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This project has been funded with support from the

European Commission under the Lifelong Learning


Programme. This publication reflects the views only of
the author, and the Commission cannot be held
responsible for any use which may be made of the
information contained therein

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This publication has been created with cooperation of:

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

This New Media Production Methodology ver. 2 has been prepared as part of the New Media Production
Methodology how to increase your multimedia competencies project, co-financed by the Leonardo da
Vinci - Lifelong Learning Programme.

Consortium implementing this project consists of:

Nowoczesna Firma S.A. (NF)


Management Observatory Foundation (MOF)
Brgerhaus Bennohaus citizen centre, Arbeitskreis Ostviertel e.V. (BB)
XXI INVESLAN, S.L. (INV)
Authors:

Piotr Maczuga (NF)


Karolina Sikorska (NF)
Marta Mazur (MOF)
Wojciech Benicewicz (MOF)
Jan Leye (BB)
Arndt Selders (BB)
Amaia San Cristobal Macho (INV)
Tamara Rodriguez Fernandez (INV)
In cooperation with:

Jarosaw Sobolewski (MOF)


Grzegorz Staniak (MOF)
Katarzyna Mucha (MOF)

ISBN: 978-83-63481-11-7

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

This work was published under Creative Commons License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0)
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported

Warsaw Muenster - Bilbao 2014


newmediaproduction.eu

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

Table of contents
Introduction

5
6
6
7

About the project


p j
Project
j
p
partners
How to use the handbook?

Module A Multimedia p
production

8
9
10
21
28
31
35
41
43
55

Module introduction
Equipment
q p
and its functions
How to compose
p
shots
Light
g design
g
Sound
Design
g basics
Directing
g and working
g on stage
g
Film editing
g
Example
p of a seminarr

Module B Crossmedia journalism


j

58
59
60
65
69
76
84

Module introduction
Journalism in the XXI Centuryy
Crossing
g of media
Dissemination of multimedia
Legal
g issues
Example
p of a seminarr

Module C Train the Trainer


Introduction
Trainers role and competences
p
Training
g Cycle
y
Management
g
Communication with training
gp
participants
p
Transfer of Knowledge
g & Didactic Methods
How to conduct interactive online workshops?
p
Practical project:
p j
Being
g a trainerr

88
90
84
98
107
114
120
127

Answers

135

Glossaryy

138

Introduction

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

About the project


Currently, competencies in multimedia creation represents important added value in occupations such as:
coach, business psychologist, specialist of the image, PR specialist. These are also occupations in which
popular forms of activity implies working as independent experts (freelance).
That is why this particular target group may have fewer opportunities to access multimedia technology in
their work, because the budget of an independent expert cant match the budget of a large company that
employs him. At the same time, in many cases the independent experts, trainers and consultants provide
a competitive advantage to many businesses that use their services. Therefore, it is extremely important
to give those professionals new tools and expand the scope and manner of their communication with the
market.
New Media Production Methodology is a solution to the problem with trainings for trainers (freelancers)
in the area of multimedia production and new media use. The aim of the project is not to teach a
comprehensive group of professionals a new profession, but to fill the gap, which - in our opinion - is
the result of the popularization of non-classical forms of cooperation between trainers and experts in the
market and their clients. It is therefore a response to the real needs of the market and its representatives.

Project partners
Nowoczesna Firma S.A. (Poland)
The mission of Nowoczesna Firma (NF) is to create a reputable medium for managerial community. By
promoting modern managerial techniques, it reshapes entrepreneurs attitudes, draws service providers
and their clients together, creates a development-oriented business environment, scales mental barriers of
SMEs.
NF respond to specific demands of entrepreneurs, opening opportunities in the areas where the largest
competence gaps among managers exist, in line with implementing solutions fitting individualized needs
and the peculiarities of the Polish market. NF is the owner of the 3rd biggest business internet portal www.
nf.pl in Poland. It runs HRM Programmes, which lead to creating and promoting standards of running a
business and integrating a community of active firms and professionals.
Nowoczesna Firma also publishes number of periodic reports in HRM and organizes events such as: HR
congress - more than 2000 participants every year, regional conferences, and business knowledge events.
More information: www.firma.nf.pl / www.nf.pl

Management Observatory Foundation (Poland)


Management Observatory Foundation (MOF) is the nongovernmental organization supporting Polish
businesses in the area of: HRM, HR, capital/finances management and ICT use. MOF popularizes good
practices, promotes knowledge sharing and improves vocational qualifications of managers.
MOF is running such projects as:
E-learning projects: WebQuest for HRM, Knowledge Pills Methodology, How To Webcast, Webinar 2
Learn, Knowledge Management 2.0 for SMEs;
Research and certification projects: Usable Website, Human Capital Investor, Customer-friendly
Company;
Training projects: PTM (Professional Trainings Manager), PMHR, PMK, PME;
EU funded research and education.
MOF is also the coordinator of the EduCluster New Media in Education gathering 60 Polish media and
education organizations and national members of the International Federation of Training and Development
Organizations (IFTDO), comprising more than 500,000 HR professionals from over 50 countries.
More information: www.obserwatorium.pl

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

Brgerhaus Bennohaus citizen centre, Arbeitskreis Ostviertel e.V. (Germany)


The citizen centre, Bennohaus, is a socio-cultural and media pedagogical facility which is open for all
citizens - especially for children, youngsters and seniors. Besides being a cultural meeting point, an
educational institution and a media competence centre the modern Bennohaus has a broad sphere in
the local district as well as within the European framework. The educational institution in the Bennohaus
(BIB) is an accredited advanced training institution.
The Bennohaus possesses longtime experiences in European project work concerning the field of ICTand Media-Competence intercession. Currently, it is educating 4 audio-visual media designers and it is
the biggest producer for citizen TV media in the federal state of North Rhine Westphalia, cooperating with
the educational TV channel nrwision. The Bennohaus is an acknowledged training supervisor (IHK) and
carries out educational measures in cooperation with the Media State Authority of North Rhine Westphalia
(LfM).
The Bennohaus is one of the few facilities which is acknowledged for its quality management in the frame
of cultural and voluntary work. In 2013, the official quality seal of the organization for testing the quality of
voluntary work (QUIFD) was renewed for the fourth time.
More information: www.bennohaus.info

XXI INVESLAN, S.L. (Spain)


INVESLAN is a private research company, specialized in the fields of training, employment and
management. The main working fields are: training, especially professional training and adult education;
ICT mainly those applied to learning environments and management; gender issues; employment;
knowledge management; disadvantaged collectives; evaluation. It leads, coordinates and participates in
the development and experimentation of training itineraries, contents and methodologies that promote
social and labour inclusion of vulnerable collectives.
One of the main fields of the activity is the research and development in the field of innovative training
methodologies, including those based on ICT. In this sense, Inveslan lead the DeInTra project searching
for cooperation for innovative training methodologies deployment in the European labour market, and
coordinates several projects in the framework of Lifelong Learning Programme.
More information: www.inveslan.com/en

How to use the handbook?


If you are already a professional and want to acquire trainer competencies in order to enhance your
knowledge, you should solely turn to Module C Train the Trainer. In this module you will get all
the knowledge necessary to become a trainer. For instance, you will get in touch with training cycle
management. But also the practical side is not ignored. In this module you will have to prepare your own
test workshop and conduct it.
If you are a beginner, you should start with Module A Multimedia Production, because there youll
acquire all the necessary basics like using a camera or editing to become a video journalist. After that
you should turn to Module B Cross-media Journalism to deepen the knowledge acquired in the prior
module, but also to get to know cross-media techniques. After having gotten an insight into both modules
and having had time to practice this new knowledge, it would be time to turn to Module C Train the
Trainer in order to acquire trainer competencies.

Module A

Multimedia
production

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

Module introduction
The module contains all the essential information on how to create video content. Starting from
familiarization with the equipment and its features, finishing on video editing. The module should take the
form of a practical workshop.
Target group
Participation in this module is recommended for a representative of each of the target groups.
Overview
Equipment and its functions. (Duration: 03:00 hour).
This chapter shows video equipment and its construction.
How to compose shots. (Duration: 03:00 hour).
This chapter explains types of angles, perspectives, camera movements and video as a shot sequence.
Light design. (Duration: 01:30).
This chapter presents types of lighting and methods to use them.
Sound. (Duration: 02:00).
This chapter presents basics of sound production.
Design basics. (Duration: 02:30).
This chapter focuses on showing the essential aspects of building a frame, including the rules of
composition and ratio.
Directing and working on stage. (Duration: 01:30)
This chapter presents the basic methods of working with the crew on the set.
Film editing. (Duration: 04:00).
This chapter presents the basic tools for video editing with practical tips on how to use them.
Requirements for Conducting Module A
In order to successfully conduct the contents of Module A, the host organization or person should ideally
fulfill the following infrastructural and personal requirements:
Personal. The trainers (this Module needs at least 2 trainers) who is responsible for the conduction of this
workshop, should have the following competences:
broad experience in video production,
divided attention,
ability to easily transfer knowledge to specific examples,
patience.
Infrastructural. If the seminar is taking place offline, the location should fulfill the following requirements:
video studio or other place with equipment (e.g. cameras, lights),
access to all the necessary media (Internet, projector, flipchart etc.).
The seminar can take place online only partially. The key issue is to show the real video production
environment and give the possibility to try it. Online seminar (webinar) is virtually for that. However, the
webinar can be a good occasion to supplement the non-practical knowledge.

New Media Production Methodology


how to increase your multimedia competencies?

EN

Equipment and its functions


Learning objectives: Get to know the video equipment, the principles of its operation and create
your own video from idea to editing.
Duration: 03:00 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing
Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

Camera
There are many different types of cameras, for example, very complex film cameras for cinema production,
TV-cameras or simple camcorders for the wide range of ordinary consumers. They differ in design,
technical characteristics and functions.
With a film camera, the picture can be arranged in very detailed ways. Most of the time several people
will be doing the camera work. They are responsible for different operations, for example, adjusting the
sharpness and the aperture and positioning the focusing effect. For TV production, t is more important to
have a camera that is reliable and fast to handle. Therefore, TV cameras have buttons that are easy to
handle so that the different functions can be adjusted very easily by one operator.
Easy handling is the most important thing when it comes to consumer cameras. The non-professional user
normally does not have any technical know-how and therefore will not want to study long manuals before
working with the camera. When a consumer turns on the camera, they expect to take vivid pictures fairly
immediately. This is why consumer cameras mostly work on automatic settings.
Camcorders. A digital camera, also known as a camcorder, is a device that we usually associate with
the function of recording video and audio. Currently, the market has developed a number of almost
independent product groups. People who look at them for the first time are often astonished at the size
and price difference of devices that apparently serve the same purpose. At first sight, it is difficult to
assess the differences in performance, because features such as image resolution (now almost all of
the equipment records in HD), or the type of storage media on which data is stored may be similar in the
case of professional and amateur cameras. This does not mean that they operate exactly the same. Minor
differences, which we will now present, are most important. We are interested, first and foremost, in a
group of professional and semi-professional equipment.
Equipment designed for professional use obviously has the same capabilities as amateur cameras. First
of all, it can record video and audio in the proper format and on a dedicated carrier (storage). Professional
cameras have more manual functions, so that the professional operator has a greater impact on the
result of his work than when using the simple automatic camera. Here are the most common hallmarks of
professional equipment:
Possibility of manual settings of almost all parameters;
A large number of functions accessible directly from the camera body (this means a number of
buttons, switches or rings directly on the body and with easy access);
High quality lens with good parameters and - in more expensive models - the possibility of changing
lenses (as in DSLRs);
Professional interface (eg SDI) for use with professional equipment.
These elements everyone is able to assess themselves, at first sight, even if not familiar with the
equipment. Of course, it is not worth taking the decision to use or purchase the equipment only on
the basis of these characteristics, but they show some trends used by manufacturers specializing in
professional cameras.

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Only a few companies specialize in such equipment. Most often we can find products from the following:
Sony
Panasonic
JVC
Canon
No matter which company produced the camera, each has a similar construction. This is due to the fact
that a professional operator has to cope with operating all kinds of hardware, just like a professional driver
can drive any car. We are dealing with certain standards for construction equipment and its functionality.
Of course, each camera model, even from the same manufacturer, differs in its construction and
arrangement of elements, but whoever understands the construction principles of any camera will cope
with a different one.

viewfinder
built-in microphone

LCD screen
lens

control panel

The camera body is the main part of the camera. The camera body contains electronic elements and
mechanisms that control its operations and record images on the magnetic tape or other type of storage.

The camera lens captures the light reflected


from the subject and brings it to a focus on the
film or detecting media.

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Movie cameras, as well as professional digital cameras, have interchangeable lens. The function of the
camera lenses is to direct the light source to the camera sensor and also to focus the image. The lens is
used to adjust the focal distance, sharpness and aperture.

Hobby or consumer cameras often use lens that are integrated into the camera body and therefore cannot
be changed. Tasks, such as adjusting the aperture or the focus manually, may be available within certain
limits or not possible at all. The cameras automatic settings relieve the user of these tasks. However, they
also narrow down the scope for creativity.
The viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus the picture.
The viewfinder provides control over the camera picture. Newer camcorders additionally have an LCD or
sometimes a TFT LCD screen. For professional camera work, the viewfinder still is the most important
control device because both LCD and TFT LCD screens are not precise enough. Primarily, the precise
adjustment of the sharpness is much more manageable using the viewfinder. High quality viewfinders are
often black and white because that gives a stronger contrast which then enables more accurate adjustment
of the sharpness of the image.
Normally, the viewfinder in consumer cameras is very small and has a low resolution. It is not best suited
for picture control and so would only be used in emergency cases when making a professional film. For
example, when the sun is shining outside and virtually nothing can be seen on the LCD screen.

The recorder is a system of electronic and mechanical devices that allow the video to be saved on the
medium.
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Over the years, many different video-saving formats have been developed. For magnetic videotaping there
was S-VHS, HI 8, Mini DV, Betacam, DV, DVC Pro or DigiBeta. Now digital media, XD, P2 or SD cards
take over the market and videotape is less popular. However, professional TV stations are still using Digital
Betacam as a supported format. Some stations keep it default.
A microphone is an acoustic sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Nearly all cameras
have an internal microphone. However this microphone is not sufficient for professional use. The internal
microphone is mostly used for recording the surrounding sound (ambient sound).

Batteries supply power to the camera during field work. Batteries are also used for work in a studio
because they allow more freedom of movement for the cameraman. A standard set of equipment should
have at least two batteries.
The charger is used both to supply power to the camera in emergency cases and for charging empty
batteries. In production work there is a variety of equipment used alongside the camera.
Professional cameras are changing with the whole electronics market. It is an essential effect of technology
development in recent years. The equipment manufactured today is significantly different from that
produced 5 or 10 years ago. Here are the most common differences:
Storage in the form of discs, recorders or simple memory cards almost completely replaced the
cassette.
High Definition is practically a mandatory standard. More and more cameras can record in an even
higher resolution (2K or 4K), which makes them often used for film production.
Analog RCA connectors have been almost replaced with modern HDMI or SDI.
DSLRs.For a few years digital single lens reflex cameras (DSLRs) with video and sound recording are
increasingly replacing the camera. Why is this happening? At a relatively low cost of equipment and
accessories, we can get a very good picture quality. This is related to the optics and the overall construction
of the camera. Only the highest-priced cameras can hope to achieve similar quality and visual effects.
Consequently, many video producers use the opportunities offered by digital cameras (interchangeable
lenses, a large array, etc.).

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However, the DSLR have some major disadvantages. First of all, this type of camera requires proper
alignment. We usually use cameras to take pictures static shots that occur in a split second. In the case
of video clips, both time and conditions are changing during filming. All kinds of movements and driving are
not only possible, but often necessary. In practice, however, it is very difficult to control the equipment and
its settings.
Using DSLR as a recording device, be sure that the following takes place:
DSLR can record only a few minutes shot. Recording a single shot over that time may be impossible. It can be an important restriction when filming long speeches.
Construction of DSLR makes this device much better suited for taking pictures than for video recording. This is especially evident in the case of movement and zooming, which are extremely difficult
to perform without additional equipment.
Filming a scene with a lot of movement within the frame requires an experienced operator.
It is best to record the sound through the external recording equipment, because most DSLR does
not have the ability to control the microphone at a reasonable level. In some models, it is not even
possible to connect an external microphone.
Despite these problems, the DSLR can get a very vivid picture quality. Therefore the accessories market is
developed in order to improve the working of this type of equipment. The most important are:
Sliders, tripods and steadicams for DSLRs to control the movement.
Follow focus system to facilitate change settings during shooting.
LCD preview screens to see the relevant details of the frame better.
Photo camera - now almost every new digital camera records video - and usually in HD. In practice, all
photo cameras record videos with accompanying sound. In newer models there is a possibility to record
even with stereo sound. The ability to record short videos is a feature that distinguishes most digital cameras from analogue ones. The videos are not very high-quality, worse than recorded by video cameras but
photo cameras are still very useful when it comes to record some family celebrations or just a film from holidays (and everything else when we dont have professional cameras). Despite some obvious flaws (photo
cameras have much smaller surface area, so there is too little light). Some photo cameras record video
materials with relatively low noise, which is due to the fact that algorithms, which decrease noises, operate
there much stronger than in other recording devices. Unfortunately, this involves certain side effects. Algorithms for reducing the level of artifacts also worsen the focus of picture.
Depending on the brand and model of the photo camera, filmed videos may have a different resolution,
the amount of frames and different duration. Information about these parameters can be found in the
instruction manual of the camera. Simple and cheap cameras generally have the ability to record in one resolution, but not necessarily in the smallest one. Some cameras allow you to record video until the memory
is full, but not more than specified on the upper limit of capacity. For many cameras it is up to 1.0 GB. Other
cameras have limited recording time but there is a need for installing a memory card.
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Mobile devices & other. Today, almost every new mobile phone has the ability to record video and sound.
In addition, the most powerful models can record video in near-HD quality. It is no wonder that many people
use their smartphone as a digital camera. Does such a device make sense from the perspective of video
production?
First of all, keep in mind that despite the impressive mobile device descriptions and specifications, that
seem to place them close to professional equipment, a small camera placed into the mobile device will
never replace a professional camera. The basic limitations arise from the quality and size of the lens, construction of the device, and its functionality. However, mobile phone or tablet is often the only tool we have
at hand, so it may happen that we will be forced to use them. If this happens, remember:
Always operate in good light conditions, to prevent image noise.
Small mobile phone lens can incorrectly reproduce the aspect ratio.
Focus control is limited in most cases to automatic control.
When using a phone to make a shot, it is important to always set the highest quality picture and sound in
the settings menu. The recording will never be of the same quality as that from a professional camcorder,
but nonetheless, a good editor will be able to use such material. It is also important to record shots in a
horizontal orientation, as is the case in cameras, and not in portrait orientation, as it happens. The image
should be wider than longer. Only then can it be easily used in conjunction with other shots.
As it was said before, a camera placed in telephone will never replace a professional one, but there are
some applicatons (apps) for smartphones on the market, that for sure bring it closer to the professional
cameras functions. You can easily find dozens of apps in Google and Apple store which help you to record
and edit your video materials. Moreover, a lot of such applications are for free or cost very little money.
Take a look at some of them:

Instagram this appliction is known mainly for taking photos but there is also the
possibility to record video materials. It allows to record and edit 15-second video
clips. What is more, with the help of 13 filters, it can be modified, which make ordinary
films much more attractive. The user can also select a specific moment, which will be
an illustration of published videos. Instagram offers also Cinema technology, which is
responsible for image stabilization.

JumpCam - Record Video Together its a free application allowing composing


videos together with friends. You can add filters, such as Vintage or Black&White, as
well as your own music or some free soundtrack. Video material can be shared to
Facebook or Twitter.

Lapse it this application allows to create time-lapse films which are very effective
because they enable to show some very long processes in short time, such as burning a candle or clouds movemment. Its main principle is to choose the key frames
of a movie from a sequence. Generally its free but if you want to use some additional
functions, you have to pay (its not expensive).

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Videon this application allows us to decide about the resolution of recordings and
its proportions (supports formats such as 2.35:1, 1:1. and 4:3), the number of frames
per second, the presence of sound in film, we can choose even a microphone - front
or rear. Moreover, we can lock focus and there is an option of geotagging films. When
it comes to video editing, Videon offers some interesting filters, exposure adjustment,
contrast and color saturation. We have the opportunity to sharpen and blur recordings, add effects like slowing down, flashing or reverse the colors. It costs about $3.00.

Camera Plus Pro this is an app for iOS. The app features exposure adjustment
(while recording video), zooming, pause support, easy tagging, front/back camera
switching, video filters, time lapse support, and geo tagging. We can also upload
videos to YouTube and Facebook, mail videos and sync with our built in camera roll. It
costs $2.99.

ProCamera apart from the ability of recording video which is quite advanced (like
Camera Plus Pro it allows to adjust the exposure while recording), it offers some useful post processing tools like Pro Lab, Pro Cut, and Pro FX. Its for free.

There are also special purpose camcorders on the market. Thanks to their compact design and an extensive range of mounting accessories, they can be used to take shots in some very difficult conditions. These
cameras can be mounted on a motorcycle helmet, bicycle frame, vehicle body, and even on a surfboard or
a ski stick. This makes it possible to realize the scenes that would have been extremely difficult and time-consuming with a normal camera.
Cameras of this type do not allow too many settings, but they can be mounted almost anywhere without
causing significant discomfort. Some models can be operated with a special application for a smartphone
or a tablet.
Such equipment may be used only in addition to professional camcorders, but it is worth considering it.

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Sound
In most cases, recording high-quality audio requires the use of additional hardware and support skills
beyond the camera. Microphones and sound recorders built directly into the camera are very helpful, but
often inadequate. In many cases, we must resist the other embodiments.
Microphones. Nearly all cameras have an internal microphone, but this microphone is not sufficient for
professional use. For special tasks for example interviews in a report or a dialogue in a scene we
usually use external microphones. External microphones come in a variety of types. Filmmakers choose
the types of microphones according to their needs in a particular scene.

mini-jack 3,5 mm
small connector
similar to that used
in headphones,
usually used in
amateur cameras.

XLR circular
connector with
three pins, used
in professional
cameras.

Before shooting, you need to know which type of connector your camera handles. Adapters are available
for matching the connector to the camcorder. Sometimes, other types of connectors are used, such as RCA
or jack, but not in the case of microphones.
Professional cameras have the ability to connect up to two independent microphones. So they have two
inputs.

Lights
To illuminate the filmed objects use different types of lamps. They vary in construction and used technology.
In regard to their construction, we can talk about lamps mounted directly on the camcorder (top light) or
independent (mounted on special stands or ramps overhead). The first type does not give much light, but
allows for quick work in conditions like a news report. Lamps of this type are often powered by batteries.
A top light is used primarily in news coverage as a brightening light when there is not enough natural light
and the use of spot lights is either too complicated or time consuming. The top light is attached to the
camera and can be supplied with power by the batteries. Top lights that are not dimmable can create a
very intense light; the light is smoothed by the use of special filters. This might be necessary for example to
avoid strong contrasts in the face of a person being interviewed.
You will learn how to choose the right lamp in the following chapters. Now we will focus only on the
available technology.
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Currently, there are three popular types of lighting:


Halogen (filament lamp) It uses light bulbs with power from 300 to as much as over 1000 watts.
It generates a lot of heat, but because of the simple construction and small size, it is very popular.
Fluorescent This type of lighting is elongated luminaire with built-in compact fluorescent lamps.
It is popular only for a few years, because the earlier technology did not allow for the production of
fluorescent lights of appropriate quality. These lamps consume a lot less power and do not generate
much heat. They give a soft, nondirectional light.
LED A relatively new technology based on LEDs and lenses. LEDs give a high quality light,
generate little heat and consume very little energy.
Sometimes filmmakers also use other types of lamps. The most popular are discharge lamps. They provide
a very strong light (needed in the production of motion pictures), but they charge huge amounts of energy
and often need special aggregates to work.

Tripods
A tripod is a three-legged object, generally used as a platform of some sort. Tripods are used for both still
and motion photography to prevent uncontrolled and unwanted camera movement. They reduce camera
shake, and thus are instrumental in achieving maximum sharpness. A tripod is also helpful in achieving
precise framing of the image. News reporters often do not use tripods in their work as they need to react
fast.
Making a good shot requires control of the film frame. To make this possible, the camera must be stable.
Even if our goal is to prepare the shot in motion, that still cannot be an accidental movement. It can not be
chaotic, and the image should not shake or tremble.
Tripods feature a head that is used to make smooth movements while filming scenes. The quality of the
head is one of the most important parameters of a tripod. Good quality head runs smoothly. It allows to
make moves in two directions without effort, but at the same time it puts up adequate resistance, so that
the camera moves are smooth.
Each tripod also has a connector which allows you to join any camcorder or digital camera. Currently,
standard terminal studs are common, so you do not have to worry about whether it will be suitable for
your model of camera while selecting a tripod. Each camera has a tripod connector on the bottom of the
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threaded hole into which it is screwed. But keep in mind that tripod and its fittings (connector) are individual
for each model.

Key features of a tripod:

Working height both the maximum and minimum


specifies to what extent we can adjust the camera.
Typically, the maximum height of most tripods do not
significantly exceed the height of a man, so the camera can be set at eye level or speaker model.

The type of head - professional tripod heads are filled


with special oil.

Overall quality of performance and stability. Although


no one likes to carry heavy accessories, a good tripod
is usually not light. This is related to stability. Everything, camera and accessories, must be secure and
stable.

A special type of tripod is monopod. It is like a tripod which has only one leg. It may be useful as a point of
support for the camera. It is used in cases where there really is no possibility of using a heavy and cumbersome professional tripod. But keep in mind that the monopod cannot stand on its own.

Data storage
One of the features that differentiate the cameras are different formats of storage media where data is
recorded. You can find at least four different solutions. Many of them will not be compatible.
Tape. The most popular storage media. It exists in many formats, for example Digital Betacam for
professional cameras or miniDV for amateur cameras. Cassettes differ in the way they read and write data,
and in size.
There are several cassette formats currently in use, and they are not compatible with each other. You
should know that the tape is being replaced by new solutions and it is not worth investing in a cassette
camera.
Memory card (flash). Memory cards are cheap and popular media. They are used for example in digital
cameras. They allow storing large amounts of data in separate files. Data access is easy, there is no need
to rewind the tape.
Flash recorder.Professional cameras often have special flash recorders, which are a combination of
a memory card and a hard drive. This media can save data at high speeds, allowing you to record the
highest quality material.
CD/DVD. Some amateur cameras can record directly to a CD or a DVD. It is a convenient solution for
amateurs (if you want to watch recorded footage directly from DVD without editing), but it is generally not
used in professional production.

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HDD (hard disc drive). The advantage of the cameras with built-in hard drives is their high capacity - from
several tens to several hundreds of gigabytes. However, the main disadvantage is that you need to connect
the camcorder to the computer to edit the material and the greater sensitivity of the camera to any shocks.
Since the hard drive is a mechanical device, there can be a problem with shorter operation on battery
power.
SSD (solid state drive). Device which stores persistent data on solid-state flash memory. Solid state
drives have several advantages over the traditional hard drives: less power usage, faster data access and
higher reliability. However, solid state drive camcorders are much more expensive than others and its used
mainly by professionals.

Other
In addition to the camera and basic accessories, professional filmmakers also have many additional
features:
Boxes, trunks and bags to save transport. During transportation it is easy to damage the sensitive electronic equipment. Appropriately designed trunks and bags allow safe transport.
Chargers and battery packs. The appropriate amount of batteries and other accessories should
always be on the alert. The recording session should not be interrupted due to exhausted batteries,
because the cost of operating the crew is very high.
Extension cords and power cords. Sometimes there is a need to connect to the power dozens
or even hundreds of feet away from the recording. The crew needs the appropriate cables. It is not
only the length that matters but also the possibility of high amperage load.
Makeup box. The basic makeup kit allows for fine retouching during recording. On the set you
should always have special face powder.

