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Lecture2:EarlyChristian/

ByzantineArchitecture
Rome/Constantinople/Ravenna
andthesignificanceofByzantine
and
the significance of Byzantine style
style
313 565CEandbeyond

EarlyspreadofChristianity
EdictofMilan:313 LegalizedChristianity
acrosstheempire
ReignofConstantine:312 337

Detail:mosaic
Detail:
mosaic
imageof
Constantinein
HagiaSophia,
Constantinople,
(Istanbul)

Whatkindofarchitecturalmodelwouldtheearly
Christians use for their religious building?
Christiansusefortheirreligiousbuilding?
Roman secular basilicaform:
Roman
basilica form:
Why?
y

BanisterFletcherp2
255

Rothp258

BasilicaMaxentius plan

BasilicaUlpia plan

Possiblefunctions:
Possible
functions:
Lawcourt
Markethall/commerce
Imperialaudiencehall
Receptionspace,etc.

BasilicaUlpia,
interior

Trach
htenbergp143

Review:Roman, secularbasilicatype:

Secularbasilicaaschurch
prototype:
oblong,rectangularshape
timberroof
apse atoneend

PhotoMeredithClaausen,SAH

PalaceofConstantine/Basilicaat
Trier (early4th century) interior
andexteriorviews:

Kostof
f p260

BasilicaofStPeters(OldStPeters),Rome,320330
InterpretiveReconstruction(Conant)

Altetp
p28

BasilicaofStPeters Planreconstruction:
1. Atrium
2 Fountainandciborium
2.
F
t i
d ib i
cover
3. Portico/Narthex
4. Nave w/doubleaisle

5 Sidechapel(hypothetical)
6. Transept
7.Apse
Note:Adjoiningmausoleum.
Basilicafaceswest

BanisterFletcherp
p291

BasilicaofStPeters interiorreconstruction

Stalleyp28

StPaulOutsideoftheWalls(c382400):fromPiranesi
(
)
engraving1749
FeelingofspaceinOldStPeters?

SantaSabina,Rome(42232),
exterior view:
exteriorview:
Similar toBasilicaatTrier
(early4th century)

Altetp56
6

SantaSabina,plan

Basilicawithsingleaisleeach side

SantaSabina,interior
PhotoSacredDestinations

TheByzantineEmpire:reignofJustinian
527 565

PhotoSAH

HagiaSophia,Istanbul(Constantinople)53237 exteriorview
Architects:AnthemiosofTralles,IsidorusofMiletus

Hagia Sophia: Massing Diagrams


HagiaSophia:MassingDiagrams

MaacDonaldplate56

Pendentive
Diagram

Chingp264

PhotoSacredDestinations

Hagia Sophia: Aerial View


HagiaSophia:Aerial

MacDonaaldplate55

Chingp265

Isometric:sectiondiagram

HagiaSophia,Istanbul:Planandlongsection

PhotoSacredDestinattions

HagiaSophia:InteriorSpace

VonMeisssp23

Figure/Ground

HagiaSophiaPlanAnalysis

ReverseFigure/Ground

ReflectedCeilingPlan

Cascadingdomes/Etherealspace

Ethereal Space: Lithograph 1852


EtherealSpace:Lithograph1852

Europecirca500CE:Ravenna OstrogothsandByzantines

Ph
hotoSacredDestination
ns

SanVitale,Ravenna,Italy(54648)
Octagondomechurchinprovincialcapital,begunafewyearsearlier
g
underOstrogothrule

MacDonaldp40
M

Ch
hingp253

SanVitale,plan

SanVitale,aerialview

Compare to:
Roman, Minerva
Medica

Chingp
p263

SanVitale,Section

PhotosSacreedDestinations

Interiorviews:apse,mosaicdetail,gallery
Columnsw/impostcapitals

Ph
hotoSacredDestination
ns

Interioratapse:mosaics,textureandcolor

Krau
utheimerp278

Roth
hp283

SanApollinareinClasse(53236)
Photo
oSacredDestinations

PhottosSacredDestinationss

SantApollinareinClasse:NaveView

PhottosSacredDestinationss

SantApollinareinClasse:Closeup apsemosaic

LaterByzantineArchitecture:
CrystallizationofByzantinestyle

TheQuincunx/OctagonCrossinSquarePlan
The Greek Cross Plan
TheGreekCrossPlan
ByzantineSpace
Brickwork/exteriormassing/biforawindows

Byzantinechurchtypes:
p
planschemes:

Domestructure:
raisedondrum
squinchorpendentive
squinch or pendentive

Ro
othp293

GreekCross
Quincunx

Krrautheimer,p338

HosiosLukas/Katholicon,andTheotokos,Greece
(10111022andlater)
Example: Octagon CrossinSquare
Example:OctagonCross
in SquarePlan
Plan centraldomeonsquinches
central dome on squinches

Katholikon:isometricsection/interior
Trachtenbeergcolorplate24

BanisterFletcherp311

Mangop117

H i L k
HosiosLukas:Katholikon
K th lik
entry/exteriormassing
t / t i
i

HosiosLukas:KatholikonandTheotokos:
Exterior walltexture
Biforawindowmotif

Trachtenbergcolo
orplate20

DaphniChurch,Greece:(1088):
Refinedexterior

Rothp298

Plan (Greek Cross)


Plan(Greek
SanMarco,Venice(begun1063)

Aerial View
AerialView

PhotosSacredD
Destinations

San Marco: Byzantine space


SanMarco:Byzantinespace

PhotosDanielCWaaugh,SAH

potentialofByzantinestyle

Kraautheimerp436

GracanicaChurch,Serbia(131821)
exteriormassing/wallsurfacedetail
atbiforawindow: