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DECLARATION

I, Timothy Andambike, declare that to the best of my knowledge the project presented here

as part of the fulfillment for the award of Bachelor degree in electrical engineering is a work

of my origin. All references used from books, articles, reports, papers etc in preparation of

this project have their sources acknowledged in the reference list.

Signature……………………………………

Timothy Andambike

May 2014

Supervised by

Signature………… …………… ..

..

Mr. Ndimba

May 2014

i

ABSTRACT

This project presents a case study for an investigation undertaken in order to establish the

causes for the frequent failures of porcelain housed lightning arresters in TANESCO

distribution networks specifically at Mlimba.

The TANESCO customers at Mlimba have been experiencing the frequent power

interruption. After investigation it was realized that the lightning arresters have been failing

before reaching their expected service life time in the distribution network, resulting in

frequent feeder outages. This has been causing poor quality of services to the utility

customers.

Once this problem of frequent failures of lightning arresters is solved, power stability in the

distribution networks will be improved, costs for replacements of the arresters will be

reduced, power technical losses will be minimized, power sales revenues will increase as well

as national income and quality of services offered by the power utility company to the public

will be improved.

Data analysis has revealed the existence of poor earth resistance values for most of the sites

visited, for measuring earth resistance of the distribution transformers. Hence reflecting the

problem to be the possible cause for failures of porcelain housed lightning arresters in the

TANESCO distribution network at Mlimba.

To eradicate this catastrophe it is advised to regularly check earth resistance values and

where the reflected values are poor the immediate measures should be taken, as a remedy for

improvement of the earth resistance so as to get values acceptable by IEC regulations.

Also lightning arresters should be installed on both sides of the transformer ,primary side and

secondary side for proper protection.

These attempts for earth resistance values improvement will add value to the power utility

by reducing the possibilities of porcelain housed lightning arresters failures in the distribution

networks at Mlimba, reduction of feeders outages resulting from malfunctioning of lightning

arresters in the networks, minimization of technical losses in the distribution networks,

boosting of energy sales through minimization of feeder outage times as well as improved

quality of service to power consumers in the area due to reliability of power supply.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to thank our creator the Almighty God for giving me these chances

to pursue the Bachelor degree in engineering programmed and preparation of this project

report.

I would like to extend my thanks to my project supervisor Mr. Ndimba .T for his valuable

advice and guidance during the planning as well as implementation of this work.

I am also deeply indebted to the project coordinator Dr. A. Kilimo for the help and

directives he extended to me while preparing this project.

My thanks and appreciation should also go to all academic staff of electrical engineering

department for the tireless advices, assistances supports and encouragement towards making

this project successful.

My appreciation are also due to my employer for trusting and granting me the opportunity

for pursuing studies at DIT. I also extend my thanks to my fellow workers who supported me

in one way or another in fulfillment of this task.

Also special thanks to my family members for their encouragement and support throughout

the preparation of this work.

As it is not possible to thank everyone, I would like to thank all people who have helped

and inspired me during my project.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION........................................................................................................................I

ABSTRACT..............................................................................................................................II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................................................................................III

TABLE OF CONTENTS.........................................................................................................IV

LIST OF SYMBOLS...............................................................................................................VI

LIST OF TABLES.....................................................................................................................V

LIST OF FIGURES:................................................................................................................VI

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS.................................................................................................VII

CHAPTER ONE.......................................................................................................................V

1.1 INTRODUCTION:..........................................................................................................V

  • 1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT..............................................................................................2

  • 1.3. PROJECT OBJECTIVES...............................................................................................2

    • 1.3.1. MAIN OBJECTIVE:................................................................................................3

    • 1.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:.......................................................................................3

  • 1.4. METHODOLOGY..........................................................................................................3

  • 1.5. SIGNIFICANCE.............................................................................................................3

  • 1.6. CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE OF THE PROJECT................................................3

  • CHAPTER TWO........................................................................................................................5

    • 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW.................................................................................................5

    • 2.1 LIGHTNING....................................................................................................................5

      • 2.1.1 TYPES OF LIGHTNING..........................................................................................5

        • 2.1.1.1 Intra-Cloud lightning:.........................................................................................5

        • 2.1.1.2 Cloud to Cloud Lightning..................................................................................5

        • 2.1.1.3 Cloud to Ground lightning:................................................................................6

        • 2.1.1.4 Cloud to Air:......................................................................................................6

        • 2.1.1.5 Bolt from the blue:............................................................................................7

        • 2.1.1.6 Anvil Lightning:.................................................................................................7

        • 2.1.1.7 Heat Lightning:..................................................................................................7

  • 2.2 LIGHTNING PHENOMENA..........................................................................................8

  • 2.3 SURGES PROTECTION...............................................................................................9

  • 2.4 LIGHTNING ARRESTERS...........................................................................................9

    • 2.4.1 TYPES OF LIGHTNING ARRESTER..................................................................10

    • 2.4.2 HOW LIGHTNING ARRESTERS PROTECT POWER SYSTEMS...................12

    • 2.4.3 CONNECTION OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERS.................................................13

    • 2.4.4 ARRESTERS SELECTION AND APPLICATIONS.............................................15

      • 2.4.4.1 CONTINUOUS SYSTEM VOLTAGES ..........................................................16

        • 2.4.4.2. TEMPORARY OVER VOLTAGES...............................................................17

        • 2.4.4.3. SWITCHING SURGES..................................................................................17

          • 2.4.4.4 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION.........................................................................18

          • 2.4.4.5 ARRESTER FAILURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF.......................................18

  • iv

    2.4.4.6

    FAILURE MODES OF SURGE ARRESTERS...............................................18

    • 2.4.4.7 ARRESTERS SELECTION AND APPLICATIONS SUMMARY.................19

    CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................21

    • 3.0 DATA COLLECTION....................................................................................................21

    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................21

    • 3.2 DATA COLLECTED....................................................................................................21

      • 3.2.1 DATA COLLECTED FROM LIGHTNING ARRESTER SPECIFICATION .......21

    3.2.2.DATA COLLECTED FROM TANZANIA WEATHER FORECASTING

    OFFICE,FOR MLIMBA CLIMATE ................................................................................21

    3.2.2.1 CLIMATE GRAPH OF MLIMBA.....................................................................22

    3.2.3.DATA COLLECTED FROM SITE VISITS.......................................................22

    • 3.2.3.2 Measurement of earth resistances ....................................................................23

    3.2.4. DATA COLLECTED FROM TANESCO OFFICE FOR MONTHLY...............26

    FAILURE OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERS AT MLIMBA..............................................26

    CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................................29

    • 4.0 DATA ANALYSIS ..........................................................................................................29

    4.1 ANALYSIS OF MEASURED EARTH RESISTANCE VALUES ...................................29

    • 4.1.1 Chart for analysis of percentage deviation of earth resistance in the system .........30

    4.2.EVALUATION ON THE DATA COLLECTED ON TRANSFORMER WITH LIGHTNING ARRESTER

    ..............................................................................................................................................31

    4.3.ANALYSIS OF ARRESTERS SPECIFICATION IN RELATION WITH MLIMBA CLIMATE...........32

    • 4.4.1 Chart below is for analysis of percentage failures of 11kV Lightning arresters in

    the TANESCO distribution network...............................................................................34

    4.4.2.Chart for analysis of percentage failures of 33kV lightning arrester in TANESCO

    distribution network .........................................................................................................34

    • 4.5 COSTS FOR REPLACEMENT OF DEFECTIVE LIGHTNING ARRESTERS..............................35

    CHAPTER FIVE......................................................................................................................36

    • 5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...........................................................36

    • 5.1 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................36

    • 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS.....................................................................................................36

      • 5.2.1 Possible causes for deterioration of a ground system and become ineffective ....36

      • 5.2.2 Steps proposed for improving ground system .......................................................37

  • 5.3 PROJECT COST ESTIMATES..............................................................................................37

    • 5.3.1 Cost estimates..........................................................................................................37

  • REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................38

    v

    LIST OF SYMBOLS

    vi

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1.1 : Chart for Project

     

    11

    Table 3.1 Porcelain housed lightning arrester specifications

     

    28

    Table .3.2 Indicating various weather measured

     

    28

    Table 3.3.Earth Resistance measured at various distribution transformers at

     

    32

    Table.3.4 Showing Transfomer with only primary side lightning arrester

    33

    Table 3.5

    Monthly lightning arresters failures from January, 2012 to September,2013 in

     

    TANESCO distribution networks at Mlimba

     

    33

    Table 3.6 For arresters prices

     

    34

    Table 4.1 Percentage deviation calculation from measured

     

    35

    Table 4.2 Analysis of Transformers with lightning arresters on only primary side

    38

    Table 4.3 For comparison of data from lightning arrester specifications and those from

    Mlimba

    39

    Table 4.4 Analysis of monthly lightning arresters failure for the year 2012 at

    39

    Table 4.5 Costs of replacing defective lightning arresters for 11kV as well as 33kV

    41

    Table 5.1 Estimated costs for implementation of this

     

    44

    v

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1.1: block diagram of the existing system with lightning arresters................................2

    Figure 2.1: Cloud to Cloud Lightning........................................................................................6

    Figure 2.2: cloud to ground lightning........................................................................................6

    Figure 2.4.bolt from the blue lightning......................................................................................7

    Figure 2.5 Cloud-to-ground lightning discharge showing a bright main channel and secondary

    branches ......................................................................................................................................9

    Figure 2.6: Porcelain housed lightning arrester .......................................................................12

    Figure 2.7.Single line diagram of a pole mounted substation having lightning arrester

    ,isolators and other switch gears .............................................................................................14

    Figure 2.8 Block diagram of the single line power system connected to the lightning arrester.

    ..................................................................................................................................................15

    Figure.2.9: Metal Oxide Surge Arrester( MOSA )with porcelain housing that failed.............19

    catastrophically in service ........................................................................................................19

    Figure.2.10.Porcelain housed lightning arresters of various sizes and rating ........................20

    Figure.3.1.Climate Graph of Mlimba showing annual and monthly temperature as well.......22

    as annual and monthly rainfall .................................................................................................22

    Figure 3.2: Chauvin Arnoux Earth and Resistivity Tester. Number C.A 6471 ....................23

    Figure 3.3 : Earth kit:for measuring existing earth resistances................................................24

    Figure 4.1.For percentage deviation of earth resistance from IEC standard ............................30

    Figure.4.2 Percentage of Transformer with only primary side protection .............................32

    Figure 4.3 Percentage failures of 11kV lightning arrester in the system ................................34

    Figure 4.4.Percentage failures of 33kV lightning arrester in the system .................................34

    vi

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

    AC

    Alternating Current

    BIL

    Basic Insulation Level

    DIT

    Dar es Salaam Institute of Technology

    HV

    High Voltage

    Kj/kV

    Kilojoules per kiloVolt

    kV

    kilo Volt

    MCOV

    Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage

    MOV

    Metal Oxide Varistor

    RMS

    Root Mean Square

    TANESCO

    Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited

    TOV

    Temporary Over Voltages

    V

    Voltage

    LA

    Lightning arrester

    CB

    Circuit breaker

    LT

    Low Tension

    R

    Resistance

    I

    Current

    P

    Resistivity

    vii

    CHAPTER ONE

    This chapter covers the introduction, statement of the problem, objectives of the

    project,

    methodology and significance of the project.

    1.1 INTRODUCTION:

    Mlimba is located in south-east part of Morogoro region in Kilombero district and

    surrounded with Udzungwa mountains. It has a population of about 68725 residents as per

    2012 national census carried on October. The area are supplied with electric power from

    Kihansi hydro Power Plant hence contributing to abrupt development in the area especially

    in industrial sectors, irrigation and other activities. Due to presence of TANESCO power

    supply , Mlimba has become famous business centre.

    So TANESCO deals with Generation , Transmission , Distribution and Marketing of

    electrical energy .

    TANESCO at Mlimba area has been facing the problem of frequent feeder outage. After

    investigation it was realised that it was due to failures of Porcelain housed lightning

    arresters employed for safe -guarding the Distribution Transformers against over voltages

    thus causing poor quality of services to the utility customers due to unreliability of power

    supply , and as a result of revenue loss .

    Lightning Arrester technically is a protective device for limiting surge voltages by

    discharging or by-passing surge current to the ground.

    Mlimba is among of the areas which are frequently reported by eyewitness having

    Lightning arresters failures by booming and breaking at different sites. This have led me to

    study the causes of failures of lightning arresters at the area.

    This case study intends to visualize into this problem and outline the causes of the current

    frequent failures of the lightning arresters and come up with proposal for improvement of

    situation and betterment of services to the customers.

    viii

    1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT

    Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) employs lightning Arresters

    for protection of sensitive equipment particularly Distribution Transformers in its 33kV as

    well as 11kV Distribution Networks. Since the power distribution network at Mlimba is 3-

    phase .Each lightning arrester is connected to a particular phase by the isolator terminal.

    Under normal conditions in the protection zone, the lightning arresters acts as an insulator

    or normally open(N/O) switches but in case of fault it acts as a good conductor since it closes

    its contact to allow the fault current to flow to the ground.

    In recent years at Mlimba we have experienced the problem of frequent power failures .

    After investigation they found that Porcelain housed lightning arresters are being failing. So

    due to power supply interruption results into customer complaints and increasing costs of

    lightning Arresters replacement in the TANESCO distribution Networks. These observations

    have led me to study the causes of failures of lightning arresters in the area.

    So due to all these inconveniences to the customers and company at all ,I came up with this

    case study to look into this problem by studying the existing situation, to find out the causes

    of these failures as well as coming out with proposed solutions to the problem of how the

    improvement should be, to tackle the existing catastrophe.

    • 1.2.1 Block diagram of the existing 3 – phase power system connected

    arresters

    L1

    to the

    lightning

    L2 L3 Transformer Tank Lightning Arresters Ground
    L2
    L3
    Transformer
    Tank
    Lightning Arresters
    Ground

    Figure 1.1: block diagram of the existing system with lightning arresters

    ix

    1.3.

    PROJECT OBJECTIVES

    The objectives of this project have been categorized in two classes, these are the main

    objective as well as the specific objectives as outlined below:

    • 1.3.1. MAIN OBJECTIVE:

    The main objective is to establish the causes of frequent failures of porcelain housed

    lightning arresters in TANESCO distribution network at Mlimba .

    • 1.3.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:

     

    1.

    To inspect Lightning arresters for any defects.

    2.

    To inspect paths linking lightning arresters in the distribution networks.

    3.

    To propose specific measures for safe guarding lightning arresters during their

     

    operational life time.

    1.4.

    METHODOLOGY

    1.

    Studying the existing Distribution Networks

    2.

    Literature review

    3.

    Data Collection.

    4.

    Data analysis

    5.

    Conclusions and recommendations.

    6.

    Report writing

    1.5.

    SIGNIFICANCE

     

    On completion of this project it is expected to bring the under listed outcomes:

    1.

    To reduce the possibilities of lightning arresters failures in the distribution networks.

    2.

    To reduce the feeders outages resulting from malfunctioning of lightning arresters in

     

    the networks.

     

    3.

    Minimization of technical losses in the distribution networks.

    4.

    Boosting of energy sales .

    5.

    Improving living standard to power consumers in the area resulting from a reliable

    power supply.

    x

    1.6. CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE OF THE PROJECT

    The chart below shows the list of activities and respective times of implementation for

    project.

    Table 1.1 : Chart for Project Implementation.

