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1.1 The Background of the Study
Language is one of the most important things in human being, because it plays a great role in human life for making
In order to communicate in English well, we should have English proficiency both in written and spoken
One of the element grammar is conjunction that used to link words, phrases, and clauses together and provide a
smooth transition between ideas.
Conjunction refers to the use of formal markers to link sentences or the bigger parts of text, which also realize
semantic relations between parts of text and; therefore, functions as a cohesive device. Baker (1991: 191)
Halliday and Hasan (1984: 227) state that conjunctive relation is a relationship that indicates how the subsequent
sentence or clause should be linked to thepreceding or the following (part of the) sentence. In other words,
conjunction relation is a word or part of speech to link other words or phrases.
The use of conjunction can be found in many various types of texts, comprising literary, religious, scientific, or
philosophical texts because it has function to tie a word with another word, a clause with another clause.
Novel is one example of literature work, and inside of it there is an equivalent effect to reader.
The researcher uses the novel written by Elizabeth Gilberts entitled Eat, Pray, Love.

This novel was an

international bestseller, translated into over thirty languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide.
In 2010, Eat, Pray, Love was made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like Chritina
Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc.
The novel became so popular that Time Magazine named Elizabeth as one of the 100 most influential people in the
Some previous researches had been conducted in dealing with the topic conjunction by university student . One of
the research is Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009) in her thesis Conjunctions in William Faulkners Short Story A Rose
For Emily. Kelara Kartika, Lili (2009) was the student of Faculty of Letters English Department University of
Sumatera Utara Medan. In this thesis she discuses the structure of Conjunction by applying theory of Wren and
Martin (1989) that explains conjunctive relations can be devided into two, they are : Coordinating Conjunction and
Sub Ordinating Conjunction. She applies the library research method. The purpose of her thesis to clarify the use of
conjunctive relation and to determine the percentage of the conjunctions.
Another research was conducted by Ramasawmy, Narainsamy (2004) in her thesis entitled Conjunctive
Cohesion And Relational Coherence in Students Composition. She was a student of Master of Arts With

Specialisation in Applied Linguistics, University of South Africa. This research study examines the relationship
between conjunctive cohesion and relational coherence in students narrative and expository compositions and
writing quality (here defined in terms of teachers ratings).

1.2 The Problems of the Study

1. What types of conjunctive relations are there in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth?
2. How are the conjunctive relations coded in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth?
3. Why are the conjunctive relation used in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth the way they are?
1.3 The Scope of the Study
The discussion of the research will cover word, syntax, semantic, pragmatic, conjunctive relative.
In this thesis, the researcher will apply the theory of Halliday that devides conjunctive relation into , they are
: additive relation, adversative relation, causal relations and temporal relation.
1.4 The Objectives of the Study
1. to find out conjunctive relations are there in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth.
2. to analyze the conjunctive relations are coded in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth.
3. to investigate the conjunctive relation used in the novel eat, pray, love by Elizabeth Gilberth the way they are.

1.5 The Significances of the Study

1) The result of this study can be used as additional knowledge to improve the vocabulary of conjunctive relations
for Indonesian learners who study English.
2) The result of the study is expected to be able to improve the ability of Indonesian learners in studying English
3) This study is also useful to anyone who is doing research especially for s/he who has concentration for
conjunctive relations topic.
2.1 Conjunctive Relations
Conjunctive relation is one of the items in grammar, a body rules specifying how meaning are created in English.
Conjunctive relation sometime is called conjunction as a word that links words, phrases, and clauses. It can be said
that conjunctions were linking or joining words which joined together various things. If a conjunctions
joined words, then any word that occur between others would be a conjunctions (Ehrlich, 2000:142).
2.1.1 Definition of Conjunctive Relations

There are some definition about conjunctive relations based on some grammarians.
Wren and Martin (2004:129) state that conjunction is a word which merely joins together sentences and sometimes
word. Conjunction joins together sentence and often makes them more compact.
While Frank (1985: 206) states that conjunctions are member of small class that have no characteristic form, their
function are chiefly as non moveable structure words that join such units as part of speech , phrases, or clauses.
Alwi, (2003:398) who states that the semantic relation between clauses in complex sentences depends
first on the meaning of the connective itself and second on the meaning stated by the clauses it conjoins.
Halliday & Hasan's (I976) the use of connective is not the only device for expressing a temporal or causal
relation, for instance in English, a temporal relation may be expressed by means of a verb such as follow or precede,
and a causal relation is inherent in the meanings of verb such as cause and lead to.

Based on the clarification above conjunctive relation conjunctive relation involves the use of formal markers
to relate sentences, clauses and paragraphs to each other. Conjunctive relatiom is an uninflected function word that
serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences.
2.1.2 Types of the Conjunctive Relation
Halliday & Hasan (1976) classify types of conjunctive relations into four main classes, namely Addition,
Adversative, Causal and Temporal relation. Each can be specified as follows:
1. Additive relation between two elements show that one part of text gives additional information to the other which
can be additive positive relation (shown by conjunctions and, furthermore, besides that, etc), additive negative
relations, alternatives, afterthought ( a kind of deemphasis, reducing the weight accorded to the presupposing
sentence and to its connection with what went before), comparative relation, and appositive relation (which can be
either; expository: that is, I mean, in other words, or exemplificatory : for instance, for example)
2. Adversative relation of which the basic meaning is 'contrary to expectation'; the expectation may be derived from
the content of what is being said or from the communication process, the speaker hearer situation. Adversative
relation can be contrastive, correction of meaning and wording and dismissal, e.g. but, however, instead, in any
3. Under the heading of causal relations are included result, reason, purpose and conditional relation. e.g. so,
because, to this end, then.
4. The temporal relation shows that the content may be one of the sequences in time. e.g. previously, finally, briefly.
Halliday and Hasan (1976) also add that the four conjunctive relations can be external or internal.

