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PROJECT REPORT

GURU HARGOBIND THERMAL PLANT LEHRA MOHABBAT

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF


VARIOUS ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS

Submitted by
AMIT KUMAR
ROLLNO: 100904009

Under the Guidance of

Ms.MANVIR KAUR

MR. JASWINDER SINGH

Asst. Professor

Sr. Executive Engineer

Thapar University

GHTP Lehra Mohabbat

Faculty Coordinator

Industry Coordinator

Department of Electrical and Instrumentation Engineering


THAPAR UNIVERSITY
(Deemed University)
JULY-DEC 2012

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled is an authentic record of my own work carried
out at GHTP as requirements of six months project semester for the award of degree of B.E.
(Electrical Engineering), Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology (Deemed
University), Patiala, under the guidance of Ms. JASWINDER SINGH, Sr. Executive
Engineer and Ms. MANVIR KAUR, lecturer during July to December, 2012.

Amit Kumar
100904009

Date: 31 December, 2012

Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the best of our knowledge
and belief.

Ms. MANVIR KAUR

Ms. JASWINDER SINGH

Asst. Professor

Sr. Executive Engineer

Thapar University

GHTP Lehra Mohabbat

(Faculty Coordinator)

(Industry Coordinator)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Industrial training is the effort to provide linkage between the student and Industry in order to
develop the awareness of industrial approach for saving damage from problems and is based
on broad understanding of tools, modes of operation of Industrial Organization
With a deep sense of gratitude, I express my sincere thanks to PSEB, Patiala for permitting
me to take up training at the Organization. I wish to extend my thanks to
Er. H.C. KAMBOJ (S.E.)
Er. JASWINDER SINGH (Sr. EXECUTIVE ENGINEER)
Er. JASVINDER SINGH (A.E)
and other members of their team for their considerable help to complete the training in
different sections of electrical department. I humbly express my cordial thanks to all the
people for their extra pain to see me through my problems. They have been always a source
of encouragement and inspiration for me. Under their efficient guidance, I had no problem in
understanding the various phenomenon occurring in the organization.
I am also thankful to staff of industry for their kind cooperation and help, which made my
training a success. Also I will like to thank http://electrical-engineering-portal.com for
providing the information that helped me a great deal to complete this report.
I feel that information gathered by me during this training will surely help me a lot in coming
future.

SUMMARY
My training at GHTP Lehra Mohabbat was from 12th July to 31th Dec 2012. The department
of my training was ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE CELL.
The first part of my training was spent in learning the maintenance of HT & LT motors, and
turbo generator which covered the testing of motors and problems we come across in motors.
The second part was about learning the importance and types of maintenance at switchgear
cell. I learned about the various aspects of switchgear, battery bank, ESP, DC generator.
The third part was about protecting the electrical auxiliaries with relay protection system. I
studied about different types of relays used for the protection of generator and motor .
I also witnessed the over hauling of one of the generating unit which helped me to understand
the physical structure of various components that constitute a generator and turbine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgement
Summary
1. Introduction to GHTP
1.1 Introduction
10
1.2 Energy management policy 11
1.3 Electrical maintenance circle 13
1.3.1 Introduction
13
1.3.2 Four cells
13
2. Technical Specification of HT Motor
2.1 Scope
14
2.2 General 14
2.3 Site conditions 14
2.4 Applicable codes 14
2.5 Duty 16
2.6 Electrical system 16
2.7 Rating and performance 16
2.8 Direction of rotation 17
2.9 Enclosure 17
2.10 Windings 17
2.11 Winding temperature detectors 17
2.12 Terminal box 18
2.13 Bearings 18
2.13.1 Grease lubricated bearings 19
2.13.2 Sleeve bearing 19
2.13.3 Forced lubrication bearing 19
2.14 Insulation 19
2.14.1 Winding insulation 19
2.14.2 Bearing insulation 20
2.15 Joints
20
2.16 Bearing temperature detectors 20
2.17 Cooling 20
2.18 Space heater 20
2.19 Earthing terminals 20
2.20 Name plate 21
2.21 Inspection and testing 21
2.21.1 Schedule of type tests 22
2.21.2 Schedule of routine tests 22
3. Generator
3.1 Introduction
24
6

10

14

24

3.2 Stator 24
3.2.1 Stator frame 24
3.2.2 Stator core
25
3.2.3 Stator winding 25
3.2.4 Stator cooling
26
3.3 Rotor
26
3.3.1 Rotor winding
27
3.3.2 Rotor cooling
27
3.3.3 Slip rings and brush gear 28
4. Switchgears
4.1 Terminology used in switchgears 29
4.1.1 Index A 29
4.1.2 Index B 31
4.1.3 Index C 33
4.1.4 Index D 38
4.1.5 Index E 40
4.1.6 Index F 41
4.1.7 Index G 42
4.1.8 Index H 43
4.1.9 Index I 43
4.1.10 Index L 45
4.1.11 Index M 46
4.1.12 Index N 49
4.1.13 Index P 50
4.1.14 Index Q 52
4.1.15 Index R 52
4.1.16 Index S
55
4.1.17 Index T
60
4.1.18 Index U
63
4.1.19 Index V
63
4.1.20 Index W
64
4.1.21 Index Z
64
5. Electrostatic Precipitator
5.1 Introduction
67
5.2 Working principle 68
5.2.1 Rectified output for ESP 68
5.3 General description 69
5.3.1 Mechanical system 70
5.3.2 Electrical system
71
5.4 General safety
73
5.5 Special instruction 74
5.6 Commissioning
76
5.7 Preparation after maintenance 81
5.8 Air load test
82
7

29

67

5.8.1 Preparations 83
5.8.2 Procedure
83
5.8.3 Start up
83
5.8.4 Operation
84
5.8.5 Operational checks 84
5.8.6 Shut down
85
5.9 Important instructions 87
6. Battery Bank
6.1 DC system at thermal power station 89
6.2 Types of battery used 90
6.3 Procedure followed in commissioning a battery 90
6.4 Equipment used in 220V DC supply system 90
6.4.1 Sources of AC power
90
6.4.2 Voltage level indicating device 90
6.4.3 AVR
90
6.4.4 Insulation monitoring device 90
6.4.5 Flickering light device
90
6.4.6 Heaters 91
6.4.7 Zones
91
6.4.8 Diodes
91
6.4.9 Motors
91
6.5 Features
91
6.5.1 Spark regulation
91
6.5.2 Fast ramp control
91
6.6 Modes of operation
92
6.6.1 Black corona mode 92
6.6.2 Charge ratio mode 92
6.6.3 Charge ratio
92
6.7 Testing and commissioning of substation DC system 92
6.7.1 Objective 92
6.7.2 Test instruments required
92
6.7.3 Commissioning test procedure
92
6.8 Battery limit
93
6.9 Acceptance limits
94
6.10 Different types of battery 94
6.11 Ni-Cd battery
97
7. Protection System
7.1 Relay : an introduction
99
7.1.1 What is relay
99
7.1.2 Functions of protective relay 99
7.2 Desirable quantities of protective relaying 99
7.3 Terminology of protective relay 100
7.4 Types of relays
101
7.4.1 Types of protection relays 101
8

89

99

7.4.2 Types of relays based on relay operation mechanism


7.4.3 Electromechanical relays
103
7.5 Operation of electromagnetic attraction relay 104
7.6 Operation of electromagnetic induction relay 104
7.6.1 Limitation of electromagnetic relay
105
7.7 Solid state relay
105
7.7.1 Advantage of solid state relay
108
7.7.2 Limitation of solid state relay
109
7.8 Digital relay
110
7.8.1 Advantages of digital relay 110
7.9 Numerical relay
112
7.9.1 History of relay
112
7.9.2 Measuring principles 112
7.9.3 Function of Relay
113
7.9.4 Advantages of Numerical relays 115
7.9.5 Limitations of Numerical Relay 116
CONCLUSION
TABLE OF REFERENCES

102

117
118

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO GHTP
1.1 INTRODUCTION:Guru Hargobind Thermal Plant is the third and the latest of the thermal plants of Punjab State
Power Corporation Limited and is located 23 km short of Bathinda on National High Way
No. 64 and is situated opposite Village Lehra Mohabbat. Total Plant area is 1025 Acres.
Basic fuel is coal and furnace oil.
GHTP Lehra Mohabbat comprised of two stages during establishment:1. Stage-I consisting of two Units of 210MW each.
2. Stage-II consisting of two units of 250 MW each.
a. Unit-1 & 2 of stage-I were synchronized on 29-12-97 & 16-10-98 and the units started
commercial operation w.e.f. 26-6-99 and 4-1-99 respectively.
b. Unit-3 & 4 of stage-II are generating electricity w.e.f 05.02.2008 and 11.10.2008 and
these units started commercial operation w.e.f. 16.10.2008 & 25.01.2010 respectively.
GHTP has surpassed its own records of highest generation during previous four Successive
years and is being operated at the lowest cost of generation amongst all PSPCL power plants
despite having higher interest and depreciation. This plant has shown excellent performance
and huge savings have been made in terms of earning incentives by performing better than
PSERC targets through meticulous Planning. GHTP Lehra Mohabbat known for its
performance has surpassed another milestone by generating 75152 Lac units (Including
14729 Lac Units generated by Unit-4 during stabilization period before its commercial
operation) against the target of 65790 Lac units set by Central Electricity Authority, New
Delhi. The plant load factor of 96.44% for commercial operation is the highest ever plant
load factor in PSPCL. The plant has surpassed its own previous highest record of 95.10%
plant load factor achieved during the year 2007-08. This plant load factor of 96.44% achieved
during 2009-10 is even higher than the plant load factor of 95.99% which was achieved by
GHTP Stage-I units and was the highest amongst all state sector power plants during 200809.