    ACTIVITY Project tittle selection Defending project tittle Literature review Data collection Data analysis Conclusion and recommendation
    ACTIVITY
    Project tittle
    selection
    Defending
    project tittle
    Literature
    review
    Data collection
    Data analysis
    Conclusion and
    recommendation
    Report
    submission
    Final
    presentation
    MONTH
    OCT
    NOV
    DEC
    JAN
    FEB
    MARCH
    APRIL
    MAY
    JUNE
    2013
    2013
    2013
    2014
    2014
    2014
    2014
    2014
    2014

    CHAPTER TWO

    2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

    This chapter covers the general knowledge on lightning and the phenomenon

    behind it, surges protection, lightning arresters and how they protect power system networks,

    xi

    connection of lightning arresters, selection applications as well as failures of lightning

    arresters.

    • 2.1 LIGHTNING

    By definition, lightning is a natural phenomenon caused by separation of electrical positive

    and negative charges by atmospheric process. In other words a lightning is a huge spark

    caused by the electrical discharge taking place between clouds, within the same cloud and

    between the clouds and the earth. Clouds containing ice particles and dust acquire electric

    charge due to friction with air. When the charge acquired by the cloud increases, it results into

    an increased potential between the earth and cloud (the lightning starts when potential is of

    the order of 5 to 20 million volts) or in other words the potential gradient increases, when the

    gradient is sufficient (5,000 to 10,000 volts per cm) to breakdown the surrounding air, a

    streamer(flash of lightning) starts from cloud to earth. The gradient is more at the centre of

    the cloud.

    2.1.1 TYPES OF LIGHTNING

    • 2.1.1.1 Intra-Cloud lightning:

    This is the most common type of lightning. Happens completely inside the cloud,

    jumping

    between

    different

    charge

    regions

    in

    the

    cloud.

    Intra-cloud

    lightning

    is

    sometimes called sheet lightning because it lights up the sky with a ‘sheet’ of light.

    • 2.1.1.2 Cloud to Cloud Lightning

    Lightning that occurs between two or more separate clouds as it can be seen from the figure

    2.1

    xii

    Figure 2.1: Cloud to Cloud Lightning 2.1.1.3 Cloud to Ground lightning: Lightning that occurs between thecloud-to-ground strike's stepped leader (frame 1) just prior to its ground connection (frame 2) followed by one of many return strokes (frame 3): By the time the stepped leader gets that close to the ground, it has many branches, so there is sort of a 'race', for which branch will reach the ground first. Whichever downward-moving branch touches an upward-moving leader first, 'wins', completing a path of conductive 'broken down' air that connects the ground and the cloud- like a big, long wire. When this connection is made, the opposing charges equalize themselves rapidly by flowing upward through this 'wire' at close to the speed of light. Frame1 frame 2 frame 3 Figure 2.2: cloud to ground lightning 2.1.1.4 Cloud to Air: Lightning that occurs when the air around a positively charged cloud top reaches out to the negatively charged air around it. As illustrated on figure 2.3 below. xiii " id="pdf-obj-14-2" src="pdf-obj-14-2.jpg">

    Figure 2.1: Cloud to Cloud Lightning

    2.1.1.3 Cloud to Ground lightning:

    Lightning that occurs between the cloud and the ground. The frames below also show a

    cloud-to-ground strike's stepped leader (frame 1) just prior to its ground connection (frame 2)

    followed by one of many return strokes (frame 3): By the time the stepped leader gets that

    close to the ground, it has many branches, so there is sort of a 'race', for which branch will

    reach the ground first. Whichever downward-moving branch touches an upward-moving

    leader first, 'wins', completing a path of conductive 'broken down' air that connects the

    ground and the cloud- like a big, long wire. When this connection is made, the opposing

    charges equalize themselves rapidly by flowing upward through this 'wire' at close to the

    speed of light.

    Figure 2.1: Cloud to Cloud Lightning 2.1.1.3 Cloud to Ground lightning: Lightning that occurs between thecloud-to-ground strike's stepped leader (frame 1) just prior to its ground connection (frame 2) followed by one of many return strokes (frame 3): By the time the stepped leader gets that close to the ground, it has many branches, so there is sort of a 'race', for which branch will reach the ground first. Whichever downward-moving branch touches an upward-moving leader first, 'wins', completing a path of conductive 'broken down' air that connects the ground and the cloud- like a big, long wire. When this connection is made, the opposing charges equalize themselves rapidly by flowing upward through this 'wire' at close to the speed of light. Frame1 frame 2 frame 3 Figure 2.2: cloud to ground lightning 2.1.1.4 Cloud to Air: Lightning that occurs when the air around a positively charged cloud top reaches out to the negatively charged air around it. As illustrated on figure 2.3 below. xiii " id="pdf-obj-14-40" src="pdf-obj-14-40.jpg">

    Frame1

    frame 2 frame 3
    frame 2
    frame 3

    Figure 2.2: cloud to ground lightning

    • 2.1.1.4 Cloud to Air:

    Lightning that occurs when the air around a positively charged cloud top reaches out to the

    negatively charged air around it. As illustrated on figure 2.3 below.

    xiii

    Figure 2.1.1.5 2.3: Cloud to Air lightning Bolt from the blue: 2.1.1.5.Bolt from the blue lightninglightning strike is at sufficient distance from the observer, sound from the strike will not be heard. These silent bolts are called heat lightning. Lightning bolts produce thunder, but the thunder sound does not travel all the way to the observer if the observer is too far away. The movement of sound in the atmosphere depends on the atmospheric properties of the air such as temperature and density. Because temperature and density change with height, the sound of thunder is refracted through the troposphere. This refraction results in spaces of volume in which the thunder does not propagate through. 2.2 LIGHTNING PHENOMENA xiv " id="pdf-obj-15-2" src="pdf-obj-15-2.jpg">

    Figure 2.1.1.5 2.3: Cloud to Air lightning

    Bolt from the blue:

    2.1.1.5.Bolt from the blue lightning

    A positive

    lightning

    bolt

    which

    originates

    within

    the

    updraft

    of

    the

    storm,

    travels

    horizontally for many miles, then strikes the ground. See figure 2.4. below

    Figure 2.1.1.5 2.3: Cloud to Air lightning Bolt from the blue: 2.1.1.5.Bolt from the blue lightninglightning strike is at sufficient distance from the observer, sound from the strike will not be heard. These silent bolts are called heat lightning. Lightning bolts produce thunder, but the thunder sound does not travel all the way to the observer if the observer is too far away. The movement of sound in the atmosphere depends on the atmospheric properties of the air such as temperature and density. Because temperature and density change with height, the sound of thunder is refracted through the troposphere. This refraction results in spaces of volume in which the thunder does not propagate through. 2.2 LIGHTNING PHENOMENA xiv " id="pdf-obj-15-36" src="pdf-obj-15-36.jpg">

    Figure 2.4.bolt from the blue lightning

    • 2.1.1.6 Anvil Lightning:

    A positive lightning bolt which develops in the anvil, or top of the thunderstorm cloud,

    and travels generally straight down to strike the ground.

    • 2.1.1.7 Heat Lightning:

    Lightning from a thunderstorm that is too far away to be heard. If a lightning strike is at

    sufficient distance from the observer, sound from the strike will not be heard. These silent

    bolts are called heat lightning. Lightning bolts produce thunder, but the thunder sound does

    not travel all the way to the observer if the observer is too far away.

    The movement of sound in the atmosphere depends on the atmospheric properties of the air

    such as temperature and density. Because temperature and density change with height, the

    sound of thunder is refracted through the troposphere. This refraction results in spaces of

    volume in which the thunder does not propagate through.

    2.2 LIGHTNING PHENOMENA

    xiv

    The initial flash or streamer, called the dart leader starts from cloud and carry the

    accumulated charge along with it. The dart leader continues its downward descent until its tip

    maintains the proper break down potential gradient, if the gradient is not maintained it is

    quite probable that complete stroke is not formed and it does not reach the earth. The dart

    leader propagates through air in jerks and probably at a speed of 30cm per microsecond and

    carries current in the vicinity of 100kA.

    When the dart reaches near the earth, electro-static field is increased and a streamer

    shoots up from the earth resulting into a sudden spark and a contact with the center of the

    cloud and earth, the action can well be compared with closing of a switch between the

    positive and negative terminals.