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How to compose shots


Learning objectives: To know in detail camera handling and elements such as frame, perspective,
movement, and the relationship between them. In this way, the participant learn to control the camera.
Duration: 03:00 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

Apart from the technical tasks, the camera operator is also responsible for the artistic composition of the
film. Every little shot should be planned carefully because it adds up to the general sequence and conveys
certain information and emotions to the viewer.
Cinematographic techniques such as the choice of shot and camera movement, can greatly influence the
structure and meaning of a film.

Basic settings and dependencies between them


To record high quality material, the operator has to adjust the basic settings of the camera for each new
recording. A lot of simple consumer cameras handle this automatically so there are few possibilities to

Focus Ring

ZOOM

Gain

White balance
Iris

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adjust some of the settings manually. Most of the following functions are only available with professional or
semiprofessional equipment.
Focal distance. The focal distance can be adjusted by turning the focusing ring on the lens. Depending
on the choice of focal distance, objects appear to be either nearby (tele area) or in the distance (wide angle
area). Zoom movement during the shooting can be used as an artistic device. Zoom-in on an object or
a person can emphasise their special meaning for the plot. Another popular device is a zoom-out from a
detail to a more general point of view.
Zooming is a very particular effect and should be used carefully. Movies that are produced unprofessionally
are often characterized by senseless zooming.
Focus. The standard definitions of focus are:
The position at which rays of light from a lens converge to form a clear and sharply
defined image on a focal plane.
The action of adjusting the distance between the lens and subject to make light rays
converge to form a clear and sharply defined image of the subject.
The focus is used to adjust the right distance between an object and a camera. Wrong adjustments depending on the condition of light and the focal distance can lead to blurred shots.
To adjust the distance correctly there is a particular sequence of actions: first, the main object must be zoomed-in, then the focus ring of the lens must be used to sharpen the picture and only then should the image
section be fixed to finally start the recording.
When the actors are moving either towards or away from the camera, the distance consequently changes
so the sharpness must be adjusted on an ongoing basis during the recording. The same needs to be done
for movements of the camera.
However, this is part of more highly developed camera work and thus is explained later in more detail.
With cheap consumer cameras it is often not possible to adjust the focus manually. Therefore, the photographer has to rely on the automatic focus. Thus, for cheap cameras, it is recommended not to choose a
near focal distance (tele area) because in this mode the depth of focus is diminished.
Semi-professional or professional cameras mostly work with either automatic or manual focus. Most of
the time, manual adjustment is more advantageous: the automatic focus on a video camera is not precise
enough. Non-professional shots often have variable sharpness.
Aperture. The adjustment of the aperture influences how much light comes through the lens into the
camera. The more bright the object itself, the less the aperture needs to be opened (low value= big opening of the aperture; high value= small opening of the aperture).
Most of consumer cameras only have limited possibilities for adjusting the aperture manually. Professional
cameras though do have a special aperture ring as part of the lens for that purpose. For many shots, the
automatic function can lead to tolerable results and can at least be used to calculate an average value.
When the light changes during shooting, the aperture should be adjusted manually.
Colour temperature and white balance:
There are three different modes of light:
daylight,
tungsten light
mixed light
Each of these different modes have a different colour temperature. Colour temperatures are measured on
the Kelvin scale. Pure daylight has a colour temperature of 5600 Kelvin. Pure tungsten light, produced by
spot lights, has a temperature of 3200 Kelvin.
When there is mixed light, for example in rooms with both artificial light and sunlight through the window,
the Kelvin values can only be calculated by light measurement. The human eye automatically adapts to

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different colour temperatures. That means, for example, that the colour red looks more or less the same,
no matter whether in daylight or tungsten light. When using a camera, the procedure is more complicated
and is regulated by the so called white balance. If the white balance is not set correctly, the colours seem
unnatural.
The images have a blue or a red tone. White balance helps to adjust the camera to the particular colour
temperature.
To reproduce the colour correctly, the camera needs to be referenced to the white colour balance. To adjust
the white balance, set the aperture and focus of the camera on a white object (that should fill the whole picture frame; for example, a white sheet of paper held in front of an object that is to be filmed). The director of
photography pushes the button for the white balance and keeps on pressing it until the camera adjusts all
colour values to the referential white value. A notice appears in the viewfinder, confirming the white balance
has been adjusted successfully.
As long as the light does not change during the subsequent filming, the camera reproduces all colours
correctly. Many cameras have presets in addition to the manual white balance. Presets are fixed values for
day or tungsten light.
All cameras have an automatic white balance which, under certain circumstances, can lead to good results.
However, manual white balance adjustment is always preferable.
Gain. With the Gain function, the picture can be lightened electronically when there is insufficient light.
Consumer cameras do this most of the time automatically. More professional cameras permit the switch on/
switch off of the Gain function. This function worsens the picture quality and so it is only used in emergency
cases.

Basic frames
Choosing the correct shot composition (size) is fundamental in camera work. Beginners need to study different
types of shots and train their cinematic view. The following are various types of shots commonly used in film,
video, and animation.

Establisher.
The establisher is the biggest/widest shot and is used to introduce the viewer into the setting of a movie or to present the location. The viewer gets
an idea as to the place of an action, for example a village in the mountains.

Long shot (full shot).


The long shot presents the location in a little bit more detail than the establisher. For example: a little house in a village, children are playing in front
of it, someone is coming.
Knee shot.
In this shot, the protagonists (main characters) or single protagonist are in
the centre and are seen from head to toe. Example: Two persons discuss,
the door opens and somebody comes out. This person can already be
identified by the viewer.
American shot.
This shot originates from Western movies and shows the person from the head
to knees (including the gun). An American shot clearly shows gestures because the hands are still in the picture. Example: Someone talks to the man who
just got out of the car. The man is nervous and puts his hands in his pocket.

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Medium shot.
The medium shot shows a characters upper-body, arms, and head.
Medium shots are relatively good for showing facial expressions but work
well to show body language.

Close up.
The close up is common in movie dialogues, interviews or news reports. The person can be seen from the head to chest. The facial expressions and emotions are
easy to identify. Garments, such as shirts, jewelry or ties that give hints about the
social origin of a protagonist are in the picture as well.
Extreme close up.
The extreme close-up focuses on facial expression. Even the subtlest
emotions can be seen by the viewer. Example: The woman is obviously
surprised about the course of the conversation. She tries to hide her
emotions but without success because her face clenches.

Detailed shot (insert shot).


Detailed or insert shots focus on objects that have a special meaning or
emphasise emotions.

Informative shots with more complex information are often longer in duration (slow cut) so the viewer can connect narration with a picture. Faster cuts produce the opposite effect, create more tension and hold up viewers
attention.
The shot composition influences how the viewers perceive transitions between different shots. Depending on
the intentions of the dramatic composition, transitions can be either almost invisible or very eye-catching.

Basic movements
There are two types of movement in pictures.
Type one: These movements happen in front of the camera while the camera itself is fixed.
Example: a person or an object moves towards the camera or in the opposite direction,
from the left to the right side or the other way round.
Type two: These movements result from the work with the camera.
Example: the camera moves towards an object or in the opposite direction.
The camera tilts top down or the other way round.
These types of movements are often used in combination. That means the camera follows a person or an
object that moves. The camera moves freely through the room, independent from persons or objects.
Pan. Camera moves horizontally from left to the right side and the other way round.
Tilt. Camera moves vertically from up to down or the other way round.
Hand held. This movement is used mainly in two situations. Firstly, of course, when you dont have a
professional stabilizer (tripod, steadicam) and you have to manage yourself without steadicam shots. The
second situation is when you would like to create more dynamic and dramatic shots. However, its quite difficult to use this method because our body is constantly engaged in small movements. Even if the camera
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offers shake minimizers, still those movements are noticeable. If you want to reduce this effect, you have
to get to know some techniques. For example, if you hold the camera on the side, you should use your
other hand or head to support it.
Tracking shot. Widely used in Hollywood, involves the use of dollies to pull the camera around a scene.
However, a tracking shot can be also done hand held with the help of steadicam.

How to move?
For tracking (continuous) shots, professional film productions benefit from different technical equipment.
We will briefly mention some of it, even though it is rarely used in other fields.
Dolly. A dolly is a wheeled platform on which the camera is mounted; with the help of a dolly, fluent following shots can be filmed.
There are several different pathways for a dolly track:
Parallel drive: the dolly moves parallel to the object in the picture
Front drive: the dolly moves towards a person/object
Back drive: the dolly moves away from a person/object
The camera dolly can sit on a trolley, or rest on tracks, if the surface is not smooth enough. Camera dollies
are often motorised, so they can be moved effortlessly.

Crane. A crane is a special device used to lift the camera high into the air and film from above. The camera can float above the objects. In concerts or shows, a crane often floats over the heads of the audience.

Cranes can be found in different sizes and types. Some cranes accomodate both the operator and the
camera, but remote-controlled models that allow camera control from the ground are gaining in popularity.
Such models are lightweight and easier to operate.
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Professional TV stations often utilise fully-automated camera cranes that allow precise programming of
their movement. Contrary to what it seems, crane operation does not need a lot of strength, thanks to the
use of counterweight.
Steadicam. A steadicam is a stabilizing mount for a motion picture camera, which mechanically isolates
the operators movement from the camera, allowing a very smooth shot even when the operator is moving
quickly over an uneven surface.
The dolly and steadicam are often used for a master shot. A master shot is a recording of an entire scene
without a break.
Example: a man goes into a building. He passes different offices and greets his colleagues
until he reaches his own desk.
Master shots create bigger spatial depth and spatial orientation. They require very detailed planning and a
well-considered choreography.

The precise use of the steadicam requires many hours of practice, because at the beginning it is difficult to
control the camera inertia. Also important is the selection of the right equipment. Steadicams can be found
both in a simplified version (see picture above), as well as more sophisticated, consisting of a specially
fitted and balanced vest (or braces).
Slider. The development of DSLR introduced a new type of light drive systems video surveillance. It is
based on a moving head rail on which you can lead DSLR camera. This system is a bit like the dolly, but it
is much smaller, cheaper and easier to use. It is perfect where it counts the time, and camera movement
does not have to be too broad.

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Basic perspectives
The camera perspective is another cinematic technique that influences the viewers perception.
Eye level.
An eye level perspective is the most natural perspective to show
people. The camera is, as the name suggest, at eye level. This is
used for talks, interviews etc.
In practice, its the most frequently chosen perspective. It doesnt
bring any additional meaning, its closest to our everyday perception.

View form below.


In this case, the camera is below eye level and films the person
slightly from below. Depending on the context of a shot, this view
shows either self-confidence or negative characteristics such as
dominance over a person. Due to the small difference between
the eye level and the view from below, viewers mostly do not pay
much attention to it.

Upper view.
An upper view is the opposite of the view from below. The camera
films a person slightly from above. In certain contexts, this perspective can show a person as weak or cute.This perspective is
very often used when you want to emphasize a significant difference in the height of the object in relation to the camera-viewer, for
example, in the scene of an adult conversation with a child.

Worms and birds eye view.


Variations of the two perspectives mentioned above are respectively the worms eye and the birds eye view.

The more extreme the shots of the protagonist from above or below are, the more this perspective strikes
the viewers attention. The interpretation of such scenes depends on many other factors. It is not always
true that a birds eye view portrays a person as powerless and worms eye view conveys domination. Sometimes these types of perspectives are used for creative and experimental purposes.

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Light design
Learning objectives: Understanding the types of lighting used in the video and how to use them
according to the needs and conditions.
Duration: 01:30 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

The human eye possesses an excellent natural ability to adapt to different light conditions. Technical
equipment like cameras are not so sophisticated and so need more time and special manual adjustments
to reproduce quality pictures in different light settings.
Creative light design is a very complicated process that goes far beyond adding light to make a picture
brighter. Light design helps to create a certain atmosphere and adds the desired mood to the whole picture.
A detailed explanation of light design can take many hours and dozens of pages. The following chapter is
just an introduction to the essentials of light design.

Three point illumination


In TV production, three point illumination is the standard for recording people. It is used for interviews, soap
operas or movies. Three point illumination presupposes three types of light: key, fill and backlight.
Key light.The
.
first type of light is key light. It is the strongest one and therefore determines the shadow
shape. The key light is the first one to be positioned, a little bit away from the camera and slightly from
above so that the shadows cast down.

Back

Kay

Fill

Camcorder

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Fill.The
.
purpose of this light is to brighten the scene. It is fixed on the other side of the camera axis and
should be paler than the key light. The brightening light softens the shape of the shadows caused by the
key light. With an interlayer, the fill gets smoother and therefore appears to be more natural.
Back light.The
.
back light is positioned across from the key light. The back light gives the person a sharpened outline and so they are silhouetted against the background. The shot seems to be more graphic and
gives a bigger spatial depth.
Background light.In addition to the three point illumination, a photographer can make use of a background light. An interesting background colour for example can be created by the coloured interlayer.
Outside sunlight is the key light. The sun is a natural light source according to the logic of light. The phrase
logic of light refers to realistic and natural illumination. If the illumination appears to be unrealistic, it is
called a dramatic logic of light. In this case the light effects are of great importance.
Light design by direction
The head light throws frontal light on the person. Film stars in their 40s and 50s benefit from this kind of
light because it makes them look younger. Direct light creates no shadows so wrinkles and skin problems
are not that visible. Sided light directly comes from the side and is positioned at a 90 angle to the camera
axis. Because it creates a very strong shadow, it emphasises the dramatic nature of the scene.
In the case of backlight, the source of light is positioned across from the camera behind the object or
person. The face of the person stays in the dark. Thus, this kind of light is often used in horror movies or
thriller.
Quality of light
Among the several parameters of light, from the perspective of video creators, the most important are:
the intensity, or simply said the brightness of the light;
the colors temperature, which determines the color of the light;
the frequency of flickering light bulbs or fluorescent lamps.

A wrong setting of parameters or incorrect preparation of the set cause certain problems or errors in the
video material. For example:
Lack of sufficient brightness will cause an underexposure of film material and as a result some
noises in the dark areas of the frame and the lack of detail will appear
Use of too bright light or placing it too close can cause an overexposure of the video and the lack of
detail in the bright parts of the picture
One should avoid an illumination of objects with different colour temperatures. Combining daylight,
at about 5600 K with artificial light - about 3200 K makes unnatural color of the object were
filming
Sometimes, when we light the set with lamps equipped with fluorescent lamps with a frequency of
flicker other than a multiple of the number of frames per second (fps), recorded image may twinkle
and grey stripes may appear on it. This effect often occurs when one is working on shots in slow
motion, or using amateur lamps.

light is produced by an interlayer that is fixed on the wings of the spot light. The same effect is created
through an indirect arrangement of light. For that, the spot light must be focused on a white area or a light
reflector (bouncer). The reflected rays of light are more diffused and soft. In addition, most spot light have
filters that disperse the light.
To achieve sharp shadows, the light must be directed directly at a person or object.

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Sound
Learning objectives: Understanding the rules for the use of different kinds of sounds in the video,
including music and audio special effects.
Duration: 02:30 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists
Music, sounds and voice - overs are added to all movies and videos. Even silent movies have music.
Sound design is just as important as picture composition.

Sound while recording


Ball microphone (omnidirectional).The
.
sound is recorded from all directions at the same intensity, but
over a fairly small range. It is best suited for interviews in noisy surroundings. One has to speak directly
into the microphone. Ball microphones are also used as vocal microphones.
Lavalier microphone.This
.
is a special form of the ball microphone, which is small and can be attached
to clothing so that it is not visible. Lavalier microphones are much more sensitive than the normal ball
microphone and are best suited for interviews in quiet surroundings.
Cardioids (unidirectional microphone).These
.
are well suited for sound recording when noise from other
directions need to be cut out. They are sensitive to sounds from only one direction, so the sound source
can be focused and recorded more precisely. Cardioids can also be used for filming where the microphone
is not supposed to be in the picture.
There are different forms of cardioids with different characteristics.
Hyper cardioids: hyper cardioids have a tighter area of front sensitivity and are less sensitive
to the sounds coming from the side. This helps to avoid background noises and is often used for
interviews in reports.
Super cardioids: the front sensitivity is higher than that of hyper cardioids and excludes
background noises even better.
Lobe: This is a high quality directional microphone (also a noise cancelling microphone) and is
suited for noisy environments. Thus, it is often used as a boom microphone. When it is directly
focused on the mouth of a speaker, loud background noises (for example, traffic noise) can be
avoided from a longer distance.
Built-in microphone. Almost every video recording device is equipped with a built-in microphone. In each
case we can record sound directly into the camera. Unfortunately, the quality of the built-in microphones,
their automated use, leave much to be desired. Audio recorded in this way is not useful for an interview or
dialogue scenes. Sometimes, in the case of forms of journalism, it can be helpful as background sound.
If for some reason we have no choice and must record with the built-in microphone, it is advisable to
become familiar with its features. Despite the limitations, we can encounter the following functions:
Sensitivity. Some cameras allow to set sensitivity level, depending on how far away from the
microphone the sound source is.
Windscreen. This feature allows you to reduce the sensitivity of the microphone to the sound of the
wind, but in practice it often worsens the quality of the sound.

Recording with external recorder


Regardless of what kind of microphone you choose, there still remains the question of the device with which you
will record the sound. Professional cameras usually have the ability to connect two separate microphones, and a
setting of parameters. In this case, the sound is recorded with the video directly to the storage.
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But what if the camera is not a quality sound recorder? In this case, we can use the external recorder.
Dictaphones. This small, portable device allows you to record sound which you can then write down.
Generally we distinguish two types of recorders, taking into account their recording technology: analogue
(using the technology of sound recording on magnetic tape) and digital dictaphones (processing natural
sound in the numerical sequence). Analogue voice recorder is cheaper but the record reflects the natural
noises. On the other hand, the advantage of digital voice recorder is that during the recording of sound,
noises and interferences are not saved. It is easier to modify and store digital recordings on the storage
media as well.
Digital recorders are divided into two groups - stationary, connected to a computer via USB and mobile that
you can take with you anywhere. In the first case, audio is recorded directly on the hard drive, mobile voice
recorders are powered by batteries and recording is on the built-in memory or flash card. They have small
weight and dimensions, so they work perfectly in the field.
Some devices, like MP3/MP4 players or smartphones have already built-in dictaphone. In general,
however, you can not attach an external microphone to it to improve the sound quality so its better to
possess a separate dictaphone.
Built-in voice recorder, in good conditions, clearly record sound from a distance of 5-6 meters. If you
want to record from a greater distance, select a model with the ability to connect an external directional
microphone. Its better when the recorder has microphone sensitivity control. A very useful feature used
in most dictaphones is recording voice activation to avoid recording silence. Speaker built-in dictaphones
allow to listen to recorded material but its better to use headphones If you want to hear clearly. The
function that makes listening easier is playback speed. It will be useful when registered statement is not
clear and when you want to quickly scroll through the material to find the interesting part. Most recorders
have this feature.

A dictaphone, regardless of whether it is a digital


device, whether analogue, may have many
additional features that increase its usability: voice
guide, fast playback, playback speed control, filters
(allow for clearer sound), microphone sensitivity
level control, microphone zoom and many others.
This device looks like a digital voice recorder and
basically meets the same task. Its advantage is
the ability to precisely adjust the parameters to be
recorded and to control it.

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Live sound mixing


When recording sound on the set, keep in mind the essential elements:
Each microphone should be set accordingly to the conditions and objectives of the recording.
Another type of microphone is applied to the recording sounds of background, another for an
interview. Some microphones require their own power supply (battery or phantom). Remember to
adjust the parameters of the recording equipment to the microphone.
The person responsible for the sound should be able to listen to it directly during the recording. It
is perfect for a closed headphone sound characteristics. Thanks to headphones with closed sound
characteristics, the soundman can focus on his work and control sound quality.
If you use an external audio recording device, you have to take care of the synchronization of picture and sound. It is important for the later process of post-production. Simply use a simple clapper
(clappboard).

Example: If you use the camera and sound recorder separately, the editor will receive separate video and
audio files. In practice, the editor will have difficulties with the synchronisation of the picture and sound.
Therefore, right after you start recording, record clapperboard, which contains the number of scenes and
shots. In addition, the person operating the clapper says aloud the numbers and makes a clapping-sound.
With that the editor can easily fit the moment of visual impact and impact sound.

Off-tone and on-tone


The tone in movies consists of different sound sources. Firstly, there is a difference between off-tone and
on-tone. In the case of on-tone, the sound source can be seen in the picture, for example a speaking
protagonist, a musician or a car passing by. In the case of off-tone, the sound source cannot be seen in
the picture, for example the voice in an audio-comment. Thus, the off-tones are sound sources that do
not have their origin in the situation being presented in the picture. Typical off-tones are annotators, effect
sounds or music.
The scenic off-tone is a special form. The sound source is a protagonist in the movie: however, while he/
she cannot be seen in a special shot in the movie, he/she can be heard. This can also be applied to sounds
or music whose origin clearly is part of the movie action.

Music
The emotional effect of music in a movie is a very important element. Often the music influences the mood
of the viewer even more than the image. Music emphasises the atmosphere or the dramatic composition
of the scene and creates a catching dynamic. In the following videos you will see the same sequence with
4 different types of music. This example demonstrates the importance and big influence of film music.
The following music aspects should be considered:
Tempo. When a scene needs to be scored in a pretty dynamic and peppy way, music with a fast rhythm is
needed. A typical example is an action scene. Very accurate productions adapt the editing to the rhythm
of the music. In contrast, slower music is used to score romantic scenes. Here, the music is intended to
create a quiet and relaxing atmosphere. For informative sequences, the music should be discreet and not
a distracting element for the viewer.
Instruments and moods. Every musical instrument has its own tonal quality. In addition, some
instruments are associated with special locations, situations, motives or genres.
Example:harmonica = western/cowboy theme; bagpipe = Scotland; smoky saxophone = bar; flamenco
guitar = Spain; accordion = nightlife in Paris. Depending on the scenic context, these musical clichs can
either have an informative, humoristic, dramatic or ironic implication.

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Illustrating use of music. The meaning of a picture can be underlined by music in many different ways.
The mood technique emphasises the mood of a scene by the use of music.
Example: happy people: happy music, sad persons: sad music.
Cartoons developed the so-called Mickeymousing technique: each single movement in a shot is scored
with a tone. Chase music is typical for chases, as the name implies. It is a kind of jazz style; several
soloists do an improvisation and alternate periodically they have a musical battle, similar to the battle on
the screen.
The accentuated use of music other than the Mickeymousing only scores special moments or
movements that are important for the action of the film.
Contrasting use of music.To
. confuse the viewers, to provoke them or to concentrate their attention,
contrasting use of music is used. The score is outrageously antagonistic to the image.
Example: a war scene is scored with cheery music.
Polarising use of music. Here, a neutral image or a rather uninteresting scene is thwarted by an
exaggerated score. This use of music can produce a manipulating or ironic effect, depending on the
context.
Example: a politician comes into the picture, by underlining the scene with sinister music, the politician
seems to be weird or ominous.

Additional sounds
F/X. Online databases are filled with the sounds of shots, hits, explosions and so on. We can use a
creaking door opening sound or different types of steps (or walking on sand, on concrete or wooden floor).
It enriches your material by additional sounds that occur in nature but can be unregistered when recording.
It is important, however, that is only a supplement, not a dominant element.
Background. For the video soundtrack to be complete you should add the sounds occurring in the world
around us. This is particularly important when the same sound recording is realized in the studio, in terms
of silence. Then we can clearly feel the lack of background.
Silence. Can silence be a kind of sound? You may not realize that even when there is no dialogue and
no music, sound engineers usually add some noise in the background, because silence feels unnatural.
However, in some cases, silence may be an appropriate type of sound and builds the atmosphere.

Screencast
One of the most popular techniques used in the Internet videos are screencasts, that is clips, in which a
computer screen is presented, and which plays a major role in the film. This form is often useful when you
want to show someone how to perform some operations on the computer or how to handle the program,
etc. The image of the screen is often accompanied by a voice-over-coach. Shots of the screen can also
be combined with a recording from the camera using crosstalk or in the form of picture-in picture. This is
one of the cheapest forms of video production - everyone is able to do it on his computer, equipped with a
microphone.
There are several tools that we can use when creating screencasts. The most popular is the Camtasia
Studio by Techsmith. It not only enables you to record the screen, but also a quite advanced editing, along
with the addition of close-ups, texts, various arrows and distinctions, as well as adding and editing a
sound. Ready screencast can be immediately exported to a file, one of the video websites, or as a ready
package for e-learning systems.
Among the alternative free equivalent we can find CamStudio, Ezvid, Jing and Screencast-O-Matic.
However, some of them, only allow you to record the screen, but the further processing of the video has to
be done in another program.

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Design basics
Learning objectives: Knowing the rules of image composition.
Duration: 02:30 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

The camera is not merely a technical device for recording everything as it is. It is a great tool for creativity,
self-expression and spontaneous ideas. However, before trying to experiment with what the camera can
do, an operator needs to learn some graphic design basics.

Golden ratio
As was mentioned in the previous section, asymmetrical images evoke more interest and tension. Thus,
photographers like to work with the rule of thirds, a simplification of the Golden ratio rule, also known as
golden section or divine proportion.

The rule implies that the picture is imaginarily


divided by two horizontal and two vertical guide
lines. According to the golden ratio principle the
depicted object should be placed either along one
of the guidelines or directly at their intersections.
According to this rule, a flower (or its blossom)
should not be arranged right in the middle of the
picture but along the right guideline.

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Picture composition
The aim of picture composition is to arrange the objects or people in the picture in the most effective and
vivid way. Picture composition is based on the golden ratio rule.
If you want to record an interview, you should consider the following:

1. Choose the appropriate camera distance


(type of shot).
Mostly, it will be a close-up, showing the person
being interviewed upwards from the chest.

2. Position the person in the picture.


Allow more space in the view direction, thus place
the person in the right or left third of the picture. The
person should sit/stand a little bit to the side of the
camera (to avoid a head-on perspective when the
person looks flat). Ensure that the space above the
head is balanced (not too much, not too little).

Lines & contrast


Lines and contrasts are elements that greatly influence the viewers perception of the image. Lines help to
focus the view on different parts of the picture or lead the eyes along the picture. In addition, lines have an
influence on the emotions of the viewer. For example, vertical lines help provoke feelings of dignity, height,

and strength. Contrast in photographic composition is an effective means of directing the viewers attention
to the centre of interest. The positioning of subject elements to create contrast gives them added emphasis
and directs the viewers attention.

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Bright-dark-contrasts

The most popular type of contrast is probably the bright-dark-contrast. When a white circle lays on a black
square, the viewer automatically focuses on the white surface. In case of the bright-dark-contrast, the
viewers attention is always directed to the bright area.

Colour contrasts
Colour contrast is often used as a stylistic device in advertising. For example: when a picture consists of
several squares that are all blue except one red square, the attention of the viewer is attracted to the red
square. Colour contrasts can often be added during post production.

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Portion contrast

The same example can be used for the portion contrast: in a variety of different elements there is only one
single red square. This difference in portion attracts the viewers attention to the single red square.

Contrast of form and surface

When there is just one circle in between squares, the viewers attention is directed to the circle.

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Horizontal, vertical or diagonal lines


While horizontal lines create harmonic, quiet and static impressions, vertical lines seem to convey
dominance, power and strength. Diagonal lines create a disturbing, disharmonious, dynamic or tense
atmosphere.
Horizontal lines. A long shot of the sea creates a relaxed and harmonic impression due to the clear lines
between the beach, sea and sky.

Vertical lines. A long shot of the Presidential Palace in Warsaw gives an impression of magnitude and
power, created by the vertical lines of the columns.

Diagonal lines. A shot of a forest with leaning trees has diagonal lines in it; thus, the image appears to be
disturbing and disharmonious. The viewer will have the impression that the trees are about to fall down.

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Graphic and imaginary lines. There are two types of lines in the picture. Graphical lines created by the
objects and their position. Examples: urban canyons, landscapes, positioning of persons in a room.

Virtual lines are imaginary lines that are created by movements in a picture, so called movement vectors.
Virtual lines can be created by movements. Viewing direction, so called view vectors, and gestures also
create virtual lines.