10

The plant utilization factor of GHTP remained more than 100% at an ever highest value of
100.38% during 2009-10. The auxiliary consumption during this year remained at its lowest
ever value of 8.23% against a PSERC target of 9.00%, thus saving Crores of rupees, which
speaks of high plant performance at which the plant is being operated. The oil consumption
remained at 0.373 ml/ kWh against the set the set target of 1.0ml/kWh.
GHTP has achieved the highest ever monthly generation of 7065 Lakh units at a plant load
factor of 103.21% during March 2010 which is highest ever monthly plant load factor at any
plant of PSPCL.
GHTP Unit 1 has run continuously from 28.02.2009 to 12.09.2009 (195.4 days) without any
interruption. This is a new record of longest continuous run by any unit of PSPCL.
The relentless pursuit of excellence has helped to make GHTP a trend-setter, leader and a
light house in Punjab State Power Corporation Limited by achieving high plant performance
and economy. GHTP has taken a lead in cutting down its capital overhauling period from
traditional practice of 45 days to as low as 28.5 days and annual overhauling period from 20
days to less than 14 days resulting into savings of Crores of rupees by PSPCL in terms of
purchase of power. This had been possible due to lust of excelling continuously prevailing
amongst GHTP engineers and staff. In the year 2009-10, annual maintenances of unit no. 1 &
2 were carried out in less than 29 days against approved shut down period of 40 days. The
units were brought on bar 11.12 days ahead of schedule; thereby an extra generation of 560
Lac units saving Rs. 30 Crores approx. was done in terms of power purchase.
1.2 ENERGY MANAGEMENT POLICY:Team of engineers and staff of GHTP Lehra Mohabbat are committed to evolve, improve and
sustain in energy conservation through:
1. Improved plant utilization.
2. Benchmarking specific energy consumption with the best norms in country.
3. Monitoring of energy consumptions to identify the areas for improvements.
4. Optimum Utilization of auxiliaries for reduction of energy consumption.
5. Promoting energy awareness and encouraging employee participation for energy
conservation.
11

The team of engineers and officials of GHTP are fully committed and motivated to bring
more laurels to PSPCL and the state of Punjab. Suggestions for improvement keep pouring
in, are encouraged, discussed and implemented.
In- house interactions and training sessions help in sharing experiences and thus thinking
about the various innovative methods to save energy is possible.
Energy Conservation:The following benefits have been accrued to GHTP as a result of implementation of
innovations / best practices to improve the energy efficiency of GHTP:

1. GHTP has achieved thermal efficiency of 35.52% during 2009-10 against a target of
34.40% set up by Punjab State Electricity Regulatory Commission.
2. Auxiliary consumption of GHTP remained at its lowest ever value of 8.23%.
3. At GHTP, differential pressure across feed control valves of Boiler feed pump has
been reduced from its normal value of 6.0Kg/cm2 to 0.4Kg/cm2. This has resulted in
reduction of nearly 13 Amperes of current on 6.6 KV on each running BFP.
4. Two no. TACW pumps of 110 KW each are being stopped in winter by running one
no. TACW pump against normal running of 2 no. TACW pumps for each unit.
5. As DM water make up is very low, so one no. hot well make up pump has been put
into operation for two units against running of one no. separate pump for each unit.
6. 125 Watt Mercury vapour lamps have been replaced with 70 watt Sodium vapour
lamp, wherever possible.
7. The deviation in all the parameters affecting efficiency of the plant has been made
available online to the operators. Alarm signals are generated in all such cases to take
corrective actions by the operator.
8. Startup of auxiliaries has been optimized.

12

1.3 ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE CIRCLE


1.3.1 INTRODUTION:Electrical maintenance circle is one of the most important departments of GHTP. It is divided
into four different cells to carry out the maintenance of electrical equipments in the thermal
plant so the thermal plant will work with maximum efficiency without any shutdown.

ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE CELL

EM 1 CELL

EM 2 CELL

EM 3 CELL

EM 4 CELL

HT & LT
motors, generators
, bus ducts,lifts
and hoists

HT & LT
switchgear,

Protection system,
fix detection and
alarm,
communication
system, variable
frequency drives,
generator excitation
system

220KV
switchyard, 66kv
switchyard,

Dc batteries,
Battery chargers

All transformer
lighting

Fig.1.1 Organization chart of Electrical Maintenance Cell


1.3.2 FOUR CELLS:
Electrical maintenance 1 cell
Maintenance of HT & LT motors, DG sets, Turbo generators, bus ducts,hoists, EOT cranes.
Electrical maintenance 2 cell
Maintenance of all switchgear related equipment of plant
Electrical maintenance 3 cell or Protection cell
Maintenance of equipment for protection of all HT & LT auxiliaries, maintenance of fire
fighting and telephone exchange.
Electrical maintenance 4 cell
Maintenance of all lighting equipment, maintenance of 220KV grid

13

CHAPTER 2
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR HT MOTOR
2.1 SCOPE
These specifications cover the design, manufacture, inspection, testing, packing and supply of
flameproof, weather proof high voltage squirrel cage induction motor and associated
accessories, to run mainline pump as specified.
2.2 GENERAL
The motor and its components parts and auxiliaries shall be designed and manufactured to
provide inter-changeability in the product of any vendor between the same class, size and
type. The vendor shall use only highest standard material and the workmanship employed
shall be of best quality accepted internationally.
2.3 SITE CONDITIONS
Motor shall be suitable for operating satisfactorily in humid and highly corrosive atmosphere
prevailing in Refineries and other petroleum installations.
Ambient temperature: 5oCto50oC
Humidity: 98%
Altitude: Less than 1000 mtrs above (MSL) Mean Sea Level
2.4 APPLICABLE CODES
The offered motor and its components shall be in accordance with latest editions of following
standards. Vendor shall clearly bring out in the offer the applicable standard for every
features of the offered motor, if different from the following standards.
a)

IEC 60034-1/ IS: 325

: Specifications for three-phase induction Motors.

b)

IEC 60034-1/ IS: 4722

c)

API-RP-500-C/IS: 5572 (Part-I): Classification of hazardous areas

d)

IEC 60034-5/ IS: 4691

: Specifications of Rotating Electrical machines.

: Degree of protection provided by enclosures of


rotating electrical apparatus.
14

e)

IEC 60079-1/ IS: 2148

: Flame proof enclosures of electrical apparatus.

f)

IS: 1231/ Equivalent IEC Std.: Dimensions of three phase foot mounted Induction
motors.

g)

IS: 2223/ Equivalent IEC Std.: Dimensions of flange mounted AC induction motors

h)

IEC 60034-7/ IS: 2253

: Types of construction and mounting of motors

i)

IEC 60034-8 / IS 4728

: Terminal marking for rotating electrical machinery

j)

IS: 8789/ Equivalent IEC Std.: Value of performance characteristics for three
Phase induction motors

k)

IS: 4029/ Equivalent IEC Std.: Guide for testing of three phase induction motors

l)

IEC 60034-2/ IS: 4889

: Method of determination of efficiency of rotating


Electrical machines

m)

IEC 60034-14

: Measurement of evaluation of vibration of


Rotating electrical machines

o)

IEC 60034-18/ IS: 1271

: Insulating materials for electric machinery and


apparatus in relation to their thermal stability in
service

p)

IEC 60034-6/ IS: 6362

: Designation of Methods of cooling for rotating


electrical machines

q)

IS: 7816/ Equivalent IEC Std.: Guide for testing insulation resistance of rotating
machines

r)

IEC 60034-9

: Noise level

15

2.5 DUTY
Motor offered shall be suitable for continuous duty for driving the pump having details given
in the pump data sheet, at the required loads. The motor shall be designed suitable for inverter
operation using variable frequency drives as per specification given in Clause-5 of 9579-02TS-102 as well as direct on line. The starting current shall be limited to 5 times the full load
current. Motor shall be designed for restarting under full load, after a momentary loss of
voltage with the possibility of application of 100% of the rated voltage when the residual
voltage has dropped down to 50% and is in phase opposition to the applied voltage. The
offered motor shall also be suitable for DOL starting at 80% of rated voltage.
The motor shall be designed to allow the minimum of consecutive starts indicated below:
1. No. of consecutive start ups with initial temperature of motor at ambient level (cold)
2. No. of

consecutive start-ups with initial temperature of the motor at full load

temperature(hot)
3. No. of

hourly start-up uniformly distributed starting from final steady

working temperature
2.6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
(i) Rated voltage: 6600 Volts10%
(ii) Rated frequency: 50 Hz3% (Shall be suitable for variable frequency drives)
(iii) Any Combination of (i) & (ii)
(iv) Rated output: To meet the pump requirement as specified
2.7 RATING & PERFORMANCE
Motors will be required for continuous, satisfactory operations under following conditions.
1. Direct On Line
2. With a solid state power supply consisting of an adjustable frequency inverter for
speed control
3. Current waveforms produced by the power supply including the current harmonics
generated by the waveform
4. At any speed to meet pump operational parameters as per the requirements
16

5. Withstand torque pulsations resulting from current harmonics generated by the


variable frequency drive power supply
6. Motor shall be constructed such that in an emergency it will withstand, without
mechanical damage, 20% over speed above rated induction speed for minimum 2
minutes as per IS 325 / IEC 60034-1
2.8 DIRECTION OF ROTATION
The direction of rotation shall suit the requirement of pump. It shall be clearly marked on the
body of motor together with phase sequence of the motor terminals associated with this
rotation
2.9 ENCLOSURE
The motor shall be flameproof/weatherproof, totally enclosed fan cooled suitable for
installation in Class I Div. I areas, gas groups C & D as per API RP-500C and Zone-2, Gas
Group-IIA/IIB, Temperature Class T3 as per IS: 5572 certified by BASEFEFA, UK/LCIE,
France / CESI, Italy or any other equivalent certification bodies approved by European
Economic Community and FM, USA/ UL, USA or Class-I, Division-I gas group IIA & IIB
as per IS : 5572 and with IP-55 protection as per IS: 4691 or equivalent IEC standard
2.10 WINDINGS
Motor shall be provided with class F insulation with temperature rise(above the
specified

ambient temperature) limited to class B as specified in the relevant Indian

Standard. Winding shall be adequately braced to prevent any relative movement during
operating conditions
2.11 WINDING TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
The motor shall be provided with platinum resistance temperature detector (RTD) of 100
resistance and temperature coefficient of 3.85 x 10-3. RTDs shall be located in suitable
positions to measure the winding temperature. A minimum of duplex type three (one per
phase) or Simplex type Six (Two per phase) detectors shall be provided between the coil
sides to measure the winding temperature and Duplex type three (one per phase) or Simplex
type Six (Two per phase) at the base of the slots to measure core temperature, each placed
120 OC apart. A separate terminal box shall be provided for the temperature detectors for

17

connection with the remotely located controller unit of the Owner. Details of this terminal
box are given elsewhere in the tender.
2.12 TERMINAL BOX
The ends of the winding shall be brought out into the terminal box by means of non-tracking
fire proof and non-hygroscopic bushing with adequately sized bolted anti vibration terminals.
The terminals shall be adequately designed to prevent slackening of connections & reduction
of clearances due to vibration. Line terminal shall be thoroughly insulated from the frame.
The terminal box shall be located on the right side of motor, viewed from the driving end.
The terminal box shall be EEx(d) terminal box suitable for bottom cable entry.
Neutral point of the star windings shall be brought out through a bushing in separate
flameproof terminal box for housing neutral CT for differential protection. The housing shall
be flameproof/explosion proof certified. CT shall be in the vendors scope of supply. CT
ratio, burden, short time rating etc. shall be firmed up during detail engineering. Accuracy
class shall be PS (with designed magnetizing current and the knee point potential) or
as per the differential relay requirements (relay shall be part of the Owner supplied
HT switchboards).
Terminal box and cable entries shall be flameproof and explosion proof certified having
flameproof designation as EEx(d). Necessary clearances and crepage distances between live
parts and between live parts & earth shall be kept. Motor terminal box shall be suitable for
withstanding a 3-phase short circuit at the terminals of the motor for 0.25 sec.
Terminals shall be distinctly marked inside the terminal box as per relevant IS./ International
Standards.

