taking the arc-tangent on both sides, and noting that tan1 = when 0 can be used
when a 0, the final result is (see Fig. 8.12 for streamlines):
=

y
2may
= 2
2
2
x +y
x + y2

8.4 The two dimensional potential flow around a circular cylinder is governed by superposition of a
doublet at the origin (1 = r 1 sin ) and a parallel flow (2 = U r sin ).
Determine

(a) the velocity field (vr = r 1


and v = r ), (b) the radius a, (c) the pressure distribution

along the surface of the cylinder, expressed as a pressure coefficient Cp = 1pp


, where p is the
U2
2

pressure at large distances upstream along the stagnation line.

(a) Superposition gives = r 1 sin + U r sin + C = U r sin 1 /(r 2 U ) + C.


Velocity components:


= 1
U cos
r
U r 2



= 1+
=
U sin
r
U r 2


vr =
v

(b) At r = a (at the surface of the cylinder) we must have vr = 0, i.e., a =

/U .

(c) Bernoulli equation between a point far upstream at = where p = p and (vr = U ,
v = 0) and a point on the cylinder surface with p = ps , v = 2U sin :
p +

2
U
v 2
2
= ps + = ps + U
4 sin2
2
2
2

The pressure coefficient is


Cp =

p p
= 1 4 sin2
2 /2
U

(See Fig. 7.13)

16

8.5 (a) Use the condition of irrotational flow together with vr = 0 to derive the velocity field for a
line vortex (stationary, incompressible flow in a plane).
Hint:
z =
V =

1
r
1
r

(rv )
r

(rvr ) +
r

1
r
1
r

vr

Incompressible flow, V = 0, with vr = 0 gives v / = 0, which means that v is only


dependent on r, v (r); irrotational flow, z = 0, then gives
C
d
(rv ) = 0 v =
dr
r
where C is a pure constant.
(b) The flow field in the outer parts of a tornado can be approximated as a line vortex, the
inner parts like a solid-body rotation. Use these approximations to derive simplified analytical
equations for the velocity and pressure field within a tornado. Sketch the variations of velocity
and pressure with the radial distance r from the center of the tornado.
Hint: Momentum balance in radial direction v2 /r =

p
r

See Problem P8.14, Fig. P8.14. Solid-body rotation: vr = 0, v = Kr, i.e., dp/dr = K 2 r.
Integration gives p = K 2 r 2 /2 + K2 . Line vortex: vr = 0, v = C/r, i.e., dp/dr = C 2 /r 3 .
Integration gives p = C 2 /(2r 2 ) + C2 . Let p = p at large distance from the origin, C2 = p .
Let the pressure at the origin be p(r = 0) = K2 = pc . Equal velocities at matching point at r = R
2 . (As a numerical example, let v
gives v,R = C/R = KR, and pc = p v,R
,R = 50 m/s in
3
air-flow with = 1.2 kg/m ; this gives pc p = 3 kPa.)
8.6 (a) Consider incompressible potential flow around a circular cylinder with added circulation .
The axis of the cylinder is at the origin. The velocity along the cylinder surface (r = a) in polar
coordinates is
v = 2 U sin +

2a

where U is the undisturbed velocity upstream of the cylinder.


Show, using integrations, that the drag is zero and that the lift per unit width is U .

Note,

R 2
0

(sin )2 d = .