Symmetry
Symmetry and asymmetry create dynamics or tension of the picture.
In a symmetrically arranged image the elements are mirrored on the axis, in asymmetry the elements are
randomly located.
Symmetry. Symmetrical pictures evoke, like horizontal lines, an impression of harmony. This type of
arrangement can get boring when it is used too often.

Asymmetry. To evoke interest and keep the attention of the viewer, a lot of images are arranged
asymmetrically. Asymmetry in images appears to be more dynamic and more exciting.

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Directing and working on stage


Learning objectives: Learn the basic methods of working with the crew on the set and dramatic
composition when shooting.
Duration: 01:30 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing
Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

Dramatic composition
Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the
stage. Dramaturgy may also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story into a form that may be acted.
Dramaturgy gives the work or the performance a structure.
Every narration, no matter if it is a novel, an audio play for the radio, a motion picture or a TV report, needs
dramaturgy. The purpose of a dramaturgical narration is to entertain and hold the viewers attention. If a
viewer is bored with a film then there is something wrong with the dramaturgy.
There are some dramaturgical models that every editor should be aware of. Utilizing the following models
can help to create an interesting film.

Freytags pyramid
This graphic represents the (ideal) dramaturgical composition of a narration. Basic elements of that structure can be found in nearly all kinds of narrations (fictional or non-fictional). Such a complex model can be
adapted to short forms, such as TV reports, only with some restrictions.
HPP: Handling Plot Point
Exposition: In the exposition, viewers get to know the initial situation and basic background information:
Who? When? Where? The conflict is approaching slowly, but steadily.
Setup of the conflict: Mostly, the conflict is initiated by an impulse, for example an event or a conversation.
Conflict: When the conflict comes to its climax, the possibilities as to how the main characters can overcome opponents and obstacles are shown. A conflict has external origins (for example, a ship is about to
sink) or internal reasons such as self-doubt, fear or unrequited love.
Turning point: Since Aristotle, a sudden change in the narration is called peripety and leads either to a
positive or negative solution of the problem.
Degradation of the conflict: the conflict is solved and it becomes clear whether the good guy wins or
loses. For a viewer, the excitement decreases.
Conclusion: The finale of the narration can be either closed or open ended. At the very least, an open
ending needs to indicate which way the protagonists are going to go in the future.
Handling Plot Points mark the central moments, in which new developments are about to take place.
They are also called turning points because they lead the story in a different way. Very often, those HPPs
have a surprising character and the strongest effect when the viewer is not expecting it.
The exposition and the conclusion often embrace the narration. This is done by letting the protagonists act
at the beginning and at the end of the story in the same or very similar situations.
Example: At the beginning of a narration, the protagonist Z lives happily with his family. In the course of the
story he participates in a dangerous military operation. In the end he returns, with only small lesions, to his
family.

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Denouement

Resolution

Falling action

Climax

EN

Rising action

Inciting incident

Exposition

how to increase your multimedia competencies?

Elements to build up tension


Contrasts: Appeal to emotions: for example: happiness, empathy, sadness. Humour, if it fits to the story,
is always appreciated by viewers.
Example: poor and rich, young and old, good and evil.
Retardation: The solution of the conflict or the climax is postponed.
Example: Just before a man jumps off a bridge, his cell rings, he answers and then he jumps.
Suspense: Advance in information; a viewer knows more than the protagonist.
Surprise: Viewers know less than the protagonist and are surprised with events that they could not have
possibly foreseen.
Leap in time: The narration is told not in a chronological order. The order of the scenes creates some kind
of dramaturgical effect; typical examples are flashbacks or future flashes.

Working on stage
One of the biggest challenges in multimedia is to tackle an enormous variety of activities. It is especially
difficult when working in a strange place and with people you do not know well. This happens very often in
video production.
Stage organization. It is important to develop certain habits and therefore be able to control the work on
the set. In fact, during the recording the most important thing is the time before it starts. The video itself is
only an effect on whether that time was used properly.
During the shooting you may change the produced scenario documents several times. You should take
care of each member of the crew having the same version.
The rules of working and self-discipline are very important . It is easy to lose control of the situation. This
can lead to extra delays. An efficient director and video producer is primarily a good organizer. If more than
10 people are working on a film, you will need a person to handle the organizational matters.
Continuity. For the audience, Continuity is important between the shots and scenes. It is expressed mainly in the care of details, which are easy to forget when working on the set.
Often the sequential shots and scenes are not recorded on the same day. During that time proper dressing
and grooming of the characters should take place. There are also important elements of decoration.
Although the detailed planning the scenes helps to avoid problems. Its a good situation when the director
can predict the consequences of his spontaneous decisions that can unexpectedly affect the final result.

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Film editing
Learning objectives: Acquiring practical skills in video editing (workshop).
Duration: 04:00 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

What is editing?
This chapter presents the basics of film editing, and an introduction into editing software (pro and non-pro
systems).
Film editing is part of the post-production process of filmmaking. It involves the selection and combining of
shots, connecting the resulting sequences, and ultimately creating a finished motion picture.
On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shots into a
coherent whole. A film editor is a person who practices film editing by assembling the footage.

Sequence building
Basically, during the post-production the units are defined as follows:
Take (or shot). A single continuous recorded performance, from start to stop of the cameras recording. It is the smallest unit.
Scene. A continuous block of storytelling either set in a single location or following a particular character. Scenes are composed of shots.
Sequence. The string of scenes.
Act. Typically a technical unit: one roll of 35mm film with a length of 300 m. Practically not used in
video production.

Aspects of montage
The main task of film editor is to arrange individual shots that constitute a scene. Scenes should be arranged in a logical sequence. As a result, edited material should correspond to the scenario. In addition, shots
and scenes can be enriched with music, animations and other effects. There are many ways to enrich the
content of the movie. Some of them will be discussed later (see below: Best practices and tricks).

Editing workflow
Most editing programs work on very similar basis, and contain the following components:
Project Bin
Timeline
Preview
Effects
Sometimes these elements have different names. Almost every software is a bit different, but the essence
remains the same. Operating is simple: you should appropriately arrange your footage in the timeline in the
correct order and then enhance it with effects.
We will show you some popular editing workflows with the basic components.

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Review of popular offline editing workflows


Adobe Premiere.Adobe
A
produces a number of software for creating media. The most famous are Photoshop (image enhancement), Illustrator (vector graphics creation), InDesign (DTP) and Premiere, which is
used for video editing.

Overall view of Adobe Premiere

Project bin: here You can put all Your source


files (shots, graphics, music tracks, titles etc.
You can also store full sequences of edited
material here, before you export them.

Project timeline: Here you can sort out all source files in the correct order. You can use many video and
audio paths (V1, V2, V3, A1, A2, A3). Coloured blocks shown in the timeline are the individual shots.
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Project preview. Here you can


see the effect of your work.
At the bottom are also visible
buttons for editing the various
shots. You can view the entire
line of time, or individual recognition.

Mixer, Media browser


and effect here you can
enhance your video. For
example, in left window
you can mix a lot of
audio sources, including:
volume, channels, pan,
effects etc.

Final Cut.

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Avid.

What if you dont have sophisticated software?


If you do not have access to expensive editing systems, you can also use the software available on almost
any computer. Such programs do not provide too many features, but in many cases they will suffice. You
can use them to learn the basics of video edition, before you decide on a professional workflow.
Movie Maker. Windows Live Movie Maker is a part of the Windows OS you can download it from
Microsoft website and install on your computer free of charge. However, Movie Maker is a very simple
software and wont let you work on sophisticated projects.
iMovie. iMovie is a program bundled with Mac OS. You dont have to install anything if you are already a
Macbook, Mac or iMac user. Just find it in the programs bin. iMovie is a little bit more developed, but it is
still amateur software.
Online editors as a popular solution. Today on the market there are also programs that run directly on
the Internet. These applications are available by the browser and do not require installation of anything.
You only need to upload your content to the app server and edit online. However, you need fast and stable
internet connection.
In recent years, with the development of Open Source software, many solutions which are completely free,
available for both Windows and OSX as well as operating in a Linux environment, are accessible.
Among the software for multimedia editing, we can find both graphics programs (Gimp, Inkscape), audio
editing programs (Audacity, Ardour or LMMS) as well as advanced programs for montage and 3D postproduction (Blender, Cinelerra or shotcut).
Thanks to the use of Open Source software, we are able to prepare the whole video film from the
construction phase and script writing, through installation and shots post-production. Tools such as
Blender, despite the fact that they are for free, are used for 3D graphics in large commercial projects.
At the functional level, their quality is very high and often not so different from their expensive equivalents.
The advantage is undoubtedly the support of the community, which often works much better than the
support of large companies. The problem can sometimes be a stable operation and intuitive use, but they
are constantly improved. Also, more and more companies support Linux environment and Open Source,
providing codecs or SKD to its commercial solutions.

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What do I need to start?


Video editing requires above all a very powerful computer. Simple editing work can be done on any modern
computer, but waiting time for the processing of scenes and shots (rendering) is a key. Rendering requires
efficient computers, because it takes a lot of resources.
Sometimes (now more often) the editors are working on laptops. Editing a very large project can be difficult
on a portable computer, but you can do smaller work in this way.

Best practices and tricks


In our handbook we will show in more detail the specific actions that the film editor executes. Understanding the professional programs in such a way as to allow trouble-free operation on them takes a lot of
time. We will use Adobe Premiere Elements, which is a bit simplified version of Adobe Premiere Pro. The
program is easy to learn, yet contains all the key elements.
How to start?
After starting the program, the welcome screen will appear. You can choose from two options:
Organizer for organizing, finding, and viewing all source files, like videos, photos, music.
Video editor for creating movies with special effects and sharing them.

We choose Video editor and wait until it turns on. You can select an existing project or establish a completely new one. Choose a New Project and wait a few seconds.

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General overview.

Main toolbar.
Preview
e e window
do with
t controls.
co t o s

Timeline with tools, filters and effects ribbon. Timeline has different tracks for video and audio. Audio tracks
are also divided for regular audio, narration or soundtrack. You can change the tracks quantity or order.
Some tracks can be hidden or deleted.

Importing source files. For importing source files on the timeline or to the project assets, you have to
choose Add Media. After that, select the source. You can capture media direct from your camcorder (through USB or fire-wire) or simply select files from hard disk or memory cards. From now on, all files will be in
the Project Assets windows and ready for use.

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Add Media panel. As you see, you can


add media files from many different
sources, including drives, camcorders,
webcams or digital photo cameras.

From now on, you have all imported


media in the Project Assets panel. Its
good if you collect all important media
files before you start to edit. It will help
you to keep order in your project.

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Cutting.
Add Media panel. As you see, you can
add media files from many different
sources, including drives, camcorders,
webcams or digital photo cameras.

From now on, you have all imported


media in the Project Assets panel. Its
good if you collect all important media
files before you start to edit. It will help
you to keep order in your project.

You can use both ways. It is important that you check your cutting in practice. If you are not sure how to
combine two shots, just experiment. Remember to keep the principles which were described in the previous section.
Transition.

Any two shots you can connect with


each other simply by placing one after
the other or by using a transition effect.
The effect you can choose from the
menu below the Transitions timeline.
You can choose from dozens of different
transitions, basic and very complex.
Simply drag and drop the effect on the
Timeline between two clips.

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In the additional settings window you


can select the duration and alignment of
the clips.
Be careful not to overuse transition
effects, because they will interfere
with the reception of the film. Basic
transitions are as follows: dissolve and
fade to black. They are most often used
by filmmakers.

In the feature films, effects are most commonly used to connect scenes together (e.g. by a fade to black
direction, viewers can easily understand that the action moved to a different location). However, in the case
of new forms (e.g. music videos), the effects are used more often and in various combinations.
Titles.

In the same way, you can add subtitles to


your movie. On the bottom menu you will
find the function Titles & Text, and therere
dozens of ready-made designs to use.
Put the selected subtitle format on a timeline,
above the one, where the video clips are

You will see automatic window


Adjustments, in which you can adjust
the subtitles to your requirements.

Sample models inscriptions are quite developed, so you should work out the details to make it look the way
you want and fit your project.

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Music. We can enrich our movie with a soundtrack. Its possible to use one of the default pieces in the
Music section, or add your own music in the upper menu Add Media section. Just drag the file onto the
Soundtrack track, and match it to other elements of the movie.

Sound correction. Sound correction is the proper adjustment of each audio track. Theres a separate
audio track for each video clip, as well as for every music piece or sound effect. Their parameters have to
be set properly, so the music illustrates the movie without interfering, and the dialogues have to be audible.

In the lower screen, select


Tools, then Audio Mixer.

This is an audio mixer window. Each channel is a separate track, which we can adjust mainly in two ways:
Balance - left and right channel volume ratio
Level - general level of audio gain
Its also possible to completely mute the given channel.

There are additional sound filters available with some software solutions, allowing for more complex sound
correction, e.g. noise reduction or reverb.
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Colour correction. Its common to record a movie during various times of the day, inside and outdoors.
The effect is that the actors appear in a different light, so the colours of the different shots dont fit. We can
fix it during the editing phase.
In the right menu, in the Adjustsection, there are tools that will help with it.

First, lets use the Temperature and Tint option. If its not enough, choose Colour. There, we can adjust
the settings more precisely.
We have to repeat the given settings for each shot. Its vital to pay attention how the shots work together,
and whether the colours fit better after the correction.
Graphics. Using text is a standard, common element of every TV production. It usually appears as
captions under the speakers (name, surname and a role), subtitles or end or opening credits.
You can easily add captions to your movie using the Titles & Text section in the lower menu. Just select
the text project and adjust it to your needs.

The captions can also move or animate in some other way.

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Exporting.For the edited movie to be available for viewing, it has to be exported into your chosen format.
This way, well be getting a single file, which can then be published in the internet, recorded on a disc or a
pendrive.
Lets choose the Publish+Share option in the upper menu. Then choose one of the available options,
depending on what we want to achieve. The options are as follows:
Web DVD - if youre making a DVD to watch on a computer.
Disc - if youre making a DVD or a Blu-ray disc to watch on a standalone video player.
Online - if you want to publish your movie directly in the internet at YouTube, Facebook or Vimeo.
Computer - if you want to save your file to your computer.
Mobile Phones and Players - if you want to prepare your file so its possible to play it on a smartphone or some other mobile device.

Here are some links to websites where you can find tutorials for editing programs:
http://www.videouniversity.com/articles/the-art-of-film-and-video-editing-part-1/
http://www.mediacollege.com/video/editing/
https://vimeo.com/videoschool
http://www.kdenlive.org/tutorial
http://nofilmschool.com/

Chroma keying
One of the techniques used when creating a video is chroma key, also known as blue-or greenbox technology. It consists in extracting the recorded person from a background (usually bright green or blue) and
replace it with arbitrarily prepared in advance graphics, animation or presentation.
Chroma key is especially helpful when you do not have space to create a set design (for example, in a
small studio, in your room or office). We can then, with the help of fairly simple measures, create an attractive visual space, using prepared presentations or animation in the background.
We need a single, usually green matte background to take a correct shoot in chroma key technology. This
colour differs a lot from human skin and rarely it is an element of clothing. It can be fabric, photographic
background, or a green painted wall. Whats important, the background should be uniformly illuminated at
every point of the frame, and the character should cast the least shadow. It will facilitate the whole process.
In such situations two sets of light - one for the background and one for the character are often used. This
allows for easier modeling of light and scattering of shadows.
The actor who plays using green or blue background should be dressed in colours contrasting with green
ot blue for obvious reasons. He should avoid also shiny and reflective fabrics.
The keying operation is made in real time using the video mixer, or offline - with the help of a computer and
one of the many video editing programs. The vast majority of them have tools for chroma key, from simple
to very complex, which are used in Hollywoods film productions. The primary function of this type of tools
is to select the background colour and the tolerance range.
For the best results you should also spend a moment on corrections of colourful shots from the studio with
the new background colour.

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Example of a seminar
If youre wondering how such training should look like and which methods to use, take a look of an
example of such meeting:

Time

Topic

Objective

Method

Media

00:00-00:15

Introduction:
Welcoming and
Presentation of the
schedule

Orientation and
get to know each
participant every
person speaks a
few words about
his experience and
expectations

Presentation

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Projector/TV

00:15-01:45

Equipment and its


functions

The participants
should get to know
the video equipment and its functions to be aware
of their possibilities

Presentation and
Flipchart/Whitedirect show the
board
trainer shows each Projector/TV
device and explain
its elements and
then gives it to the
participants (every
person can touch
it, take in hand,
see it closer and
try to use it). The
trainer presents
different types of
camcorders, microphones, lamps, tripods, talks about it
and gives it to the
participants who
can ask questions.

01:45-02:00

Short Break

Recreation

02:00-03:30

Exercise #1 - Continuation of topic


Equipment and its
functions

The participants
should get to know
the video equipment and its functions to be aware
of their possibilities

Single and Group


Direct presentation
work - Each partici- using available
pant chooses one
equipment
device and in front
of the whole group
talks about what
he learned

03:30-03:45

Short break

03:45-05:15

How to compose
shots

Participants should
get to know in
detail the handling
of the camera and
elements such as
frame, perspective,
movement, and
the relationship between them. In this
way, the participant
learns to control
the camera

Trainer talks about


basic perspectives, movements,
frames and show
some pictures as
examples.

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Short break

Recreation

05:30-06:00

Exercise #2 How
to compose shots

Participants form
groups (2 persons
in every group)
and take photos
and record, using
available equipment and their
smartphones. Photos and recordings
show frames,
perspectives and
movements explained by the trainer.
Then, each group
shows the results
of work in front of
all participants and
the trainer. Photos
and recordings are
discussed.

Group work

Available equipment, smartphones, computers

06:00-06:10

Summing-up

The trainer sums


up the day and
receives feedback
from participants

Plenum, Feedback

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/TV

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Test questions:
1) The establisher is:
a. A shot where main characters are in the centre
b. A shot that shows the person from the head to knees
c. The biggest/widest shot used to introduce the viewer into the setting of a movie or to present the
location.
2) Which of the following part of camera contains electronic elements and mechanisms that control its
operations and record images on the magnetic tape or other type of storage?
a. Control panel
b. Camera body
c. LCD screen
d. Built-in microphone
3) Finish the sentence: The more bright the object itself
a. the less the aperture needs to be opened
b. the more the aperture needs to be opened
c. the more complicated is white balance regulation c.
4) Steadicam is:
a. A special device used to lift the camera high into the air and film from above
b. A stabilizing mount for a motion picture camera, which mechanically isolates the operators
movement from the camera
c. Type of light drive systems video surveillance
5) Which of the following units is the biggest one?
a. Sequence
b. Shot
c. Scene
6) Name the most important parts of the camera and their role.
7) Name 4 different formats of storage media where data is recorded.
8) How could you explain American shot?
9) Special device used to lift the camera high into the air and film from above what is it?
10) Name at least 3 popular offline editing workflows.
11) Camera moves vertically from up to down or the other way round - what is the name of this move?

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Module B

Crossmedia
journalism

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Module introduction
One of the main challenges in the new media production is the use of online resources, social networks,
and collaborative environment for news creation, video production and streaming content. So, we want
to offer interesting information about some of the resources that could make it easier to produce media
content online.
New Media Production Methodology provides a methodological framework to promote the media
production skills. Although Module A focuses on multimedia production, Module B concentrates on a new
form of journalism, special crossmedia and transmedia journalism. In the following chapters, you will have
theoretical and practical information about different approaches of the journalism in the XXI Century as well
as some resources that will help you in media production.

Target group
Module B, as part of the New Media Production Methodology, is addressed to freelancers and specialists
in the fields of PR, marketing, coaching, consulting etc. But its specially recommended in the following
cases:
for those who are interested in new forms of journalism;
for those who like to know about new developments of internet media production;
for those who use internet as the main communication channel.

Overview
This module B is structured in 5 different chapters. The course is designed in modern, practical way: It
provides learners with a theoretical base combined with some practical examples and exercises.
Journalism in the XXI Century. Duration: 01:30 hour
This chapter aims at explaining the new concept of journalism in the XXI century. The section contains an
overview about journalism forms and trends, and how they change the viewers point of view.
Crossing of media. Duration: 01:00 hour
This chapter is intended to promote the collaborative creation and management of news production,
especially in collaborative online areas. Considering that the new approach of this new journalism is open
to the public with the intent of promoting collaboration, its important to focus on the different collaborative
environments, and especially on how to create and develop news in collaboration.
Dissemination of multimedia. Duration: 01:00 hour
This section of the Module B is intended to introduce the most popular media platform and how the
participants could work with and within these platforms. In addition, the section includes a specific topic
about open source platform.
Social networks. Duration: 01:00 hour
This section focuses on social networks and their potential in cross media. The main objective is to
introduce to the participants the main social networks from the point of view of cross media (multi criteria
approach) and the potential of the social network (and networking) for new media.
Legal issues. Duration: 02:00 hour
This section is intended to introduce the participants the main mechanism about legal issues related to
the online media creation. This topic is relevant because it changes the traditional knowledge about legal
questions and introduces new roles of the intellectual rights protection procedure in the online media
content.

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Journalism in the XXI Century


Learning objectives: To explain the new concept of journalism in the XXI century. The section
contains an overview about journalism forms and trends, and how they change the viewers point of
view.
Duration: 1,5 hour
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing
Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

We are living in a digital age. Everyone is watching others, and being watched, all the time and
everywhere. Citizens have a nearly limitless access to information, creating a critical mass of information
and allowing them to create and share their own. Anyone can be a reporter and an editor for themselves
and for others.

Multimedia and cross media journalism


Currently, the media scope is a mix of applications, platforms and resources based on advanced navigation
structures, which are supported in different activities and include games, collaborative environments,
blogging and much more.
That is what we call cross media (see a proposal for
definition). The use of different resources to improve the
quality of the message and reach a wider set of users.
The cross media channels are mainly supported on the
web, and adapted to the target groups. They include
applications to interact and collaborate with other users,
and tools to manage resources. In this online environment,
different platforms have been integrated as follows: TV,
radio, chat, SMS, MMS and mobile applications, fostering
the interrelation of services through the different media.
We can create a stronger statement, basing mainly on the
message, and not on the method of the transmission.
However, the interactive cross media design is not just
for the internet. Games, smartphones, tablets, portable
media players, and other mobile devices play a key role
in communication and the exchange of information and
knowledge with other people across the world.
Thus, cross-media is a challenge for journalism in the
XXI Century, creating a new environment that promotes
a new approach to creating information and sending the
message. We are talking about a bidirectional channel to
produce information and resources where the collaboration
between the reporter and the target is encouraged and is
presented using different media, such as video, audio, text,
microblogging, etc.

Cross media is
a new communication
strategy that allows
the information, a new
editorial content, or
any other resource, to
reach a wide audience
through using diverse
media (multimedia), and
reaching the highest
effectiveness of the
message in this way.

Obviously, there are differences between new journalism and the old media production. These differences
are based on the different meaning of some topics, such as: the message, the media, the audience, the
temporality

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Please look at the following comparison table between the two media approaches:
Traditional journalism

Cross media journalism

Message

Unidirectional

Bidirectional / Multidirectional

Audience

Specific group

Diverse groups

Involvement

No

Audience collaboration

Media

Using one media

Multimedia different media are used

Channel

Direct channel

Multichannel

Temporality

Specific time

Un-temporal

Geography

Restricted

Unrestricted

crossmedia
It extends the istory to other devices and the
istory doesnt have sense if we dont experiment
all of them. It crosses platforms without
extending the narrative universe.

transmedia
The initiatives, products and narratives are
part of the relation. They expand the drama
of the main events using a larger number of
media platforms and allow users to take part
in the events and the creation of media.

In the last years, a new term has appeared, that contributes to the further development of the cross media
concept and improves the world of the mass media and communication: Transmedia.
The relevance of the trans-media narratives is that each of
these platforms, windows or elements is a part of the message
and is connected to each other. Thus, each part of the
narrative is unique, depending on the platform on which it is
developed (internet, comic, social networks, video games). In
the trans-media journalism, the users collaborate on the story
development, that is, they can leave their own narration and
define a better one.
If you are interested, you can find different multimedia
journalism websites online.
Multimedia Muse: Multimedia Muse is an online environment
to help the media producers. The site focuses mainly on
photojournalism, but you can find very useful information about
other types of multimedia production, such as: tutorials, tools
and books. The job section is very interesting, you can also
find some job offers.
Innovative Interactivity: is an open and collaborative
environment for old and new journalism. You can find different
publications, tips and other multimedia resources to support
your production.
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A transmedia initiative.
Twittersodios de El
Barco
This is a television series
based on twitter. Its fans
can interact with the
characters through twitter
and they can access the
specific and exclusive
content. The fans have to
collaborate to solve the
quizzes and its considered
the one initiative that
connected together the
Trans-media concept and
the most innovative social
TV in the world.

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duckrabbit: is a private company that works in the multimedia production field. They work mainly with
photos and videos, and produce multimedia for NGOs and similar organisations. Training opportunities
are available at their website as well as recommendations, books, news etc. Everybody interested in new
media production should visit it.
Multimedia Shooter: One of the most complete online sites for multimedia production. Its friendly and
easy to navigate and the content is very good. The platform offers tips, news, commentaries and examples
of the best new media journalism.
Practical: Lets check one of these platforms. Browse through the categories on the right-side of
the landing page, which offer a way to filter and find the content you are after (for example, training
opportunities, advice or interactive examples, etc.).

Overview of journalism forms


Journalism is the collection of information in different forms, and its handling (written, oral, visual or
graphic). Journalism intends to collect, analyse, synthesise, prioritise and publish the present and emerging
news.We can find different types and forms of journalism. Each is intended to explain the news from a
different approach.
Considering how we treat the news, we can find the following journalism forms:

news

investigate

review

columns

News journalism is intended to present the news, without


any embellishments and ornaments, in a direct and
objective way. It tells the story as it happened, it strives to
present the data in an objective way.
Columns journalism present the authors opinion and
personality about a topic, an event or a person. The
journalism or professional also reflects the opinion of the
media. The viewer, listener or reader use it to recognise
the opinion and the scope of the professionals journalism.
Review journalism is halfway between news journalism
and the opinion journalism (columns). That is, the
reporter analyses and writes a story in detail and includes
subjective elements about it, giving their opinion about
what you are telling.
Investigative journalism is intended to uncover a
subject, a person, an event or an affair. The journalist
investigates and verifies all the data and facts related
to it, and then it could be present in different ways: as a
special article in a newspaper or a magazine, as a TV
documentary, etc.

We can also talk about different types of journalism, depending on the topic or the subject developed.
Thus, we can talk about:
Political journalism
Business journalism
Satirical journalism
Sports journalism
War journalism
Cultural journalism

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Environmental journalism
Scientific journalism
Gastronomic journalism
etc.
The style to produce news, articles, video, audio (and other media) is very different depending on the topic.

Viewer vs user
Possible uses for the technology. We can find some technological solutions (including a new
model of TV) that automatically detect the viewers most likings and deliver according to them
or TV /and or radio music programme that could adapt the music to the users preferences.
The potential market is wide. According to the forecast published by The Guardian newspaper,
an USA research work paper says that in 2015 media production will move about 1.4 trillion of
dollars, twice that of a previous forecast of $200 billion.

Finally, we can talk about the different types of journalism depending on the media used. We can find:
Written journalism. When we refer to written journalism we are mainly talking about newspapers, magazines, gazettes, etc., that is, about media based on written articles and contributions, sometimes supported
by photos or other graphic elements.
Audio journalism or listening media, where the main vehicle used is the human voice. Radio is the main
relevant media of the audio journalism.
Video journalism is a type of journalism based on video production to transmit an event or news.
Photojournalism is intended to tell a story or news mainly through the use of pictures and other images.
Digital journalism or cyber-journalism is a type of journalism that has its origin in the internet, and which
uses new communication technologies to transmit a message. Digital journalism includes different types of
media and mixes some of these media as follows:
Blog and microblogging written journalism online.
Live stream Direct transmission of an event in the internet, using video and audio production.
Multimedia story telling A new approach to the story telling technique, using audio and video.