The marking shall be non-removable, indelible, non-cracking, insulating and

chemical resistant. Nickel or cadmium plated brass flameproof double compression


cable glands and copper lugs shall be provided for the number and size of the cables
specified. Cable sizes specified in the data sheet are tentative and same shall be confirmed
after placement of the purchase order. All cable entries shall be NPT sized
2.13 BEARINGS
Motor bearing shall be of suitable type and size to accommodate any axial thrust from pump
and its own axial/radial thrust. Motor bearing shall be chosen such that in all case bearing
shall have a minimum life of 40,000 hours. Detailed specifications of bearings and
18

lubrication shall be furnished along with the offer. Motors shall have preferably Grease
lubricated bearings (Ball or Roller) or of manufacturers standard type. Whenever sleeve
bearings are provided (For 2 Pole motors with rating above 750kW), it should be of proven
design. In case motor bearings are forced lubricated, the system for same shall also be
supplied with the motors & bidder has to submit details thereof with the offer.
2.13.1 GREASE LUBRICATED BEARINGS
Bearings shall be capable of grease injection from outside without removal of covers. When
grease nipples are provided, these shall be associated where necessary, with appropriately
located relief devices, which ensure passage of grease through the bearings. The motors shall
have facility of on line greasing.
2.13.2 SLEEVE BEARINGS
Sleeve type bearings shall be fitted with oiler rings for continuous lubrication. The Oil
reservoirs shall have a form suitable for allowing settling of any solids or residuals particles
contained in the oil. The covers shall be provided with suitable openings for adding and
draining oil, together with an overflow plug and level indication. The shaft shall have perfect
seals so as to prevent entry of dust or moisture.
2.13.3 FORCED LUBRICATION BEARINGS
The oil lubrication system shall be independent of the driven machine. Common lubrication
system for the driven equipment and the motor can be accepted provided it is separate from
the seal oil system. The common lubrication system shall be provided with suitable degassing
equipments to extract gas reducing the probability of gas entering the motor.
2.14 INSULATION
2.14.1 WINDING INSULATION
The motor winding shall be specially treated to resist the action of corrosive agents,
liquid or gaseous substances and sulphur vapour as may be present in the atmosphere of
petroleum installation that may tend to dissolve or deteriorate the insulation. The winding
shall be tropicalized and shall be suitably varnished, baked and treated with epoxy gel for
operating satisfactorily in humid and corrosive atmospheres. Adequate insulation shall be
provided between coils of different phases, which lie together.
19

Motor insulation shall be designed to withstand high levels of dv/dt for inverter operation.
The supplier shall clearly indicate the level of inter turn insulation provided.
2.14.2 BEARING INSULATION
The NDE bearing shall be insulated from the motor frame to avoid circulating shaft current.
A detailed drawing showing the insulation arrangement shall be furnished. In any case, the
induced voltage at the shaft end with motor running on no-load shall not exceed 250 mV rms
for ball/roller bearings and 400 mV rms for sleeve bearings.
2.15 JOINTS
All joints in the motor insulation such as coil connection etc shall be insulated to the same
level as that of complete motor. Additionally, joints should have minimum resistance and
mechanically strong. Joints shall be braced to withstand various stresses likely to encounter
during their service
2.16 BEARING TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
Resistance type temperature detectors for both DE & NDE shall be provided. Details of the
temperature sensing device and their termination are given in the Instrumentation section of
the tender.
2.17 COOLING
Motor shall be fan-cooled. Cooling fan should be arranged to direct the airflow towards the
motor pump coupling. The fans shall be of corrosion resistant material, non-sparking type
and appropriately protected with a fan guard.
2.18 SPACE HEATER
The motor shall have space heater, suitable for 240 V single phase, to avoid condensation
during shut down period. Heater shall conform to the provisions of applicable IEC/IS codes
for installations in hazardous areas. The heater leads shall be brought out into separate
flameproof (EExd) -weather proof terminal box fitted with flameproof gland of NPT size suit.
2.19 EARTHING TERMINALS
Provision shall be made on the body of the motor to earth effectively at two distinct locations
(Diametrically Opposite). Requisite nuts and spring washers shall be provided for earth
20

connection. These earthing terminals shall be in addition to the earth terminal provided in the
terminal box for earthing of the armour. Minimum size of the stud shall be 12mm
2.20 NAME PLATE
A corrosion resistant stainless steel nameplate shall be affixed on the body of the motor at an
accessible and easily visible place and shall have the following data.
1. Manufacturers name
2. Serial number and frame size
3. Duty
4. Rated KW, voltage, current, frequency
5. Number of phases
6. Winding connection
7. Type of motor with ISI/International marking
8. RPM at full load
9. Insulation class
10. Maximum temperature rise
11. Type of cooling
12. Certifying authority & certificate no.
13. Tag. No. (shall be furnished by the Owner at the time of drawing approval)
14. Owners purchase order No.
15. NDE bearing type and cat. No.
16. DE bearing type and Cat. No.
17. Any other data specified by relevant IS/IEC.
18. Any other data the manufacturer deems fit.
2.21 INSPECTION & TESTING
Owner and/or representative of Owner shall have free entry in the factory of the manufacturer
for inspection of the motor during the process of manufacture and after the motor is ready for
final inspection and testing. It shall be the responsibility of the vendor to submit approval
certificate from competent authority of explosive of their country, in support of having got
the approval of subject motor for its application in hazardous area.
The vendor shall inform the Owner, not less than Four weeks in advance, when the motors
are ready for final inspection and testing. All routine and type testing shall be done in
21

presence of the Owner and/or Owners representative. The

vendor

shall

make

all

arrangements for inspection and testing at his or manufacturers works. The testing and
inspection facilities shall be as per internationally acceptable norms. The motor shall be
subjected to routine test and type tests as per latest editions of IS or IEC standards.
Type test shall be conducted on One Motor of each rating and frame size and routine test
shall be conducted on all motors. All tests shall be duly witnessed by the owners Inspector.
Internal tests certificate for all motors from the motor manufacturer along with approval
certificate from the competent authority of explosives from the country of origin in support of
having got the approval of subject motor for its use in hazardous area as specified, are to be
submitted to the Inspector for verification & endorsement.
2.21.1 SCHEDULE OF TYPE TESTS
Type tests to be carried out & witnessed in one sample of each type/rating
1. Full load test to determine efficiency, power factor and slip
2. Temperature rise test
3. Measurement of surface temperature of frame and space heater
4. Momentary over load test
5. Over speed test
6. Measurement of starting torque, starting current, full load torque, pull out torque
7. Tan delta test
8. Measurement of efficiency & power factor on the motor by giving , and full load
9. NDE Bearing insulation checking
2.21.2 SCHEDULE OF ROUTINE TESTS
Routine tests to be carried out & Witnessed 100 %. Following checks and tests to be carried
out under routine tests.
1. General visual checks & dimensional checks, name plate details and mounting
2. Terminal box type and location checking (Exd). Checking of size of cable glands
3. Verification of CT rating in neutral terminal box
4. Winding resistance measurement

22

5. Reduced voltage running up test at no load - to check the ability of motor to run up to
the full speed on no load with 1/3 of the rated line voltage applied to the motor for
squirrel cage motors
6. Insulation resistance test (both before and after the high voltage tests)
7. High voltage test
8. No load test of motor to measure power, current & speed to determine no load loss,
etc
9. Locked-rotor test and measurement of Voltage, current and power input at a suitable
reduced voltage
10. Polarisation Index test
11. Shaft voltage checking
12. Resistance measurement of space heater, RTDs & BTDs.
13. Measurement of Vibration level
14. Measurement of Noise level
15. Measurement of shaft centre height dimensions and clearance in terminal box.
16. Verification of direction of rotation, cooling system & lubrication system.

23

CHAPTER 3
GENERATOR
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Generators in steam power plant (synchronous m/c) consists of two-pole rotor excited by a
winding around the poles fed from a DC supply rotating in a stator containing a winding
which can act as a generator when driven by a prime mover, or can drive a mechanical
device, when receiving power from the supply system. The generator stator is a gas tight
construction, supporting and enclosing the stator winding, core and hydrogen coolers .The
cooling medium, hydrogen, is contained within the frame, and circulated by fans mounted at
either end of the rotor. The generator is driven by a directly coupled steam turbine at a speed
of 3000 rpm
3.2 STATOR
3.2.1 STATOR FRAME
The stator frame is casing of welded plate construction. The function of stator frame is to
contain and support the stator core, windings, and hydrogen coolers and also to provide paths
for distributing the cooling hydrogen through the generator. The internal section plates
provide stiffness to support the core, decrease vibration and impact necessary mechanical
strength to withstand the gas pressure encountered even under extreme operating conditions.
Wedge shaped steel guide bars are welded on the beams in the stator to support the stator
core. The stator frame is supported by the foundation through footing welded to the sides of
the shell. The end shield are made of manganese steel casting, are bolted to the inside of the
shields. Inner and Side walls are suitably blanked to house four longitudinal hydrogen gas
coolers inside the stator body.
The end shields, coolers, inspection windows etc., are carefully sealed to prevent any leakage
of hydrogen from the generator and the entire generator is leak-proof.
Owing to the explosive nature of the mixture of hydrogen and air, the frames are designed to
withstand any incidental exposing and over pressure that may develop.

24

3.2.2 STATOR CORE


The stator core is built up of segmental, annealed laminations of cold rolled high quality,
silicon steel to give minimum electrical loss. The stator is body is turned on end while the
core is stacked with lamination segments in individual layers. The segments are assembled in
an interleaved manner from layer to layer so that a monolithic core of high mechanical
strength and uniform permeability to magnetic flux is obtained. The core is held by two
massive non-magnetic steel castings of Press Ring. The Press Rings are bolted to the ends of
core bars.

Fig.3.1 : stator core


3.2.3 STATOR WINDING
The stator winding is a double layer, six phases, and short pitch type and bar type of windings
having two parallel paths. The windings are made up of copper strips wound with insulated
tape. Each slot accommodates two bars. These bars are placed in the stator slots and held in
with the wedges to form complete winding which is connected together at each end of the
core forming the end turns. Each bar consists of solid as well as hollow conductors with
cooling water passing through the latter. Alternate arrangements of hollow and solid
conductors ensure an optimum solution for increasing current and to reduce losses. There are
25

120 winding bars; two in each slot, forming fractional pitch double layer winding. Pure high
conductivity copper is used.
3.2.4 STATOR COOLING
One of the efficient ways of taking away the losses due to heat from the winding of any
machine is by direct cooling using water. High quality de-mineralised water is circulated
through the hollow conductor of the stator winding. The cooling water must have
conductivity less than 2.5 micro mho/cm.
The stator water cooler is shell and tube type heat exchanger and vertically mounted. D.M.
water flow through the non-magnetic shell. The heat absorbed by the D.M. water is dissipated
to secondary coolant in the primary water cooler. Cooling water flows through the stainless
steel tubes provided inside the cooler. The magnetic filter consists of upper and lower body
housing the permanent magnet system comprising of magnets, pole shoes and pole rings and
is vertically mounted to trap Ferro-magnetic particles present in the water.
3.3 ROTOR
The turbo-generator rotor shaft is forged from a single piece of special chromium, nickel and
molybdenum alloy steel carefully heat treated to obtain the required mechanical and magnetic
properties. The solid poles are provided with additional slots in short lengths of two different
configurations, one slot acts as an outlet for the hydrogen, which cools the over hang and the
other is used to accommodate damper segments. Within the barrel portion the rotor slot
wedges behave as damper winding bars during unbalanced operation. Longitudinal slots are
distributed over the circumference so that two solid poles are obtained. The field coils are
inserted in the slots against centrifugal force by wedges. These wedges are individually fitted
and driven into dovetail openings machined in the rotor. The coils are wound around the
poles to obtain one north magnetic and one south magnetic pole on the shaft.