Drag, D = 02 (ps p ) cos ba d; lift, L =


2 /2 = p + v 2 /2, gives
p + U
s

Cp =

R 2
0

(ps p ) sin ba d. Bernoulli equation,

ps p
= 1 4 sin2 + 4 sin 2
2 /2
U

where = /(2aU ). The integral of cos times any power of sin over a full cycle 2 is zero
(including the power of zero, which is a constant). All terms for the drag are of this kind, which
means that the drag is zero. The integral over 2 of any odd power of sin is zero. The only
remaining term contributing to lift then is the term with sin2 . The lift per unit width becomes
L/b =

2
U
a(4) = U
2

(b) Describe, using streamlines, how the velocity field around the cylinder looks like for different
values of = K/(U a), where K is the vortex strength. How is K related to ?
See Fig. 8.14, K = /(2); note the case with = 2, for which the two stagnation points join
together at = 90 ; for higher , the stagnation point moves upwards along the y-axis.
17

8.7 State the Joukowsky lift theorem for incompressible, potential plane flow. Define quantities and
illustrate with a simple sketch.
According to inviscid theory, the lift per unit width of any closed contour (any cylinder of any
shape) in a uniform stream equals U , where is the net circulation around the contour.
The direction of the lift is 90 from the stream direction, rotating opposite to the circulation. A
simple sketch could be for instance a wing profile moving to the left with a resulting clock-wise
circulation. The lift is then upwards.
8.8 A two-dimensional (AR ), symmetric and thin wing is suddenly brought into a constant
velocity. The angle of attack is small but not zero. Describe the flow development with special
emphasis on the flow at the trailing edge and the generation of a circulation and thus a lift force
on the wing. (See Fig. 7.23).
See Fig. 7.23. Very soon after start-up the flow is close to being fully irrotational, negligible
circulation, negligible change of momentum, negligible lift, Fig. 7.23(a). At this instant, the
wall friction is not yet developed and therefore the near-wall flow can in fact turn around the
trailing edge, despite the sharp turn. After the turn, the near-wall flow comes to a stagnation
point where it joins with the other stream, leaving the surface. Very soon after this, as the wall
friction develops, the increasing adverse pressure gradient towards the stagnation point (on the
upper side) will result in flow separation, which quickly moves to the trailing edge, forming a
vortex, see Fig. 7.23(b). The rotation (circulation) of this vortex is anti-clockwise, since there
still is a tendency for the flow to pass over the trailing edge. The total flow has to be without any
resulting circulation so there is a build-up of an equal amount of clock-wise circulation around
the wing. Because of this circulation there is also a net downward change in momentum when
comparing the upstream and downstream parts close to the wing, and accordingly, there is an
upward lift on the wing. As the wing moves further to the left the circulation of the vortex
increases, as do the wing-bounded circulation, proportional to the lift, Fig. 7.23(c). Eventually
there is no more circulation added to the vortex and it will remain essentially at the place where
the wing started. The trailing edge flow is now very smooth, the flow leaves the wing without any
significant separation or vortex roll-up, see Fig. 7.23(d). The wing-bounded circulation is now
fully developed, as is the lift. (The circulation that is built up around the wing can be demonstrated
from an experiment when the wing suddenly stops, a clock-wise vortex, of equal strength as the
starting vortex, will then be released from the wing.)
8.9 (a) State the Kutta condition. How can this condition be motivated physically?
The Kutta condition: the flow leaves the trailing edge of the (working) wing in a smooth fashion,
see Fig. 8.22. For an edge with some finite angle, or a somewhat blunt one, there is a stagnation
point very close to the trailing edge. For a wing with a cusp, very sharp, edge the local velocities
on either side of the wing are more or less equal. The condition is motivated physically from pure
observation, this is how the flow behaves close to the trailing edge of a lift-generating wing. The
Kutta condition is used to provide the wing theory with the correct amount of circulation.
(b) Write out the mathematical expression of the lift coefficient CL valid for a slender but
cambered two-dimensional wing profile at small angles of attack. The maximum camber is
h C, where C is the wing chord. Also state the position of the resultant lift force (the center
of pressure, CP). Illustrate schematically.
CL = 2 sin( + ), where is the angle of attack, = tan1 (2h/C). [For slender wings, there
is no support from experiments to verify the influence of thickness from eq. (8.71)]. Since the
theory is valid only for small camber angles , the formula can also be written CL = 2( + ),
where = 2h/C. The center of pressure is at the one-quarter-chord point, (x/C)CP = 1/4.
8.10 (a) Discuss shortly and illustrate with figures how the lift force on a finite-span wing gives rise
to an induced drag.
On a lift-generating wing there is a tendency for the flow on the lower (pressure) side to move to
the upper (suction) side. On a finite-span wing this short-cut flow may happen at the wing tips.
This leakage between the lower and upper side introduces a swirling motion that is swept away
18