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Perceptive faculty of viewers


As this new journalism approaches, the viewers perception changes, one becomes a user, rather than just
a viewer.
As we can see in the picture below, there is a horizontal relation between the transmitter and the viewer
(receiver).

computing
technology

design
and editing

communication
and strategy

objetivos

receptor

expectations

cultural
influences

perception
and cognition

INTERNET

information
technologies

emisor

equivalences

media

Kahn y Lenk, 2001


The editor (journalist) establishes some communication objectives that answer the receivers expectations,
and define a communication strategy, which deals with the receivers cultural approach. The editor designs
and edits the new content according to the receivers perception and cognition, and finally develops the
technological solution, available using the ICT of the user. The editor designs and edits the new content
according to the perception and cognition of the receiver, and finally develops the technological solution,
available using the ICT of the user.
So, its a horizontal relation, which is established between the editor and the receiver, the audience, the
target group, where the editor develops the media according to the needs and expectations of the viewers,
and both are joint together in the internet.
All multimedia products provide answers to some objectives (what we want to obtain), the context (where
they occur), ways (available tools to obtain these objectives) and mental paradigms (scenarios where the
tasks, the environment and principles, which define their relations, are represented).

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Crossing of media
Learning objectives: Promote the collaborative creation and management of news production, especially in collaborative online areas.
Duration: 1 hour
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists,
Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.

An increased use of digital technologies is changing the ways of digital media and content delivery.
Creators have to face the opportunities and the challenges:
accessibility access to resources anytime, anywhere;
ability for remixing and sharing interact with resources in meaningful ways;
content is current access to real-time information;
ease of collaboration build knowledge as a collective.
In the next section we are going to talk about different issues, which will help us work in these new
environments.

Resources of content
Before starting to develop a resource, first think about the type of content resource you would like to
develop for the media. This is important because it influences the following:
the message;
the design;
the layout of your project, distribution and sharing.
The different media content will require different types of content including different layout and style.
We can find the following different resources of content:
1. Text Text is the main relevant type of content and is still very powerful. Text content is the root
of blogging, and the primary form of content across the web. We can create different types
of text contents, but remember that text can be improved, including the accompanying videos
and images, without forgetting its roots.
articles its a traditional pattern, but its valid for news and trends, to be the first to write about
the latest news.
quizzes these can be very useful especially if you want to develop a creative way to encourage participation.
white papers think about your audience, how can you target them? What are the needs of
these audiences? What are their questions and concerns? You can use white paper to deal
with your audiences needs.
case studies include some case studies, correct and incorrect, successful and unsuccessful,
with a big impact or without any. There are some techniques that you can use to present these
cases of study: slide share, video, storytelling, etc.
blogs blogs are very useful to exchange news and ideas and especially to create collaborative media, because they can be easily updated and allow the readers/viewers participation.

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2. Video Video is the type of content that is accessible from more devices every day.
But its important to create an accessible video solution to be used in the different devices
and to also introduce the different types of content. Here you will find a few of them:
Kinetic typography. Its the official name for the animation technique that mixes words and
pictures, video and audio to create an intense message. When you are working on a simple
message, this technique can be very useful to boost the communication objective.
Live stream is a powerful tool to produce video online. It allows all users to see the life event.
Currently, video production is available to everyone. In a few minutes, you can start recording
an event and broadcast it live via the internet. Your recording can reach thousands of people,
those who could not attend the event, and many others who are thousands of miles away.
3. Interactive Graphics
graphics that contain some dynamic attributes, which the user can adjust
according to his/her needs. We can find different types of interactive graphics as follows.
Slide presentation It is a very useful resource when we want to present technical or specialised content, in a simple and schematic way. The user navigates through the slides. You can
access all contents, from the beginning to the end, or select the slides that you find interesting.
Slide share is a channel specialised in this type of resources: You can create your own channel, upload your presentation and share it online among other users.
Interactive Charts These resources are very useful when you have lots of data, and you want
to present it in accordance to the users needs.
a graphic resource can be a very effective media tool. It can be helpful to explain
4. Graphics
a specific situation, or when you want to attract peoples attention on a specific topic.
Photos a picture is worth a thousand words. Using a picture can be enough to tell a story, to
transmit a sentiment or to explain a situation that could be difficult to transmit by words.
Graphs you can use graphs when you are working with a lot of data and you need to attract
public attention.
5. Info graphics
they can be a very helpful kind of content to explain some specific and perhaps
technical information: how is the president of USA elected, or how the Fukushima accident
occurred. How can the airplanes fly? See the following info graphic
http://www.eitb.com/infografias/detalle/604777/por-que-vuelan-aviones/
6. Audio
the widespread use of mobile devices has made it increasingly common to use audio
content on the internet. Among other forms, we can find Podcasts. A podcast consists primarily
of audio files that we can create, upload, listen to online, and also download and listen to offline.
We can create interviews, lessons, news, conferences, workshops, etc.
You can visit the website of BBC and listen to (or download) some of their podcasts.

Streaming and distribution


Due to a large demand for content and services, various network applications for content distribution have
appeared in recent years. These networks and applications allow for reproduction of live events, exchange
music or graphic solutions or simply to share files.
Users are demanding high quality streaming services: people want to access the videos and follow lectures
online, and preferably live and direct. It requires transferring lots of data in the network, so people need a
very good quality streaming and distribution services.

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Cloud based environment


Cloud computing (also known as cloud services or cloud contents) is a system that provides computing
services on the Internet.

Cloud computing servers work online, and


meet the users requirements anytime and
anyplace, without any special knowledge
about the software and applications used. You
just need an internet connection and you can
access all contents contained in the cloud.
The contents and apps come from various
hosting providers often spread worldwide. This
reduces costs, ensures better uptime and web
sites that are invulnerable to hackers, local
governments and their police raids.

cloud
computing

Cloud computing is a new model of services


and technology that even allows the user to
access a set of standardized services with
them and respond to ones needs.

The change that the cloud computing is providing allows for an increase of the number of network-based
services. This generates benefits for providers who can offer more quickly and efficiently. A greater number
of services and users have the ability to access them, enjoying the transparency and immediacy of the
system and a pay for consumption. Likewise, the consumer saves labour costs or economic investment
costs (local, specialized equipment, etc.).
Cloud Computing is characterized by a high degree of automation, rapid mobilization of resources, high
adaptability to meet variable demand and stricter protection to avoid dishonest use of the software.

Benefits

Disadvantages

Cloud computing technology can be

Centralized applications and data storage

integrated easily and quickly with other


applications.

causes an interdependence of service


providers.

Cloud computing infrastructures provide

The availability of applications is subject to

greater adaptability, lost data recovery, and


minimize downtime.

the availability of access to the Internet.

Service reliability depends on the "health" of

Cloud computing enables the content

technological and financial service providers


in the cloud.

provider or cloud services without installing


any hardware.

The availability of highly specialized

Cloud computing applications are usually

services could take months or even years to


be feasible to be deployed in the network.

available within a couple of days or hours


with a considerable level of customization or
integration.

Security. Information must travel through


different nodes to reach your destination
and they are a source of insecurity.

Automatic Updates do not adversely affect


the users IT resources.

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We can find different cloud based environment as:


Dropbox,
Google Drive,
Wuala,
iCloud,
SkyDrive,
Ubuntu One.

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Dissemination of multimedia
Learning objectives: To introduce the most popular media platform and how the participants could
work with and within these platforms.
Duration: 1 hour
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.
Currently, we can find several platforms that could help us to develop media solutions: platforms, open
source environments, collaborative environments, etc., that could support not only the development of the
media content, but also the promotion of collaborative media creation.

Popular content media platform


A content media platform is an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to create, produce, host, distribute and publish media content. It is possible to find different
solutions; each offers different resources, tools and materials that could help you to develop media content.

Thus, you should ask yourself


What type of an online content platform do you need (blogging, multimedia, video, live streaming...)?
What is your skill level regarding the ICT technologies (low - medium - high)?
How big is your budget?
What is the main relevant topic or topics of your media work?
What is your audience?
What is the number of people who you can reach?
The first step is to decide our most appropriate activity. There are some questions we should do before
deciding which platform to use (what is the most appropriate to our goal?).
After defining the previous questions, the next step would be to analyse the characteristics of the online
content platform that you can find online. So, an online content platform should meet the following criteria:
has a support area or a users manual to help you develop, publish and manage the resources
created
has enough critical mass of users (that is how much people are creating and working, using the
same resources)
is compatible with other devices, i.e. mobile devices
is compatible with different operative systems
It will be very interesting if you come back to the section, How to compose shots to check again it - it
could help you to choose the most interesting one.
Here you can find some online solutions that you can use to create cross media resources.
Blogging: In April 2013, an internet blog entry (http://snitchim.com/how-many-blogs-are-there/) stated that the most relevant blog software platforms hosted about 240.000.000 individual blogs. But
its difficult to know the real number because there is no precise data about it. Creating a blog is not
difficult, you can find an online content platform that can guide you to create, publish and manage a
blog. The most popular ones are free to use. They are user-friendly, so you can create and design a
blog in a few hours and start managing content. Here are some of the most popular:
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tumblr (http://www.tumblr.com): Launched in 2007, it is the largest blog community in the world
(142 millions of blogs). Its closer to social networks than to blogs communities, it has an advantage over other blogging services: user can re-blog their notes in your blog. It can be a very
good option if you want something easy. Platform owner: Yahoo
WordPress (http://wordpress.org: its the oldest blogging platform. Its easily customisable and
friendly. WordPress contains enough themes and tools to create a blog or a web site. Compatible with mobile devices, it could be a good option for beginners. About 65 millions of blogs have
been created using WordPress.
Blogger (http://blogger.com): The blogging tool of Google. You need no more than a Gmail account, and you can start creating your own blog. It doesnt have the customisation possibilities of
WordPress or tumblr, but its a good and easy place to start writing something.
Squarespace (http://SquareSpace.com/: similar to a traditional blogging platform like WordPress) but mainly used to develop business, marketing and e-commerce solutions. Its not free,
and the basic enrollment costs $8.00, recommended for business use.
Typepad (http://www.typepad.com): Together with WordPress, one of the fathers of blogging.
The platform offers a very interesting set of design, unlimited storage and users support, but
now its not free, and the basic fee is $ 8,95 /month.
Multimedia content platforms: As in the previous case of blogging, you can find platforms that
allow creating, producing, hosting and distributing multimedia resources and contents. That is,
online platforms intended to create and produce video and audio files. Compared with the blogging
platform, this type of platform is not necessarily free for users. Here you can find some of them:
Brightcove:(http://www.brightcove.com/): It offers a video platform and icloud video service, to
host and distribute video content. The platform includes learning opportunities. Its not free for
use.
Kaltura (http://corp.kaltura.com) Its an open video platform that offers different solutions to
manage and distribute video and multimedia content. It has specific offers for entertainment,
business and education. The platform includes training opportunities and users support. There
is a free-to-use version.
Ooyala (http://www.ooyala.com): Created in 2007, Ooyala is a video distribution platform. In
addition to video production and distribution, the platform offers other multimedia options as
streaming or webinars. Its not free to use.
The Platform (http://theplatform.com): This platform offers specific solutions for video management and distribution. They also offer support for creating specific solution for business, media
or entertainment. Its not free to use.
Practical: Lets check four or five of these platforms. Visit their online sites and check each, according to
the proposed criteria. You can also include your own criteria to evaluate them. Please choose the most
suitable criteria for your needs, and explain why you chose them.

Own media platform open source


Beside the online content platforms, you can find other interesting options to develop and produce your
media content: open source.
Open source can be defined as a program that has its code available for general public, it can be used and
modified. Alolita Sharma (2008 - Open Source Initiative) defines it in the following way:
Open Source Software is:
Software licensed with a copyright license compliant with the Open Source definition (OSD),
Software is distributed with its source code in a human readable format,
Software is developed in an open and collaborative way by groups of developers.
That is, the program is under a free license allowing free use and distribution.
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Thus, open source software and platforms are an alternative to the commercial software, and they allow
to build digital content on open platforms, and let the users contribute to improve and further develop the
open source.
But even if they are open source, free to use and distribute, they are under some type of license that establishes some rules for distribution and for protecting the authors rights.
The use of these open source platforms and software has some benefits, which the products under commercial and closed license dont have. For example:
its the lowest cost solution for developing in-house digital content.
its customisable: You can adapt the software to your needs and develop new parts of software or
update other parts (according to the license).
its safer than commercial programs, because users are continuously improving and updating.
its flexible, you can use this open source software in different operating systems, even in those that
are too old for new commercial programs.
a global community supports it, so you can obtain help from other users to solve any problem.
You can find different open source platforms and software that could be very useful to create digital media
content.
Wiki
Fosil(http://www.fossil-scm.org) Its a cross platform that runs on Linux, Mac and Windows.
You can use it to develop wikis and blogs. Its very simple, because it has a built in web interface.
DocuWiki (https://www.dokuwiki.org/dokuwiki) is a wiki application created to answer the small
organisations document management needs. Its a very simple and versatile software, easy to
maintain, and to integrate in other environments. Its available in 27 languages.
Mediawiki (http://www.mediawiki.org) Its an open source software to develop wiki websites.
The software offers more than 700 setting options. Companies have used it, as well as non-profit organisations, for both educational and professional purposes, etc. Its available in more than
50 languages.
Social networks
Buddy Press (http://buddypress.org/) Buddy Press is an open source social network, belonging to WordPress. Its totally free and customizable. You can easily integrate your WordPress
blog.
Elgg (http://elgg.org) It is a social networking platform supported by a big community of developers and users. Its easy to use and customisable, and eggs/ plugins offers additional functionality, languages and themes.
Video editorr
We can also find different open source software for video editing and encoding.
Open shot (http://openshot.org) As its web page says, It is simple and powerful. The software
can work with videos, pictures and audio files, and you can produce and distribute videos. The
software allows adding subtitles, transitions and effects, and exporting to different online video
platforms.
VirtualDub (http://virtualdub.org) is a video capture/process software compatible with windows
operating systems. Its a powerful video editor that allows processing and encoding videos.
Other open source platforms and software to create and distribute digital media content are
available on the internet. You will find software and platforms to create and develop audio files,
pictures, etc

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Practical: We propose an exercise. Comment with you classmates (with the support from the trainer) which
of these platforms is more suitable for the media. Identify their opportunities and strengths; detect their
weaknesses and threats.

Social networks
Social networks have become an essential channel to transmit information just in time and across borders
and due to its potential in terms of reachable people, they deserve a specific section.
After reading this section you will know about social networks and their role in the media production, and
some tips to work with social media in the media production.
Before starting with some tips and recommendations about how to manage and boost the different social
networks, we will analyse the most relevant social networks used.
These three networks are the most effective channels in social and professional networking. Each has their
specific objectives and characteristics:

Facebook: with more than 1,2 bilion users, the Facebook is the widest social
network in the world. The networks main objective is to put people in contact to
concentrate and share several resources: multimedia files, links, publications, pictures, etc. The network offers different applications that allow networking as: private
messages, creation of working groups, news feeds, chat, etc. It allows personalising
and maximising the different applications considering the target audience. Its a general network, so the user can reach different audiences from more specific to more
general from the same wall, defining different target levels.

LinkedIn: It is considered a professional network. With more than 300 millions


of users, LinkedIn promotes issues related to professional development: business
opportunities, skills and competencies development, research on specific topics,
knowledge management, sharing experience, etc It could be considered a specific
environment for networking because of the following factors:
The membership is more restricted.
Network resources are more professional development oriented.
LinkedIn offers a specific space, which can be customised by the users according to their interest,
needs and future development, making it easy to manage knowledge and networking.
In short, LinkedIn is a management tool that allows reaching to a relevant part of the project target groups.

Twitter: a microblogging server. About 255 millions of active regular users share
information on Twitter (about 500.000.000 tweets a day). You can exchange relevant
information with other users using only 140 characters. You can be followed or you
can be a follower of other users, and have access to any relevant information on a
topic of your interest. You can discuss one topic, talk and comment on it or simply
read the other contributions.

Google +: Google provides this social network service. Google + integrates


different services as follow: Circles, Hangouts, Interest, Communities. This social
network service was launched to compete with Facebook. Nowadays about 343
millions users collaborate and share information in Google +.

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Besides these previous social networks, we can find others focused on multimedia content as videos and
pictures, such as:

Flickr: Free web site that allows uploading, storing, arranging, searching, selling and
sharing on-line pictures and videos. Its very popular because Flickr has a big capacity to administrate pictures through tools that allow author labelling his/her pictures
and to explore and comment the ones of other users. About 92 millions of users are
working in Flickr.

Instagram: this program or application allows uploading and editing pictures, which
then can be shared in social networks as Facebook, Twitter, Flirck. In march 2014
200 million user work and exchange files and pictures in this network.

YouTube: Web site where you can upload, share and (if its allowed) download videos. YouTube is the most popular video server because it allows uploading personal
videos in an easy way. The user can create his/her own channel and subscribe to
other channels, as well as share videos through other social networks like Twitter,
Facebook or G+1. The links to the videos in YouTube can also be embedded in blogs
or Websites. One can upload different types of videos as music clips, TV programmes and homemade videos. More than 1.000 million users visit YouTube monthly.

Vimeo: In 2004 a group of video and cinema producers created Vimeo. The objective was to develop their own space where they could share and exchange their
productions. Its a social network based on video sharing and distribution. This web
site allows sharing and storing digital videos. Registering is mandatory if you want to
upload a video, to create a profile, to comment other videos and to create a reproduction list. Vimeo just accepts videos created by the users.

If you are looking for a more professional channel, for the most important ones in terms of users
(apart from the social networks), you have many more options to share your media production.

https://myspace.com/ It is one of the most important social networks used to share any media production,
especially music production. It counts more than 35 million of users just in the United States.
http://www.shutterstock.com from 2003, Shutterstock offers images, audio or video files to be included in
the production of new content.
http://stockphoto.com here is another web site, in this case focused exclusively on pictures. Here you also
can find royalty free photos, but remember that you have to pay some credits to use the available resources.
http://www.123rf.com Special for designers, you can find millions of pictures, vectors, footage and audio.
Its not free but you also con find an area for free download.
http://www.bigstockphoto.com Bigstock is an easy and quick site. Here you can find high quality pictures
and vectors. The web based site offers more than 19 millions of pictures and photos

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http://www.agefotostock.com is an on-line storage web with different pictures, vectors and audios. You can
also find several free pictures and a low cost section.
http://www.stockmusic.net its a specific web site containing music and audio files for your multimedia
developments.
http://www.audionetwork.com web site containing music and audio files.
http://www.stockmusic.net web site containing music, film, podcast, digital media and web and other resources that you can use in your media production.
http://www.audiomicro.com web site containing audio and audio effects. Royalty free music and free sound
effects also are available.
http://stockmusicboutique.com online music library.
These are just some of the main social networks to share your media production, but there are many more
and their popularity depends on the country. Explore the net to find the most suitable for you!

Here you can find some tips to work with social networks:
1) Choose the most appropriate social networks for your media. Analyse all the options, and decide
where you should be present. Remember that not all social networks are alike. You have to know what
you publish and when is the most suitable moment to publish your content.
2) Dont connect different networks. Each network has its goals and characteristics, so even if you
have the opportunity to connect two networks, remember that you should publish specific content in
each of them.
3) Interact in the community. Dont talk about your contents exclusively, exchange information and
comments with other members of the community, and comment the contribution of others. No other
channels but social networks allow us to create these connections.
4) Dont publish the same post more than 5 times a week. The contents provide added value for the
user. So, be sure that your contents offer something new and attractive. This is the way to attract and
retain your followers.
5) Do not be a pessimist or negative. In the overall network everything is pretty positive so the conversation, participation, education and kindness are highly valued.
6) Being present in social media is synonymous with being a day independently of the sector or
activity that he/she develops. Being in different social networks is to say that we have been concerned
and we have adapted to the new times.
7) Talk, listen, participate. In social networks it is very important to talk, but it is also important to listen
to other users: what they want and need what they want to know. This will create value for your site.
8) Do not copy. Try to be original when you publish. There are many sites from which you received information, but you have to be original and engage other users.
9) What to communicate? The easiest way to tell if content is appropriate for us is to put ourselves in
the customers shoes. Before publishing you should ask yourself: How brands customers would want
it? Try to get closer to your network users and treat them in a personal way, closer, more social, and
you should not forget the real relationship you have with them.
10) Time and perseverance. Creating your space in the social networks is simple, but takes time. Although everyone starts opening pages or accounts at different services, social networking takes time to
interact directly with your customers. So, be patient!

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Legal issues
Learning objectives: To introduce the participants the main mechanism about legal issues related
to the online media creation.
Duration: 2 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.

Digital rights
The term digital rights refers to the relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and
art) and user permissions and rights related to computers, networks and electronic devices. Digital rights
also refer to the access and control of digital information1. Thus, we can say that the term defines the principles and rules that allow individuals to access, use, create and publish media content using ICT devices
(PC or other similar devices, mobile devices and/or other communication devices and network).
The concept focuses on the protection of the creators digital contents and on the regulation of their use.
Besides, it develops specific approaches of traditional questions related to the media such as privacy and
freedom of expression. The proliferation of new media and online digital contents has made it difficult to
control the distributed materials and resources. Some questions appear again in the scenario of the media
content, for example: copyright, distribution and use of permissions, etc.
Currently, we can find several institutions that work in the area of the digital content protection, such as:
Entertainment Consumers Association (ECA): U.S. based organisation that works in the area of
interest of computer and video game players in the U.S. and Canada.
Free Software Foundation (FSF): supports the free software development.
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF): International organization on the area of digital rights advocacy and legal affairs.
Digital Rights Ireland (DRI): Organization that works on issues related to digital rights in the area of
civil liberties.
European Digital Rights (EDRi): International advocacy group that works on issues as copyright,
security, privacy and freedom of expression.
Open Rights Group (ORG): U.K.- based organization that works in the area of digital rights preservation, censorship, knowledge access, privacy, freedom of information and electronic voting.
One of the main roles of these organizations has been to contribute to the sound management of the
property and privacy rights in the new media tools. Thus, a new concept emerged: Digital right management.
Digital rights management, or DRM, is intended to manage any kind of practice to stop, or at least hinder,
the practice of piracy. For that, some different tools and instruments have been created and promoted by
different institutions.
Quick glossary
Digital media is the combination and interaction of all traditional media, such as audio, pictures, video,
text, movement, touch, and capture data.
The right to privacy is a human right regulated in this way:

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence,
nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation.

Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Art. 12 UN Universal declaration of human rights
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- No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
- Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
Art. 17 UN International Covenant on Civil and Political rights

Freedom of opinion is a human right developed by UN as follows

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold
opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any
media and regardless of frontiers.
Art. 19 UN Universal declaration of human rights

Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.


Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek,
receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in
writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.

The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article carries with it special duties
and responsibilities. It may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such
as are provided by law and are necessary:

For respect of the rights or reputations of others;


For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
Art. 19 UN International Covenant on Civil and Political rights
Open-source software (OSS) is computer software with its source code made available and licensed
with a license in which the copyright holder provides the rights to study, change and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose.
St. Laurent, Andrew M. (2008). Understanding Open Source and Free Software Licensing. OReilly Media. p.4.

Creative content and license


As stated in the previous section, new kinds of communication and creation cause new ways to manage
these important rights of privacy, property, etc.
And as said in the previous section, a new term Digital Rights Management has appeared. We can find
several different definitions of it, for example:
Digital Rights Management (DRM) is defined as the use of software or other computer technology to manage the conditions under which copyrighted material in digital form can be accessed. (Free dictionary).
Digital rights management (DRM) is a systematic approach to copyright protection for digital media. The
purpose of DRM is to prevent unauthorized redistribution of digital media and restrict the ways consumers
can copy the content theyve purchased. (Margaret Rouse in SearchCIO).
Digital Rights Management (DRM) technologies attempt to control what you can and cant do with the media and hardware youve purchased. (Electronic Frontier Foundation).
Digital rights management is a far-reaching term that refers to any scheme that controls access to copyrighted material using technological means (Julia Layton in How Digital Rights Management works).
As we can see in the previous paragraphs, we can find several definitions, which show the controversial
approach to the term. So, some organisations see the necessity to protect the property of the new creators. In the other hand, some organisations understand the term as a restriction to use the digital contents
created (Free Software Foundation states that its better to use the term Digital Restriction Management
instead of Digital Right Management).

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Considering the discussion about the negative or positive means of new media protection, we can find
different tools that support the creation and access to the new media creation. They could protect the rights
of the users (how to access to the content) or the rights of the creators (how to protect the access to the
digital content).
Documents. Enterprise digital rights management (E-DRM or ERM) is the practical application of the
DRM concept to control the access to documents (created using Microsoft office, pdf), emails, and intranet
pages. The most used toll of Information Right Management, which is intended to prevent the unauthorized
use of proprietary documents.
Films. The film and video was one of the first areas that had a specific DRM system. From 1996 some film
manufacturers used CSS Content Scrambling System. The system was based on the encryption of the
content of the DVD, and the license included the restrictions to use the video. Currently, the DRM tools for
video are very similar, and most of them are based on license concerning use regulations and restrictions
of video use.
Watermarks. Watermark is a type of DRM that contains a hidden mark embedded in an image or a data
file, and its intended to identify the owner of the media product. It is added to the file ensuring production
and distribution and it could contain information about: the copyright owner, the distributor, the distributor
chain, the purchaser of some element included in the file, etc.
As we commented at the beginning of this section, some collectives have not agreed with the DRM concept. In light of this, some producers have promoted free access to media content.
Apple Since January of 2009, all music is labelled as DRM Free music.
Tor books - From 2012, this editor is selling DRM-free books.
Go.com a digital distributor that has a strict non-DRM policy for all products.
However, some of these DRM free policies are (in most cases) a marketing ploy, as these digital contents
are protected by additional DRM systems as watermark.

Copyright in cross media


Besides Digital Rights Management systems, which regulate both owner and user rights and restrictions,
we can find specific tools to support the copyright in the digital content creation.
Currently, we can find different types of copyright standards developed to deal with the deal with the challenge of the digital content protection.
Copyleft. Copyleft is a type of general license that allows making totally free digital content, often requiring
that all modified and extended versions of it will be also free.
The simplest way to make a digital content free is to put in the public domain, not copyrighted. This allows
people to share their resources and their improvements and future modifications. You can do as many
changes as you want and distribute the result as a proprietary product.
So, we can understand that copyleft could be the contrary of the copyright but here,free does not necessarily mean free of charge, but free as in freely available to be modified, and perhaps not all the parts of a
content but just some parts of it.
But depending on how we configure the copyleft, we can find different types such as:
Strong and weak copyleft;
Full and partial copyleft.
Strong and weak copyleft. The characteristic of strong and/or week copyleft depends on how much of
the content is protected by copyleft. If your total content except some parts can be distributed under other
licences, your content is a weak copyleft. On the contrary, if most of your work is under copyleft, and just a
little part of it could be distributed under other licences, then you are using a strong copyleft.

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Full and partial copyleft. To define a content as full or partial copyleft, we have to check how many parts
of the licence are under copyleft and how many parts of the content are under other licenses. If all parts
are free to use and distribute, we are talking about full copyleft. On the other hand, if some parts are under
other licenses, then we are talking about partial copyleft.

Creative Commons
Managed by Creative Commons organisation (NGO), it could be considered the most famous license for
digital content in the world. But do we know this license well?
A Creative Commons (CC) license is the most popular public copyright license to distribute copyrighted
works. We can use CC license when we want to give people the permission to share, use, and even build
upon work that we have created. The main characteristic of this license is its flexibility. Thus, you as an author of some digital content, can decide if you protect all your work or just part of it, or if you allow the use
of just the non-commercial part of your content.
On the other hand, its a very useful standard for users, because it simplifies content use and content
redistributions since the user just has to consider the content of the CC license in order to use the content
of another author.
We can find different CC license types. The author can opt among different combinations depending on the
terms of distribution. So, mixing and matching the different options offered by the CC license, you can find
six valid CC licenses.
There are four basic attributions that could regulate your CC license:
Symbol pictogram

Description
Attribution: The user has to attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor.

Non-commercial: The digital content distribution is limited to non-commercial use.

No derivative works: The user can not alter, transform, or build upon this work.
Share alike: If the user alters, transforms, or builds upon this work, the user has to
distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one.

Table 1: Different attributions of CC license: Source: Creative Commons web site.