    Lightning is one of the most serious causes of over- voltages surges. If the outdoor sub-

    station is not protected the lightning over voltages will cause failure of insulation. To have a

    rough idea of a number of lightning strokes in a day it has been estimated that throughout the

    world there occur about 40,000 lightning storms a day and about 100 lightning strokes per

    second.

    Lightning strokes decompose oxygen and create ozone. They help environmental balance

    on earth.

    The Lightning also causes damage to buildings, farms and commercial houses. The

    damage to human life is comparatively less. It is suggested that whenever there is a thunder

    storm one should not do the following

    • 1. Sit under the tree.

    • 2. Swim in the open water

    However the danger from lightning can be reduced if one sits inside the building .In order to

    prevent failure of power due to lightning, the power equipments must be protected. As you

    can see below that one is the cloud to ground lightning discharge with bright main channel

    and secondary branches propagating to the earth surface.

    xv

    Figure 2.5 Cloud-to-ground lightning discharge showing a bright main channel and secondary branches. 2.3 SURGES PROTECTION

    Figure 2.5 Cloud-to-ground lightning discharge showing a bright main channel and

    secondary branches.

    • 2.3 SURGES PROTECTION

    Surges is the suddenly increase in voltage or current in power system. Surge protection

    has been a primary concern when connecting devices and equipment to low voltage, medium

    voltage, and high voltage electrical systems. As the use of products and equipment with

    components and insulation systems vulnerable to voltage surges and spikes continues to

    increase, the requirement for surge arresters to protect against the effects due to lightning

    strikes, switching phenomenon etc , continues to increase as well. From personal computers

    to HV transmission and distribution systems, everything is susceptible to these surges and

    their destructive effects. Appropriate selection and application of Arresters is important.

    • 2.4 LIGHTNING ARRESTERS

    xvi

    Lightning Arrester is a device used on Power Systems

    that contains billions of electronic

    switches that divert lightning around sensitive equipment and saves them from damage or

    also can be defined as a device used on power system to Protect other equipment from

    Lightning and Switching Surges.

    Lightning arrester is a switch gear .It is a device that inhibits surges as a result of

    lightning towards live conductors. It also inhibits transients caused by switching done in the

    power system. It accomplishes these objectives by drawing sufficient current to dissipate the

    energy associated with the surges and /or transients.

    2.4.1 TYPES OF LIGHTNING ARRESTER

    Originally, there were three types of surge arresters. They are:

    1.Expulsion type

    2.Nonlinear resistor type with gaps (currently silicone-carbide gap type)

    3.Gapless metal-oxide type.

    Of the three types noted above, the expulsion types are no longer being used. The

    nonlinear resistor type with gaps was utilized through the middle of the 1970s and is

    currently being phased out. The conventional gap type with silicone-carbide

    blocks/discs are still being used and the gapless metal-oxide type are the most widely

    used today.

    A good lightning arresters should satisfy the following criteria.

    • 1. To provide high or infinite impedance during normal system voltages, to minimize steady- state losses.

    • 2. To provide a low impedance during Surges, to limit voltage.

    • 3. To dissipate or store the energy in the surge without damage to itself.

    • 4. To return to open-circuit conditions after the passage of a surge.

    • 5. Should have long protection distance.

    • 6. Should be stable against shock and vibration.

    • 7. Should have long life and light weight ,life span should be greater than 30 years.

    • 8. Should be proof against ageing.

    • 9. Good anti-moisture capability, resistant to pollution.

    10. Good sealing capability to ensure reliable operation.

    A lightning arrester, consisting of an air gap in series with a non linear silicon carbide

    resistor, satisfies all criteria. The gap eliminates losses at normal voltages and arcs over

    during over voltages. The resistor has the property that its resistance decreases sharply as the

    xvii

    current through it increases, thereby limiting the voltage across the resistor to a specified

    ceiling. The resistor also dissipates the energy in the surge. Finally, following the passage of

    a surge, various forms of arc control, quench the arc within the gap, and restore the surge

    arrester to normal open circuit conditions.

    The gapless lightning arresters consisting of a nonlinear metal oxide resistor with no air gap,

    also satisfies all criteria. At normal voltages the resistance is extremely high, limiting steady-

    state currents to microamperes and steady-state losses to a few watts. During surges, the

    resistance decreases, thereby limiting over voltage while dissipating surge energy. After the

    surge passes, the resistance naturally returns to its original high value .

    One advantage of the gapless arrester is that its ceiling voltage is closer to its normal

    operating voltage than is the conventional arrester, thus permitting voltage than is the

    conventional arrester, also permitting reduced BILs and potential saving in the capital cost of

    equipment insulation.

    There are four classes of surge/lightning arrester, namely

    • 1. Station arresters. Station arresters, which have the heaviest construction are designed for the greatest range of ratings and have the best protective characteristic.

    • 2. Intermediate arresters Intermediate arresters, which have moderate construction, are designed for systems with nominal voltages 138kV and below.

    • 3. Distribution arresters Distribution arresters are employed with lower- voltage transformers and lines where there is a need for economy.

    • 4. Secondary arresters Secondary arresters are used for nominal system voltages below 1000V.

    xviii

    Figure 2.6: Porcelain housed lightning arrester. 2.4.2 HOW LIGHTNING ARRESTERS PROTECT POWER SYSTEMS For a system

    Figure 2.6: Porcelain housed lightning arrester.

    • 2.4.2 HOW LIGHTNING ARRESTERS PROTECT POWER SYSTEMS

    For a system without a lightning arrester, when lightning strikes the system equipment is

    damaged and the power goes out. However on a system with an arrester, when lightning

    strikes, sensitive equipment are saved by the arrester.

    The lightning arrester diverts the lightning to the ground.

    The lightning arrester protects equipment electrically in parallel with it. At the heart of all

    arresters is the metal oxide varistors (MOV).The MOV disk is a semiconductor that is

    sensitive to voltage. At normal voltages the MOV disk is an insulator and will not conduct

    current. But at higher voltages caused by lightning it becomes a conductor. The MOV Disk is

    a very fast acting electronic switch ,It is an open switch to standard system AC voltages and a

    closed switch to lightning voltages. By magnifying the MOV material 5000 times, Metal

    Oxide Grains and dopants in the material can be discerned.

    Each MOV disk with a 35mm diameter and a 35mm height contains about 28 Billion

    MOV Grains. The MOV grains and their junctions are the electronic switches that turn on and

    off in unison to divert the lightning around the equipment.

    The switches are at the junctions between the grains.

    A lightning arrester is therefore essentially a collection of billions of microscopic

    junctions of metal oxide grains that turn on and off in microseconds to form a current path

    from the top terminal to the ground terminal of the arrester.

    xix

    So basically a lightning arrester is a device used on power systems that contains billions of

    electronic switches that divert lightning around sensitive equipments and saves them from

    damage.

    There are different types and sizes of lightning arresters, installed depending on the

    magnitude of the voltage inherent to the protection zone, eg. Silicon carbide for low voltage

    up to 400V and/or Zinc oxide which is popular for medium and high voltages. Modern

    lightning arresters are equipped with isolators. The function of these isolators is to disconnect

    the transient and/or surge voltages if they persist for a long time. The isolator is essentially a

    fusing structure that can handle high short-time current, but cannot handle long term current

    such as would occur if the arrester break over voltage dropped below the peak line voltage.

    So, unless there is an isolator, the arresters would act as a fault. The job of the lightning

    arrester is to clip the induced voltage transient caused by lightning strike at a level below the

    Basic Insulation level (BIL), but above the normal operating voltage, of the protected

    equipment.

    The lightning arrester should be an insulator or open circuit at any voltage below the

    protected voltage, and a good conductor or closed circuit at any voltage above, to pass the

    energy of the strike to ground.

    In the case of direct strokes to transmission line phase conductors, traveling waves are set

    up in two directions from the point of the stroke. Flashover of line insulation diverts part of

    the lightning current from the arrester.

    Only in the case of a direct stroke to a phase conductor very near to an arrester where no line

    flashover occurs, the arrester discharge the full lightning current.