26

Fig.3.2 Generator Rotor


3.3.1 ROTOR WINDING
Silver bearing copper is used for rotor winding turns. This copper has higher creep strength,
as compared to pure copper, to overcome Effect of heating-cooling cycles in operation.
Electrical voltages on the winding during operation under abnormal fault conditions etc. can
be up to 10 times the rated voltage. Coils are insulated from the rotor body by U-shaped strips
of Epoxy glass. This glass laminate made inter-turn insulations is glued to copper conductors.
Main slot insulation is 2mm thick epoxy glass made, U-shaped slot trough. Slot wedges are
made up of high conductivity material and optimally designed for maximum ventilation
effects
3.3.2 ROTOR COOLING
Rotor winding is cooled by direct gas to copper contact. The rotor has GAP PICK UP type
ventilation in slots. Self-ventilation effect takes place in slot parts during rotation. This
method of cooling gives uniform distribution of temperature. There are more than 35 cooling
paths per slot. Four gas coolers are mounted longitudinally inside the stator body cools down
the hot hydrogen gas. It consists of cooling tubes of brass with coiled copper wires wound on
them to increase the cooling surface. Two fans located at either end of the rotor force gas
flow in overhangs and through the stator core.

27

3.3.3 SLIP RINGS AND BRUSH GEAR


The Slip rings consists of helical grooved alloy steel rings shrunk on the rotor body shaft.
Both Slip rings are mounted on single bush and are connected to the field winding through a
semi flexible copper leads and current carrying bolts. Two semi-circular copper bars
insulated from each other and from shaft are placed in a central bore of rotor joining two sets
of current carrying bolts. The rotor shaft is supported on pedestal type of bearing. A brush
gear provides Field current to the rotor winding. Brush gear is rigidly fixed on the exciter
side.
Manufacturer

M/s B.H.E.L

Type

Two pole, cylindrical steam turbine driven

MW Rating

210

MVA Rating

247

Rated Terminal Voltage

16.5 KV

Rated Terminal Current

8645 Amps.

Rotor Cooling

Hydrogen

Stator Cooling

D.M.Water

Table 3.1 Specifications

28

CHAPTER 4

SWITCHGEARS
4.1 TERMINOLOGY USED IN SWITCHGEARS
4.1.1 INDEX A
Air Blast Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker using compressed air to force the extinction of the arc through an arc-chute
system.
Air Magnetic Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker that uses air as its insulating medium, and an arc-chute system for
dissipating the arc, a method of generating a magnetic field which forces the arc into the arc
chute, and with possible assistance from a air puffer system to blow the arc into the arc
chutes.
ANSI Device Function Numbers
Defined in ANSI standard C37.2, the Device Function Numbers are a world-wide
standardized system for describing the function of many protection and control components
within switchgear.
They are commonly used to describe the type of protection applied to a circuit. For example,
the most common form of protection is overcurrent, usually designated as 50/51. This
designation actually covers two types of overcurrent protection, 50 which is instantaneous
protection, and 51 which is a time overcurrent protection.
Various suffixes can be used, which are sometimes context sensitive. For example, 87
represents differential protection in general, while 87T is specifically transformer differential
protection and 87G is specifically generator differential protection. However, 50G refers to
instantaneous overcurrent protection on the ground circuit (in this case the G refers to ground,
not generator).

29

Anti-single Phase Tripping Device


A device that operates to open all phases of a circuit by means of a polyphase switching
device, in response to the interruption of the current in one phase. For example, the striker pin
of an expulsion fuse can be used to actuate a common tripping bar which causes a three phase
load break switch to open.
Anti-pumping Relay
Anti-pumping relay is device used in association with a circuit breaker to prevent the circuit
breaker from reclosing after an opening operation, as long as the device initiating the
reclosing is maintained in the position for closing. For example, as long as the opening coil is
energized, then any attempt to close the circuit breaker will not work.
Arc-chute
A structure used as part of a current interrupting device, affording a confined space or
passage, lined with arc-resisting material, through which an arc is directed in order to cause it
to extinguish.
In medium voltage switchgear, this was the main current interrupting means in the airmagnetic type of circuit breakers, but the same concept does not exist in vacuum or SF6
designs. Arc-chutes are common in low voltage circuit breakers.
Arc-resistant Switchgear
A type of switchgear design which is designed to withstand the effects of an internal arcing
fault, without causing harm to personnel who are located in defined areas. It is not intended to
withstand these internal arcing fault without possibly causing physical damage to the
structure and/or components, but often the physical damage is less with an arc-resistant
design.
There are three classes of protection:
1.

Type A eliminates the emission of gases and particles from the front of the switchgear
during an internal arcing fault,

2.

Type B eliminates the emission of gases and particles from the front and sides of the
switchgear during an internal arcing fault,
30

3.

Type C eliminates the emission of gases and particles from the front and sides of the
switchgear, from between compartments within the same cell, and between adjacent
cells during an internal arcing fault.

Arc-resistant switchgear has traditionally been metal-clad, but the basic concept could also be
applied to other types of switchgear as well.
Arcing Contacts
The contacts of a switching device upon which the arc is deliberately drawn after the main
contacts have parted.
Arcing Time
The amount of time between the first initiation of the arc and the instant of final arc
extinction in all phases.
Asymmetrical Current
The current which appears in a circuit during fault conditions, composed of the total of the
AC component of the fault current and the DC offset component.
Auxiliary Circuits
All the control, indicating and measuring circuits in the switchgear. When speaking of the
circuit breaker, these are often called the secondary circuits (with the main current path called
the primary circuit).
Auxiliary Relay
A relay whose function is to assist another relay or control device in performing a general
function by supplying supplementary actions. Some examples are a relay used to provide
seal-in functions, to increase the number of available contacts, to provide circuit opening
instead of circuit closing contacts or vice-versa etc.
4.1.2 INDEX B
Backfeed
To energize a section of a power network, supplied from a source other than its normal
source. This may be a desired state, or may be non-desired if the circuit is thought to be
31

deenergized with the main incoming device turned off, but is actually being backfed, for
example, through the secondary of a transformer.
It is known that workers are sometimes injured when they try to work on a system they think
is de energized but is actually back fed from a source they did not know about.
BIL (Basic Impulse Insulation Level)
A reference impulse insulation strength expressed in terms of the crest value of the withstand
voltage of a standard full impulse voltage wave. It is commonly used to define the overall
insulation strength of the design, with other test levels (e.g. applied tests) related in a standard
method to the BIL.
Typically 5 kV class switchgear is 60 kV BIL, 15 kV class switchgear is 95 kV BIL, 25 kV
class switchgear is 125 kV BIL (although 150 kV BIL is not uncommon at 27.6 kV), and 38
kV class switchgear is 150 kV BIL (with some requests for 170 or 200 kV BIL at times).
Bifurcated Feeder
A feeder connection where two loads are connected to one power source. Higher number of
connections are also possible, such as trifurcated feeders for three loads etc.
Bolted Fault
A short circuit condition that assumes zero impedance exists at the point of the fault, as if a
heavy bus bar was solidly bolted across the point of the fault. This assumption is typically
used to calculate the worst-case fault current levels.
This term can also imply a fault that does not burn away in any reasonable time, but must be
actually removed or repaired.
Burden (of a Relay)
The load impedance imposed by a relay on its source, expressed in ohms and phase angle at
specified conditions.
Modern solid state protective relays have very small burdens, while some older
electromechanical relays had significant burdens, requiring the use of high output instrument
transformers to drive them.

32

Bus
A conductor, or group of conductors, which serve as a common connection for two or more
circuits. In practice, bus generally refers to the main power bus in the switchgear, but it
could also refer to a data bus, or ground bus etc.
Bushing
An insulating structure including a through conductor, or a passageway for such a conductor,
with provision for mounting on a barrier (conducting or insulating), used for the purpose of
insulating the conductor from the barrier and conducting current from one side of the barrier
to the other.
Bushings may use porcelain, epoxy or other type of insulating material in the structure, be
smooth surfaced or with sheds to increase the creepage distance. In metal-clad switchgear,
bushing is sometimes the term used to describe the assembly of the primary disconnect
system (the term spouts is also used).
4.3 INDEX C
Cartridge Fuse
A low voltage fuse consisting of a current-responsive element inside of a fuse tube with
connection terminals on both ends. Commonly used to protect control circuits in the
switchgear LV control cabinet.
Cassette
An assembly which provides all the necessary mechanical and electrical interlocks, circuit
breaker supports, shutter mechanism, racking mechanism etc. for a withdrawable circuit
breaker, and which comprises nearly the entire circuit breaker compartment. It still requires
the front door to be added, and the other switchgear compartments as well (low voltage, main
bus, cable etc.).
Typically supplied to OEM switchgear manufacturers when they purchase a circuit breaker
from a primary manufacturer so that they do not have to design all of these components
themselves.

33

Closing Time
The amount of time from the initiation of the closing operation and the instant when metallic
continuity is established in all phases.
Circuit Breaker
A mechanical switching device, capable of making, carrying and interrupting currents under
normal circuit conditions, and also making and carrying for specified time and interrupting
current under abnormal circuit conditions such as those occurring during short circuits.
Many different methods of achieving this functionality have been developed over the years,
such as Air-blast, Air-magnetic, Minimum Oil, Bulk Oil, etc., but most modern medium
voltage applications today use either SF6 or Vacuum methods. Circuit breakers are usually
intended to operate infrequently, although some types are made to operate frequently.
Circuit Switcher
A mechanical switching device with an integral interrupter, suitable for making, carrying and
interrupting currents under normal circuit conditions. It can also interrupt specified short
circuit currents which may be less than its close and latch, momentary and short time current
ratings. It is usually less expensive than a circuit breaker, but does not achieve the same
performance level.
Clearing Time
For a circuit breaker, it is the interval between the time the actuating quantity in the main
circuit reaches the value causing actuation of the release and the instant of final arc extinction
on all poles of the primary arcing contacts. It is numerically equal to the sum of the contact
parting time plus the arcing time.
For a fuse, it is the interval between a specified overcurrent to the final circuit interruption at
rated maximum voltage. It is equal to the sum of the melting time plus the arcing time.
Close And Latch
The rating of the ability of a circuit breaker or other switching device to close against the
electromagnetic forces (which are trying to force the contacts open), to latch into the closed
position, and to carry a specified current through the device under specified conditions. This
34

is mostly related to ensuring the operating mechanism has sufficient mechanical energy to
overcome the electromagnetic forces.
Close-Open Operation
A close operation of the switching device, followed immediately by an opening operation,
without introducing any deliberate time delay. It is commonly shown as CO.
Closing Coil
A coil in the electromagnet that supplies power for closing the device, such as the circuit
breaker. It must be specified to have the correct control voltage rating for the installation.
Compartment
Inside of a cell of metal-clad switchgear, there are different and separate compartments used
to segregate different components and functions from one another, to improve reliability and
improve safety. Each compartment is separated by a grounded metal barrier. Standard
compartments are low voltage, circuit breaker, main bus and cable, with other compartments
possible as the design demands.
Conformance Tests
Those tests made to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards, such as CSA,
ANSI or IEC. These tests are generally performed after the test item has been subjected to all
of the required production tests. Demonstration of margin (capability) beyond the
requirements of the standards is not required.
Connected Position (of a Circuit Breaker)
That position of the removable element in which both the primary and secondary
disconnecting devices are in full contact.
Contactor
A contactor is (usually) a magnetically operated switch for repeatedly establishing and
interrupting an electric power circuit. It may also include a mechanical latching system to
hold the contactor closed without requiring a continuous power supply.

35

A typical application is motor starting. It differs from a circuit breaker in that it will
withstand a very high number of operations (300,000 or more compared to 10,000 for a
circuit breaker), has generally lower continuous current ratings than ANSI circuit breakers
and has lower interrupting and making capacities. It is not intended to interrupt fault current
on its own and is therefore often used in association with fuses or a circuit breaker.
Control Power Transformer (CPT)
A transformer used to supply control power to switchgear. It is connected to the main
switchgear bus as its power source, is usually single phase only, and is usually 120 volts
output (other voltages are possible). It is often a VT located in a standard VT drawer, but may
be a small power transformer if a sufficiently high power output is required.
Control Relay
An auxiliary relay whose function is to initiate or permit the next desired operation in a
control sequence.
Control Voltage
The voltage of the power supply used to energize a device in the switchgear. Typical voltages
are 24, 48, 60, 110, 125, 220 or 250 volts DC, and 120, 127, 220 or 250 volts
Conversion (of Switchgear)
A general term pertaining to the process of altering existing power switchgear equipment.
Conversion can involve as little as replacing the main or arcing contact tips with other than
the original design material, to replacing the entire arc-interrupting structure.
Changeover of an existing air-magnetic circuit breaker to an SF6 or vacuum design is
properly called a conversion (not retrofit as is commonly used).
Corona
An electrical discharge in air that only partially bridges the gap between two or more
electrodes. Corona leads to power loss (although this is fairly minor at medium voltage) and
causes radio interference, as well as leading to physical damage of the insulation over time if
it is severe enough.

36

Corona can be tested by measuring the discharge magnitude using a radio receiver, and this is
then referred to as a Radio Influence Voltage (RIV) Test.
Cradle
An assembly which provides all the necessary mechanical and electrical interlocks, circuit
breaker supports, shutter mechanism, racking mechanism etc. for a withdrawable circuit
breaker, which is intended in turn to be installed inside of a switchgear cell manufactured by
others.
Typically supplied to OEM switchgear manufacturers when they purchase a circuit breaker
from a primary manufacturer so that they do not have to design all of these components
themselves.
Creepage Distance
The shortest distance along the surface of an insulator from one conducting part to another,
which may be energized or at ground potential. When designing the device, the Creepage
Distance must be long enough that it will withstand the highest voltage foreseen for the
installation within the specified conditions (such as pollution or moisture).
CSA Standards
CSA is the acronym for the Canadian Standards Association. The National Standards of
Canada are published and controlled by the Canadian Standards Association. CSA has both
mandatory standards and performance standards.
There are mandatory standards published relating to switchgear, which are safety related.
Current Injection
A synthetic test method where current is injected into a circuit in order to determine the
operating characteristics of other components connected to it. For example, it can be used to
inject primary current into a current transformer, to monitor what happens to secondary
devices attached to the current transformer secondary.
Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)
A fuse unit that when it is melted by a current within its specified current limiting range,
abruptly introduces a high resistance to reduce the current magnitude and duration. CLFs are
37

used to limit damage to equipment by dramatically reducing the energy let-though of the
fuse.
Current Transformer
A transformer specially designed to accurately represent the primary current in a secondary
circuit. Typically in North America, current transformers are standardized to be 5 amperes
when rated current is passed through the primary circuit, although other values are possible.
Current transformers can be used to power or provide information to such equipment as
metering devices, or protective relays.
4.1.4 INDEX D
Dead-tank
A switching device in which a vessel at ground potential surrounds and contains the
interrupter and insulating medium. Metal-enclosed and metal-clad switchgear are obviously
of dead front design, as are station breakers.
Dead Time
Usually referencing a circuit breaker on a reclosing operation, Dead Time refers to the
interval between interruption on all poles on the opening stroke, and the re-establishment of
the circuit on the reclosing stroke.
Definite Time Relay
A relay in which the operating is substantially constant regardless of the input quantity.
Derating Factors
There are a number of derating factors possible for switchgear. The two most common are
related to altitude above sea level. At high elevations, the breakdown strength of air
decreases, and its ability to remove heat also decreases.
Other derating factors may involve high ambient temperatures, high harmonics in the power
system etc.:
1.

Voltage: At and below 1000 meters, the normal rating applies. At 1500 meters
elevation, the voltage must be reduced to 95% or clearances increased accordingly. At
38

3000 meters, the voltage must be reduced to 80% or clearances increased accordingly.
Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation. Surge arresters are strongly
recommended at any elevation above 1000 meters.
2.

Current: At and below 1000 meters, the normal rating applies. At 1500 meters
elevation, the current must be reduced to 99% or conductor cross sections increased
accordingly. At 3000 meters, the current must be reduced to 96% or conductor cross
sections increased accordingly. Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation

Design Tests
Those tests made to determine the adequacy of a particular type, style or model of equipment,
with all of its component parts, to meet its assigned ratings and to operate satisfactorily under
its normal service conditions, or under special service conditions if specified.
These tests are usually performed on representative apparatus, and are not intended to be
performed on a regular production basis. These tests are sometimes called Type Tests.
Differential Protection
A method of protecting apparatus in which an internal fault is identified by comparing the
electrical conditions on the terminals of the apparatus. In the case of busbar differential
protection, it is very straight forward (the current that goes in must exactly equal the current
that goes out).
In the case of motors or transformers, then special consideration must be given to inrush
currents, and in the case of transformers, to the turns ratio and winding connections as well.
Direct Acting Overcurrent Trip Device
A release or tripping system that is completely self contained on a circuit breaker and
requires no external power or control circuits to cause it to function.
Disconnected Position (of a Circuit Breaker)
That position in which the primary and secondary disconnecting devices of the removable
element are separated by a safe distance from the stationary element contacts. See Connected
Position, Test Position.
Disconnecting Switch
39

Same as Isolating Switch. A mechanical switching device used for changing the connections
in a circuit, or for isolating a circuit or equipment from the source of power.
It is required to carry normal load current continuously, as well as abnormal or short circuit
currents for short times as specified. It is required to open or close circuits when negligible
current is interrupted or made.
Dual Element Fuse
A fuse having responsive elements of two different fusing characteristics in a single series of
fuse.
Duty Cycle
A prescribed sequence of operations for a specific time, with specific time intervals between
sequences. For example, a motor may only be allowed to have a certain number of starts per
hour, due to the overheating effect of the high starting current.
The motor must be given time to cool off between starts in order to maintain the normal life
expectancy.
4.1.5 INDEX E
Electrically Trip Free
A term applied to electrically operated switching devices such as circuit breakers, indicating
that the opening release can open the device even though the closing release circuit is
energized.
Electrically trip free devices are also usually designed with an anti-pumping relay, so that the
closing mechanism will not reclose the switching device after opening until the closing
control circuit is opened and again closed.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
A measure of the tolerance of equipment to external electromagnetic fields. It is very
important for electronic devices (for example) that are used in power equipment to have a
high tolerance to electromagnetic fields.

40

Expulsion Fuse
A vented fuse or fuse unit in which the expulsion effect of gases produced by the arc and the
lining of the fuse holder, either alone or aided by a spring, extinguishes the arc.
4.1.6 INDEX F
Feeder
A section of a switchgear assembly which supplies a load. A simple switchgear assembly
typically consists of an incomer (supplying power to the switchgear), a number of feeders
(supplying power to various loads so that they can be individually switched and/or protected),
and perhaps a tie (to connect to another switchgear assembly).
Ferroresonance
An electrical resonant condition associated with the saturation of a ferromagnetic device,
such as a transformer, through capacitance.
Ferroresonance can arise, for example, when a weak source is isolated with a lightly loaded
feeder containing power cables or power factor correction capacitors. Ferroresonance can
produce dangerously high voltages which can cause equipment damage or failure.
Fuse
An overcurrent protective device with a circuit opening fusible part that is heated and severed
by the passage of current through it.
The term fuse comprises all the parts that form a unit capable of performing the prescribed
function, but it may or may not be the complete device necessary to connect it into an electric
circuit. See Cartridge Fuse, Current Limiting Fuse, Fuse Link, Expulsion Fuse.
Fuse Link
A replaceable part or assembly, comprised entirely or principally of the conducting element,
required to be replaced after each circuit interruption to restore the fuse to operating
conditions.

41

4.1.7 INDEX G
GIS (Gas Insulated Substation)
GIS equipment is a type of metal-clad switchgear construction, where all the switchgear
power components are located inside of a sealed metal envelope filled with (usually) SF6 gas.
GIS equipment is often supplied into high voltage applications, but there are now offerings at
medium voltage. GIS has small space requirements, is impervious to atmospheric
contaminants and no derating is required for high elevations.
Ground and Test Device (GATD)
A term applied to a switchgear accessory device that can be inserted in place of the drawout
circuit breaker for the purpose of either grounding the main bus and/or the external circuits
connected to the switchgear assembly, and/or primary circuit testing.
A normal GATD can carry the same full fault current of the switchgear assembly for a
specified time. Optionally, a modified circuit breaker can be used to provide the GATD
functions and in addition allow full fault switching capability.
Ground Bus
A bus to which the grounds from individual pieces of equipment are connected, and that in
turn is connected to ground at one or more points. Typically in metal-enclosed switchgear,
the ground bus is not insulated, and is extended into every cell and every compartment in
each cell (except the main bus compartment).
Ground Fault Protection
A method of protection in which faults to ground within the protected equipment are detected
and action taken (alarm, trip etc.). Ground faults are usually detected using zero-sequence
current transformers as the sensors.
Grounding Switch
A mechanical switching device by means of which a circuit or piece of apparatus may be
electrically connected to ground.
42

The switch may or may not have fault making capabilities. Integrated grounding switches are
common in European switchgear designs, but are rare in North American designs, although
their popularity is slowly growing.
4.1.8 INDEX H
Handling Device
That accessory used with metal-clad switchgear, used for the removal, replacement or
transportation of the removable element (e.g. circuit breaker). Not all metal-clad designs
require the use of a Handling Device to move the circuit breakers, but many do.
High Speed Relay
In current practice, a relay that operates in less than 50 ms (milliseconds), which is less than
three cycles on a 60 Hz system.
4.1.9 INDEX I
IEC Standards
The acronym for the International Electrotechnical Commission.
This series of standards is produced by the IEC, and are typically used in most countries of
the world, but not widely in North America. Each country may adapt IEC standards to their
own needs, especially in the past, but it is now preferred that the basic standard be applied as
is, where possible. When it comes to switchgear and circuit breaker design and ratings, the
two main global standards are IEC and ANSI.
The world is very slowly moving towards adopting IEC standards, but ANSI and IEC are
different enough that this is not easy to do.
Interlock
A device actuated by the operation of some other device with which it is directly associated,
to govern succeeding operations of the same or allied devices. Interlock systems are a series
of interlocks applied to associated equipment in such a manner as to prevent or allow
operation of the equipment only in a prearranged sequence.

