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Poverty is widespread in India.

India has about 33% of the worlds poor
42% of Indias population falls below the poverty line (BPL) of $1.25 per day,
having reduced from 60% in 1980
Over the past decades the Government has initiated multiple poverty alleviation
programmes that have helped substantially reduce poverty, prevent famines and increase
literacy in the country

National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS)

Launched 2006
The NREGA aims at two objectives: employment and rural development
Provides a legal guarantee for employment of 100 days every year to adult members
of rural households, who are willing to do unskilled manual labour for public works
Provides statutory minimum wage of Rs 60 per day
Applies to all rural households, whether or not they are BPL
The NREGA stipulates that works must be targeted towards a specific set of rural
development activates like water conservation, afforestation, flood control, etc

Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP)

Launched in 1978
Aims to provide self employment in various activities in primary, secondary and
tertiary sectors of the economy. Supported activities include sericulture, animal
husbandry, weaving, handicrafts, services, businesses etc
Merged with the Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana in 1999

Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana

Introduced 1993
Aims to provide self employment for educated unemployed youth by setting up
Under the scheme, every selected educated unemployed youth 18-35 years old and
having family income below Rs 24,000 is given loan up to Rs 1 lakh for opening his own

Swarnajayanti Gram Swarjgar Yojana (SGSY)

Launched 1991
The SGSY is a self employment programme that focuses on poverty alleviation
Promotes self help groups, development of micro enterprises by providing bank credit
and government subsidy

Includes 50% benefit to SC/ST, 40% for women and 3% for disabled

Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY)

Launched 2001
Provides wage employment in rural areas, thereby ensuring food security, creation of
durable community, social and economic infrastructure
Implementation through Panchayati Raj system

Swarna Jayanti Shahri Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY)

Launched 1997
Aims to provide gainful employment to the urban unemployed poor through
encouraging the setting up self employment ventures or provision of wage
Contains two special schemes
o The Urban Self Employment Programme
o Urban Wage Employment Programme
SJSRY is a merged programme consisting of erstwhile schemes like Urban Basic
Services, Nehru Rozgar Yojana, and PMs Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication
Provides reservations for women (30%), disabled (3%) and SC/ST on the strength of
local population

Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY)

Launched 1996
The IAY is a scheme that provides for construction of houses and money to be given to


India is ranked second worldwide in farm output

Agriculture accounts for 16.6% of GDP
Agriculture employs 60% of the workforce
India has the worlds largest cattle population
Largest producer of milk, cashews, coconut, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper
Second largest producer of wheat, rice, sugar, groundnut and inland fish
Third largest producer of tobacco
India accounts for 10% of world fruit production
Largest producer of banana and sapotady material, general studies, Indian economy

Green Revolution in India

Use of high yield seeds along with increased used of fertilizers and irrigation leading to
dramatic increase in production
Implemented mainly in Punjab, Haryana, western UP 1965-1980
Increased food grain production by 4 times, milk 6 times, eggs 27 times
Requires large investment in equipment and enormous quantities of water
Padma Vibhushan awarded to Dr. Norman Borlaug in 2006 for instituting the
Green Revolution. He is considered the Father of the Green Revolution. He also won the
Nobel Peace Prize in 1970, general studies, Indian economy


Kisan Credit Card

Launched in 1998 to provide short-term credit

Simple, flexible procedures
Helps buy seeds and fertilizers at farmers convenience
Operated by major nationalized banks
Includes personal accident insurance coverage