Combining the above attributions you can use these six different CC license types:
Symbol pictogram

License type

Attribution-NoDerivatives

Attribution-NonCommercial

Attribution-ShareAlike

Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivatives
Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike

Table 2: Different CC license: Source: Creative Commons web site.


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The CC network has more than 100 affiliated networks that operate in over 70 jurisdictions.
You can find more information (including practical questions and case studies)
in the Creative Commons website http://creativecommons.org/.
General Public License or GPL. The GNU GPL (General Public License or GPL) is a license created by
the Free Software Foundation (FSF) in the mid-80s, and is aimed primarily at protecting the free distribution, modification and use of software. Its purpose is to declare that the software covered by this license is
free software and to protect it from attempts to restrict users freedoms.
Free Software Foundation offers interesting information about the license and how to obtain them in its
website. http://www.fsf.org/licensing
Practical activity
We would like to propose a practical exercise. Youve just recorded a video and you are thinking about
publishing it in the internet. What could be the best license for the video? Copyleft, strong or weak, full or
partial? Creative Commons?
Check the above data and visit the recommended web sites. After analyzing the data, explain the type of
license that you have chosen and the reasons for that.
Personal data protection. Personal data refers to data, whether true or not, about an individual who can
be identified from that data; or from that data or from other information to which the organisation has or is
likely to have access1.1
In 1995 the European institutions approved the Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the
Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data
and on the free movement of such data.
The directive was intended to harmonise data protection laws throughout the EU. Most of the Provisions
Acts of 1998 came into force on 1 March 2000, although some limited exemptions were in place until October 2007. The directive also includes some reference to the protection in the case of digital data.
The Directive established the basic and main principles for data protection in the EU. Thus, according to
the legislative text, Member States shall protect the fundamental rights and freedoms of natural persons
and in particular their right to privacy with respect to the processing of personal data.
Besides, the Directive contains a full regulation of the following topics related to data protection:
the principles relating to data quality
the criteria for legitimate data processing
the different categories of processing
the information to be given to the data subject
the data subjects rights to access to data
the data subjects rights to object
confidentiality and security of processing
notification
transference of data to third parties
restrictions and liabilities
European scope of the directive (some consideration to be included in national regulations related
to European Acquis)
So, the Directive was the first step to set a European common framework to regulate the data protection.
http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31995L0046:en:NOT you can access the
directive in all official languages in this link.
1

Personal data protection act - http://www.pdpc.gov.sg/personal-data-protection-act#sthash.nnqn1B5A.dpuf


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More practically, please bear in mind the following principles when you undertake any activity regarding the
data protection. So, personal data must be:
1. Fairly and lawfully processed: Be careful with the data that you are requesting, check the applicable
legislation, and avoid asking for data that could limit the freedom of persons (about religion, ethnic,
political ascription).
2. Where possible, obtain permission in writing. People have to provide their consent to manage their
data. Written consent is not always a legal requirement (even for sensitive personal data). However it
would be better if you ask for a written permission.
3. Processed for limited purposes: Please dont forget to inform about the purpose of the data that you
are requesting. Remember that you cannot include any retroactive issues.
4. Adequate, relevant and not excessive: Only enough data to fulfil the purpose should be obtained; it is
unacceptable to hold additional data just in case it might be needed.
5. Not kept for longer than is necessary.
6. Secure: Please use appropriate management systems to prevent unlawful use or accidental loss or
damage (e.g. password access, back-ups).
7. Not transferred to third parties without adequate protection: Except in some cases personal data
cannot be transferred to other parties.

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Example of a seminar
Designing a seminar in cross media journalism. n the following table, you will find a proposal for the
structure of a seminar on cross media journalism:
Time

Topic

00:00 00:20 Introduction:


Presentation of
the contents and
objectives of the
seminar

Objective

Method

Media

Communicate WHAT is going


to be taught and FOR WHAT

Presentation

Flipchart/
Whiteboard
Notebook/
Projector/TV

00:20 01:50 Journalism in the The participants will learn how


XXI Century
journalism has evolved during
the XXI century, from the use
of printed information to the
use of social media as new
channels and how this has also
affected the way people react
to information and their own
involvement in creating it
01:50 2:00

Short break

Presentation,

Flipchart/
Whiteboard

Practical examples
Notebook/
Projector/TV

Recreation, New energy

02:00 03:00 Crossing of


media

This chapter is intended to


promote the collaborative
creation and management of
news production, especially in
collaborative on-line areas.

Group work

03:00 04:00 Dissemination of


multimedia

This section of the Module B is Presentation of


intended to introduce the most the main media
popular media platforms and
platforms
how the participants could work
with and within these platforms.

Flipchart/
Whiteboard

Creation of a
common profile Notebook/
in an on-line
Projector/TV
media producComputer and
tion network
Internet access
Flipchart/
Whiteboard
Notebook/
Projector/TV
Computer and
Internet access

04:00 05:00 Social networks

This section focuses on social


networks and their potential in
cross media

05:00 05:15 Short break

Recreation, New energy

05:15 07:15 Legal issues

This section is intended to


introduce the participants the
main mechanism about legal
issues related to the online
media creation. The general
framework in the EU will be
presented but also the main
points of the national legislation.

07:15 07:30 Short break

Recreation, New energy

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Presentation
Group work

Notebook/
Projector/TV
Computer and
Internet access

Presentation

Notebook/
Projector/TV

Practical examples
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07:30 08:30 Practical


exercise

EN

The objective is that the


participants will be aware
of the potential of the social
media compared to traditional
media when disseminating
information.

Role play,
Feedback

Chosen by the
participant

The class will be divided in


two groups. One of them will
publish an information in a
newspaper (made up for the
purpose of the exercise) and
another group will publish
information in the profile of one
social media (created before).
They will analyze, within the
class (as if the class was the
world) how many people they
reach, how long it takes to
reach them and how they react.
08:30-08:40

Final words and


Farewell

The trainer reflects the day with Plenum,


the participants and holds a
Feedback
feedback session

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Test questions:
1. There are five principal types of journalism:
a. investigative, news, reviews, columns and humour
b. investigative, news, reviews, and columns
c. Google drive, Ubuntu one, Dropbox, iCloud
d. investigative, news, sports and columns
2. Which of these could be considered resources of content?
a. Text and Graphics
b. Infographics and Audio
c. Video (live streaming)
d. All are valid
3. A content media platform is:
a. an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to
create, produce, host, distribute and publish media content
b. an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to
publish media content
c. an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to create
media content
d. an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to
produce media content
4. The term digital rights refers to:
a. the relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and art) and rights related
to computers, networks and electronic devices
b. the relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and art) and user
permissions
c. the relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and art) and user
permissions and rights related to computers, networks and electronic devices
d. the relationship between user permissions and rights related to computers, networks and
electronic devices
5. What are the attribution of Creative Commons license:
a. Attribution, No derivative works and Share alike,
b. Attribution, Non-commercial and Share alike,
c. Attribution, Non-commercial, No derivative works and Share alike,
d. Attribution and Share alike.

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6. What does this symbol mean?


a. Attribution-ShareAlike
b. Attribution-NonCommercial
c. Attribution-NonCommercial- NoDerivatives
d. Attribution only
7. How many active users share information on Twitter?
a. more than 1 billion
b. about 238 millions
c. about 255 millions
8. Which form of journalism is it?: present the authors opinion and personality about a topic, an
event or a person. The journalism or professional also reflects the opinion of the media.
a. Review journalism
b. Columns journalism
c. Investigative journalism
d. News journalism
9.VirtualDub is:
a. Social networks
b. Wiki
c. Video editor
10. DRM is defined as:
a. system based on the encryption of the content of the DVD
b. hidden mark embedded in an image or a data file and is intended to identify the owner of the
media product
c. the use of software or other computer technology to manage the conditions under which
copyrighted material in digital form can be accessed

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Module C

Train
the Trainer

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Introduction
The New Media Production Methodology should enable the participants to build new or improve existing
skillsets in the field of media. While Module A and B are focusing in the different fields of media works, like
A/V production or modern journalistic standards, Module C prepares the participants for one of the most
important requirements for freelancers and people in leading positions: How to transfer the newly gained
knowledge to other people? How to present yourself and your message? Or shortly: How to conduct a
presentation or a seminar using modern means and methods, based on an up-to-date didactic concept.

Target group
Module C is composed for people who are experts in a certain field of knowledge and at the same time are
willing to transfer their knowledge to other people.
The overall methodology is aimed at professional freelancers and specialists in the fields of PR, marketing,
coaching, consulting, etc. Among this target group, people should meet the following requirements in order
to profit from this Module:
an open, curious mind,
a high level of communication competencies,
a good understanding and feeling for other people,
the ability to work in a structured way.
The Module covers all the necessary points in order to educate everyone who fulfills the requirements to be
a good trainer, seminar conductor or presenter.

Overview
This Module consists of 6 chapters, each focusing on the different key aspects. The course is designed in
a modern, practical way. It introduces the participants to the necessary theoretical base (combined with
various exercises) and ends with a practical project aiming to prepare everyone for successful seminar
management.
Trainers role and competencies. Duration: 03:30 hours
This chapter explains the competences a trainer has to have in order to become a good trainer. It also
depicts several possible ways of presenting oneself as a trainer and gives hints on how to deal with certain
situations during seminars.
Training Cycle Management. Duration: 04:00 hours
This chapter explains how to complete planning process, how a whole and proper seminar looks: from
scratch to evaluation.
Communication with training participants. Duration: 02:30 hours
This chapter explains how trainers can approach and reach participants, in both technical (off- and online)
and personal ways.
Transfer of knowledge & didactic methods. Duration: 04:00 hours
This chapter explains the difference between didactics and methodology and how to make use of this
theoretical knowledge in order to create and conduct a successful seminar.
How to conduct interactive online workshops? Duration: 03:00 hours
This chapter pays tribute to contemporary technology and focuses on one of the most important trends in
the field of seminars: webinars.
Practical project: Being a trainer. Duration: 06:00 hours
During this chapter, theory is brought to life: Participants have to make use of the knowledge gained in the
previous chapters.
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Requirements for Conducting Module C


In order to successfully conduct the contents of Module C, the host organisation or person should ideally
fulfill the following infrastructural and personal requirements:
Personal. The trainer (or trainers) who is responsible for the conduction of this workshop, should have the
following competencies:
broad experience in seminar conducting,
the ability to operate on a meta level,
experience in analysis of the training needs, and flexibility in adjusting to spontaneous needs,
wide media knowledge in order to conduct a modern seminar and to create modern training
material.
Infrastructural. If the seminar is taking place offline, the location should fulfill the following requirements:
a large, bright and customizable room,
access to all the necessary media (Internet, projector, flipchart etc.),
possibility to use all the necessary equipment (e.g. cameras, lights),
possibilities for proper subsistence,
access for participants with special requirements.
If the seminar is taking place online, all participants have to be informed about the minimum system
requirements (see Chapter 6) and the trainer has to set-up the online meeting room to create an adequate
environment.

Trainers role and competences


Learning objectives: Get to know about the trainers role, his competencies and management
styles and why this is important
Duration: 5 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists
Anyone who works as a trainer should have different abilities and a reflective attitude concerning their tasks
and their role. Crucial competencies are presented below:

Personal competence
Personal competence focuses on the person, their self-conception, ability to reflect on their own
competencies and their role. Someone with personal competence reflects on their actions, their position
and personal attitude towards different contexts.
For a trainer, this means fulfilling the role of a trainer, thinking about the requirements and about the
question as to how far one can fulfill those requirements (which abilities are missing, what else must be
done to achieve them).
The term standing has been developed to describe all these actions. A trainer who has standing fulfills
the role appropriately, functionally, professionally and is good when dealing with other people.

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Social competence
Social competence shifts interest from the individual to the group and means the sum of personal attitudes
and abilities that are necessary for a successful social interaction between the individual and the group. A
trainer often works with a group in a teaching/learning context. This competence is very important, because
it influences the atmosphere within this context. Successful learning is not possible for the participant,
unless the trainer has social competence.

Professional competence
Professional competence means on the one hand that the trainer has the necessary knowledge and skills
they need to convey, but on the other, the knowledge of the content. It means the ability to put it in order
and explain it within a wider context. Alongside the detailed professional and functional context, a trainer
should always be able to think in wider contexts and to possibly transfer them into other contexts. They
should be able to think out of the box and realize where, and which of their abilities they can use best.

Methodical competence
Someone who works as a trainer must have knowledge about a huge variety of methods, which allows
them to convey learning content appropriately. That means that beside having the knowledge of different
methods, they must be able to realize which method is best in a given context. Not every method fits every
context, topic or participant. This competence therefore means the knowledge of the appropriate choice, as
well as of the appropriate method.
The methodical competence is important before going into teaching/learning situations, when a trainer has
to plan seminar and workshop units and has to choose the methods to use to ensure an ideal learning
environment. The trainer must be clear and let the participants know the learning aims beforehand and
must recognize the learning processes of the participants as well as the framework of the teaching/learning
context (huge/small groups, homogeneity/heterogeneity of the group, lots/little space, which material can
be used, what needs to be bought in advance, etc.) to choose the right methods. If all of this is delivered,
then the trainer demonstrates methodical competence.

Pedagogical competence
Below we present features that are required in the profession of a trainer connected with pedagogical skills.
They relate to each type of trainings conducted for adults.
Openness to feedback. This competence means the ability of a trainer to give appropriate feedback to
the participant concerning their personal learning process and learning result. The feedback competence
means how the feedback is given, i.e. how the trainer explains to the participant what is already good
and what could be done better. Also the trainer can get feedback from training participants, other trainers,
supervisor or coach as well as others who request it.
Learn from their own experience. Knowledge, skills and attitude are the three parallel development
objectives for the trainer who wants to be perceived as competent. Thanks to the proper attitude and
personal goals, a competent trainer is one that wants and knows how to properly use the acquired
knowledge and skills to accomplish the assigned tasks.
A trainer should regularly take care of:
acquisition of new knowledge,
practicing skills,
shaping attitudes.
This should include:
continuous improvement of information / track of trends in the topic of training methods as well as in
areas in which the trainer is specialized,
the sources of reliable information should include: reference books, thematic specialized portals,
interesting research reports,
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meetings among the experts in the given field (preferably seek information on such events through
forums),
the exchange of experience, which always saves a lot of valuable time for self-study, and also
allows the trainers to meet people from the industry, which may result in joint training projects in the
future.
Dealing with criticism and expression of criticism. During workshops, the participants and the trainers
normally agree to follow certain rules prevailing in the training room (training contract). One of these is the
principle of do not criticize, give constructive feedback. Criticism, sometimes having a base outside the
training room can cause an open conflict between the participants or between the trainer and participant. In
any case, the purpose of the workshop may be lost and finally unfulfilled.
To avoid such situations, a coach at the stage of diagnosis must ensure two things:
connection of workshop objectives that are meant to be achieved by the trainers with the objectives
of each of the participants at the preparatory phase conversation with the project sponsors, HR,
managers and telephone interviews (and preferably face-to-face meetings) with participants. If this
is not possible, interviews with employees designated by the customer. It is very important for the
implementation of the participants own purposes,
knowledge of the trainees, who they are, what they do, whether and who can cause problems
during the workshop.
With this knowledge, the trainer can work much more efficiently because it is easier to steer the process
and control the opinions expressed by the participants, as well as their own.
Creativity and flexibility in thought and action. A good trainer should be creative in his work and do
new things that no one else had done before. Creativity is the driving force of all successful and great
achievements, because it draws from the reservoir of untapped opportunities that lie dormant in every
human being.
Creativity is developing smoothly in an environment where the following are found:
the spirit of experimentation: exchange of ideas and concepts connected with the implementation of
the excellent training of the mind,
the desire to play: cultivation of the childrens fascination of the world,
spontaneity: permit yourself to be guided by impulse and unexpected intuition whispers. This is the
best remedy for the lack of good ideas and assertiveness.
A good trainer should also be flexible in his method of work and thought, because very often it is necessary
to change the way in which the training is conducted, because of the specific group of participants, or
technical problems during the presentation.
Ability to analyze and synthesize. TheTrainer should not only speak, and lead a lecture by scrolling
through the slides. Effective training is a practical workshop conducted in accordance with the principle of
20-30% of theory and 70-80% of practice. Bringing theory to a minimum will increase the efficiency of the
training. Exercises, discussions and case studies give the trainer the opportunity to observe the group and
respond to what is happening in the classroom.
One of the tasks of a coach is to gather information from the participants, summarize their opinions and relate
to the objectives pursued, pushing them toward self-reliant problem solving, and advise or actually provide
guidance. Trainer summarizes each block of training, and prepares a report at the end of the training, which is
a synthesis of views and best practices. A well-prepared report is the additional source of knowledge about the
employees for HR and managers, and a practical application material for the employees.
Acceptance of different points of view. Everyone has the right to express their opinions and
each trainer must keep this in mind. Respect is also an attempt to look at the problem from different
perspectives, the most important are effective solutions and goals achievement. The acceptance of
diversity is reflected in the improvement of communication and cooperation in various groups and the
increased creativity and efficiency in the later work.

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Focus on the goals and people.The


.
trainer should watch the group of participants as a whole and
as individuals the trainers that are focusing on the training program cant forget about the people.
Sometimes trainers work with other co-trainers it is effective only when they know each other well and
know how to work together.
Training participants are very different and take different roles. The trainer should diagnose the participants
and what their psychological needs are, attitudes and roles in the group. If a trainer wants to mobilize
everyone, he/she should create the opportunity to use their skills and role-play in which they feel good and
which are recognized and valued by others. The trainer must be aware of the different needs of the people
in the group. The fact that people are involved and make their contribution to the work group in different
ways, must be accepted by the trainer to approach each person a little differently.
Ability to concentrate on the problem. The most important part of the training is the goal. While
conducting a training, the trainer listens and observes, asks thought-provoking questions, directs the
workshop so that no-one is left with a sense of unsolved problems. They should prevent situations in which
participants move away from the training purpose. They should always be looking for the maximum number
of solutions that each participant can adjust according to his preference.
Control of the communication process. To effectively and interestingly lead the training, a trainer must
accede to it in excellent mental and physical form, have an open mind, and be ready to listen and control
the group.
Communication rules:
only one person speaks at a time,
we speak respectfully,
we only speak on our own behalf,
the opinions expressed during the workshop are not taken outside,
discretion and culture is very important.
The trainer is a facilitator of a training and takes control over participants and their emotions, but also on
the sequence and length of expression. Always summarizes the speech of others, gives positive feedback.
Dealing with difficult situations. There is no single solution to the so-called difficult situations in
the training group, as each course is different because of the situation, time, place, and, above all, the
participants who create them. If a situation of serious crisis or conflict should happen during the training,
the trainer should know that the conflict in the group can be solved only by the people involved. The trainer
is not a mediator! He should not get involved in the dispute if he is not sure that the participants are trying
to solve it. The trainer should also talk to either side. The trainer can use a group to pacify aggressive
individuals. The easiest way is to refer to the training rules.
On the other hand, the hostility of the whole group can result in an annoyance the participants need to be
on the training, but they dont want to. In this situation the trainer cant stand against the group, but should
deal with the problem with humor and flexibility, and try to convince the participants to discuss the situation.

Technical competence
The trainer will feel comfortable in her role only if she knows the topic well. But is it enough? Regardless of
the area of training, a trainer must also perfectly control the technical aspects. In many cases, he/she will
have to work independently, without the support from outside. He/she cannot fall because of ignorance of
the basics.
Trainer and tools for training materials creation. The fact that a good presentation is adapted to
customer-specified model and created with the customer in mind, it becomes automatically the optimal
source of information on the chosen topic.

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To create attractive presentations you can use various software:


Microsoft PowerPoint,
Adobe Captivate,
Apple Keynote,
Prezi.
The most popular is probably PowerPoint, but the choice is yours. Note that a tool does not provide the
quality of the presentation, but the ability to use it in combination with high-quality content.
No matter which tool you choose, it is important to follow a few rules:
Texts should be in the form of slogans that you develop during the course. If you use a bigger
block of text, the participants will no longer listen to you and will begin to read the text,
Photos avoid clipart. Try to use well-chosen photos of a decent quality, for example stock photos,
Charts design meaningful graphs, not overloaded. It is important to be clear and transparent,
Graphics the design of the presentation must be consistent. It is good to have elements in common with the graphics of company logo, specific colors, shapes, etc.,
Fonts use one, at most two types of simple fonts. Avoid italics, because it is not very clear. Try to
write headlines in larger letters, the paragraph texts smaller,
Animation if it is not necessary, do not use animations. They are annoying, unless they play a
significant role (e.g. gradual building up of a diagram).
The problem is how to make a valuable and interesting presentation. Such knowledge is nowadays very
important. It is not about preparing 100 slides and reading the content to the listener in a monotonous
voice. These materials can cause irritation or somnolence of the recipient. And although there is no happy
medium for the perfect presentation, and each topic can be presented in a hundred different ways, there
are certain rules that seem to be universal:
become an expert in your field: start by gathering the necessary materials, try to use as many sources of information as possible (books, articles, films, Internet),
customize the presentation to recipients: knowledge of customer profile will help in choosing what
and how to speak,
define the purpose of the presentation: what do I want to achieve? Why do I do it?
adjust teaching aids: try to take care of various types of media, but remember that any additional
materials absorb the attention of the audience so you should think carefully about the time at their
disposal,
specify the plan of presentation: to avoid confusion, it is important to create an outline of what is
going to happen,
start your presentation.

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Trainer and the equipment. As a trainer youre still in contact with various types of hardware. Some fulfill
the same role, but the differences in their handling are important.
Laptop
used to store training materials presented during the training,
can also be used to share other didactic materials with training participants (publications, links to
important webpages, video examples, etc.),
do not use laptop all the time during the training for some participants it can be boring, remember to use different training methods without showing presentation on your laptop,
do not use laptop for your personal purposes during the training.
Projector
used to display presentations and other materials that we have stored on the computer,
familiarize yourself with the equipment,
spend the right amount of time on each slide (be sure that all participants have time to read its
contents),
do not look at the screen. It is acceptable to look at a computer screen,
during the presentation do not cross the beam of light,
if you want to specify the content of the slide, use a laser pointer or a cursor on a computer
screen, dont do it using your hand,
if you face a longer pause in the presentation slides turn off the projector (even empty light
thrown against the wall focuses the attention of the participants),
projector should be placed in the corner of the room rather than in the middle of the wall (the
screen is placed in the center only when all the slides are in your presentation and are the only
component).
Whiteboard / paper (flip chart)
for continuous, temporary use,
wipe or cover the text that is not needed at this time,
you can prepare some cards before, but during the presentation work with them underline,
draw arrows, add words and sentences so that the recipient does not have a sense of dead-presentation,
expose either blank page or a page that contains current information,
write nicely and clearly, write each letter individually, continuous writing is difficult to read,
use both large and small letters and different colors,
hung used cards in the training room (youll be able to access the content covered during the
workshop indicating a specific card),
do not talk to the board talk to the audience,
point the subject using your hand or felt-tip pen.
Laser pointer
when you want to emphasize a sentence, shine a pointer for a moment,
when presenting graphs or other more complex slides remember that the index has a very intense light, which can be distracting,
do not play with the pointer.

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Another device, not audiovisual, which is used very often in the course of training is the USB flash drive
or memory stick. It is a device designed to interface with the computer through a USB port and used to
transfer data between computers and other devices that support USB. The most common use of these
memories is to transfer and store files. Because of the small size it is the most commonly used as a device
to move training materials.
What if we fail? Trainers in their work meet with various challenges. The problem can be anything
technical drawbacks, negative attitude of the participants, lack of commitment, accidents or acute conflict
group. An experienced trainer should be prepared to deal with these situations and to identify the cause.
Effectiveness in this area is a sign of professionalism and professionalism is what the trainees expect from
their trainer.
Technical problems happen quite often, and it is relatively easy to prevent them:
inscribed markers,
projector is not working with the laptop,
no matching cable ends (e.g. Mac vs. PC),
no internet,
noisy air conditioner,
lack of proper software for the presentation of training materials,
different versions of programs, e.g PowerPoint,
too short cables,
inadequate spacing for workshops (room is not suitable).
Usually its enough when the coach brings his own aids (markers, clean sheet of paper, some pens). This
also applies to the material on which he wants to base his training its worth to save them on different
media. This way, the trainer will be able to play them from CD, in case of USB port failure on the computer.
If a trainer uses PowerPoint, its good to have it saved as a pdf. It will make sure that the slides will look the
same as those prepared by him. A good practice is also coming to the training room for at least half an hour
before the start of the workshop. Half an hour is enough time to figure out the situation and to try to solve
problems in the training room.
Sophisticated sense of aesthetics and usability of materials. During training preparation, the trainer
meets the participants and the customers company: what is the situation in the customers industry, what
is the competitive advantage of the company, whether the company or participants have difficulties, and
calculate if some changes will be made and what is the organizational culture. With this knowledge, the
trainer can prepare a customized workshop, based on useful and practical training materials. Presentations
that illustrate the training should be clear, transparent, and support the training process. They must be
written in the language of the customer, to avoid creating the impression of detachment from the industry
and the organization. After the training, the materials should still be useful as a practical tool for participants
that will support their actions and indicate the solutions developed during training.

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Me as a trainer
Who am I while I am teaching? Content has to be conveyed, participants are supposed to learn, this part
of the job is clear. But how do I want to be perceived? In economy, three different management styles are
differentiated, based on the research of Kurt Lewin, a social psychologist. These three styles are presented
below because they can be transferred to the role of a trainer to some extent.
The authoritarian or hierarchic management style. Here, a very distinct top-down structure exists:
the chief, supervisor or trainer gives the instructions and distributes the assignments without asking the
recipient (employee or student) for their opinion. The hierarchic system is evident to everyone involved,
the inferior have to follow orders. If someone makes a mistake, punishment instead of help is the
consequence. Acceptance of failure does not exist.
This kind of leadership was very much the style teachers used to teach up until almost the end of the 20th
century. Utter allegiance and respect was demanded from the students harsh criticism, detention and the
exploitation of fear of failure were the methods to secure that.
The democratic or cooperative management style. Leading this way means including inferiors in the
process of decision making. It means to search for exchange and to support the involvement of co-workers
in the formation of constructive ideas and proposals. By including co-workers, their motivation as well as
their commitment will rise. Also, a higher identification with the work/ the company can result.
However, there is still a distinct regulation of competencies, meaning that this style of leadership also has a
profound hierarchic basis.
What does this mean for a trainer? It means to supervise the students in their process, to be willing to
let the students decide about the pace and to accept their right to get the maximum methodical support.
Simultaneously, the trainer is bound to the general conditions (as stated by the client) and the objectives as
agreed upon (what has to be taught) and which have to do justice to those different aspects.
The laissez-faire management style. As the name suggests, this style is the complete opposite to the
authoritarian style, namely, it allows maximum independence to the co-workers by letting them decide
about their work and their organisation. There are only few regulated operations, everything functions
somehow, the boss refuses to play their role and does not take responsibility.
In the course of the last century, this style as well found its equivalence in certain education systems: antiauthoritarian education, schools without teachers as authorities and the refusal of a performance principle
were the answer to the authoritarian style.
There are some other management styles that represent, more or less, hybrid forms of the latter three. One
style especially becomes important when it comes to training issues.
The supporting style. The centre of attention is the performance of the trainer themselves who, on the
other hand, very much focuses on the students. Ideally, the trainer is a person that supervises, supports
and demands in a well-balanced way and who knows what is necessary at which point in time, a person
who enjoys working with people and who concentrates on the process as well as on the results. This kind
of trainer takes the needs of the students seriously, deals with a variety of methods and possesses a high
personal sovereignty in their role. Otherwise, this style could easily transform into the laissez-faire style.
It is the trainers responsibility to create an atmosphere that allows both teaching and learning to succeed
without losing track of the given assignments and goals.

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Training Cycle Management


Learning objectives: Get to know about what a Training Cycle Management means, why it is helpful and how its correctly applied.
Duration: 7 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.