43

There are three main types of interlocks, namely mechanical, electrical and key. Mechanical
and electrical interlocks are always present in some way in switchgear to provide for safe
operation of the basic equipment. Key interlocks are typically more of an optional accessory
used to provide customer prescribed operation sequences.
Interrupter Switch
An air insulated switch, equipped with an interrupter, for making or interrupting specified
currents, or both. The nature of the current being made or interrupted is indicated by a
suitable prefix, such as load interrupter switch, fault interrupter switch, capacitor current
interrupter switch, etc.
Inverse-time Relay
A relay in which the input quantity and operating time are inversely related throughout at
least a substantial portion of the performance range. Various adjectives are commonly used to
illustrate the level of inverseness of the operating characteristics, such as standard, very,
extremely, ultra etc.
Isolated Phase Bus
A bus in which each phase conductor is enclosed by an individual metal housing separated
from adjacent conductor housings by an air space. The bus may be self cooled or may be
forced cooled, using gas or liquid. Isolated phase bus is commonly used at very high current
ratings, such as the output of large generators.
Isolating Switch
Same as Disconnecting Switch. A mechanical switching device used for changing the
connections in a circuit, or for isolating a circuit or equipment from the source of power. It is
required to carry normal load current continuously, as well as abnormal or short circuit
currents for short times as specified. It is required to open or close circuits when negligible
current is interrupted or made.

44

4.1.10 INDEX L
Load Interrupter Switch
An interrupter switch designed to interrupt currents which are not in excess of the continuous
current rating of the switch. It may be designed to close and carry abnormal or short circuit
currents as specified. Also colloquially referred to as a Load Break Switch.
Load Shedding
The process of deliberately removing preselected loads from a power system in response to
abnormal conditions, in order to maintain the integrity of the power system.
Load shedding can also be used to reduce demand in a specified part of a power distribution
system for economic reasons e.g. an industrial customer may shed specific loads to keep their
kilowatt demand below a price increase threshold (kW demand is often priced based on the
peak usage in a calendar year, so keeping the demand below a certain level can affect a whole
years electrical billing).
4.1.11 INDEX M
Main Contacts
The main continuous current carrying contacts in a current interruption device. Typically, the
interruption device is designed so that the main contacts never see arcing themselves, that
function being provided by arcing contacts specifically designed to do so. Main contacts are
sometimes referred to as the Primary Contacts.
Main Connections
Those that electrically connect together devices in the main circuit, or connect them to the
bus, or both. Also referred to as the Primary Connections.
Maintenance Interval
The period, which can be defined in terms of real time, operating time, number of operating
cycles or a combination of these, during which satisfactory performance is expected without
maintenance or adjustment.

45

Margin
The difference between the demonstrated capability of the equipment and that required inservice for specific conditions.
Medium Voltage
The term medium voltage refers to voltages above 1,000 volts and below 69,000 volts. The
highest voltage metal enclosed switchgear in general use in North America is generally 38 kV
class, although there is a small amount of 44 kV. Usually at 44 kV and above, switching is
achieved by the use of air-insulated substations with discreet components.
Metal-clad Switchgear
Metal-clad switchgear is a specific type of metal-enclosed switchgear. While all metal-clad
switchgear is metal-enclosed, not all metal-enclosed switchgear can be classified as metalclad.
Metal-clad is characterized by always having the following features:
1.

The main switching and interrupting device is removable (drawout), with a


mechanism to move it between connected and disconnected positions, and equipped
with self-aligning and self-coupling primary disconnecting devices and disconnectable control wiring connections.

2.

Major parts of the primary circuit are completely enclosed by grounded metal barriers
that have no intentional openings between compartments. A metal barrier shall be
included in front of or part of the circuit interrupting device to ensure that when in the
connected position, no primary circuit components are exposed by the opening of a
door.

3.

All live parts are enclosed within grounded metal compartments.

4.

Automatic shutters that cover primary circuit elements when the removable element is
in the disconnected, test or connected positions.

5.

Primary bus conductors and connections are covered with insulating material
throughout.

46

6.

Mechanical interlocks are provided for proper operating sequence under normal
operating conditions.

7.

Instruments, meters, relays etc. and their wiring are isolated by grounded metal
barriers from all primary circuit elements (short lengths of wire such as CT secondary
leads are excepted).

8.

The door through which the removable element is inserted may serve as an instrument
or relay panel, and may also provide access to the control compartment within the
housing.

9.

Note the proper spelling of metal-clad, with a dash and a lower case c.

Metal-enclosed Switchgear
Switchgear which is surrounded by a metal case or housing, usually grounded. Note the
proper spelling of metal-enclosed, with a dash and a lower case e.
Metal-enclosed Bus
An assembly of conductors with their associated connections, joints and insulating supports
within a grounded metal enclosure.
The conductors may be rigid or flexible (if the flexible conductors are individual cables, then
it may be called cable bus). There are three types of metal-enclosed bus :
1.

Non segregated-phase bus, in which all phase conductors are in a common metal
enclosure without barriers between phases. If associated with metal-clad switchgear,
then the primary bus and connections shall be covered with insulating material
equivalent to the switchgear insulation system.

2.

Segregated-phase bus, in which all phase conductors are in a common metal enclosure
but are segregated by metal barriers between phases.

3.

Isolated-phase bus, in which each phase conductor is enclosed by an individual metal


housing separated from adjacent conductor housings by an air space. The bus may be
self cooled or may be forced cooled, using gas or liquid.

47

Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker


A

circuit

breaker

using

relatively

small

quantity

of

mineral

oil

for

its arc-interruption method. A low cost but now obsolete technology.


MOC
Mechanism Operated Contacts. A set of auxiliary switches generally containing both NO and
NC contacts, operated by the operating mechanism of a circuit breaker. They are used to
signal the current state and the change of state of the circuit breaker operating mechanism.
MTB
Mean Time Between Failures. The time interval, usually expressed in hours, that may be
expected between failures of a piece of operating equipment.
MTTR
Mean Time To Repair. The time interval, usually expressed in hours, that may be expected to
return failed equipment to proper operation.
Mimic Bus
A single line diagram of the main connections of a system, constructed on the face of a
switchgear or control panel or assembly.
Momentary Current
The current flowing in a device, an assembly or a bus at the major peak of the maximum
cycle as determined by the envelope of the current wave.
Multi-pole Operation
A descriptive term indicating that all poles of the device are mechanically or electrically
linked such that they change state (open or close) substantially simultaneously.

48

4.1.12 INDEX N
Natural Frequency
A mechanical term, used to describe the frequency at which a body vibrates due to its own
physical characteristics (mass, shape) and electric restoring forces brought into play when the
body is distorted in a specific direction and then released while restrained or supported at
specific points.
In general switchgear usage, generally important only for seismic analysis.
Nominal System Voltage
A nominal value assigned to designate a system of a given voltage class. For example, in the
15 kV voltage class, a Nominal System Voltage may be 13.8 kV, or 12.47 kV, or other.
4.1.13 INDEX O
Octave
The interval between two frequencies that have a frequency ratio of two. For example, 1 to 2
Hz, 4 to 8 Hz, 64 to 128 Hz.
May be used in discussion of harmonics, or sound level spectrum analysis.
Opening Time
The amount of time between the moment the actuating quantity of the release circuit reaches
its operating value, and the instant the primary contacts have parted. Typically, any
intentional time delays which may be a part of normal operation are reduced to zero for the
purposes of determining opening time.
Operating Mechanism
As part of a switching device, the part of the mechanism that actuates all the main circuit
contacts of the switching device either directly or by the use of a pole-unit mechanism.
It must provide sufficient mechanical force for the performance specified, and is designed to
meet the specific requirements of the switching device (for example, for vacuum circuit
breakers, the operating mechanism is expected to provide only a small contact travel distance,
but very high acceleration and deceleration).
49

4.1.14 INDEX P
Partial Discharge
A localized electric discharge resulting from ionization in an insulation system when the
voltage stress exceeds the critical value. This discharge partially bridges the insulation
between electrodes.
It is commonly used as a test to monitor the quality of manufacture of moulded or cast
components (such as current or voltage transformers, or stand-off insulators). If the discharge
occurs in air, then it may also be referred to as corona discharge.
Pickup (of a relay)
The action of a relay as it makes designated response to progressive increase of input. As a
qualifying term, it is the state of a relay when all response to progressive increases of input
has been completed.
Pickup is also used to identify the minimum value of an input quantity reached by
progressive increases that will cause the relay to reach the pickup state from reset. Pickup is
also used to denote contact operation on relays having multiple inputs, but in this case the
pickup value of any input in meaningful only when related to all other inputs.
Pilot Protection
A form of line protection that uses some sort of a communications channel as a means to
compare electrical conditions at the terminals of a line. The communications channel may be
metallic conductor, fiber optic cable, microwaves etc.
Pilot Wire Protection
Pilot protection in which a metallic circuit is used for the communicating means between
relays at the circuit terminals.
Plating (of Joints)
Copper (or aluminium) forms an oxide layer which will commonly cause a joint to have
increased resistance and a higher temperature rise. To obtain satisfactory lifetime
performance, the high power joints in the main bus system are plated with another metal,

50

usually silver. Silver is the most conductive of all metals, and provides good service with
only a very thin plating thickness required (flash plating).
For very polluted environments, especially those containing high levels of sulphur, tin plating
is used, as the silver will rapidly tarnish. While tin is very stable in most atmospheres, it
naturally provides a higher resistance joint than silver, and therefore it is only used where its
non-corroding properties are really required.
Pole
That portion of the device associated with one electrically separated conducting path of the
main circuit of the device. The poles may be separate for each phase, or may be combined
into a unified enclosure.
Potential Transformer
An obsolete name for Voltage Transformer.
Prestrike
The initiation of current between the contacts during a closing operation before the contacts
have mechanically touched.
Primary
Used as an adjective, primary can mean:
a.

the first to operate e.g. primary arcing contacts

b.

the first in preference e.g. primary protection

c.

the main circuit as opposed to auxiliary or control circuits e.g. primary disconnecting
device

d.

the energy input side of a transformer (not necessarily the high voltage side)

Production Tests
Those tests made to check the quality and uniformity of the workmanship and materials used
in the manufacture of switchgear or its components. Performed on each switchgear that has
been manufactured.
51

Proof
So constructed, protected or treated so that successful operation is not interfered with when
the device is subjected to the specified material or condition.
For example, a sprinkler-proof switchgear can continue to operate if the fire protection
sprinklers are operating. As another example, the reason that the term arc-proof switchgear is
not acceptable as a term, is that in the case of an internal arcing fault, the switchgear cannot
usually continue to be used until clean-up and repairs are completed.
Protection Relay
A relay whose function is to detect defective lines or apparatus, other power system
conditions of an abnormal or dangerous nature and to initiate appropriate control circuit
action.
A protective relay may be described according to its input quantities (e.g. negative phase
sequence relay), operating principles (e.g. differential protection) or performance
characteristics.
4.1.15 INDEX Q
Quick-break
A term used to describe a device that has a high contact opening speed which is independent
of the operator.
Quick-make
A term used to describe a device that has a high contact closing speed which is independent
of the operator.
4.16 INDEX R
Racking (a Circuit Breaker)
The process of moving a circuit breaker or other removable element from the disconnected
position to the test position (if the test position is a different physical position) and into the
connected position, or vice-versa. Racking may be performed manually with the door open

52

(rare in a modern switchgear design), manually with the door closed (referred to as throughthe-door racking) or electrically with the door closed.
For safety reasons, through-the-door racking systems are preferred, and are essentially
required for arc-resistant designs.
Rated Operation Sequence
A standard operating sequence that a circuit breaker has been tested in accordance with.
Under ANSI testing rules, the Rated Operation Sequence is a close-open operation, followed
by a 15 second delay to allow the operating mechanism to recharge, and then a second close
open operation. This is represented by CO 15s -CO. Note that a fully tested ANSI circuit
breaker has been tested for many other operation sequences as well.
Under IEC testing rules, there are three common Rated Operation Sequences. The first is an
open operation, followed by three minutes for cooling of the contacts, followed by a CO
operation, then 3 minutes, then a final CO (O 3 min CO 3 min CO). The second is a O
0.3s -CO 15 s CO. The third is O 0.3 s -CO 3 min CO.
Reconditioning (of switchgear)
A general term covering the process of maintaining existing switchgear equipment in
operating condition as recommended by the manufacturers instructions, using only the
original manufacturers recommended replacement parts, without altering the original design.
Recovery Voltage
The voltage that appears across the terminals of a pole of a circuit interrupting device upon
interruption of the current.
Refurbishment (of Switchgear)
The portion that normally carries the circuit switching and circuit interrupting devices and the
removable part of the primary and secondary disconnecting devices. In metal-clad
switchgear, generally the circuit breaker is the removable element.
Renewal Parts
Those parts that must be replaced during maintenance as a result of wear.

53

Resistant (used as suffix)


So constructed, protected or treated that damage will not occur readily when the device is
subjected to the specified material or condition.
Restricted Ground Fault
Also called Restricted Earth Fault in Europe. Restricted refers to the zone that is being
protected, just as differential protection operates over a defined protection zone. It is often
used to protect a specific machine such as a motor.
Restrike
A resumption of current between the contacts of a switching device during an opening
operation after an interval of zero current of 1/4 cycle at normal frequency or longer. It is
preferable that restrikes do not occur as they can stress the attached equipment by causing
high recovery voltages.
Rowgowski Coil
Essentially an air cored current transformer which, because it does not have a magnetic core,
has a linear response from zero current to very high values (well beyond what can be seen in
any short circuit fault current in a power system) and will not saturate.
Rowgowski coils provide a voltage output directly related to the current passing through the
primary (e.g. 1 mV/A). Rowgowski coils measure only the AC component of the current, not
the DC component. The manufacture of a good Rowgowski coil requires very precise
winding of the coil. If the coil is wound properly, then the output does not depend on the
position of the central conductor in the coil window.
Generally, the output of a Rowgowski coil is connected to an integrator circuit which
provides an output waveform.
RRRV
Rate of Rise of Recovery Voltage. When current is interrupted quickly, a recovery voltage is
generated, and the faster the rate of change of current, the higher the recovery voltage
becomes. It is important for a switching device to reform the dielectric breakdown strength of

54

its interrupting medium quickly following the breaking of the current, in order to be able to
withstand the recovery voltage generated.
A switching device that can withstand a high recovery voltage will be less likely to restrike.
4.1.17 INDEX S
Seal-in Relay
An auxiliary relay that remains picked up through one of its own contacts, which bypasses
the initiating circuit until deenergized by some other device.
For example, if a pressure switch is temporarily closed due to a momentary pressure surge, a
seal-in relay can be used to show it had tripped though an annunciator panel, until the
operator manually resets it.
SCADA
An acronym for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. A system operating with coded
signals over communication channels so as to provide control of remote equipment, typically
using one communications channel per remote station.
The supervisory system may be combined with a data acquisition system by adding the use of
coded signals over communication channels to acquire information about the status of the
remote equipment for display or recording functions.
Typical supervisory control functions are :
1.

Alarm functions

2.

Analogue functions

3.

Control functions

4.

Indication or status functions

5.

Sequence of events function

Secondary
Used as an adjective, secondary can mean :

55

1.

operates after the primary device e.g. secondary arcing contacts

2.

second in preference

3.

referring to auxiliary or control circuits as contrasted with the main circuit e.g.
secondary disconnecting devices, secondary and control wiring

4.

referring to the energy output side of transformers (which does not have to be the low
voltage side)

Secondary and Control Wiring


Wire used with switchgear assemblies for control circuits and for connections between
instrument transformer secondaries, instruments, meters, relays, or other equipment.
Secondary Disconnecting Device
Self-coupling separable contacts provided to connect and disconnect the auxiliary and control
circuits between the removable element and the housing.
Sequence Currents
The set of currents that when combined, accurately and fully represent the total current in a
polyphase system. Consists of positive sequence, negative sequence and zero sequence
currents.
SF6
Sulphur Hexaflouride, a gaseous dielectric for high and medium voltage power application,
used as an insulator and/or interrupting medium. The highly stable SF6 molecule consists of
one central atom of sulphur (S) surrounded by 6 atoms of Flourine (F).
Short Circuit
An abnormal connection, including an arc, of relatively low impedance, whether made
accidentally or deliberately, between two or more points of different potential.
Short Line Fault
A fault which occurs close to the terminals of the circuit switching device may cause a
different recovery voltage waveform to be generated, essentially adding a high frequency
56

sawtooth waveform to the voltage waveform. As the distance to the fault increases, the
amplitude of the sawtooth component increases, but the rate of rise decreases, and the fault
current decreases.
The increased amplitude of the voltage negatively affects the interrupting capability of the
circuit switching device while the decrease in rate of rise and the decrease in current makes
interruption easier. Since the effects are not proportional, a distance is reached where the
affect on interruption is most severe, even though the current is less than for a terminal fault.
The critical distance depends on the type of interrupting medium used (air, oil, SF6 or
vacuum) and with the particular design of device.
At higher voltages, the critical distance may be on the order of 1.5 km, while at medium
voltages the distance is less.
Shunt Release
A release, typically used to trip a circuit breaker or switch, which is energized by a source of
voltage, which may be derived from either the main circuit or from an independent source.
The voltage is applied only when tripping is desired.
Shutter
A device that is automatically operated to completely cover the stationary portion of the
primary disconnecting devices when the removable element is either in the disconnected
position, the test position, or has been completely removed. Grounded metal shutters are
usually preferred for safety reasons, but insulating materials may also be used in some
applications.
Single Element Fuse
A fuse having a current responsive element comprising one or more parts with a single fusing
characteristic.
Sound Level
A weighted Sound Pressure Level obtained through the use of a metering characteristic and a
weighting algorithm.

57

Typically, the A weighting is used which represents the sensitivity of an average human
ear, based on the hearing ability of a young adult. Other weighting scales (B and C) are
available but are not often used.
Essentially, a weighting of C is the same as the Sound Pressure Level itself. The designation
of the weighting scale used is indicated following the decibel symbol e.g. weighting scale A
is indicated as dBA.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL)
Twenty times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of the pressure of a sound to the
reference sound pressure of 20 micro Pascals (mPa), expressed as an rms value. The unit is
decibel (dB).
Spouts
The insulator/bushing system at the back of the circuit breaker compartment in drawout
switchgear, which allow the main (primary) connections of the circuit breaker to be plugged
into the bus system (the main bus on one connection, the feeder bus on the other). Sometimes
referred to as the primary disconnects.
Station Ground
A ground grid or any equivalent system of grounding electrodes buried beneath or adjacent to
a substation that determines the rise of ground voltage level relative to remote earth and
controls the distribution of voltage gradients within the substation during a fault.
The characteristics of the Station Ground are linked to the type, shape, number and
composition of the ground electrodes, the type of soil, the moisture content of the soil etc.
Stationary Contact
A conducting part having a contact surface that remains substantially stationary during use.
Strike Distance
The shortest distance measured though the insulating medium between parts of different
polarities. These parts may be conducting or insulating. The insulating medium is commonly
air, but could be oil or SF6 etc.

58

Surge Arrester
A device used to limit the severity of a voltage surge in a power system. In its simplest form,
it could be a spark gap, however a more repeatable (and less stress-inducing) method is
preferred. The first modern style of surge arrester used silicon carbide (SiC) discs in series
with a small spark gap.
When the voltage became too high, the spark gap flashed over and the SiC discs conducted
and absorbed excess energy due to their inverse resistance (as the voltage across them
increased, their resistance decreases).
In the early 1980s, modern zinc oxide (ZnO) discs were introduced and as have such an
extreme inverse characteristic, no spark gap is usually required. ZnO surge arresters are
sometimes referred to as metal-oxide type.
Switchboard
A type of switchgear assembly that consists of one or more panels with electric devices
mounted thereon, and an associated framework.
Switchgear
A general term which covers switching and interrupting devices and their combination with
associated control, metering, protective and regulating devices.
Also, assemblies of these devices with their associated interconnections, accessories,
enclosures and supporting structures used primarily in connection with the generation,
transmission, distribution and conversion of electric power.
Switchgear Assembly
An assembled piece of equipment used indoors or outdoors, including one or more of the
following : switching, interrupting, control, metering, protective, regulating etc. devices,
together with their supporting structures, enclosures, conductors, electrical interconnections
and accessories.

59

Switching Device (Switch)


A device designed to close or open or both, one or more electric circuits. It must be able to
open or close its rated continuous load current, but note that the ability to do the same for
fault currents is not part of the basic definition.
Synthetic Test
A test in which the major part of, or the total current is obtained from one source and the
major part of, or all of the transient recovery voltage is obtained from a separate source.
4.1.18 INDEX T
Telecontrol
The transmission of control signals to or from a remote apparatus using telecommunications
techniques.
Telemetering
The transmission of measurable quantities to or from a remote apparatus using
telecommunication techniques.
Terminal Fault
A fault directly on or very close (a few meters) to the terminals of the circuit switching
device. While the impedance to the fault is very low, and the fault current is the highest in
magnitude, this may actually not be the most severe interrupting duty the switching device
will see.
Test Cabinet
In terms of a switchgear assembly, a cabinet containing permanent electric connections with
cable connections to a contact box arranged to make connections to the secondary contacts on
an electrically operated and removable element, which permits operation and testing of the
removable element when it is removed from the housing.