downstream, wing tip vortices. When looking from behind (Fig. 8.28), the two wing tip vortex
systems have opposite rotation and each superimposes a downwash flow in the downstream region
between the wing tips. In particular, there will be a downwash that is also felt on the plane itself.
On the plane, during horizontal cruising conditions, the apparent wind will then be as if the wind
came a little from above; the effective angle of attack will be less than the actual.

From finite-span wing theory, there is no drag but there is lift, which is perpendicular to the
apparent wind direction. Since this is not the actual wind direction there will be a contribution
from this lift force in the actual streamwise direction, a lift-induced drag, see figure above.
(b) State the correct formula for the lift coefficient CL under the assumptions of elliptical planform
area, small thickness and camber, small angles of attack, high Re, and for a given wing span-tochord ratio AR.
CL =

2( + )
1 + 2/AR

where AR = b/C, = 2h/C (C is the mean chord, h is the maximum camber).


(c) Sketch how AR influences CD and CL as a function of the angle of attack .
See Fig. 7.27.
8.11 Describe what is meant by the concept of added mass. How can the added mass be estimated
with a known potential flow around the body? State without derivation the added mass for
potential flow around a sphere.
When a body accelerates in a fluid it also accelerates parts of the fluid. Since this fluid mass
acceleration must also be accounted in a momentum balance for the body, the body behaves as if it
were heavier by an amount that is called the hydrodynamic or added mass (mh ). The added mass
can be calculated if the total kinetic energy of the fluid relative motion is set equal to the added
mass times the kinetic energy per unit mass of the body, mh U 2 /2, where U is the body velocity.
From potential theory and the flow around a sphere, mh is one-half of the displaced fluid mass.
Chapter 9 Compressible Flow
9.1 Use conservation laws of mass and momentum to derive an expression for the velocity C of a finite
pressure wave which propagates in an otherwise still fluid. The thickness of the wave-front can
be assumed to be infinitely small so that so that one-dimensional approximations are applicable.
After this, specialize to a vanishing small wave amplitude wave assuming adiabatic conditions
(velocity of sound).
Consider a fixed thin control volume surrounding the wave front, see Fig. 9.1. With this
perspective the flow through the control volume (CV) is stationary. The incoming velocity is
equal to C, outgoing velocity equal to C V , where V is the (assumed low) fluid velocity
dragged along behind the wave front. The wave front is associated with an increase in fluid density and static pressure p. By mass balance, the mass flux coming in must equal the mass
19

flux coming out. Equal areas A on both sides gives m


= AC = ( + )A(C V ). This
means that V = C(/)/(1 + /) > 0. The sum of forces on CV must equal the net
outflow of the momentum. The only forces acting in the shock-normal direction are those due to
pressure, viscous normal stresses can be neglected. Momentum balance in the normal direction:
pA (p + p)A = m(V
out Vin ) = AC(V ), i.e., p = CV . Insertion of the expression
for V yields
C=

p
1+

In the limit of infinitesimal strength / 0 the wave speed becomes the velocity of sound
a. No temperature gradients except within CV means that the flow can be treated as adiabatic.
Likewise for vanishing velocity gradients means frictionless conditions, i.e., isentropic flow, flow
at constant entropy s,
a=