    • 2.4.3 CONNECTION OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERS

    Lightning arresters are installed close and parallel to the devices to be protected. There are

    two types of arrester voltage levels in compliance to the feeders voltage levels along which

    they are employed for the protection of distribution transformers in the distribution networks.

    (i) The 33kV arresters, which are connected close to the 33kV to 0.4kV or 0.23kV

    distribution transformers.

    (ii)The 11kV arresters which are connected close to the 11kV to 0.4kV or 0.23kV

    distribution transformers.

    The taping by jumpers (pilot) from the power line (33kV or 11kV) to the transformers

    is done in parallel with the lightning arrester connected to a particular phase by the isolator

    circuit as illustrated from figure 2.7 below.

    xx

    The other end of the arrester, being connected by a common bus (crossarm) to the ground by

    copper wires with normally 16mm 2 cross- sectional area. The cross arm is clamped to the pole

    (usually a wooden pole) on which the copper wires to ground is gripped.

    Lightning arresters for distribution transformers protection are connected in parallel with

    the equipment from each phase to ground as it can be seen from figure 2.8 below. The

    function of the lightning arrester is hereby to maintain its voltage at a ceiling voltage below

    the BIL, it protects. So the crest value of the wave is called the Basic Impulse Level (BIL) of

    the equipment. Lightning arresters are coordinated with standard electrical equipment

    insulation levels so that they will protect the insulation against lightning over voltage. This

    coordination is obtained by having an arrester that will discharge at a lower voltage level than

    the voltage required to break down the electrical equipment insulation. The difference

    between the equipment breakdown voltage and the lightning arrester ceiling voltage is the

    Protection Margin (PM).

    The other end of the arrester, being connected by a common bus (crossarm) to the ground

    Figure 2.7.Single line diagram of a pole mounted substation having lightning arrester

    ,isolators and other switch gears.

    xxi

    Figure below shows the connection of lightning arrester with the equipment to be protected.

    Figure below shows the connection of lightning arrester with the equipment to be protected. Figure 2.8

    Figure 2.8 Block diagram of the single line power system connected to the lightning

    arrester.

    2.4.4 ARRESTERS SELECTION AND APPLICATIONS

    The primary objective in arrester application is to select the lowest rated surge arrester

    that will provide adequate protection of the equipment insulation and be rated such that it will

    have a satisfactory service life when connected to the power system. An arrester of the

    minimum rating is preferred because it provides the highest margin of protection for the

    equipment insulation system. There is a fine line between protection and service life of a

    surge arrester. Higher arrester ratings will increase the capability of the arrester to survive on

    a specific power system but reduce the margin of protection provided for the insulation level

    of the equipment it is protecting. Therefore, one should consider both issues of arrester

    survival and equipment protection when selecting surge arresters.

    The best location for installation of a surge arrester is as close as possible to the equipment

    it is protecting, preferably at the terminals where the line is connected to the equipment. This

    is based on the mathematics of wave theory addressing incident and reflected waves at a

    junction (or protected equipment terminal). Lead length for the connection of the surge

    arrester to the equipment terminals and to ground should be minimized and installed as

    straight, minimizing bends in the leads, as possible. This will ensure that the surge energies

    are shunted to ground by the most direct path.

    xxii

    Increases in the lead length will reduce the protection capabilities of the surge arrester, due

    to the additional increase of impedance in the lead.

    The rating of the arrester is defined as the RMS voltage at which the arrester passes the duty

    cycle test as defined by the referenced standard.

    There are some basic considerations when selecting the appropriate surge arrester for a

    particular application, these are:

    • 1. Continuous system voltages

    • 2. Temporary over voltages

    • 3. Switching surges (more often considered for transmission voltages of 132kV and higher, capacitor banks, and cable applications)

    • 4. Lightning surges

    • 5. System configuration (grounded or ungrounded/effectively ungrounded).

    2.4.4.1 CONTINUOUS SYSTEM VOLTAGES.

    When arresters are connected to an electrical system, they are continuously exposed to the

    system operating voltage.

    For each arrester rating, there is a recommended limit to the magnitude of voltage that may

    be applied continuously. This is termed the Maximum Continuous Operating Voltage

    (MCOV) of the arrester.

    The arrester rating must be selected such that the maximum continuous power system

    voltage applied to the arrester is less than, or equal to, the arrester’s MCOV rating.

    Consideration should be given to both the circuit configuration (wye or delta) and arrester

    connection (Line-to-ground or line to line). In most cases the arresters are connected line-to-

    ground. If arresters are connected line-to-line, then phase-to-phase voltage must be

    considered. In addition, in determining the arrester rating, attention should be given to the

    grounding configuration of the system, either solidly grounded or effectively ungrounded

    (impedance/resistance grounded, ungrounded, or temporarily ungrounded). This is a key

    factor in the selection and application of an arrester. If the system grounding configuration is

    unknown, one should assume the system is ungrounded. This will result in choosing an

    arrester with a higher continuous system voltage and/or MCOV rating. Also, attention should

    be given to special arrester applications such as that on the delta tertiary winding of a

    transformer where one corner of the delta is permanently grounded. In this instance, the

    xxiii

    normal voltage continuously applied to the arrester will be the full phase-to-phase voltage,

    even though the arresters are connected line to ground.

    • 2.4.4.2. TEMPORARY OVER VOLTAGES

    Temporary over voltages (TOV) can be caused by a number of system events, such as

    switching surges, line-to-ground faults, load rejection and ferro resonance. The system

    configuration and operating practices should be evaluated to identify the most probable forms

    and causes of temporary over voltages. If detailed transient system studies or calculations are

    not available, it is acceptable, as a minimum, to consider the over voltages due to single line-

    to-ground faults. The configuration and details of the system grounding will determine the

    over voltages associated with single line-to-ground faults. The arrester application standards,

    gives the guidance in determining the magnitude of over voltages associated with single line-

    to-ground faults. The primary effect of temporary overvoltage( TOV) on metal-oxide

    arresters is the increased current and power dissipation, and a rising arrester temperature.

    These conditions affect the protection and survivability characteristics of the arrester.

    The arrester’s TOV capability must meet or exceed the expected temporary over voltages of

    the system. Temporary overvoltage capabilities have been defined independent of system

    impedance and are valid for the voltages applied at the arrester location.

    • 2.4.4.3. SWITCHING SURGES

    The arrester’s ability to dissipate switching surges can be quantified to a large degree in

    terms of energy. The unit used in quantifying the energy capability of metal-oxide arresters is

    kiloJoules’/kiloVolt (kJ/ kV).

    The maximum amount of energy that may be dissipated are defined assuming multiple

    discharges distributed over a one-minute period. In applications where the discharges are

    distributed over a longer period of time, arresters will have considerably more capability. As

    noted previously, arresters applied correctly can repeat these capabilities; therefore, after a

    one-minute rest period the above discharges may be repeated. The one-minute rest period

    allows the disk(s) temperature distribution to reach equilibrium and become uniform. These

    energy ratings assume that the switching surges occur in a system having surge impedances

    of several hundred ohms, which would be typical for overhead transmission lines. In low

    impedance circuits having cables or shunt capacitors as elements, the energy capability metal-

    oxide arresters may be reduced because currents can exceed the values noted.

    xxiv

    2.4.4.4

    SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

    Knowing the system configuration, wye/delta, grounded or ungrounded, is a key factor in

    selecting an arrester rating. The arrester nominal ratings for various utilization system

    voltages (line-to-line) are based on the system’s grounding configuration.

    If the system is solidly grounded, then a lower-rated arrester can be chosen. If the system is

    ungrounded, impedance grounded or temporarily ungrounded, then a higher arrester rating

    must be chosen to compensate for the potential of a higher continuous voltage, or MCOV,

    being impressed on the arrester for an extended period of time. Other than a solidly grounded

    system, any other system configuration is considered to be effectively ungrounded and a

    higher arrester rating should be chosen. Knowing the system configuration and choosing the

    correct arrester rating is critical in averting an application where the arrester can potentially

    have a failure and cause violent end of life.