Introduction to the Training Cycle Management


Training Cycle Management (TCM) is a systematic approach in order to design an overall successful training seminar. Its therefore important to ensure that all tasks of the cycle are thoroughly completed.
Many different models about TCM exist and are often modified to meet special requirements (for example
marketing of the seminar or administrative tasks). The model shown below focuses on the essential steps
that every TCM should include:

1. Preparation

7. Conclusion
& improvment

2. Training
needs analysis

6. Evaluation

3. Seminar design

5. Conduction

4. Material design

1) Preparation. The preparation for a training seminar can contain many different aspects. One of the
most important parts is the selection of participants, ideally by analyzing filled out application forms
(although one can argue if this step should be done AFTER the training needs analysis more on that
later).
Preparation also means proper knowledge about the circumstances (Who provides the budget? Who
provides the location? Who is participating and why?), and, as mentioned before, even marketing and
PR activities might be demanded by a trainer.
2) Training Needs Analysis. The proper analysis of what participants actually need is basically the essential part of every successful training seminar. Otherwise, the seminar could turn out to be ineffective
(for example because of strongly varying skill sets among the participants) or, in the worst case, even
irrelevant to the participants. Its essential to know that different types of participants have different
training needs and therefore require different approaches. The trainer has to adjust his seminar design
and training materials according to the specific needs of his group not the other way around. That
means that a successful TCM requires a trainer to be very flexible and open for changes.

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3) Seminar Design. At its core, a seminar design consists of a proper schedule of the activities which is
created according to the training needs and the related learning objectives of the seminar. Of course,
trainers can use the same seminar design several times but according to the previous analysis of
training needs, it should always be modified and adjusted.
4) Materials Design. After finishing the seminar design, the trainer has to create the training materials
(e.g. handouts, PowerPoint slides, exercises etc.) according to the learning objectives. The materials
should support the methodology, the conducting and the learning effectiveness of the seminar.
5) Conduction. The conduction is the first visible part within the TCM and its success is heavily dependent on the previous steps. A proper preparation is essential to conduct a good seminar. Still, the way
of conducting varies according to the types of trainers and the actual workflow of each group. Sometimes, even the best prepared concept has to be changed during the on-going seminar a good trainer
is capable of dealing with as well as adjusting to it.
6) Evaluation. There are many ways to evaluate a seminar, the most popular still being evaluation questionnaires which are distributed after the seminar and have to be filled out by trainers and participants.
7) Conclusion and Improvement. Even the best evaluation has no value if its not seriously taken into
consideration for future seminars and can have an immediate effect on easy-to-change training materials (e.g. typos in handouts, changing the duration of seminar design elements etc.). A good trainer
has to be able to draw the right conclusions from the participants feedback and his own impressions
and adopt them to all steps of the TCM.

The Training Cycle Management in detail


This chapter explains the individual phases of the TCM in detail. Before developing her own approach to
TCM, every trainer should be aware of her very own goals: Why does she want to conduct seminars at all?
What responsibilities lay in her hands? How is her training possibly affecting other peoples lives?
A training seminar can be an effective way to develop new competencies and further develop already
existing skill sets. Many companies regard them as an investment in order to improve their human resources. What might look like a simple seminar to a trainer, could turn out to be an essential part of career for
any participant.
Therefore, all planning has to be done seriously and consciously. A TCM only works with the appropriate
mindset.
Phase 1: Preparation. The first phase can be divided into two sections:
1. participants,
2. environment.
First of all, the participants have to be found. It depends on the seminars circumstances in how far the
trainer is involved in this project. Part of his tasks might include:
creating an application form (digital),
contacting potential participants by using network resources,
writing texts, creating ads, doing other PR tasks,
administrating the requests,
selecting participants (based on the applications).
As mentioned before, marketing activities might be a part of the trainers task. However, creating or at least
analyzing the application forms is an essential and not-to-miss part of every TCM preparation phase.
If the trainer creates his own application forms, he should ask the participants for all necessary information
he needs in order to decide who is going to participate in the seminar. The following information could be
included. Must-haves are marked with an asterisk (*):
full name*,
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gender*,
date of birth*,
residence,
language*,
occupation,
level of education*,
origin (cultural background),
motivation (Why taking part in this seminar?),
special requirements (e.g. food),
possible handicaps (physical and mental),
skill sets (referring to the seminars topic)*,
expectations and wishes*.
his seminar is not taking place online:
location (if on-sight),
technical equipment (e.g. flipchart, projector etc.),
contact information for the location (who is the go-to-guy in case of problems),
subsistence (where to eat and to drink?).
For online seminars, it is important to check beforehand whether the software (e.g. Skype) or browser-related meeting rooms (e.g. ClickMeeting) actually work.
If all of these steps are thoroughly taken, then the trainer is ready to enter the second phase of the TCM.
Phase 2: Training Needs Analysis. A Training Needs Analysis (TNA) is a valuable tool in finding out
about the following:
the status quo (how things are),
the desired status (how things should be).
To overcome the status quo and reach the desired status, it is necessary to identify the learning objectives.
If a learning objective cant reach the desired status, it should be dismissed. In order to check whether a
learning objective is relevant, the so called SMART method (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant,
Time focused) proves to be a helpful tool:

specific

the learning obiective has to be precisley defined

measurable

the learning obiective must be possible to measure the succes


of the learning obiective

achievable

it must be possible for the participants to actualy achieve


the learning objective

relevant

is the learning objective relevant to the needs


of the participants?

time focused

there needs to be a clear time frame in which the learning


objective should an can be archived
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However, to find out what are the actual training needs of the participants, the TNA comes into play. The
TNA can be divided into four basic, constitutive elements, known as DECS chain:

demands

emphasis

causes

solutions

Before the trainer can enter the different phases of DECS, she can decide on how to find out about possible training needs. There are several methods apart from the usual application form as described in the
previous subchapter:
focus group meetings,
tests (e.g. as part of an e-learning),
interviews (online, via phone, face to face etc.),
questionnaires (in addition to the application forms),
taking a look at previous, similar assessments.
Independent of the trainers choice of mapping the training needs, the following steps have to be fulfilled
afterwards:
1. Demands. This step is basically a gap analysis in order to identify current problems, deficiencies in
knowledge, or missing skills. The trainer has to find out what the participants can currently do and
what they want to be able to do after the seminar. This gap will finally lead to the identification of the
learning objectives.
2. Emphasis. In this phase, the trainer has to find out which needs are important to the course of the
seminar or if the original idea of the seminar has to be adjusted, if theres a clear shift to training
requirements which werent thought of by the trainer before.On the other hand, if a training need
seems to be of low importance in comparison to other needs, it should be dismissed to keep the seminar effective.
3. Causes. The goal behind this phase is to find out why the participants have the identified training
needs at all. Thanks to that, the trainer is able to develop solutions that he can make a part of his
seminar in order to teach the participants on how to stay up-to-date. To find out about the causes, the
trainer can perform a thorough background check, using additional interviews or questionnaires.
4. Solutions. Based on all the former insights, the trainer should create or modify an already existing
seminar design.
Sometimes, its more effective to choose the participants after the TNA (e.g. if its an open seminar offer,
available to everyone).
Key factors which should play a role in the selection of participants are:
size of the group,
gender and age ratio,
level of education and already existing skills,
the location (important for handicapped people).
After finishing this phase, the trainer can enter the design stage.
Phase 3: Seminar Design. As described before, the design of a seminar depends on different key factors,
like the subject, the participants, the trainer himself/herself, or the location. Many of these factors can be
planned by the trainer in advance, e.g. by analyzing the participants (TNA).

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For concrete planning of seminars, the following categories are recommended:


Time

Topic

Objective

Method

Media

Comments

of the unit

What is the
topic of this
unit?

What should
the unit
achieve?

Which method
is applied to
achieve the
objective?

Which media
tools does the
unit require?

Space for any


additional
remarks

These categories are the base for a proper seminar design. Each row represents one unit or a single
seminar design element. It is up to each trainer to decide how far she wants to divide her seminar design
into single units. For beginners, it is recommended to create as many units with precise description as
possible: there is no better way to identify blind spots within the design (apart from actually conducting it, of
course).
The following elements should be included in every seminar:
greeting (including a presentation of the days schedule),
getting to know each other,
expectations,
breaks,
backup of results,
energizer,
feedback,
goodbye.
Of course, each trainer will have different methodological preferences. The group can be either very
homogeneous or very heterogeneous, thus the trainer has to be quite flexible to react in an appropriate
way. A successful seminar is characterized by a variety of methods, diversion, learning results, consistency
and clarity.
Often, participants wish for something that goes beyond the pure content of the seminar. For instance, they
might want to meet new people, have fun, present themselves, exchange interests etc. A good trainer lives
up to these expectations by taking them into consideration when planning the seminar and choosing the
methods.
It is now common knowledge in contemporary pedagogy that long, teacher-centered presentations do not
secure the educational objectives, on the contrary the participants simply lose interest. In educational
psychology there is a term liable memory. Objectives, varying methods and a sense for the special needs
of the participants are the toolset of a good trainer.
Chapter 7 of Module C contains practical exercises for creating seminar designs.
Phase 4: Materials Design. One of the basic questions about materials design is: what do the participants
need the training material for, if the seminar is good?
There are two major reasons, mostly proven by scientific research in the fields of pedagogics:
1. participants can use the training materials for reviewing the subject after the seminar is finished (and
therefore refreshing their memories),
2. during the seminar, the participants can concentrate on the training itself instead of taking notes.
When designing printed training materials, for example a handout, the trainer should take the following
aspects into consideration:
simple, precise language should be used (for better overview and to save space),
attractive design (if it pleases the eye, theres a higher chance for it to be looked at again),

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illustrations and images (as often as possible if they are well-made, they can make the understanding significantly easier).
Of course, the term training material is incredibly broad and can also include videos, complete manuals,
slide shows etc.
Important for all of these training materials is to keep the goals of the seminar, i.e. the learning objectives in
mind. If the training material helps to enhance the understanding and sums up the contents of the seminar,
it is good.
Phase 5: Conducting. Everyone who wants to engage in seminar conduction, should be aware what a
seminar actually is:
Seminars are small group teaching and learning arrangements that use group interaction as a means of
engaging participants. Although seminars usually begin with a presentation or mini-lecture to provide the
basis for discussion, the word seminar also includes rather formal group discussions led by the teacher
and focused on the content rather than on issues arising from students.
(David Jaques in Learning in Groups, 1991)
This definition from 1991 depicts seminars as rather formal learning events. Although they still make
use of group dynamics, they tend to be rather dry by definition. Nowadays, the term workshop is used
to describe seminars with a practical approach, although most of the times both words have the same
meaning for most people. In the course of this book, we will stick with the word seminar, including all
possible variations of it.
As shown, seminars depend on group interactions. Thats why its particularly important for inexperienced
trainers to know about the different phases a seminar group goes through in order to take the right action at
the right time. And, of course, to be able to understand the way participants behave:
phase 1

FORMING
this phase takes
place in the begining
of each and every
seminar, if the
participants don't
know each other.
During this phase,
the participants are
usually not sure how
they should behave
and present
themselves

phase 2

STORMING
the participants start
to have feeling for
their respective
positions within the
group and start to
differ
this phase cause a
lot of conflicts and
attacks, among their
participants and
towards their trainer

phase 3

phase 4

phase 5

NORMING

PERFORMING

ADJOURNING

during this phase,


the group develops
new standards and
manners. In
comparison to the
previous phase, the
overall "ME" feeling
turns into an "US"
feeling. It's about the
group itself and not
the single participant
anymore

this phase is typical


of it's productivity.
As a Result of the
previous phase, the
participants can fully
focus on their work

The "good bye" phase witch


tends to be underestimated in
its effect. A good trainer
knows that it's very important
to lead the
participants to the end of a
seminar and prepare them for
the department. After all, they
are all human beingsand
especially
alter a seminar spanning over
several days, it's frustrating to
have a sudden end.

When conducting a seminar, the optimal day could take place as following:
1. At home
eat a light breakfast (a loud stomach is distracting),
bring food and beverages to the location,
wear appropriate clothing (considering the location and the target group).
2. Arrive early at the location
is all equipment present and working? (projector, right number of chairs, laptop etc.),
is the presentation and training material prepared? (name tags, stickers, list of participants etc.),
is the contact person present in case of problems? (technician, secretary etc.).
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3. Begin the seminar


welcome the participants and introduce yourself,
present the location (toilets, food, smoking etc.),
present the schedule,
find out about the participants expectations,
give an opportunity to get to know each other (maybe combined with an energizer),
start the first unit of your seminar design.

focus on the learning objectives (dont get distracted),


know the participants (read their applications carefully),
try to stick to the schedule (but still be flexible),
create a comfortable working environment (atmosphere, room, materials),
know what you are talking about (be an expert on your topic),
avoid distracting mannerisms (playing with the pencil, cracking knuckles, etc.),
speak loudly and as clear as possible (especially with many participants in the room),
but not too fast,
make eye contact (move around and make sure to stay in contact with people
in different parts of the room),
motivate and encourage the participants to take part in discussions, group work etc.
5. After the seminar is finished, the trainer should stay for a few minutes, so that the participants can talk
to him personally (e.g. some of them might be coy about asking certain questions in public).
Phase 6: Evaluation. Evaluating in general became more popular in recent years, after suffering from
harsh criticism, from I know best about my seminars to Why evaluate at all?
In fact, the evaluation process is the most essential part of the seminars improvement process and goes
hand in hand with phase 7 of the TCM. The advantages of evaluation can be summed up to the following
points:
receiving feedback (which can be directly applied to the seminar design),
motivating the participants (the seminar is seen as more serious if its evaluated),
personal conclusions for the trainer (how well-received was the trainers style?),
controlling whether the learning objectives were achieved.

Forms of evaluation
Evaluating can be done either orally or in a written form by using questionnaires. The oral evaluation can
be divided into group and personal situations.
oral group evaluation usually tends to be more superficial and repetitive in comparison to the other
ways, because its more comfortable to stick with the majority (especially at the end of the day,
when everybody just wants to get out) and its not very pleasant to open yourself on a deeper level
in front of the group,
the personal oral evaluation can be very deep, dependent on the participant and his character/personality. If he is very shy, he might be even more scared than during a group session,
the written form usually suits all types of characters, but is more limited because of the fixed questions and paper space.

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All methods have their pros and cons: thats why many trainers prefer to do both one after another. When
doing both, it is highly recommended to start with the written feedback, because if the group already spits
everything out during an oral evaluation, they wont see the point to write everything down again. The oral
evaluation can instead be an opportunity to add things that couldnt be covered on paper.
In general, the trainer should always take notes during the oral evaluation to make sure that everything that was
said is going to be considered afterwards (nobody can actually remember the answers of 10+ participants).

Methods of evaluation
Considering the contents of the evaluation, they can relate to the seminar itself and/or the learning
objectives. To find out about the things the trainer wants to know, he can use several methods for the
questionnaires:
1. Ratings. Usually, the participant is offered a scale from 1 to 10 (dont use school grades a larger
scale like 1 is bad, 10 is good offers more variety) connected to a question like: How do you rate the
trainers pedagogical skills? Ratings have a big advantage of being statistically measurable and can
provide a very good overview.
2. Multiple choice questions. They can be either used for seminar and learning objective related content.
When using these sort of questions, the trainer should provide very clear and short answers the
question should cover most of the information required.
3. True-False Questions. These questions are very well-suited for a learning objective evaluation in order
to provide the trainer with a fast overview. Unfortunately, they offer a 50/50 chance of ticking the right
box which limits their use to an overview function.
4. Essays. The trainer can ask the participants to simply write down some text, either focusing on a
single question (e.g. Did the seminar meet your expectations and why?) or a general approach to
the seminars atmosphere.

Guidelines for feedback


Feedback is an essential part of the whole evaluation process. During feedback, the trainer and the
participants can collect valuable insight concerning their actual work (e.g. products etc.) and their
personality.
While giving the actual feedback, it is important to use phrases that emphasize the fact that everyone is
providing their personal opinion and want to help not simply criticize for criticizing, e.g.:
use the I-narrative (no general phrasing),
use perceptional phrasing (I see you are or Id recommend for the future),
be concrete and precise,
express empathy,
be descriptive and not judgmental.
Constructive feedback that you give during the training may become a key element in the participants
learning process. At the implementation of each exercise, during which the trainees are learning, you and
your group convey information which contains both positive and negative information.

Work feedback
When giving work feedback, e.g. feedback about a product one of the participants created, it is important
to first agree on fixed categories. These categories provide an orientation on what to focus while evaluating
the product. If the product is a video clip, the categories could be:
technicalities (How good is the technical quality, the editing, the colours?),
content (How good is the realized and presented content?),
communication (Does it reach the target group?).

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When talking about work, there are two steps to follow:


present the things that are already good and dont need any improvement. Instead, it should be kept
for the future (quality backup),
present the things that could still be improved for the future (quality development).
These two simple steps are sufficient to provide a complete and helpful feedback.

quality backup

work
feedback
quality development

Personal feedback
When giving personal feedback, e.g. feedback about a persons competences (e.g. during a presentation),
it is important to first agree on fixed categories as well. Categories in this case could be:
mannerisms (Does the person have any?),
skills (How good is the person at something?),
style of communication (How is the person perceived?).

When talking about the person, the exact same steps as during the work feedback are to follow:
present the things that are already good and dont need any improvement. Instead, it should be kept
for the future (competencies backup),
present the things that could still be improved for the future (competencies development).
These two simple steps are sufficient to provide a complete and helpful feedback.

competences
backup

personal
feedback
competences
development

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Phase 7: Conclusion & Improvement


The last phase of the TCM, which finally helps the trainer to draw the right conclusions from the evaluation
and the experiences he made throughout the planning and conducting of the seminar.
A very helpful and simple tool in this regard is the PDCA check:

P
A

The PDCA is a circular control system which stands for


Plan (conception)
Do (conducting)
Check (control: what worked, what didnt work?)
Act (revision and going back to P)
During phase 7, the PDCA is a very helpful tool in order to permanently improve and standardize ones
seminar concept.
This phase highly depends on the trainers self-discipline. For some trainers, it is not easy to permanently
challenge themselves and search for blind spots in their own concepts. However, the only way, to stay upto-date and competitive within the market, is to be the biggest critic of yourself.

Final Words
As mentioned in the beginning of this chapter, a large variety of TCM systems exist. The system depicted in
this chapter consists of the most fundamental parts: none of them should be missed, but all of them can be
modified.
How the TCM turns out, depends fully on the trainer his preferences, character, style, his experience. The
TCM should constantly be revised by the trainer in order to keep it up to his needs.
As with every newly learned system, the TCM only works if the trainer is disciplined enough to permanently
use it until its assimilated.

Communication with training participants


Learning objectives: Get to know the technical and personal way of communicating
with training participants.
Duration: 4 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.

Technical ways to communicate


In the twenty-first century, the word training has a lot of meanings. Some directly pertain to the technical aspects. The training is organized in a classroom (lets call it a classical training), workshops, and the
recently popular form of multimedia trainings. All forms require a different approach and preparation.

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Classical training sessions. The trainer in a classroom must first of all master personal communication.
Excellent knowledge of the training subject is useless if the trainer is not able to establish a dialogue with
the group and pass his knowledge.
Training courses usually involve several people. A trainer therefore has an opportunity to get to know each
participant and establish some sort of relationship. The trainer must remember that he/she is not only a
speaker, whose role is merely to provide content. We arrange the training to be best suited for proper communication with the participants. For example, starting with morning coffee and saying hello allows the
trainer to speak with the participants for a while on the sidelines, before the session. This allows him/her
to gain authority quickly and trust in the future. A tyrant who adopts the role of a time watchdog will make
the participants lose interest. The trainer also works during breaks, the participants still watch him, evaluate
and draw conclusions.
In training courses of this type non-verbal communication is essential. Keep in mind that the participants
will observe the coach for several dozen hours. How he behaves, even unknowingly, may be conflicting
with what he says.
Workshops. Workshops usually require a practical approach to the subject of training. They imply that
the participants are actively involved in training at a level much higher than during the lecture. The coach
must remember that in this case it will be difficult for him to focus on a dozen people at the same time.
Some participants may not understand the tasks or may have problems with their implementation. In this
case, help from the trainer should come as soon as possible. Participants may be disheartened after a few
unsuccessful attempts, and it is very difficult to regain their attention.
If reducing the group to a reasonable size is not possible, ask trainers for additional support or experts in
the area of the workshop. Especially in workshops on technical topics you should have the support of professionals experienced in the field. The authority of the trainer will not suffer, he will only gain respect in his
workshop. You must make sure that people working with a trainer are also familiar with personal communication basics. Otherwise, they may appear inaccessible or vain for the participants.
At present workshops often deal with new technologies. The scope of these topics is very wide, so you
might want to plan specific exercises to do for the participants. It is very important to obtain a measurable
effect. If for example the participants use a photo editor during the exercise, you may want to allow them to
print their work before and after. This reinforces the sense of reasonability of workshops and supports
further development of the topic.
On-line workshops (webinars). On-line communication reduces non-verbal factors to the minimum.
Participants can hear the trainer and see his picture (though not always). Its definitely not enough for the
trainer to be able to maintain full control of the group and the training process. First of all, the trainer almost
never sees exactly what the participants are doing. There can be no guarantee that they listen and understand the matter.
Due to the specific form, an on-line training is usually quite short. A standard webinar takes approximately
one hour. This is related to the fact that it is almost never possible to engage the participant for a longer
time. This situation is much different from when the participant arrives at the all-day training time and is not
distracted. The trainer should therefore ensure concise and precise communication During the webinars,
there is no time to build relationships or get to know the participants.
The trainer should also serve as a guardian of time, because a short form makes it easy to lose control of
the agenda.
E-learning (asynchronized courses). E-learning in the form of courses makes it so that the pace and
duration of the specific activity of the participants does not depend barely on the trainer. Communication is
not live, it takes form of correspondence (e.g. e-mails, forums).
In such conditions, it is important to design interactive training materials to put in a clear and precise message. Materials should be prepared so that the participant always knows what to do and what are the next
steps. Getting lost in navigation and difficulty in understanding tasks are common reasons for dissatisfaction with participation in such trainings.

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Personal ways to communicate


Personal communication is the basis of the work of every trainer. Regardless of the subject, in which he/
she is an expert, appropriate communication with the group and the ability to deliver content are of primary
importance.
Personal communication is not only the ability to express yourself or proper control of body language. Below
we present the key issues and guidelines in this regard. Let them see how difficult and demanding the job of
the trainer is.
The credibility and authority. Credibility is the impression that you make on your interlocutor or auditorium. It is the basis on which the training participant can trust you and get involved in the presentation.
Basic indicators of credibility:
dress smartly dressed people seem more credible than a person dressed informally. This can be
easily observed. Studies show that many more people will follow a person in a suit, when passing the
red light at the pedestrian crossing, than a person dressed in an informal way,
professionalism good substantive preparation, excellent knowledge of the subject. A person who
wants to be credible must be prepared for every situation, every question or objection,
enthusiasm you have to be sure of what you present, no matter what it is. Enthusiasm is contagious, so if you are enthusiastic, then your recipient becomes convinced by your idea.
First impression. The first impression is the beginning of the communication process by which a complete
picture of the person you are communicating with is formed. This image substantially affects the course of
further contact, because it forms an attitude of the interlocutor set.
You should pay special attention to sitting, walking, or standing upright, with raised head. A proper posture
will increase your self-confidence. A friendly face and smile are also important. A well narrated joke, which
refers in some way with the theme of the training is a good icebreaker.
The face is a very important source of information about emotions as it reflects the rapidly changing moods,
reactions to the speech and behavior of the caller. It expresses primary feelings. To make a good show, it is
important to have a good attitude. To achieve this objective you should keep in your mind a good attitude.
Questions. All the confidence and acceptance that youve earned during the presentation may be gone in
an instant if you do not know how to deal with the reactions of the participants. We shall now define several
categories of questions that you can ask a listener and suggestions to how to answer:
information question this is a neutral question. The listener simply expects further clarification or
more information,
critical question the participant does not agree with you and opposes your opinion,
suggestive question the listener does not want to learn anything, but wants to share some information (sometimes vicious).
To properly answer the question, try first to paraphrase it. This allows you to check how well you understand
the intentions and scope of the questions. If the listener confirms your interpretation, just answer as well as
you can. In this case, the listener expects to receive an answer.
If the listener begins to present his views, it means that this was a critical question. Think of it as an opportunity to re-emphasize your strongest arguments. Here the listener (although he/she asked the question)
wants to talk. Sometimes the participants will want to present a story, give them the chance, if it fits into the
time frame of the presentation, and if it does not discourage other students. Otherwise, politely interrupt (for
example by thanking for an interesting point of view).
If you have a suggestive question, try to actively listen to the workshop participants: ask questions, summarize, show your understanding. Once you see the emotions fall a bit, give your answer. In suggestive
questions it is particularly important to abstain from your own opinions and answers, as long as they are
coloured by your emotions.