s

9.2 (a) Define the concepts of stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure.
Stagnation temperature is the temperature of the fluid when brought to rest adiabatically; stagnation pressure is the pressure of the fluid when brought to rest isentropically, that is adiabatically
and without any losses.
(b) Assuming compressible flow with a perfect gas, derive a relationship between stagnation
temperature T0 , static temperature T , k = cp /cv and Mach number Ma.
Apply the energy equation between two points along an expanding stream tube in which the fluid is
brought to rest adiabatically, from velocity V and temperature T to V = 0 and T = T0 ; stationary
flow. Neglected potential energy variations gives h + V 2 /2 = h0 , where h is the enthalpy per unit
mass. Sinceh = cp T for a perfect gas, T0 /T = 1 + V 2 /(2cp T ). Mach number: Ma = V /a,
where a = kRT for an ideal gas, R = cp cv is the gas constant; cp = kR/(k 1). Plug-in
gives
k1
T0
=1+
Ma2
T
2
(c) Again assuming a perfect gas, derive a relationship between stagnation pressure p0 , static
pressure p, k = cp /cv and Mach number Ma.
Isentropic relation: pv k = const. (v is the specific volume). Since pv k = ppk (pv)k = p1k (RT )k
for an ideal-gas law (pv = RT ), it follows that T k/(k1) /p = const., or p0 /p = (T0 /T )k/(k1) , or
when using the result from above,
k1
p0
= 1+
Ma2
p
2


k/(k1)

9.3 (a) Assuming one-dimensional adiabatic flow of a perfect gas, write out a complete set of equations
which governs the thermodynamic state immediately downstream of a stationary normal-shock
wave in a nozzle,
Index 1 just upstream of the shock, index 2 just downstream; A1 = A2 since the shock is so very
thin. Mass balance: 1 V1 = 2 V2 ; momentum balance: p1 p2 = 1 V1 (V2 V1 ); energy balance
(perfect gas): T1 + V12 /(2cp ) = T2 + V22 /(2cp ); ideal-gas: p1 /(1 T1 ) = p2 /(2 T2 ). Assuming
the upstream conditions and cp = kR/(k 1) to be known, we have four equations and four
unknowns (p2 , T2 , V2 , 2 ). However, because of the quadratic terms from the velocity, there are
two solutions, but only one is possible since the entropy must increase, s2 > s1 .
20

(b) How does the stagnation temperature, Mach number, pressure, temperature, density, entropy
and stagnation pressure vary across a normal-shock wave?
Stagnation temperature remains the same since the flow is adiabatic. Out of the rest, they all
increases, except stagnation pressure and Mach number, see Fig. 9.9.
9.4 A converging-diverging nozzle (a Laval nozzle) is connected to a large reservoir with a constant
pressure pr . The pressure outside the nozzle, the back pressure, is pb (< pr ). The gas is perfect
(ideal gas with constant cp and cv ). The flow can be considered adiabatic and frictionless.
(a) Sketch the variation of pressure through the nozzle (and just outside of it) for different values
of the pressure ratio pb /pr . In particular, mark out the positions of shocks and expansion waves.
See Fig. 9.12(a,b).
(b) How does the mass flow rate vary with the pressure ratio?
See Fig. 9.12(c).
9.5 According to the theory of adiabatic frictional flow of a perfect gas in a straight pipe the flow
always strives towards sonic conditions, Ma = 1, regardless of the upstream (inlet) Mach number
Ma1 . There is a certain pipe length L (Ma1 ) for which the exit Mach number will be exactly
unity. The flow is then choked.
Explain in detail what happens if the pipe length is longer than this critical length, L > L . Subcritical and supercritical inlet flow should be treated separately. Please note that inlet conditions
might be altered.
See pages 662/3, and Fig. 9.15.
9.6 (a) Describe geometrically the deflection process associated with an oblique shock in a plane. In
particular, mark out the shock wave angle and the deflection angle .
See Fig. 9.20.
(b) Use control volume analysis to show that the tangential component of the velocity is conserved
after the passage of the oblique shock.
The control volume is so very thin that the closing areas on the sides are negligible. This means
that the resulting pressure force in the tangential direction is negligible, as is the tangential mass
P
flux (and viscous forces),
Ft = 0. The mass flux per unit area through the control volume is
P
1 Vn1 . Tangential momentum balance requires 1 Vn1 (Vt2 Vt1 ) = Ft = 0 Vt2 = Vt1 .
(c) Make a sketch on the relation between the deflection angle and the shock wave angle with
Mach number Ma1 as parameter. Mark out regions for weak and strong shocks, normal shock
waves, and Mach waves. How does the Mach number affect the maximum deflection angle? Also
mark out the line where Ma2 = 1.
See Fig. 9.23. Mach waves are represented by the -crossings for = 0 ( = = sin1 (Ma1
1 ));
the normal shock is the point where all curves for = 0 join together at = 90 .
9.7 (a) Describe the flow pattern around a thin and pointy wing profile in supersonic two-dimensional
flow at a small angle of attack. The profile has a prismatic cross-section (plane surfaces).
See Fig. 9.27(b), but make it even thinner so that it really is an expansion fan at the lower
trailing edge (as the figure is drawn it ought to be an oblique shock there).
(b) The following formula applies to supersonic two-dimensional flows at small angles :
kMa21
p2 p1
=q