    • 2.4.4.5 ARRESTER FAILURE AND PRESSURE RELIEF

    If the capability of an arrester is exceeded, the metal-oxide disk(s) may crack or puncture.

    Such damage will reduce the arrester internal electrical resistance.

    This condition will limit the arrester’s ability to survive future system conditions; it does not

    jeopardize the insulation protection provided by the arrester.

    In the unlikely case of complete failure of an arrester, a line-ground arc will develop and

    pressure will build up inside the housing. This pressure will be safely vented to the outside

    and an external arc will be established provided the fault current is within the pressure relief

    fault current capability of the arrester. This low-voltage arc maintains equipment protection.

    Once an arrester has safely vented, it no longer possesses its pressure relief/fault current

    capability and should be replaced immediately. For a given application, the arrester selected

    should have a pressure/fault current capability greater than maximum short-circuit current

    available at the intended arrester location. This rating of arrester capability should include

    appropriate allowances for future growth in the system.

    • 2.4.4.6 FAILURE MODES OF SURGE ARRESTERS

    An arrester failure may appear in different ways:

    1.

    An arrester with porcelain housing may in worst case explode and cause severe

    damages to the surroundings.

    xxv

    Such a failed arrester is shown in Figure 2.9. In case of arresters with polymer

    housing, the housing may burst open, but the risk for objects being scattered is more

    limited.

    • 2. The arrester can be causing an earth fault due to internal flashovers etc. Such arresters can be difficult to locate.

    • 3. Aged or overloaded arresters may show reduced protection against overvoltage, i.e. during severe transient overvoltage, for instance due to multiple lightning stroke or high-energy temporary overvoltage, the arrester can fail before it actually has suppressed the overvoltage.

    Thus, the apparatus that the arrester is set to protect may be subject to overvoltage that can

    cause damage to it.

    Such a failed arrester is shown in Figure 2.9. In case of arresters with polymer housing,

    Figure.2.9: Metal Oxide Surge Arrester( MOSA )with porcelain housing that failed

    catastrophically in service.

    2.4.4.7 ARRESTERS SELECTION AND APPLICATIONS SUMMARY

    The arrester selection and application process should include a review of all system

    stresses, service conditions expected, and system-grounding configuration (grounded or

    effectively ungrounded) at the arrester installation location. System stresses shall include

    continuous operating voltage, temporary over voltages, and switching surges. If arresters

    of different ratings are required to meet these individual criteria, then the highest resulting

    arrester rating should be chosen.

    xxvi

    Figure below shows various sizes of porcelain housed lightning arresters used in the system.

    Figure below shows various sizes of porcelain housed lightning arresters used in the system. Figure.2.10.Porcelain housed
    Figure below shows various sizes of porcelain housed lightning arresters used in the system. Figure.2.10.Porcelain housed

    Figure.2.10.Porcelain housed lightning arresters of various sizes and rating.

    xxvii

    CHAPTER THREE

    • 3.0 DATA COLLECTION

    • 3.1 INTRODUCTION

    The areas of concern in this project are the power distribution networks of TANESCO at

    Mlimba

    The common earthing of the copper wire from the lightning arrester and that from the

    transformer neutral is done by connecting together 20 pieces of buried copper rods each 4/3

    meters length to make a reasonable resistance to ground.

    Data collected are of two main categories. (1)Those collected from various offices and (2)The

    one collected from the site.

    • 3.2 DATA COLLECTED

    3.2.1 DATA COLLECTED FROM LIGHTNING ARRESTER SPECIFICATION.

    Table 3.1 Porcelain housed lightning arrester specifications

    SPECIFICATIONS

    11kV ARRESTERS

    33kV ARRESTERS

    MCOV

    9.4kV

    27.5kV

    RANGE OF AMBIENT AIR

    -10 0 C~50 0 C

    -10 0 C~ 50 0 C

    TEMPERATURE

    ANNUAL RAINFALL

    100mm~1500mm

    100mm~1500mm

    RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    10%~95%

    10%~95%

    SYSTEM FREQUENCY

    45Hz~55Hz

    45Hz~55Hz

    CREEPAGE DISTANCE

    320mm

    1160mm

    HIGH CURRENT IMPULSE

    65kV

    65kV

    WITHSTAND

    MAXIMUM WIND SPEED

    30m/s

    30m/s

    3.2.2.DATA COLLECTED FROM TANZANIA WEATHER FORECASTING OFFICE,FOR

    MLIMBA CLIMATE.

    Table .3.2 Indicating various weather measured parameters.

    xxviii

    PARAMETERS

    PARAMETERS

    ANNUAL TEMPERATURE

    25.8 0 C

    ANNUAL RAINFALL

    1310mm

    HUMIDITY

    53%~93%

    WIND SPEED

    5m/s~15m/s

    3.2.2.1 CLIMATE GRAPH OF MLIMBA

    This graph is just a summary of the climate conditions of Mlimba, including monthly

    temperature and annual temperature in centigrade( 0 C) as well as in Fahrenheit, also annual

    rainfall as well as monthly rainfall in millimeter.

    PARAMETERS ANNUAL TEMPERATURE 25.8 C ANNUAL RAINFALL 1310mm HUMIDITY 53%~93% WIND SPEED 5m/s~15m/s 3.2.2.1 CLIMATE GRAPH

    Figure.3.1.Climate Graph of Mlimba showing annual and monthly temperature as well

    as annual and monthly rainfall.

    The warmest month of the year is November with an average temperature of 28 °C. In

    July, the average temperature is 22.9 °C. It is the lowest average temperature of the whole

    year

    3.2.3.DATA COLLECTED FROM SITE VISITS

    3.2.3.1 Soil Resistivity

    The soil resistivity is a deterministic factor in evaluating the ground resistance. The soil

    resistivity depends on the type of soil whether its moisture content and dissolved salts.

    There are effects of grain size and its distribution, also effects of temperature and pressure.

    xxix

    The resistivity depends on the amount of salts dissolved in its moisture .

    3.2.3.2 Measurement of earth resistances.

    Earth resistance measurements at different distribution transformers was done using a digital

    Earth and Resistivity Tester as outlined below. Earth resistance measurement with the 3 pole

    method .

    The resistivity depends on the amount of salts dissolved in its moisture . 3.2.3.2 Measurement of

    Figure 3.2: Chauvin Arnoux Earth and Resistivity Tester. Number

    C.A 6471.

    Tester Employed: Earth and Resistivity Tester.

    Make: Chauvin Arnoux ,

    Number

    C.A 6471, Made in France.

    Method Used: 62% Method using two stakes.

    This measurement requires the use of the Earth Kit components. These include

    Two smooth T-shaped earth rods

    100m of red lead on reel.

    60m of blue lead on reel.

    10m of green lead on reel.

    xxx

    Figure 3.3 : Earth kit:for measuring existing earth resistances Procedures for measurement 1. Turn off the

    Figure 3.3 : Earth kit:for measuring existing earth resistances

    Procedures for measurement

    1. Turn off the installation power supply and disconnect it from the Earth by opening the

    ground terminal bar.

    • 2. Short-circuit the terminals E and ES using the corresponding terminal bar and connect

    them to the earth point to be measured.

    • 3. Push rod H as deep as possible into the ground at a distance ‘A’ from the earth to be

    measured.

    It is advisable to have the distance ‘A’ greater than 25m.

    • 4. Insert rod S into the ground on a line between the earth connection and rod H, at a distance

    of 62% of ‘A’ .

    • 5. Connect the rods to their respective terminals on the instrument, using the leads.

    xxxi

    6.

    Press the TEST button until the measurement is displayed and record it.

    • 7. Reconnect the ground terminal bar to the earth conductor.

    6. Press the TEST button until the measurement is displayed and record it. 7. Reconnect the

    By Ohm’s Law,

    V = R x I ……………………………

    ..

    ( 1 )

    Where:

    V is Volts

    R is the resistance in Ohms

    I is the current in Amperes

    Maximum ground resistance targets typical for a power utility company.