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Contracting. The starting point for good communication principles and standards during the entire
workshop is a contract to respect the defined rules. You can propose the rules of good communication to
the group, or the group may determine the rules themselves, but the most important thing is that everyone
agrees on them. It is an excellent tool that accompanies the group throughout the duration of the course
(rules can be written on a large sheet of paper and hung in a visible place).
Techniques of integration. Short integration activities are used to break the ice between training
participants. They provide an opportunity to get to know each other. Remember, however, that the use of
integration techniques requires good preparation. Make sure not to use very popular activities and do not
risk engaging the group in a game, which they have already participated in several times over. Techniques
of integration should also be adjusted to audience, so the participants do not feel, for example, that they
are treated like children.
Establishing relationships with the individual training participants. To establish a relationship with
the individual training participants pay close attention to all of them. Be sure to find out more about them
than just the name of the company that they represent.
Start by introducing yourself, and then ask each of the participants to say a few words about themselves or ask
the participants to answer the following questions: Whats my name?, What is my experience?, What am I
interested in?, and Why I am taking part in the training?. You can also use projection techniques, such as: If I
were a clock, I would stay on time..., If I were not who I am, I would be..., If I was a chocolate, I would..., If I
were an animal, it would be.... This way, the welcoming will be more interesting and engaging.
When you listen to individual students:
maintain an eye contact with the person who is speaking,
ask additional questions to get to know the participant better,
remember the name of the participant (in case you have trouble remembering the names of many
participants, you can for example ask for a list of names or use name badges).
Giving feedback. Feedback helps to build good relationships in the group of trainees. This is in reaction,
on one hand, to other peoples activities, which allows to recognize an influence and emotions associated
with it. Giving feedback should be based on the formulation of constructive expression of both negative and
positive actions and behaviors. Therefore, you should provide feedback in a way that will not cause defensive reactions. The more someone is set to defend themselves, the more difficult it is to concentrate on the
right context of communication. Remember that feedback serves the needs of the person who receives it. It
should be constructed so that it takes on nature of giving, rather than imposing something.
Effective communication of learning content. Effective communication during the training courses
takes place only if:
information that you communicate accurately reflects your intentions and purposes,
your general message to the participants is consistent with your intentions and content.
Sometimes the participants understand the content differently than you would think. If you are not sure that
you were properly understood, it is possible that the exercise will be performed not in accordance with your
intentions and ideas. Then there is a one-way communication you do not get feedback how your instructions have been understood. Such communication is effective for simple issues only. It is said that communication mistakes lie always on the side of the sender.
To avoid an incorrect understanding of the content, you should:
use at the same time several methods of communication: words and text written on the blackboard,
text and image display using a projector, or words and actions,
communicate information verbally, at least twice, using a paraphrase,
ask one of the participants to repeat how the content of the communication was understood or ask
the group to ask questions.
It is worth taking the time to interact with the trainees by asking them questions and asking for a
paraphrase. This guarantees a better understanding of content.
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Adapting language to an audience. You should adjust your language to the cognitive abilities of the participants. The shorter your comments are, the better you will be in creating the conditions for understanding
of the content, and therefore, the correct reception of messages and knowledge. The selection of words,
ideas and examples is not only important for the objectives of the training, but also for the attractiveness of
the training. You should pay special attention to phrases in foreign languages and jargon, be clear in your
wording and, if necessary, explain. You should also make sure that the words or the content were not too
difficult for the audience. The trick is to talk about difficult things in a simple way.
Active listening. The ability to listen is an essential tool for good contact and communication. We forget
too often that communication (dialogue) consists of speaking and listening. Usually we focus on speaking
and convincing the listener. Especially inexperienced speakers abuse monologue, which imposes your
point of view on the other side without taking their needs into account.
Active listening is an expression of interest, acceptance, trust, kindness and empathy for the other person.
Listening can be difficult when during contact with the interlocutor, emotions, nervousness and tension
come to the fore. It then becomes very difficult to focus attention on your partner. Most frequently we focus
on ourselves, on our own emotions. In such situations, it helps to use a paraphrase.
The use of communication technologies that provide the ability to actively listen is very useful. These are:
paraphrase - it is the participants feedback about whether we understand his words. In your own words
paraphrase the basic formulations, the key phrase of his/her comments making sure that you understand. Paraphrase can start with the following phrases: From what you say, I understand that...,
summary -allows you to show the other side the points on which you agree. This is very helpful especially in cases when the conversation begins to take form unfavorable for you. Example: Let me sum up
what we have said so far,
clarification - that focus on the most important points of the conversation. It helps in sorting out statements that are chaotic. With clarification, you can get the answer to the question, or correctly recognize
the needs of your interlocutor such as: With what already has been said..., sum up our conversation,
keep the following things..., etc.,
verbal reflecting - it consists of tuning your own manner of speaking to certain elements of your interaction with the partners language. Reflecting does not have to include all verbal and non-verbal u of
another person, it is enough if you choose only one dominant element behaviour. If you properly tune in
to your interlocutor, you can consciously affect and lead the conversation in the desired direction.
In addition, the ability to ask questions is very helpful:
it helps to avoid confusion,
helps to identify the needs and to better define what the participant did not like in the training, or did
not understand,
helps maintain control of the training,
allows you to learn from the experience and get feedback from participants,
it activates the group and encourages interaction between the training participants,
it stimulates the participants to discuss,
allows you to focus on the training participants, not just content.
To formulate clear thoughts. Remember that just sharing knowledge will not guarantee the success of
coaching if the message is not concise, understandable and most importantly interesting.
adjust your wording to the audiences level of receiving and understanding it pertains to the
adjustment of the rate of expression and vocabulary,
use clear and simple, but figurative language. It is advisable to speak short, not very enhanced
sentences,
ensure the terms of conversation the spoken word must be heard, it would give the audience the
time to react, to ask questions, to express the opinion.
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Concentration of attention of training participants. The meaning of the words depends significantly on
how they are spoken. The most important elements that have a significant impact on the way of contents
are:
inflection (voice modulation) its essence lies in the variability of high and low tones in your voice.
Changing the pitch helps in concentration and interest among the audience by showing the higher
tones of the important contents. A smile during a speech makes the voice sound friendly and open,
volume of speaking if you speak too softly, participants can lose the thread, and this can lead to
nervousness. A speech that is too loud may cause irritation. If the participant speaks loudly, then
you talk a little more quietly, to silence him. If you want to take control of the conversation, you talk a
little louder than the participant,
speed of speaking it should be tailored to the recipient, how much time he/she needs to
understand the content. A trainer who is keeping a slow pace of speaking in a group of energetic
people will not get their favor. In public speaking there is a rule the more room, the slower your
tempo,
emphasis it is important to emphasize (to speak more slowly, clearly, a little louder), the parts of
speech that are most important for you. Participants will remember them better,
timbre timbre may suggest emotions. Feeling the tension can (unconsciously) lead to the speaker
raising his voice, which could be negatively perceived by the participants,
rhythm of speech you can make a short pause before speaking important information, to focus the
attention of the audience,
pseudo language an important part of communication is to not abuse the language inclusions
that interfere with the reception of the content. Frequent repetition of the words yeah, true, well
discourages participants, and inclusions of aaa..., ummm..., eee can be perceived as a lack
of knowledge.
Adjusting the body language to speech. Body language is very important in the communication process, because your brain gets information:
87% through the sense of sight,
9% through the sense of hearing,
4% through the other senses.
Body language means you can pick up messages through facial expressions, gestures, body movements, eyes. The body has the impact on participants.
eye contact eyes can give the most insightful and real messages as they are the focal point of the
human body. Eyes are the most important area of visual attention during a conversation, the focus
is on the eyes for about 43% of the time. Avoiding eye contact may suggest that you do not know
what you are saying, when you look into the eyes continuously, the receiver begins to treat their
own review with suspicion. Maintaining eye contact can help reach agreements and builds positive
relationship with the trainees,
facial expression the face is a very important source of emotion, as it reflects the rapidly changing
moods, reactions to the comments and behaviour of other people. Primarily, it expresses feelings,
body posture a crumpled, humped body means the withdrawal and the upright posture, head up
shows confidence,
hand gestures open your hands to increase the credibility of spoken words. If you want to be open to the
audience, turn your hand towards the participants and say, Any questions? I will gladly answer them. The
same message spoken with a gesture of clasped hands will be a sign of dishonesty with your words. A
clenched fist can signal hostility, but crossed arms or hiding hands behind your back reluctance,
dynamics motion, presentation materials, makes the presentation more convincing,
the commitment and enthusiasm do not hesitate to show the audience your personal commitment.

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Transfer of Knowledge & Didactic Methods


Learning objectives: Find out about the specifics of adult education and ways to reach and teach
adult participants.
Duration: 8 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists.

Adult education
Adult education plays a special role in the field of education and therefore requires a different look on traditional approach to teaching, as known from the traditional school context.
How is successful teaching and learning in the context of adult education defined? How does a trainer
evaluate the outcome of his/her work? Traditionally, as we know it from academic systems, teaching/
learning objectives are being developed and then provided. Whether these goals are actually achieved is
tested through controlling measures such as tests and exams. This kind of knowledge transfer is based on
the trainer and his/her objectives. The trainer defines what a participant has to know and tests the required
knowledge or skills, at a certain point of time. But, no conclusions in regard to the quality of the learning
process can be drawn out of this way of teaching. For an evaluation, certain questions can be of help, e.g.:
Did the participant enjoy it? Was he motivated? Was he able to follow? Was the trainer sensitive to individual needs of the participants?
A high or low drop-out rate or participants who become mediators by telling other people about their experiences these are some other indicators for a successful learning. This point of view creates a distinct
difference to traditional systems of teaching because it focuses on the individuals and accepts that they are
entitled to do get the best education they can possibly get. Thus, it dissociates itself from the antiquated
belief that one teaching method suits every learnerr and that the teachers only responsibility is the mediation of content without taking particular needs of the participants into consideration. Consequently, next
to clearly defined educational objectives, the trainer has to have systematical and didactical competencies
and skills to guarantee a design and support of the teaching/learning process that is established in theory
and effective in practice.
Adult education in detail. Adults require a different approach than kids or youngsters, but why? There are
several reasons and consequences which should be taken into consideration during seminars:
REASON
adults want to know why they are learning something - and will spend a lot of time to reflect about the benefits of talking
part in a particular seminar. Therefore, a proper TNA (chapter 3) needs to be performed, in order to design the seminar
around actual needs - and make it easy to identify the benefits for every single participant.

CONTROL
adults are, as their definiting term suggests, peoplewho carry responsibilities and are full control of themselves - which is
a major difference in comparison to children and youngsters. Therefore, adults dont't like to be told what to do and
how to learn.Instead, a good trainer designs his seminar units in a way that makes the participants still feel in charge.

EXPERIENCE
Each adult participant brings a bagpack of own life experiences to the seminar. This experience represents their identy and
is the base of any future experience. If the learning objectives and the used metods reflect the actual work of the
participants and are attached to the old base of experiences, the more permanent the learning will be.

VOLOUNTARIES
Mostly, the voluntariness is regarded as one of the major advantages in comparison to teaching children.But if the seminar
is not taken voluntarily, the results can be devastating (because adults have the capability to make trainer's life difficult).
Therfore the training must absolutely meet the training needs of the participantseven if they were forced to take part
(e.g. by their bosses), they will finally accept it.

RELEVANCE
In their jobs, adults learn to deal with work related problems which means, they are usually challenged by a certain
task that needs to be solved.This is a big differance to usual school education where certain subiects are simply presented
and need to be learned. That's why single seminar units should ideally focus on problem solving (related to their actual
work life) which will engage the participants and make them finally learn
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Transfer of knowledge. Modern knowledge transfer means to support the participant in his or her individual process, to allow them to learn independently instead of just absorbing what the trainer says. In
practice, this can be fulfilled by providing a variety of different methods, by carefully planning and structuring seminars and workshops, by precisely defining educational objectives and choosing the appropriate
methods. Defining educational objectives is actually phrasing the goal that is supposed to be achieved
by the participant. There should be a balance between the objectives and the needs of the participants.
Naturally, educational objectives that do not consider the present skills and competencies of participants
run the risk of never going to be realized; on the contrary, those objectives could meet with a refusal on the
participants side because they could feel overburdened. Thus, the defined educational objectives have to
take both levels into consideration, on the one hand the content in question, on the other hand the participants needs.
Educational objectives can be divided into three different categories: cognitive, affective and psychomotor
educational objectives. For the teacher/trainer it is crucial to know to which category his/her objective belongs due to each category demanding a different method when it comes to the mediation of contents.
Cognitive educational objectives. The cognitive educational objectives are based on pure knowledge and intellectual skills (cognitive comes from the Latin word cognoscere: to know, to experience, to
perceive), thus they are accessible through the mind, through intelligence. The participant is able to trigger
and also to use knowledge. For example: the participants of Module A are dealing with composition. Doing
so, they get to know some quality criteria that can help them to judge whether a picture is well or badly
composed (framing, golden rule, perspective etc.). As a consequence, the participants adopt knowledge
that allows them to give a qualified judgment and to conform their very own work to this professional knowledge.
Affective educational objectives.The
.
affective educational objectives refer to intrinsic values, opinions,
interests and attitudes of the participants. Those are to be reflected, to be manifested and/or changed.
A modified behavior can result. A convenient social example is the modern attitude towards the learning
process: whereas 50 years ago, caning pupils was a standard method to make them learn. Nowadays it is
common sense that effective learning isnt promoted by fear of punishment. Quite the contrary, a non-threatening atmosphere is essential for a successful learning process. Based on this new awareness, a change
of values, a change of evaluation took place; it is not only the result that matters but also the individual
progress. Abolishing fustigation in school was the mandatory consequence of this social revalidation of the
education process.
Let us consider someone who is afraid of spiders and therefore kills them, there is no reason for such
behavior on the cognitive level. Spiders are neither dangerous nor life-threatening. But, on the affective
level, the spider is being judged as disgusting, scary, dangerous, threatening etc. Different patterns result in
a strategy of avoidance (leaving the room till someone takes the spider away) or a confrontational strategy (kill the spider). Reasonably, both patterns do not fit the situation. One educational objective can be to
overcome the fear of spiders, meaning to change your own attitude towards those animals and to change
your judgment of such situations. Thus, the person isnt afraid anymore and the spider survives.
One purpose of Module B is for example to invite the participants to reflect their own medial impact (taken
the possibilities of the twenty-first century media into consideration). The participants are supposed to deal
with the responsibility that comes with public communication and to develop an individual position towards
their own journalistic works. The themes of these educational objectives are for example the reflection of
the conflict between formation and creation of opinion, the handling of the possibility to manipulate in media
just by deciding what information is included in a report, and what information is left out.
Another affective objective is to think about commitment to journalistic quality. While the participants learn
on the cognitive level about quality criteria for their medial work, on the affective level they should reflect if
and how these criteria become quality standards for their own journalistic actions.
Psychomotor educational objectives.The
.
third category, the psychomotor educational objectives,
combine intellectual competencies with physical skills. A simple example: the ability to write. Writing is the
connection between knowledge of the written letters and the actual ability to write those. Module A contains
a variety of psychomotor objectives such as using a camera, correctly holding a microphone or handling an
editing program.

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Didactics in adult education


As shown in the previous subchapter, adult and children education differs a lot. Adult education is no
simple transfer of knowledge, it involves teaching active individuals with certain interests and expectations.
Therefore, didactics in adult education is about creating an environment which enables the participants
to develop their own possibilities to learn. For the trainer, this means not only to be a teacher, but also a
planner and advisor.
Many different approaches to didactics in adult education exist and often compete against each other.
Within this chapter, three exemplary schemes should be presented, to give the trainer an idea how far
didactic schemes can differ and that certain situations might require a different didactic approach:

educational
didactics

this didactic scheme brings the subject of the seminar into the
center of attention - instead of methods. This scheme aims for
the education of a single perston as a whole, not only
regardings certain and useful skills or characteristics

biographical
didactics

in sociology, one of the most important phenoma is the ability of a


single person to create his or her very own "live script" (instead of
the 'normal biographies" of former decades. Everyoneis
constructing his own reality. Since changes are supposed to
happen much faster nowdays, it is important to everyone to reflect
on himself and his own life script and reality construction in
comparison to others. For this didactics it is very important in how
far adult education can help in this identification process and if they
can become part of actual seminar units

curriculum
didactics

in this sheme, the general idea of education is replaced by contents


which are chosen by their value to science global comprehension
and specific situation. Curricula and seminar designs are linked to
certain contexts, which are identified by scientific analysis. The
scheme comes closest to the TNA approach within the TCM,
presented in chapter 3

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Methodology in adult education


Being aware of different educational objectives is important because different methods are needed to
communicate those. The use of a certain method conforms to the favored objective (cognitive, affective or
psychomotor) but also to the trainer and the target group, namely the participants.
For example, driving a car cannot be learned just by theory; without driving lessons and therefore practical
experience a student will never learn how to drive (a typical psychomotor objective), whereas the traffic
regulations represent a typical cognitive objective and thus can be acquired without any practice. What kind
of a driver I am in the end a defensive or aggressive one depends on my personal attitude; hence the
possible learning objective is an affective objective.

Each educational objective needs an adequate method.


Thus, as a trainer it is of urgent need to know at all times what kind of objective he wants to achieve, and
then to choose the correct teaching method. This competence requires the trainer to be highly flexible and
to have a certain intuition to foresee certain situations and to react properly by choosing the best-suited
method. In general, this kind of competence is described as situations and participants guidance.
To become capable in the field of methodical competence, the trainer has to repetitively use different methods in order to learn them.
A method (Greek: the way) is a scheduled and justified guidance to achieve a certain educational objective. This means that the use of a method is thought-out in its realization and accomplishment before it is
actually used.
In order to be enabled to perform methodically as a trainer, two requirements have to be fulfilled:
The methodical competence to act means the ability to use and to present methods in an appropriate way.

methodical
competence
to act

methodical
competecne
to reflect

The methodical competence to reflect means the ability to actually justify the usage of certain methods and
ask oneself which didactic function a method fulfills in a certain phase of a learning situation and which
learning objectives are supposed to be achieved with it.
By gaining these two competencies, the trainer will be able to critically reflect his own usage of methods
from a certain distance and to become aware of the effects.

Didactics and Methodology


Teaching should always be related to learning. Therefore, methodical acting needs to fulfill didactic tasks.
To clarify the differences and synergies between didactics and methodology in simple terms: When being
active as a trainer in adult education, the first questions to be answered are of didactical kind. They represent the base of the methodology.
These questions ask Why? and What? and are trying to clarify the overall reason and purpose of the
learning and the contents. After knowing about the aims and the contents of the seminar, the methodology
comes into play with their own questions about How? and With what? The person answers questions
concerning ways to reach the aim and the required means.
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Compilation of Methods
When beginning to plan and to conduct his or her own seminar, every trainer should try to add their own
personal experiences to this compilation to have a pool of methods at hand.
Round of introductions (with individual preparation). The trainer poses three or four questions that
each participant should answer individually, during a limited amount of time. In the following, the answers
are being presented in the group. To ask for wishes, expectations or apprehensions is typical for those kind
of questions. In addition, the trainer asks the participants to shortly present themselves.
Objective: positioning, presentation, getting to know each other, foundation of the group.
Speech. Theoretical input, appropriate to cognitive objectives; typical means are flipchart, beamer, overheads, handouts. If possible, speeches shouldnt be presented after lunch break.
Objective: all participants should quickly get to the same state of knowledge; normally, further inquiry of
the audience follows.
Presentation of results. (Intermediary) results are presented to the whole group or smaller groups. Prior
to that, the presentation is normally group work.
Group work. Working in groups can be a helpful instrument to work on different topics and ideas. Smaller
groups benefit from the different points of view of each participant. Typical means are file cards, overheads
and flip charts for the following presentation. Group work needs a distinct assignment in regard to topic and
timing. It comes in handy for affective educational objectives.
Group work with change of perspective. Here, the first part of an assignment is distributed among two
groups which then conversely work on the second part of the assignment. This change of perspective leads
to a new interest (because the assignment is new) and completes the final result because all participants
have to deal with every topic. Moreover, this way of group work strengthens the feeling of togetherness and
an attitude of all for each other.
Dyade (partner work). This method is perfect to create a more intimate and intensive working atmosphere
and also supports the exchange between the participants. A dyade is a very convenient follow-up e.g. to
the active imagination.
Individual work.Individual work depends on topics and assignments clearly instructed by the trainer. The
participant has to work uninterrupted. The main objective is the concentration on oneself or on experiences,
a reflection of ones own behaviour.
Peripatetic stroll.Two
.
participants go for a walk, in a certain time limit, and discuss an assigned topic.
Typical topics for such a stroll is to discuss the satisfaction with the process and the results. The objective
is, amongst others, to reflect, exchange and compare.
Breaks.Almost
A
strictly necessary, the breaks allow not only informal communication but also the possibility
for informal group formations. Also, the breaks can be used as an intervention, e.g. to finish a certain topic
and to start a new one when re-entering the room. Especially in tense situations this can be a very helpful
solution. However, in that case, the break should be used to clear conflicts outside the classroom so that it
wont stress the following phase.
Flashlight.Every participant gets the chance to say something about how he/she feels about a certain
topic or situation in just one word or sentence. The audience doesnt comment, and neither does the
trainer. The trainer guides this method by assigning the topic and the rules. The objective is to catch momentary moods of the group (anger, joy, weariness etc.) to make possible troubles such as weariness or
excessive demands transparent.
Mood level.Similar to the flashlight, the mood level can be used as a follow-up to a finished unit/exercise
to make certain moods transparent so that the trainer has the possibility to react. With the help of self-adhesive circles the participants can visualize their mood or their satisfaction on a prepared scale. The
participants should adhere their circles at the same time to guarantee anonymity. In the following, the mood
level should be shortly discussed.
Change of perspective.A
A change of perspective (e.g. on the meta-level) can be affected by the trainer.
It is a helpful approach to clarify things that have just been learned on the meta-level. The objective is to
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enlarge methodical competencies of the participants to facilitate new points of view on oneself and on the
group. The change has to be announced, either verbal (I change to the meta-level) or through an action
(e.g. by putting on a hat).
Role-play.In
y the frame of role-plays, real situations are simulated in a controlled context. A role-play needs
clear instructions and a distinct role allocation, a leader who takes care that the rules are observed, and
last but not least rules that are evident to each player. The objective of a role-play is that the participants can try out different roles and therefore can learn to diversify their actions and competencies. Typical
role-plays are used e.g. in the prevention of conflicts.
Group division.There
.
are many different ways to divide groups. It depends on the objective, e.g. to mix
the participants again and again to create a team feeling or, on the contrary, to separate certain participants
to break up some constellations. A free and independent division of groups demands a high level of social
competencies from the participants and should therefore only be chosen if the trainer is certain that the
result wont have counterproductive effects on the following assignment.
Method 1: enumerating 1, 2, 1, 2, 1... or 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 etc.
Method 2: allot the participants
Variation: allot the participants with the help of different chocolate flavours (arrange the participants in
groups according to their preferred chocolate flavour: happy, nice, perfect after lunch when you need
something sweet.)
Variation: sound-memory: vessels (e.g. film canisters) are filled with different things, two (or three
etc.) with the same filling. Each participant gets a vessel and has to hear the other member(s) of the
group.
Method 3: division of groups by a leader. This method is only advisable in groups that have a healthy social base, otherwise some members could feel excluded (e.g. when they are chosen last).

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How to conduct interactive online workshops?


Learning objectives: Get to know how to prepare, conduct and evaluate online workshops.
Duration: 4 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

How to get started in an easy way?


Online workshop technology is not already popularized, but now on the market there are more and more
solutions that enable independent work. With special tools, the trainer is able to provide training at a distance, even for a large number of participants.
The most typical features of an online workshop as a webinar can be summarized as follows:
on-line environment:
use of software,
webinar providers require specific software,
participants must have an internet access,
live event (scheduled at a precise time),
limited duration of 1-2 hours presenting content (using audio, video, sharing screen, PowerPoint
presentations, etc.),
interaction with participants (audio, chat, quizzes, surveys, whiteboard, hands up button, etc.),
partial anonymity of participants.
SaaS tools for webinars - what matters? Popularity of online communication makes the tools including
those for training accessible to everyone. At present, the programs to conduct online workshops, which
do not need installing, are standard. To use them simply go to the appropriate web page and log in to the
application. Software is therefore sold as a service. Hence the term software as a service (SaaS). This
solution has the advantage over conventional software implementations:
everyone, both the trainer and the participants, has easy access to the application through a web
browser,
the trainer does not need the infrastructure in the form of specialized servers or above average
internet connection,
developers which own such software continuously care about its development and improvement.
There are also disadvantages of this solution:
unable to install the application and have full control over it,
a negligible real impact on policy of development of application,
the need to keep all materials in the cloud.
For the trainer, a huge advantage of SaaS is that he/she can order and start these types of applications
literally in minutes. In addition, you can use a number of different solutions, because instead of an expensive software implementation, you have a monthly subscription fee. If the application does not meet your
expectations, you can change the supplier.
Many companies provide solutions to conduct online workshops. Among them we can highlight programs
such as:
ClickMeeting and ClickWebinar (www.clickmeeting.com, www.clickwebinar.com),
Adobe Connect (www.adobe.com/products/adobeconnect.html),
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GoToMeeting (www.gotomeeting.com),
Cisco Webex (www.webex.com),
Google Hangouts (http://www.google.com/+/learnmore/hangouts/?hl=en),
Anymeeting (http://anymeeting.com/),
GoToWebinar (http://www.joinwebinar.com/).
Most applications can be tested completely free for several days. That allows you to choose the best solution for your needs.
Key features for training. The following functionalities are generally found in most, if not all, webinar
software suitable for education:
video transmission (allows trainers and participants to see each other),
chat (allows communication between participants by typing text. Therefore, they do not interfere with
the person who speaks using the microphone),
real time whiteboard (allows one to draw on a shared whiteboard),
file sharing,
note sharing,
screen sharing (ability to view the screen of the presenter/lecturer),
surveys/quizzes (on-line questionnaires).
Further options which may be useful and are available in some of the more advanced software options are:
the ability to toggle moderator/trainer roles during the session this can be helpful for webinars for
smaller groups as it allows the trainees and trainers to work collaboratively by switching roles,
the ability to view a downloaded file through the software this is helpful for discussion purposes,
webinar recording ability this can be very helpful as it not only allows the trainees who have not
attended the webinar to view the content while also working as a form of digital note taking. This
ensures that the trainees can devote their full attention to the webinar during a live session. The
recorded webinar must be published by the trainer,
polling application this can be an excellent way to carry out assessment,
the ability to publish the questionnaire this can be an excellent way to give feedback to the trainees on the assessment quickly and easily.
Restrictions. The main restriction in the workshop is the need for access to a computer connected to the
internet and full availability during training. A few applications run on mobile devices, but the size of the
phone screen would significantly impede active participation in the workshop. Internet access is a necessity, because without it you cannot connect to the application. Problems may also appear because of different types of public wireless networks or GSM connections. This includes both the stability and the speed
of the connection. The conclusion is that in order to take part in the workshop, in addition to time, we need
to secure the appropriate location and equipment. Fortunately, computer connected to broadband Internet
is now standard at work and at home.

How to design training materials for webinars?


Using different media with a large number of graphics is becoming a standard. Internet connections are
getting faster and the trainers knowledge of well-designed graphics is increasing. All this is affecting the results of training. The key to a rich presentation is not only the presentation itself, but a good mix of different
multimedia elements.
Graphics should always have a communication and educational value; simple and straightforward graphics
are most effective. The most popular presentation tool that can be easily used during a webinar session is
PowerPoint. This format of presenting a series of slides with text, images and simple animations is a great
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way to illustrate information provided during a lecture. Although PowerPoint is a common and well known
presentation tool many users actually keep making the same mistakes. A trainer who presents slides should avoid legibility problems such as too small fonts or lack of style consistency.
Unlike in a traditional classroom, there are a variety of forms for presenting content in a webinar. You dont
always have to use slideshows, but they can be very useful as visual aids. They help to draw the participants attention, facilitate learning and enhance memory. But you need to use them wisely. Remember that
during a webinar you communicate primarily with your voice; dont overload the participants with additional
text on the screen. Instead, use images to grab their attention and illustrate the main points. The visuals
should be informative and serve learning goals; avoid graphics that are merely decorative. A good example
of instructional graphics are: drawings, charts and diagrams, symbols, photos or screen grabs.
Keeping in mind that materials used in webinar workshops usually come from various sources and will be
in an assortment of formats, it is important for the trainer to have at least basic knowledge of different technologies, software tools and possibly hardware.
Effective Slide Presentation Tips1
1. use a simple PowerPoint template in a landscape format,
2. use dark print with a plain light background or light print and a plain dark background,
3. allow for a 1 inch margin along all borders,
4. limit the number of words per slide:
a. use no more than 5 bullets of information per slide,
b. use brief phrases instead of sentences,
5. keep any graphics simple:
a. use simple bold tables like pie charts or bar graphs,
b. avoid complex tables and scatter plots,
6. use a consistent font size:
a. at least 30-point font for text and 44-point for headings,
b. select a simple, clear, and bold font such as: Arial, Tahoma, Verdana.
c. avoid italics,
d. use lower case for text,
7. avoid animation and special effects such as: sounds, fly-ons, fade-ins:
a. use simple slide transition,
b. keep it simple.

How to engage the participants?


The trainer cannot expect that the trainees will focus on the webinar lecture if there is only one-way communication. A live lecture broadcast on the web is like a television program. It is a one-way message received by a passive audience. However, television productions will rely on an editor to perfect their message. Webinar lectures or trainings usually have lower production values. In fact a webinar session, if viewed
as a one-way technology, can be seen as very low quality television. This could be one of the reasons why
trainees disengage during one-way presentations. We can be sure that interaction between the trainer and
the learners, communication and activities will change the trainees reaction. Webinar software provides a
set of communication models to help you manage the training process, such as:
audio,
video,
1

Webcasting Processes and Best Practices, Ontario Telemedicine Network 2007

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chat,
whiteboard,
hands-up button,
polls and quizzes.
You can try interaction between trainees or more sophisticated tools, like:
discussion,
brainstorming,
an assignment to create something,
role playing.
Also, the number of trainees in a group is significant when organizing a successful training. There is one
general rule for webinar use: the more users the less interactivity. This rule of thumb has to be considered when planning the structure of the webinar session.

Numberof trainees

Interactivity level

Structure of the webinar

6 or less

High level of interactivity the


session can be led as a dialogue. The trainees can interrupt
the lecturer spontaneously. The
interactions between particular
trainees are allowed e.g. via
chat. Also bidirectional audio or
video can be applied, if technology permits.

Structure and content can be


changed, if necessary, according
to feedback and level of interaction.

7-20

Limited audio/video responses


(lecturer can select who will be
allowed to talk). There will be
special polling tools to express
the particular learning progress
of the trainees (e.g. raising
hand button or yes/no buttons).
Polls, voting and similar tools are
important.

The structure and content are


moderately flexible. Session
length may be extended/shortened per trainee feedback. Each
topic area should be followed by
a Q&A.

More than 20

The level of interactivity depends


on the size of the webinar team.
If the trainer is on his own, only
polls can be used. If there is at
least one moderator (and possibly additional trainers/experts)
chat can be allowed and will be
pre-sorted for the trainer/experts.

The structure needs to be firm.


The users will be more or less
anonymous and the likelihood is
high that there will be late starters and early finishers.
Attendance discipline is a matter
of content and its implication for
the future of the trainees.