p1
Ma21 1

where index 1 refers to the state upstream of the deflection (Ma1 > 1).
Use this formula to derive expressions for CL and CD valid for supersonic flow around a thin flat
plate at small angles of attack. The upstream Mach number is Ma . The width of the plate (b)
is much larger than its chord C.
21

See Fig. 9.27(a). There is an oblique shock at the lower front edge, deflection angle = ;
expansion fan at the upper frontal edge, deflection angle = . The upward force perpendicular
to the plate is F = (p2 p3 )Ap = (p2 p3 )bC. Small angle of attack, lift: L = F cos F ; drag:
D = F sin F . Since p2 p3 can be written as p2 p (p3 p ), it follows that
kp Ma2
kp Ma2
F =q
[ ()] = q
2
Ma2 1
Ma2 1
By definition of lift coefficient, and using the ideal gas law together with the Mach number:
L = CL

2
CL Ap p
U
Ap =
(Ma2 kRT ) = CL Ap kp Ma2 /2
2
2 RT

This shows that


4
CL q
Ma2 1
The drag coefficient is CD CL .
Chapter 10 Open-Channel Flow
10.1 Derive an expression for the wave speed c of a surface wave front with amplitude y in an open
rectangular channel of width b. The undisturbed shallow-water depth is y. After this, specialize
to y/y 0.

See Fig. 10.4. A wave-front of amplitude y is moving to the left with a velocity c, entering
still water at an undisturbed depth of y. The velocity dragged along behind the wave is denoted
V , assumed constant over the depth. Consider a rectangular control volume (CV) of height
y + y fixed around the wave-front, a steady flow situation. The velocity entering the CV is c,
outflow velocity c V . Mass balance requires cy = (c V )(y + V ), or V = c y/(y +
y). Constant density and rectilinear flow means that pressure increases linearly with depth,
starting from the constant ambient pressure at the free surfaces. Neglect wall friction, short CV.
Momentum balance, inflow at section 1, outflow at section 2 (vertical coordinate h):
Z

y+y

(p1 p2 ) b dh = bgy 2 /2 bg(y + y)2 /2 = cyb(c V c) = bcy V

The L.H.S. is bg y(y + y/2), i.e., V = g y(y + y/2)/y. Equality for V gives


c = gy 1 +
When y/y 0, c = c0 =

y
y



1+

1 y
2 y

1/2

gy.