    - Generating station: maximum 1Ω.

    - Large sub-station: maximum 1Ω

    - Small sub-station: maximum 5Ω

    Earth resistance

    values ,measured at various distribution transformers in the area are as

    tabulated below:

    Table 3.3.Earth Resistance measured at various distribution transformers at Mlimba.

    TRANSFORMER LOCATION

    EARTH RESISTANCE IN OHMS(Ω)

    VIWANJA SITINI

    2

    MIKOROSHINI

    6

    TRANSPORTER

    15

    CHITA

    11

    CHISANO

    3

    xxxii

    KAMWENE

    26

    MIWANGANI

    12

    KKKT RELINI

    4

    MIEMBENI

    5

    KALENGA KERO

    21

    MATANGINI

    13

    All visited transformer were found with lightning arresters only on one side as it can be

    tabulated below.

    Transformer with lightning arresters on only one side.

    Table.3.4 Showing Transfomer with only primary side lightning arrester

    TRANSFORMER LOCATION

    OBSERVATION

    VIWANJA SITINI

    Only primary side protected

    MIKOROSHINI

    Only primary side protected

    TRANSPORTER

    Only primary side protected

    CHITA

    Only primary side protected

    CHISANO

    Only primary side protected

    KAMWENE

    Only primary side protected

    MIWANGANI

    Only primary side protected

    KKKT RELINI

    Only primary side protected

    MIEMBENI

    Only primary side protected

    KALENGA KERO

    Only primary side protected

    3.2.4. DATA COLLECTED FROM TANESCO OFFICE FOR MONTHLY

    FAILURE OF LIGHTNING ARRESTERS AT MLIMBA

    Monthly lightning arresters failures from January 2012 to September 2013 in TANESCO

    distribution networks at Mlimba.

    Table 3.5

    Monthly lightning arresters failures from January, 2012 to September,2013

    in TANESCO distribution networks at Mlimba

    MONTH

    11kV

    33kV

    ARRESTERS

    ARRESTERS

    JAN 2012

    1

    0

    FEB 2012

    1

    1

    MARCH 2012

    1

    0

    APRIL 2012

    0

    0

    MAY 2012

    3

    1

    JUNE 2012

    2

    1

    JULY 2012

    2

    1

    AUG 2012

    1

    2

    SEPT 2012

    3

    1

    xxxiii

    OCT 2012

    0

    1

    NOV 2012

    0

    0

    DEC 2012

    1

    0

    JAN 2013

    1

    1

    FEB 2013

    0

    1

    MARCH 2013

    0

    1

    APRIL 2013

    1

    1

    MAY 2013

    2

    0

    JUNE 2013

    1

    0

    JULY 2013

    1

    3

    AUG 2013

    0

    1

    SEPT 2013

    1

    2

    TOTALS

    22

    18

    .

    (ii)Arresters costs

    Table 3.6 For arresters prices

    ARRESTER RATING

    PRICE IN TSHS.

    11kV

    50545.00

    33kV

    92365.00

    xxxiv

    CHAPTER FOUR

    4.0 DATA ANALYSIS.

    This chapter deals with analysis of collected data.Analysis of the collected data is

    done as follows.

    4.1 Analysis of measured Earth Resistance values ..

    This is done by evaluating the earth resistances measured at different locations of

    distribution transformers with the International Electro-technical Commission( IEC)-62305-

    3:2006-01 recommended value, and by calculating the percentage deviation of measured

    earth resistance with respect to the standard one.

    According to IEC regulation, standard for protection against lightning it have been stated that

    the earth resistance at small substation for proper protection against lightning should not

    exceed 5Ω, thus the computation of percentage deviation of field obtained data was done with

    the reference of 5Ω (IEC standards):

    So the maximum IEC recommended earth resistance value is 5Ω for small substation.

    The comparison between earth resistances measured values and the IEC recommended

    maximum value is shown in the table below:-Also percentage deviation can be calculated as

    follows.

    %deviation=Earth resistance measured from transformer-5 Ω×100……………………….(2)

    5 Ω

    The results are as shown below

    Table 4.1 Percentage deviation calculation from measured resistance.

    xxxv

    S/N

    TRANSFORMER

    MEASURED

    Analysis of % deviation,

    EVALUATION

    LOCATION

    EARTH

    On earth resistance

    BASING ON IEC

    RESISTANCE

    VALUE(5Ω)

    1

    VIWANJA

    2Ω

    • 2 Ω-5 Ω×100=-60%

    GOOD

     

    SITINI

    5Ω

    2

    MIKOROSHINI

    6Ω

    • 6 Ω-5 Ω×100=20%

    BAD

    5

    3

    TRANSPORTER

    15Ω

    15 Ω-5 Ω×100=200%

    BAD

     

    5 Ω

    4

    CHITA

    11Ω

    11 Ω-5 Ω×100=120%

    BAD

     

    5

    5

    CHISANO

    3Ω

    3Ω-5 Ω×100=-40%

    GOOD

     
    • 5 Ω

    6

    KAMWENE

    26Ω

    26Ω-5 Ω×100=420%

    BAD

     

    5

    7

    MIWANGANI

    12Ω

    12 Ω-5 Ω×100=140%

    BAD

     
    • 5

    8

    KKKT RELINI

    4Ω

    4 Ω-5 Ω×100=-20%

    GOOD

     
    • 5 Ω

    9

    MIEMBENI

    • 5 GOOD

    Ω-5 Ω×100=0%

     
     

    5Ω

    • 5 Ω

    1O

    KALENGA

    21Ω

    21 Ω-5 Ω×100=320%

    BAD

     

    KERO

    5

    11

    MATANGINI

    13Ω

    13 Ω-5 Ω×100=160%

    BAD

     

    5

    4.1.1 Chart for analysis of percentage deviation of earth resistance in the system.

    xxxvi

    Figure 4.1.For percentage deviation of earth resistance from IEC standard. From the analysis above it can

    Figure 4.1.For percentage deviation of earth resistance from IEC standard.

    From the analysis above it can be noted that 0% is a reference point from which above this

    level is a violation of standards and below or equal to 0% are transformers within the range

    of the standard.

    In this case it can be seen that Mikoroshini,Transporter,Chita,Kamwene,Miwangani,Kalenga

    kero and Matangini distribution transformers are in the risk to be burnt by lightning since it’s

    earth resistances are out of range.Among 11 samples assessed about 7 Transformer are out of

    standards in concern with earth resistance.

    In percentage it can be computed as:

    % of Transformers out of IEC earth resistance standard are 7×100=63.64%

    ....................

    (3)

    11

    4.2.Evaluation on the data collected on Transformer with lightning arrester

    The data was collected through site visitation at Mlimba area which are

    Viwanja Sitini,Kamwene,Matangini,KKKT Relini,Mikoroshini,Transporter,Kalenga

    kero,Miwangani,Chita,Chisano and Miembeni. The main intention of this assessment was to

    check number of Transformer with lightning arrester on both primary and secondary side. It

    should be noted that not only the lightning strikes the primary side but also secondary side

    can be struck as well.

    The collected data was computed as follows.

    %Transformer =transformer with only primary side protection×100…………………(4)

    Total number of transformer assessed

    xxxvii

    Table 4.2 Analysis of Transformers with lightning arresters on only primary side

    S/N

    TRANSFORMER LOCATION

    % of transformer with only primary side

    lightning arrester

    1

    VIWANJA SITINI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    2

    MIKOROSHINI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    3

    TRANSPORTER

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    4

    CHITA

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    5

    CHISANO

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    6

    KAMWENE

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    7

    MIWANGANI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    8

    KKKT RELINI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    9

    MIEMBENI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    10

    KALENGA KERO

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    11

    MATANGINI

    1×100%=9.09%

     

    11

    .

    Table 4.2 Analysis of Transformers with lightning arresters on only primary side S/N TRANSFORMER LOCATION %

    xxxviii

    Figure.4.2 Percentage of Transformer with only primary side protection.