How to activate new media in the training process?


Online workshops do not have to be an independent training, and are perfectly suitable as a supplement or
complement to traditional workshops. In addition, modern tools also allow for the transmission of multimedia presentations. The trainer can use the online workshop to reach out to more trainees. If you know that
the traditional workshops take you (and the participants) a lot of time, try to convey part of the content as
an online form. It works great regarding subjects that do not require exercises with equipment.
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How to evaluate online workshops?


The evaluation of the training, whether it be during (evaluating learning of key concepts) and/or afterwards
(feedback on delivery methods and other aspects of the training experience), can be obtained using qualitative and/or quantitative methods. Evaluation can be formative, summative and impact oriented. These
types may be conducted in the following ways:
formative evaluation: e.g. by discussion or interview this is useful at an early point of a training to
get the trainees feedback on the course up until that time. It can be either formal or informal.
summative evaluation: end-of-session questionnaires or interviews.
impact evaluation: after the session has finished this can be an interview or questionnaire with
trainees.
Thanks to the possibility to record a webinar, evaluation of trainings gets facilitated considerably. Above
all, the webinar recording helps to re-evaluate the training. This way it is easier to grade the process and
personal work, especially when time has already passed.

Technical aspects of online workshops


As with education in the classroom, webinars should be available to all and therefore webinar software
should be compatible with the majority of computers currently in use. The physical hardware required
varies depending on the level of the users engagement To view a webinar, the bare minimum required is a
personal computer with a broadband internet connection. This will allow a minimal level of interaction. However, as the level of interaction is raised, the more engaging the experience is for the user. For example,
the addition of speakers to the computer set will create a richer experience for the user. This hardware will
allow the user to interact at a basic level with the webinar, allowing them to see and hear the content being
transmitted, typing notes and perhaps writing to forums or chat rooms regarding the webinar. The introduction of a microphone and/or a webcam raises this level of interactivity as it gives the viewer the ability
to broadcast themselves through the webinar. The addition of an audio/visual representation of the user
being broadcast brings a more flowing interaction with the webinar and will more clearly communicate the
persona of the user.
To conduct an online workshop properly, a trainer needs software and the knowledge and experience to
use the software as intended, requiring the trainer to spend additional time learning the software.
Participants have a few technical issues to consider besides installing the software and following on-screen
prompts. The majority of users will have access to computers that meet the minimum requirements for
workshop participation.

Trainer
Internet access

Participant

Download: 2 Mbps
Upload: 2 Mbps
Broadband connected by
cable if possible.

Computer
Camera
Microphone
Headphones
System plugins

Download: 2 Mbps
Upload: 0,5 Mbps
Connected by cable, wifi
or GSM network.

Multimedia computer
Middle end computer
Both: trainer and participants can use the camera and microphone, if provided for the form of training. In most cases only
the trainer is using them. It is recommended that participants
use headphones.

Adobe Flash
Java TM
Adobe Air

Minimum requirements for the trainer and participant of online workshop.


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Internet access. A stable internet connection is very important, both for the coach and for the participant.
Cable will be a better option for the trainer, but the participants can also use WiFi. The minimum speed is 2
Mbps.
Computer. The most important features are the capability to run a web browser and an up-to-date installations of Adobe Flash player and Java (JRE). Often some technological myths can be heard, regarding the
participation in online workshops, such as that in order to take part in an interactive webinar, you need a
very powerful computer.
As a rule, an average computer designed for office work or home use can handle the workshop software as
long as the software running is current and complete. Therefore, the percentage of people who, for technical reasons, are unable to participate in a webinar is very low.
The camera, microphone, headphones. During most workshops, the trainer uses a camera and a microphone, and participants only listen to his/her messages. This is related to bandwidth limitations and web
performance. If several people at the same time would turn on their cameras and microphones, it would
create a huge mess. However, in smaller groups, the participants often have the opportunity to comment
on or use a camera. Hence, it is important to let them know about whether a camera and a microphone will
be required during the workshop.
It is recommended that all participants use headphones. Headphones allow for a better focus on the content, and do not disturb other people.
System plugins. It is essential that all system plugins are up to date . First of all, Adobe Flash Player and
Java Runtime Environment. It is also important that the operating system is up to date. Otherwise, there
may be problems with participation in the workshop. Some items may not display properly, and sometimes
it may not even be possible to access the workshop.
It is recommended that the trainer does not limit himself/herself to properly preparing their own computer,
but also give appropriate instructions to the participants.
Place acoustic and visual conditions. As webinars are internet-based, they can be delivered from
virtually anywhere. However, selecting a superior location is recommended.
A webinar is crucially dependent on high-quality audio. Using excellent equipment will not guarantee a successful webinar if background noise is present. Disturbances such as street traffic, co-workers, ventilation
systems, and buzzing lights will have a detrimental impact on the production quality of the webinar.
The level of these disturbances can be evaluated by listening to the space and being mindful of potential
sources of noise. Please note that an empty room, devoid of furniture and fixtures, may lead to a low-quality sound experience. It is recommended to employ acoustic mats wherever possible, to eliminate excess
noise.
If you intend on using video, an appropriate background is crucial. Find a clean wall or hang a cloth or
paper-board behind the presenter to ensure a professional look. The presenter should be on an uncluttered
background, free of advertisements, slogans, or copy-written images.

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Practical project: Being a trainer


Learning objectives:
Learn how to make use of media for presentations
Enable the participants to actually conduct training seminars
Make practical use of the knowledge gathered in the previous lessons
Duration: 6 hours
Target group: Image & Publicity Specialists, Public Relation Specialists, Sales & Marketing Specialists, Coaching Specialists, Consulting Specialists, Writing & Content Specialists

Technical requirements and recommendations


Nowadays, anyone who works as a trainer should be able to use modern media and communication tools
especially when coaching specialists in said fields.
This subchapter focuses on different highly usable hardware and software tools, essential for designing
and conducting a professional and effective seminar.
Hardware
Material case,
Projector/Overhead Projector/TV,
Flipchart/Whiteboard/Blackboard,
Laptop/Personal Computer/Smartphone,
Video camera,
Photo camera.
Material case. The material case contains tools like file cards, pens, stickers etc. which can be used for
presentations and different methods (e.g. clustering, mind mapping, mood board) during a seminar.
Its the trainers responsibility to keep a proper case and to have it fully equipped (according to the planned
methods) before a seminar.
Trainers cant expect to have all the materials provided by their clients or project partners.
Projector/Overhead Projector/TV. Projectors and televisions can be used to show presentations (e.g.
Powerpoint), movies, written text etc. They can also play an important role for the presentation of actual
(group) work results. The trainers have to make sure that the hardware used is compatible with the projector/TV. All cables, adapters and other potential sources of error need to be thoroughly checked in advance.
Nowadays, projectors or TVs are connected to notebooks or computers via VGA or HDMI. Usually, they
should automatically detect the hardware and connect to the source. In case this doesnt happen, the
trainer can simply press the Windows Key and P on the keyboard in order to open the projecting menu,
where different ways of connecting to an external screen are displayed. Alternatively, the trainer can access
this function on laptops using the FN keys in combination with another key.
Beware: Projectors and the older overhead projectors require a screen or at least a flat, bright surface and
a darkened room to present the information, while a TV can work at any time.
Flipchart/Whiteboard/Blackboard. Flipcharts, whiteboards or even blackboards are still important to present basic information and to depict ad-hoc information during certain methods like lecture-style teaching or
instructions. One of their most important functions is to present the daily schedule at the beginning of each
seminar. Flipcharts can even be used several times after the seminar, the trainer can simply take them
with himself/herself.
Beware: Always use proper pens on whiteboards! They shouldnt be water-proof or permanent.
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Laptop/Personal Computer/Smartphone/tablets. Probably the most important tools of a modern and


professional training seminar. It is highly recommended to be proficient in using such devices.
The notebook and PCs can be used to display all prepared information (via using certain software), to save
results, in certain cases they are even essential to the learning aims, e.g. during editing workshops.
Before the start of a seminar, the trainer should make sure that all the necessary software is installed, that
the laptop battery is at full charge or can be conveniently recharged during the seminar, and, as it becomes
more and more important, that a connection to the internet can be established on location.
Smartphones or tablets can be very important for documentation purposes and for planning because of the
built-in calendar tools.
Video cameras. Video cameras can be very helpful for presentations (connected to a projector/TV) and
for certain methods, e.g. recording of partner interviews.
Usually, consumer cameras already have fitting cables included (usually RCA or HDMI cables/adapters)
which can be connected to any modern projection device. Professional cameras have many different outputs, which all can be connected to modern devices.
Photo cameras. Photo cameras are perfect for documentation purposes. The trainer can easily photograph flipcharts or other visual results. Additionally, they can be used to document the work-in-progress
which sometimes is necessary for certain clients. Nowadays, smartphones and tablets can be used for this
purpose as well, especially among the younger generations they are already replacing the photo camera.
Depending on the chosen methods, photo cameras can be used as part of seminar elements as well.
Smartphone cameras.Today smart phones and especially their cameras are of high quality. Therefore,
they can also be used for documentation purposes as described for photo cameras. Additionally, they can
be used to film short videos which can be used in many diverse ways, even for the production process. The
advantage is that especially amongst the younger generations, they are very common and almost everyone has one. This is a cheaper alternative than working with expensive professional equipment which is
also fragile and expensive considering mending.
Software
Microsoft Powerpoint/OpenOffice Impress/Apple Keynote,
Microsoft Word/OpenOffice Writer/Apple Pages,
Mediaplayers,
Skype, Google Hangout, Clickmeeting,
Dropbox/Google Drive.
In the course of this chapter, different software solutions are presented. While the programs by Microsoft
and Apple are well-known and popular, they are not free and specialized to their respective operating systems (Microsoft Windows and Apple OS). The OpenOffice software package is provided by Apache and
a free open-source solution for everyone to use despite of his or her OS.
Microsoft Powerpoint /Apple Keynote /Apache OpenOffice Impress. Presentation software like Microsoft
Powerpoint is essential for modern training seminars. In comparison to old-fashioned presentation devices,
the software combines flexibility (each element of the presentation can be changed quickly and at any time),
mobility (it can be transported via USB sticks etc.) and variability concerning visualizations and graphic tools.
Helpful links:
http://office.microsoft.com (the official Microsoft Office help site, provided by Microsoft, with different tutorials and general instructions),
http://www.apple.com/support/ (the official support and FAQ site by Apple which also provides tutorials and general instructions on Apple office software like Keynote),
http://wiki.openoffice.org/wiki/Documentation/FAQ/Impress (the OpenOffice Impress support page
is incorporated within a Wiki, so it has easy access and works like any other Wikipedia-like page.

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Microsoft Word/Apple Pages/Apache OpenOffice Writer/Google Docs. The named software tools
can be used to write down seminar designs, concepts, feedback forms or any other written text. The newer
versions offer enhanced functions for easy-to-get, good-looking visualizations (e.g. Smart Art) and crossover-features with other software included in their respective office packages.
Google Docs, however, plays a special rule. It is Googles browser-based office package, which means,
that anyone can simply turn on their Firefox, Chrome or Safari browser and access the free-to-use online
editor under docs.google.com (although you have to sign up first). The advantage is that no installation is
required and that the files are automatically saved to the Google Drive account of the logged in user. They
can be shared and edited online within a team. Unfortunately, all files that are edited online are automatically saved as a spreadsheet file and the functions of the online editor are very much limited in comparison
to the offline office packages.
Helpful links:
http://office.microsoft.com (the official Microsoft Office help site, provided by Microsoft, with different tutorials and general instructions).
http://www.apple.com/support/ (the official support and FAQ site by Apple which also provides tutorials and general instructions on Apple office software like Keynote).
http://wiki.openoffice.org/wiki/Documentation/FAQ/Impress (the OpenOffice Writer support page is
incorporated within a Wiki, so it has easy access and works like any other Wikipedia-like page).
http://docs.google.com (link to the online office package by Google. If you dont have a Google
account, you have to sign up first and use all other Google services as well).
Media players. Many presentations or methods require a media player in order to play video or audio files.
The trainer should pick a player based on its compatibility since many participants tend to take no care of
the file formats, used codecs etc.
A free and widely spread solution is the VLC player which has lots of built-in decoders and can play almost
every available file format/codec.
Helpful link:
http://www.videolan.org/vlc/ (the official page of the VLC player with download options and explanations on how to setup and use the player).

s
G

Skype, Google Hangout, Clickmeeting. Either for preparation or online seminars (webinars), online
communication tools play an essential role within seminar conception and conducting.

Skype and Google Hangout are very popular solutions because apart from simple text and voice communication they offer additional, helpful features, like file transport, desktop publishing, video transmission
and group meetings.Google Hangout is completely free and can be used with any Google account.

Skype is a voice-over-IP service and instant messaging client. With this, service
users can communicate with peers by voice using a microphone, via video by using a
webcam and by instant messaging over the internet. One can also undertake phone
calls with addressees on the traditional telephone networks. Calls to other Skype
users are free of charge, while calls to landline telephones and mobile phones are
charged. Skype also has additional features like file transfer and videoconferencing.
Group video meetings are free of charge.
Google Hangouts is a duty-free instant messaging and video chat platform.
It allows users to execute conversations between two or more users. The service can be accessed online through the Gmail or Google+ websites or through
mobile apps available for Android and iOS. Additional features are for example,
saved chat histories, which can be synced between devices, watermarking,
which indicates how far a user has read into the conversation, and photo sharing
during conversations. As a user, one can also perform a group video chat with up
to 10 users at a time.
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ClickMeeting is a commercial, specialized software solution for video conferences and presentations therefore, it is highly recommended for webinars.
One can connect by phone or Internet (VoIP) from any browser for instant
voice or face to face video meetings with anyone in the world. It is also possible to promote your brand to customers, prospects and partners by adding
logos, graphics, brand colours and more to the Meeting Room and Waiting
Room. The desktop sharing application allows to share screens with a single
click. One can choose to share full or partial desktop and use a drawing tool
to support the presentation. There is also the possibility for a moderated or
private chat plus a choice between various different languages.

Helpful links:
http://www.skype.com/en/download-skype/skype-for-computer/,
http://www.google.com/intl/en/+/learnmore/hangouts/,

http://www.clickmeeting.com/.

Dropbox/Google Drive. Dropbox and Google Drive are cloud solutions to exchange files. Nowadays,
they are essential for project planning and can be used for seminars as well. For example, the trainer can
upload the daily photo documentation or share any other important information with the participants, without relying on e-mail communication, which usually requires smaller file sizes.
Helpful links:
https://www.dropbox.com/install
http://drive.google.com

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How to be a trainer
Tell me I will forget it!
Explain to me I will remember!
Allow me to do it myself I will understand
While the previous chapters focused on the theoretical base of being a trainer and methods that media trainers could use, the last and final chapter enables the upcoming trainers to test their knowledge and bring
their seminar ideas to life in two steps.
Designing a single seminar element. Each participant is asked to prepare a single seminar element
which has to be related to the contents of module 1 or 2. In the end, the conducting of this element shouldnt take longer than 15 minutes. For example, the participant can decide to explain the camera with a
certain method, play a getting to know game, do a brainstorm activity etc. The participant should consider
everything he/she learned in the previous chapters and must be able to choose appropriate methods regarding the contents that they want to deliver.
The conception of this element should be done according to the forms which were conveyed during the
Training Cycle Management.
The participants have one hour to prepare everything necessary to enter the role playing phase:
session plan/seminar design,
materials,
setting.
Role play & Feedback. During the role play phase, each participant is asked to play the media trainer role
and conduct the prepared seminar element, while other participants act as students.
The person has a maximum of 15 minutes, afterwards the trainer steps in to stop the session.
Subsequently, the trainer conducts a feedback session, containing the following elements:
self-reflection of the role play trainer (What does he/she think was good? What could be improved?),
feedback by the group,
feedback by the trainer.
Each element shouldnt take longer than 5 minutes.
Ideally, this session part works with a maximum number of 6 participants, in order to stay within the modules timeframe.
If the number of participants exceeds the recommended number, the course can be split, which would
require a second media trainer.
Another possibility is to let two participants prepare and present a single seminar element in partner work.
Time

Topic

Objective

Method

Media

00:0000:15

Introduction:
Presentation of
the schedule

Orientation

Presentation

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/
TV

00:1501:00

Technical requirements and recommendations


for the trainers

The participants should learn


Presentation,
about concrete hardware and so- Group
ftware tools which can be helpful/
essential for seminar conceptions

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/
TV

01:0001:15

Short break

Recreation, New energy

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01:1501:30

Repetition of
the previous
chapters of this
module

Bring the new and necessary


knowledge back to mind and
make it ready for the upcoming
practical session

Group

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/
TV

01:3001:40

Explanation of
the practical
session

Thoroughly prepare the participants for the role play and their
tasks

Presentation

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/
TV

01:4002:40

Designing the
seminar elements in single
work (or partner
work if necessary because of a
high number of
participants)

The participants design their very


Single work
own seminar elements (their topics Partner work
should focus around contents from
module 1 or 2) for the first time.
The element should be created
according to the standards they
learned before. Additionally, the
participants should think about the
settings and the materials/media
they are going to need during the
role play

02:4002:50

Short break

Recreation, New energy

02:4004:50

Role play #1

Each participant conducts his single


seminar element.

Pen & papers,


Notebook

Role play, feedback

Chosen by the
participant

First, they arrange the location (if


its on-sight) or folders (if its online)
and give a short introduction to the
upcoming role play.
Then the role play begins. The
participant acts as the media trainer
who conducts his session according
to the worked out plan. The other
participants are participants for the
time of the session.
The trainer stops this session after
15 minutes and starts the feedback.
First, the role play trainer reflects his
session, then the group and finally
the trainer. The feedback session
lasts 15 minutes, so all in all, one
role play session takes 30 minutes
of time.
Then the next participant slips into
the role of a trainer. During this first
role play block, four participants
should be able to present their
seminar design.
04:5004:55

Short break

Recreation, New energy

04:5505:55

Role play #2

Same as Role play #1 with time


for only two participants.

Role play,
Feedback

Chosen by the participant

05:5506:00

Final words and


Farewell

The trainer reflects the day with


the participants and holds a
feedback session

Plenum,
Feedback

Flipchart/Whiteboard
Notebook/Projector/
TV

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Test questions
1. on the one hand the trainer has the necessary knowledge and skills they need to convey, but on
the other, the knowledge of the content is the definition of:
a. personal competence,
b. methodical competence,
c. professional competence,
d. social competence.
2. This style allows maximum independence to the co-workers by letting them decide about their work
and their organization is the definition of:
a. authoritarian or hierarchic management style
b. democratic or cooperative management style
c. laissez-faire management style
d. supporting style
3. The 3 basic indicators of credibility are:
a. dress, professionalism, enthusiasm,
b. enthusiasm, good voice, dress,
c. professionalism, enthusiasm, first impression,
d. effective communication, dress, professionalism.
4. How large can the group of webinar participants be if the trainer wants to lead the session as a dialogue, the trainees can interrupt the lecturer spontaneously and there are allowed interactions between
particular trainees?
a. 6 or less people
b. 7-20 people
c. more than 20 people
5. What a trainer cant do when giving feedback?
a. comment the behaviour of participant
b. separate the praise from critics
c. judge participants
6. Name the seven fundamental steps of every Training Cycle Management.
7. Which method can be used in order to identify the usefulness of a single learning objective?
a. DECS
b. SMART
c. none of these
8. Name at least five elements that should be part of every seminar.
9. Name the five phases a group goes through during a seminar.
10. Which two steps are required to provide a helpful work feedback?

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11. These education objectives are based on pure knowledge and intellectual skills, thus they are accessible through the mind, through intelligence is the definition of:
a. cognitive educational objectives
b. affective educational objectives
c. psychomotor educational objectives
12. Name five common methods of use during seminars.

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Answers

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Module A
Question 1: A biggest/widest shot used to introduce the viewer into the setting of a movie or to present the
location.
Question 2: Camera body
Question 3: the less the aperture needs to be opened
Question 4: A stabilizing mount for a motion picture camera, which mechanically isolates the operators
movement from the camera
Question 5: Sequence
Question 6:

Camera body - contains electronic elements and mechanisms that control its operations and
record images on the magnetic tape or other type of storage.

Camera lens - captures the light reflected from the subject and brings it to a focus on the film or
detecting media.

Viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose, and in many cases to focus the
picture.

Recorder - system of electronic and mechanical devices that allow the video to be saved on
the medium.

Microphone - acoustic sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.


Batteries supply power to the camera during field work.
Question 7:

Tape
Memory card
Flash recorder
CD/DVD
Question 8: Shot shows the person from the head to knees (including the gun). An American shot clearly
shows gestures because the hands are still in the picture.
Question 9: A crane
Question 10:

Adobe Premiere
Avid
Movie Maker
iMovie
Question 11: Tilt

Module B
Question 1: Investigative, news, reviews, and columns.
Question 2: All are valid.
Question 3: An online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to
create, produce, host, distribute and publish media content.
Question 4: The relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and art) and user permissions and rights related to computers, networks and electronic devices.
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Question 5: Attribution, Non-commercial, No-derivative works and ShareAlike.


Question 6: Attribution-ShareAlike
Question 7: about 255 millions
Question 8: Columns journalism
Question 9: Video editor
Question 10: The use of software or other computer technology to manage the conditions under which
copyrighted material in digital form can be accessed

Module C
Question 1: professional competence
Question 2: laissez-faire management style
Question 3: dress, professionalism, enthusiasm
Question 4: 6 or less people
Question 5: judge participants
Question 6:

Preparation
Training Needs Analysis
Seminar Design
Materials Design
Conduction
Evaluation
Conclusion and Improvement
Question 7: SMART method
Question 8:

Welcoming (including presentation of the days schedule)


Getting to know each other
Expectations
Breaks
Backup of results
Energizer
Feedback
Goodbye
Question 9: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, Adjourning.
Question 10: Quality backup and Quality development.
Question 11: Cognitive educational objectives.
Question 12: E.g. group work, speech, role-play, flashlight, change of perspective.

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Glossary

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American shot it shows the person from the head to knees. An American shot clearly shows gestures
because the hands are still in the picture.
Blog or weblog: A web site where in chronological order one or various authors publish texts, news, articles containing their own ideas and/or opinions about diverse issues. Readers can collaborate adding their
own contributions and comments. The author is free to modify the text and to decide about maintaining the
other users contributions.
Cloud computing: A system that provides computing services on the Internet. Cloud computing is a new
model of services and technology that even allows the user to access a set of standardized services with
them and respond to the users needs.
Close-up shot composition where the person can be seen from the head to chest. The facial expressions and emotions are easy to identify. Garments, such as shirts, jewelry or ties that give hints about the
social origin of a protagonist are in the picture as well.
Content media platform: it is an online environment that offers online software (sometimes hardware solutions as well) to create, produce, host, distribute and publish media content. It is possible to find different
solutions; each offers different resources, tools and materials that could help you to develop media content.
Copyleft: A type of general license that allows making totally free digital content, requiring that all modified
and extended versions of it will be also free.
Crane - a special device used to lift the camera high into the air and film from above.
Creative Commons (CC) license: It is the most popular public copyright license to distribute copyrighted
works. We can use CC license when we want to give people the permission to share, use, and even build
upon a work that we have created.
Cross media: New communication strategy that allows the information, a new editorial content, or any
other resource, to reach a wide audience through using diverse media (multimedia), and reaching the
highest effectiveness of the message in this way.
DECS chain relevant for the training need analysis divided into four basic constitutive elements Demands, Emphasis, Causes and Solutions.
Detailed shot (insert shot) shot composition focuses on objects that have a special meaning or emphasise emotions.
Didactics: A theoretical scientific approach which deals with the theory of teaching.
Digital journalism or cyber-journalism: A type of journalism that has its origin in the internet, using the
new technologies of communication to transmit a message.
Digital rights: The relationship between copyrighted digital works (such as film, music and art) and user
permissions and rights related to computers, networks and electronic devices. Digital rights also refer to the
access and control of digital information.
Digital media: The combination and interaction of all traditional media, such as audio, pictures, video, text,
movement, touch, and capture data.
Digital rights management: A procedure to manage any kind of practice to stop, or at least hinder the
practice of piracy.
Dolly - a wheeled platform on which the camera is mounted; with the help of a dolly, fluent following shots
can be filmed.
Establisherr - the biggest/widest shot used to introduce the viewer into the setting of a movie or to present
the location.
Evaluation: In the context of this handbook, evaluation is an appropriate and professional process to identify weaknesses and strengths of a seminar and the trainer, conducted with the help of various evaluation
tools.
Extreme close up shot composition focuses on facial expression. Even the subtlest emotions can be
seen by the viewer.
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Feedback: Information about the results of someones work. Giving feedback should be based on the formulation of constructive expression of both negative and positive actions and behaviours. Feedback serves
the needs of the person who receives it.
Focus - the position at which rays of light from a lens converge to form a clear and sharply defined image
on a focal plane and the action of adjusting the distance between the lens and subject to make light rays
converge to form a clear and sharply defined image of the subject.
GNU GPL (General Public License or GPL): is a license created by the Free Software Foundation (FSF)
in the mid-80s, and is aimed primarily at protecting the free distribution, modification and use of software. Its purpose is to declare that the software covered by this license is free software and protect it from
attempts to restrict users freedoms.
Info graphic: Its the visual description of the text. They can be a very helpful kind of content to explain
some specific and perhaps technical information.
Journalism: The collection of information in different forms, and its handling (written, oral, visual or
graphic). Journalism intends to collect, analyse, synthesise, prioritise and publish the present and emerging
news.
Knee shot - in this shot, the protagonists (main characters) or single protagonist are in the centre and are
seen from head to toe.
Laser pointerr - a small device with a laser diode emitting narrow light used to highlight something by
illuminating it with a small bright spot of coloured light.
LED A relatively new technology based on LEDs and lenses. LEDs give a high quality light, generate little
heat and consume very little energy.
Long shot - presents the location a little bit more detailed than the establisher.
Medium shot - it shows a characters upper-body, arms, and head. Medium shots are relatively good for
showing facial expressions but work well to show body language.
Methodology: A pedagogical branch which centres on ways and methods of teaching.
Microphone - an acoustic sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal.
Open source: A program that has its code available for the general public, it can be used and modified.
Pan type of cameras movement. The camera moves horizontally from left to right side and other way
round.
PDCA - a circular control system which stands for Plan (conception), Do (conducting), Check (control: what
worked, what didnt work?), Act (revision and going back to P)
Personal data: Data, whether true or not, about an individual who can be identified from that data; or from
that data and other information to which the organisation has or is likely to have access.
Projectorr - optical device for displaying an image (fixed or moveable) on the projection screen.
Recorderr - a system of electronic and mechanical devices that allow the video to be saved on the medium.
Seminar design: A Seminar Design is an all-embracing concept of a seminar, including a full schedule and
other relevant information or papers (handouts, material lists etc.).
Seminar phases: A seminar usually consists of five phases that are Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning.
Slider - type of light drive video surveillance systems. It is based on a moving head rail on which you can
lead DSLR camera. This system is a bit like the dolly, but it is much smaller, cheaper and easier to use.
Steadicam - stabilizing mount for a motion picture camera, which mechanically isolates the operators
movement from the camera, allowing a very smooth shot even when the operator is moving quickly over an
uneven surface.
Tilt - type of cameras movement. Camera moves vertically from up to down or the other way round.

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Training Cycle Management (TCM): Training Cycle Management describes a system of different processes and tools in order to successfully plan, conduct and evaluate a training seminar.
Training Needs Analysis (TNA): Training Needs Analysis is a tool or a process to identify training gaps of
future participants.
Tripods - a three-legged object, generally used as a platform of some sort. Tripods are used for both still
and motion photography to prevent uncontrolled and unwanted camera movement. They reduce camera
shake, and thus are instrumental in achieving maximum sharpness.
Webinar: Web-based seminar with transmission of video and audio content online (over the internet) from
one source to a limited audience with the purpose of training.
Whiteboard - a large board with a smooth white surface that can be written on with special markers.
Workshop: Practical approach to the subject of training - participants are actively involved in training at a
level much higher than during the lecture.

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