10.2 Consider one-dimensional flow in an open channel of constant cross-section (area A, width at
surface b0 , velocity V ).
(a) State the wave speed c0 of an infinitesimal shallow-water surface wave. Define the Froude
number.

c0 = gyh , where yh = A/b0 (sometimes called the hydraulic depth); Froude number, Fr = V /c0 ,
where V is the velocity of the liquid (water).
(b) State c0 and the specific energy E for the rectangular cross-section (b0 = b, A = by).

yh = A/b0 = y gives c0 = gy. Specific energy, E = y + V 2 /(2g).


22

10.3 Water flows in an open channel laid on a certain slope, S0 = tan ( 1). The water cross
section (and depth) as well as the inner surface condition are constant.
(a) Define hydraulic radius of the cross section, Rh .
Rh = A/P , where A is the cross-section area, P is the wetted perimeter (Fig. 10.2b).
1/6

(b) According to Manning (1891), 8g/f n1 Rh , where Rh is in meters and n is a constant.


Describe how the flow rate Q can be determined. Starting point: extended Bernoulli equation.
Velocity variations across the cross section can be neglected.
Constant depth (y = yn ) means that the velocity is constant, V = V0 . When applied to a
streamline on the surface with constant pressure, the extended Bernoulli equation gives: z1 =
z2 + hf , where z is upward. From geometry (Fig. 10.2a), z1 z2 = S0 L, where L is the
horizontal distance between the sections. Head loss by definition,
hf = f

L V02
Dh 2g

Using hf = S0 L and Dh = 4Rh gives


V0 =
Using

8g
f

1/2 p

Rh S0 = Q/A

1/6

8g/f n1 Rh , the flow rate, Q = V0 A, is


2/3 1/2

Q = n1 ARh S0

10.4 For open-channel flow in a rectangular channel, derive an expression for the critical depth yc
at a given discharge per unit width (q). Show that the Froude number at this depth is unity
(Frc = 1).
The critical depth is the depth that gives the minimum specific energy for a constant flow rate
per unit width. With q = Q/b = V y the specific energy is E = y + V 2 /(2g) = y + q 2 /(2gy 2 );
dE/dy = 1 q 2 /(gy 3 ). When set to zero, y = yc = (q 2 /g)1/3 . When inserted, the minimum

value is Emin = 3yc /2. At Fr = 1, V = Vc = gyc . The specific energy then is Ec = yc + yc /2 =


3yc /2 = Emin . This shows that Fr = 1 when water is running at critical depth.
10.5 Water flows at vanishing slope along a straight open channel. Perpendicular to the flow and on
the bottom of the channel there is a small ridge, a bump, with maximum height (amplitude) h.
The cross section is rectangular. The flow over the bump can be treated as one-dimensional and
frictionless. Assume given upstream velocity, upstream depth and h.
(a) Derive an implicit relationship for the depth at the top of the bump.
See Fig. 10.9(a). When neglecting wall friction, E1 = E2 + h, where E = y + V 2 /(2g). Since
also q = V1 y1 = V2 y2 from mass balance, the velocity V2 can be eliminated, y1 + q 2 /(2gy12 ) =
y2 + q 2 /(2gy22 ) + h. This is a cubic equation for y2 , three roots but one is negative. The two
(positive) roots are called alternate depths.
(b) Describe the depth variation along the bump, for different h < hmax and upstream Froude
numbers (Fr1 < 1 and Fr1 > 1). Illustrate with a diagram (depth y vs. specific energy E).
A plot of y vs. E for a certain q is shown in Fig. 10.9, also see Fig. 10.8. The upper part
of the curve is subcritical flow (Fr < 1), lower is supercritical (Fr > 1), critical at the nose, at
Emin . When going up the bump E decreases with h (E2 = E1 h). If Fr1 < 1, upper branch,
the surface at the bump crest dips down, since the decrease in depth is larger than h (as shown
more clearly in Fig. 10.8, the upper asymptote is at 45 , y = E). If Fr1 > 1, lower branch, the
surface at the bump crest goes up, a bit more than the bump height.
Christoffer Norberg, tel. 046-2228606
23