    From the above analysis it can be seen that almost 100% of distribution transformers at

    Mlimba have lightning arresters only on primary side , in this case these transformers have

    high possibility of being burnt by lightning incase the lightning strikes the secondary side.

    4.3.Analysis of arresters specification in relation with Mlimba climate

    This is done by comparing data from porcelain housed lightning arrester specifications with

    the data from weather forecasting office for mlimba climate.

    Table 4.3 For comparison of data from lightning arrester specifications and those from

    Mlimba climate.

    Serial number

    Parameters

    Arrester specifications

    Mlimba climate

    Status

    Annual

    • 1 -10 C~50 C

    25.8 0 C

    Good

     

    temperature

    Annual

    • 2 100mm~1500mm

    1310mm

    Good

     

    rainfall

    • 3 Humidity

    10%~95%

    53%~93%

    Good

    • 4 Maximum

    30m/s

    5m/s~15m/s

    Good

     

    wind speed

    From the above analysis it can be established that Mlimba climate are within the range of

    arresters specifications. So climate has no contribution on the failures of lightning arresters

    at the area.

    Analysis of monthly failure of lightning arresters in percentage for 11kV as well

    33kV arresters.

    as

    The table below shows the monthly failure of

    2012

    lightning arrester

    in Percentage for the year

    Table 4.4,Analysis of monthly lightning arresters failure for the year 2012 at Mlimba.

    MONTHS

    11kV

    %failure for

    33kV

    %failure for

    ARRESTERS

    11kV

    ARRESTERS

    33kV

    JAN 2012

    1

    100%=6.67%

    0

    100%=0%

     

    15

    8

    FEB 2012

    1

    1×100%=6.67%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    MARCH 2012

    1

    1×100%=6.67%

    0

    100%=0%

    xxxix

     

    15

    8

    APRIL 2012

    0

    0×100%=0%

    0

    100%=0%

     

    15

    8

    MAY 2012

    3

    3×100%=20%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    JUNE 2012

    2

    100%=13.33%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    JULY 2012

    2

    100%=13.33%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    AUG 2012

    1

    1×100%=6.67%

    2

    100%=25%

     

    15

    8

    SEPT 2012

    3

    3×100%=20%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    OCT 2012

    0

    0×100%=0%

    1

    1×100%=12.5%

     

    15

    8

    NOV 2012

    0

    0×100%=0%

    0

    100%=0%

     

    15

    8

    DEC 2012

    1

    1×100%=6.67%

    0

    100%=0%

     

    15

    8

    Total

    15

    8

    4.4.1 Chart below is for analysis of percentage failures of 11kV Lightning arresters in the

    TANESCO distribution network

    Figure 4.3 Percentage failures of 11kV lightning arrester in the system.

    From the figure above it can be established that the problem is serious during the month of

    September and May. So the episode is independent with the rain season.

    xl

    4.4.2.Chart for analysis of percentage failures of 33kV lightning arrester in TANESCO

    distribution network.

    4.4.2.Chart for analysis of percentage failures of 33kV lightning arrester in TANESCO distribution network. Figure 4.4.Percentage

    Figure 4.4.Percentage failures of 33kV lightning arrester in the system.

    From the above analysis it can be established that most of the failures of porcelain housed

    lightning arrester at the area are independent to the months with heavy rainfall.

    • 4.5 Costs for replacement of defective Lightning Arresters.

    Replacement of a defective lightning arrester adds to the utility operational costs. The costs

    for the replacement of both the 11kV and the 33kV lightning arresters are shown in the tables

    below. Material costs, labour costs, transport costs for replacement of 11kV lightning arrester

    as well as 33kV Lightning arrester are outlined hereunder.

    Table 4.5 Costs of replacing defective lightning arresters for 11kV as well as 33kV

    Costs

    11kV Arresters

    33kV Arresters

    Material costs

    52245.00

    98525.00

    Labour costs

    65265.00

    65265.00

    Transport costs

    30000.00

    30000.00

    Total costs

    147510.00

    193790.00

    xli

    CHAPTER FIVE

    5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    This chapter presents the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations, costs for

    preparation of this project as well as the references used.

    5.1 Conclusion.

    The data analysis section of this project depicts that the earth resistance values for most of the

    visited distribution transformer sites are beyond the acceptable maximum recommended

    values by IEC of 5 Ohms, so it means that most of the earth resistance values are poor. With

    regard to the data collected and the data analysis it can be said that failure of the arresters

    seems to be a result of poor earth resistances.

    Since the data obtained from the arresters specification tally with those from weather

    forecasting office for Mlimba climate,so the climate of Mlimba does not contribute to the

    failures of porcelain housed lightning arresters at Mlimba area.

    From the sample collected it has been found that about 63.64% distribution transformers have

    got higher resistance than the recommended one, this results into improper conduction of

    overcurrent to ground hence burning of the equipment.

    xlii

    Also from the analysis it has been found that almost 100% of distribution transformers at

    Mlimba have lightning arresters only on primary side. In this case these transformers

    have got high possibility of being burnt by lightning incase the lightning strikes the

    secondary side.

    5.2 Recommendations.

    In order to maintain the earth resistance values at different locations of distribution

    transformers within the IEC maximum recommended value. It is recommended that:

    First of all regular checks of earth resistance values should be done in order to establish the

    existing earth resistance status at different locations.

    Secondly purposeful initiatives should be taken to improve earth resistance values

    accordingly where poor values are found.

    Both sides of transformer (primary and secondary side) should be protected by lightning

    arresters. Since both sides of the transformer can be affected by lightning .

    • 5.2.1 Possible causes for deterioration of a ground system and become ineffective.

      • 1. Corrosion and weather influences exert mechanical strain on ground rods and cause

    metallic corrosion over time. As a ground rod corrodes, its resistance rises and it loses its

    effectiveness.

    • 2. Soil resistivity can vary considerably with changes in climate and temperature.

    • 3. Water tables

    5.2.2

    Steps proposed for improving ground system.

    Chemically treat the soil to reduce seasonal variations.

    Using multiple ground rods.

    Doubling rod diameter, this decreases resistance by about 10%

    This is due to the following formula,

    R=pl…………………………………………………………………… (5)

    ..

    A

    Where R=Resistance

    p=resistivity

    l=length of a conductor

    A=cross sectional area.

    xliii

    5.3 Project cost estimates.

    This section outlines the costs associated with the implementations of this project.

    5.3.1 Cost estimates

    The table below shows the estimated costs associated with the project activities.

    Table 5.1 Estimated costs for implementation of this project.

    S.NO.

     

    ACTIVITY

    ESTIMATED

     

    COSTS

    • 1. Field Visits

     

    150,000/=

    • 2. Reports preparations and printing

    230,000/=

    Flash

    • 3. 1

    piece

    20,000/=

     

    TOTAL

    400,000/=

    REFERENCES

    C.L Wadhwa (2007), High Voltage Engineering (2 nd Edition), New Age International (P)

    Limited, Publisher

    Dr. S.L. Uppal and Prof. S. Rao (2009). Electrical power systems. (15 th Edition). Khanna

    Publishers.

    Edwin B. Kurtz and Thomas M. Shoemaker, McGraw-Hill Book Company

    (1976),“The Lineman’s and Cableman’s Handbook, Fifth Edition”

    E. Kuffel, W.S Zaengly and J.Kuffel (2000), High Voltage Engineering (2 nd

    Edition).Butterworth-Heineman Publisher.

    George W. Walsh, A Review of Lightning Protection and Grounding Practice,

    IEC

    Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol. IA-9, No. 3, March/April

    1996 (reprint/Ref GE Publication GER-2951)

    Leemans, P. and Moulaert, G. G.: Experience with leakage-current testing of 380 kV MOV

    surge arresters in the field, utilizing an LCM portable instrument. Double

    Client Conference, 1994.

    V.K.Mehta and Rohit Mehta (2003), Principles of Power systems, S Chand & Company Ltd.

    Websites: www.goggle.co.tz, www.weatherblik.com, www.mapmart.com

    xliv