External means that the conjunctive relation has to be interprcted in terms of experiential function of language: It is a
relation between meanings in the sense of representations of 'contents', our experience of external reality.
Internal means that the conjunctive relation has to be interpreted in terms of interpersonal function of language; it is
a relation between meanings in the sense of representation of the speaker's own 'stamp' on the situation - one's choice
of speech role and rhetorical channel, his attitudes, his judgments and the like.
2.1.3 Reason of Using Conjunctive Relation
There are some reason why it is very important to translate conjunctive relation well in a sentence ; they are :
1. Conjunctive relation is used to describe the cohesive tie between clauses or sections of text in such a way as to
demonstrate a meaningful relationship between them. It is also possible to perceive this process as the linking of
ideas, events or other phenomena.
2. Conjunctive relation is as one of cohesion that makes the text sentences hang
together and textual quality. Conjunctive relations play an important role in discourse as they are used as
coordination to conjoin different grammatical units: clauses, clause elements, words.
2.1.4 The Position of Conjunctive Relation
In general, all of conjunctions occur between the sentences patterns, but it may occur at the beginning of the
patterns, at the end of the second pattern, or in the middle of the second pattern.
Moreover, the clause coordinators are restricted to initial position in the clause.
Clause began with coordinator cannot be moved to front of the clause because it will change the relationship
of clauses.
However, few words occur sometimes as subordinators and as connectors in the sentences.

2.2 Reason of Novel Eat, Pray, and Love

The writer has chosen this book because Eat, Pray, Love can motivate people to keep fighting for their independence
and happiness. Because of her dissatisfaction, Elizabeth leaves her luxurious life to find peace and happiness. She
inspires people to always have positive thinking. By reading this book the readers can learn how to face a problem
with confidence and patience. In addition, this novel is also a fun book to read since it is taken from the real situation
and written in a simple language style.
Another reason why the researcher tries to analyze this memoir Eat, Pray, Love, novel, which chronicled the
journey alone around the world, looking for solace after a difficult divorce. The book was an international bestseller,
translated into over thirty languages, with over 10 million copies sold worldwide. In 2010, Eat, Pray, Love, was
made into a film starring Julia Roberts, and some Indonesia players like Chritina Hakim, Hadi Subiyanto, and etc .

The book became so popular that Time Magazine named Elizabeth as one of the 100 most influential people in the
2.2.1 Summary of Eat, Pray and Love
Eat, Pray, Love is a story about a woman who tries to heal herself from depression after her unsuccessful marriage.
After she decides to end her marriage, Elizabeth makes plans to visit Italy, India, and Indonesia. At first she visits Italy to
search the worldly pleasures, and then she goes to India to find God, the last she visits Indonesia to balance the worldly
pleasure and to devotion to God.

3.1 The Object the Study
The object of the study in this thesis is the novel Eat Pray Love written by Elizabeth Gilbert. The discussing this
thesis will be focused on the conjunctive relations, that consist of additive relation, adversative relation, causal
relations and temporal relations.
3.2 Unit of Analysis
This English novel consist of 108 units, 348 pages, while Indonesia translation covers 402 pages. The writer will
take the sample of conjunctive relation from some units of this novel.
3.3 Data and Data Source
The data in this study are collected from the main source of this research, that is the novel entitled Eat, Pray, Love
(Elizabeth Gilbert, 2006).
3.4 Research Method
The researcher uses content analysis as one type of descriptive qualitative method. Denzin & Lincoln (1994)
state content analysis is used to determine the presence of certain words or concepts within texts or sets of texts.
Content analysis is one of the descriptive qualitative methods means that all data in this research are in form of
sentences and words, not in the form of numbers.
3.5 Technique of Collecting Data
(1) Observing
The novel in the English version will be read. Then all the texts will be skimmed and the sentences with
conjunctive relations found are marked in the texts.
(2) Documenting
The English sentences with conjunctive relations along with the Indonesian translation will be typed.

(3) Identifying the conjunctive relations

After the text is typed, the sentences that have correlation this research ,that is, conjunctive relations will be
identified. Then how the original texts will be analyzed, and note taking technique will be used to collect all of the
data especially to calculate, sort out, identify and classify the occurrences of the conjunctive relations in English text.
3.6 Technique of Analyzing the Data
a. find out the conjunctive relation in the novel
b. Categorize the conjunctive relation based theory of Halliday and Hasan
c. Analyze the process of coding the conjunctive relations
d. Analyze the reason the way of conjunctive relation applying in this novel.

3.7 Trusthworthiness
Recognizing this gap, Lincoln and Guba (1985) proposed four criteria for evaluating interpretive research
work: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability.
Lincoln and Guba (1985) recommend a set of activities that would help improve the credibility of your
research results: prolonged engagement in the field, persistent observation, triangulation, negative case analysis,
checking interpretations against raw data, peer debriefing, and member checking.
Transferability refers to the extent to which the researchers working hypothesis can be applied to another
context. It is not the researchers task to provide an index of transferability; rather, he or she is responsible for
providing data sets and descriptions that are rich enough so that other researchers are able to make judgments about
the findings transferability to different settings or contexts.
Dependability refers to the coherence of the internal process and the way the researcher accounts for
changing conditions in the phenomena (Bradley, 1993, p.437).
Confirmability refers to the extent to which the characteristics of the data, as posited by the researcher, can
be confirmed by others who read or review the research results (Bradley, 1993, p.437).