60

Test Position (of a Circuit Breaker)


That position in which the primary disconnecting devices of the removable element are
separated by a safe distance from the stationary contact elements, and some or all of the
secondary circuits are in operating contact.
The test position may be the same physical position of the removable element as the
disconnected position, just with the secondary circuits not connected.
Tie Feeder
A feeder that connects together two or more independent sources of power and has no tapped
load between the terminals.
Time Dial
Used in association with a relay, an adjustable graduated element by which, under fixed input
conditions, the prescribed relay operating time can be varied.
Total Asymmetrical Current
The combination of the AC symmetrical component and the DC component of the current.
Transfer Scheme
Equipment that (usually) automatically transfers a load to another source of power when the
original source to which it has been connected fails, and that (usually) automatically restores
the load to the original source under desired conditions.
Transfer Switch
A switch or switches arranged to permit transferring a conductor connection from one circuit
to another without interrupting the current
Transient Inrush Current
The current that results when a switching device is closed to energize a capacitive or
inductive circuit. The current is usually characterized by its highest peak value and its
frequency in Hz.

61

Transient Overvoltage
The voltage which occurs during the transient conditions resulting from the operation of a
switching device. The voltage is expressed as the peak.
Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV)
The voltage transient that occurs across the terminals of a pole of a switching device when
the current is interrupted. In a multiple pole switching device, the term is usually applied to
the voltage across the first pole to interrupt.
Transition Cell
A cell supplied in a switchgear assembly used to physically transition the bus coming in a
specific location or phasing on one side of the cell to the different bus location or phasing
leaving the other side of the cell.
Trip-free
The capability of a switching device to have the moving contacts return to and remain in the
open position when the open operation is initiated after the initiation of the closing operation,
even if the closing force and the opening command are maintained.
It may be necessary for the contacts to momentarily reach the closed condition.
Trip-free Relay
An auxiliary relay whose function is to open the closing circuit of an electrically operated
switching device so that the opening operation can prevail over the closing operation.
TOC
Truck Operated Contacts. A set of auxiliary contacts which are operated by the action of the
truck of the removable switching device changing physical position within the cell i.e.
moving between the connected and disconnected positions.
Truck
The mechanical structure which supports the operating mechanism and the current
interruption components, the wheels or side rollers, and some of the required mechanical
interlocks, for a removable device such as a circuit breaker.
62

4.1.18 INDEX U
Under voltage Release
A type of circuit breaker triiping release which is held energized during normal operation,
with the tripping action being caused with the removal of the voltage. Not as common in
North America as the Shunt Release.
Unit Substation
A close-coupled arrangement consisting of one or more medium voltage service entrance
cells of switchgear (usually metal-enclosed type), a transformer (dry or liquid), and a line-up
of typically low voltage (but perhaps medium voltage) switchgear with feeder cells.
Close coupled means that the MV service entrance switchgear is bolted directly to the
transformer which is bolted directly to the LV (or MV) switchgear. If the transformer is cable
connected or remote, then by definition it is NOT a unit substation.
4.1.19 INDEX V
Vacuum Circuit Breaker
A circuit breaker which uses a vacuum bottle for its interrupting method.
Voltage Transformer
A transformer specially designed to accurately represent the primary voltage in a secondary
circuit.
Typically in North America, voltage transformers are standardized to output 120 volts when
rated voltage is impressed on the primary circuit, although other values are possible. Voltage
transformers can be used to power metering devices, or provide control power.
Some users still use the previous term, Potential Transformer, however the term Voltage
Transformer is the correct one.

63

4.1.20 INDEX W
Withstand Voltage
The specified voltage that can be applied to insulation under specified conditions without
causing flashover of puncture to occur.
4.1.21 INDEX Z
Zone of Protection
That segment of a power system in which the occurrence of assigned abnormal conditions
should cause the protective relay system to operate.
There are three main functions, namely:
1. Circuit protection takes three main fault types into account:
a.

Overloads,

b.

Short-circuits,
(Both of which adversely affect the lifetime of cables and loads)

c.

Insulation faults, harmful for persons and equipment.

2. Isolation is used to separate a circuit or a device from the remainder of the installation to
allow 100% safe operation,
3. Control allows the user to take voluntary action on installation operation:
a.

When such action takes place in normal operating conditions (on load, with
no overcurrent) in order to energise or de-energise all or part of the
installation, control is said to be functional,

b.

When such action is essential (whatever the load condition of the installation) in order
to immediately de-energise all or part of the installation, control is said to be of the
emergency stop kind.

64

Three main functions of electrical circuits:


a. Protection,
b. Isolation,
c. Control,
The switch is used for:
a. Control,
b. Often isolation.
For protection it must be combined with:
a. Circuit-breaker
b. Fuses
c. Residual current device (if necessary)
A variety of switchgear perform all or some of these three main functions.
Switchgear

Overloads Short-circuit Insulation-fault Isolation Control

Fuse

Yes (3)

Yes

No

No

No

Disconnector

No

No

No

Yes

No

Switch

No

No

Yes? (1)(2)

Yes?

Yes

Disconnector fuse Yes

Yes

No

Yes

No

Switch fuse

Yes

Yes

Yes? (1)(2)

Yes?

Yes

Contactor

No

No

No

No

Yes

Circuit-breaker

Yes

Yes

Yes? (2)

Yes?

Yes

Table 4.1 Role of the main switchgear

65

Yes Basic function of the switchgear considered (always performed)


Yes? Additional function possible (not always performed)
(1) Possible with a switch with automatic opening.
(2) Possible with addition of a Residual Current Device (RCD).
(3) gG fuse only

66

CHAPTER 5
ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR
5.1 INTRODUCTION
The separation of suspended particles from gases is one of the basic scientific and technical
problems of the industrial era. Control of these emissions by adequate gas-cleaning processes
is essential to prevent heavy, devastating air pollution, and, in many instances, to recover
valuable materials, such as copper, lead or gold which otherwise would be carried up the
stack and lost by dispersion into the atmosphere. Gas-cleaning processes may be classified
broadly as mechanical and electrical. Mechanical processes include all those which depend
fundamentally on inertial or mechanical forces, namely, gravity settling, centrifugal or
cyclonic separation, gas washing, or scrubbing, filtration through screens, fabric bags, or
packed beds, and some agglomeration. The electrical process, commonly referred to as
electrostatic precipitation, differs basically from all mechanical methods in that the forces of
separation acting on the suspended particles are electrical in nature.
This fundamental difference is reflected in unique advantages both in operation and in
application of the electrical method. Separation forces are applied directly to the particles
themselves instead of to the entire gas stream, as in most mechanical separation methods. It is
limited neither to relatively coarse particles as gravitational and inertial methods are nor by
resistance to the motion of the gas as filters and scrubbers are. Even the finest particles in the
submicron size range are collected effectively by electrostatic precipitation because of the
relatively large electric forces which act on the particles. There is no fundamental limit to the
degree of cleaning attainable, and, in practice, most precipitator installations operate in the
range of 90% to 99% efficiency, with some as high as 99.99%. The high collection
efficiency, the low resistance to gas flow, the ability to treat huge gas quantities at high
temperature, and the ability to cope successfully with corrosive atmosphere and particles
account for the wide acceptance and diverse applications of the electrical precipitation
process.
The

process

is

physical

in

character

and

is

most

accurately

classified

as

electrophysics.Nevertheless, the actual practice of electrical precipitation involves a


surprising number of scientific disciplines including physics, chemistry, aerosol technology,

67

chemical engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, aerodynamics, mechanical


engineering, and civil engineering
5.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE
The electrostatic precipitator utilizes electrostatic forces to separate dust particles from the
gas to be cleaned. The gas is conducted to a chamber containing curtains of vertical steel
plates. These curtains divide the chamber into a number of parallel gas passages. A frame
with secured wires is located within each passage. All the frames are linked to each other to
form a rigid framework. The entire framework is held in place by four support insulators.
Which insulate it electrically from all parts, which are grounded.
A high-voltage direct current is connected between the framework and the ground thereby
creating a strong electrical field between the wires in the framework and the steel curtains.
The electrical field becomes strongest near the surface of the wires. So strong that an
electrical discharge the corona discharges develops along the wires. The gas is ionized due
to corona discharge and the large quantities of positive and negative ions are formed. The
positive ions are immediately attracted towards the negative wires by the strength of the field.
The negative ions, however, have to traverse the space between the electrodes to reach the
positive curtains.
En route towards the steel curtains, the ions collide with and adhere to the dust particles in the
gas. The particles thereby become electrically charged and also begin to migrate in the same
direction as the ions towards the steel curtains and stick to them. These curtains are rapped
periodically to dislodge the deposited dust, which is collected in the hoppers.
The various parts of the precipitator are divided into two groups
1. Mechanical system comprising of casing, hoppers, gas distribution system, collecting
and emitting systems, rapping mechanism, stairways and galleries.
2. Electrical systems comprising of transformer rectifier units. Electronic controller,
auxiliary control panels, safety interlocks and fields equipment/devices.

68

5.2.1 RECTIFIED OUTPUT FOR ESP


A simplified block scheme of electronic controller and high voltage rectiformer is shown in
Fig.4.1

Fig. 4.1 Simplified Block Scheme of HVR


The output voltage and current at high voltage d.c. terminals is controlled by controlling the
voltage on primary of the transformer. The voltage controls is achieved by two thyristors
connected in anti parallel configuration. In normal operation, the output of thyristor is
controlled by the gate pulse circuit which in turn gets its control signal from the current
regulator output. The output of current regulator adjusts itself such that the actual current is
maintained equal to set reference value. In case of occurance of a spark the same is detected
by spark detection unit. The detection signal produces a blocking pulse for specific period
and the voltage builds up after the blocking period.

69

5.3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION


5.3.1 MECHANICAL SYSTEM
Precipitator casing:
The precipitator casing in all welded construction, consisting of pre-fabricated wall and roof
panels a s shown in figure 4A, 4B. The casing is provided with inspecting doors for entry into
the chamber. The doors are of heavy construction with machined surfaces to ensure a gas
tight seal.
The roof carries the precipitator internals, insulators housing, transformers etc. The casing
rests on support, which allow fir free thermal expansion of the casing during operation.
Galleries and stairways are provided on the sides of the casing for easy access to rapping
motors, inspection doors, transformers etc.
Collecting electrodes system:
The collecting plates are made of 1.5mm cold rolled mild steel plates and shaped in one piece
by roll forming. The collecting electrode has unique profile designed to give rigidity and to
contain the dust in a quiescent zone free from re-entertainment. The 400 mm collecting plates
are provided with hooks to their top edge for suspension. The hooks engage in the slots of the
supporting angles. 750mm collecting electrodes are provided with slots, which are engaged
on the hooks welded on the suspension angles. All the collecting plates in a row are held in
position by a shock at the bottom. The shock bars are spaced by guides.
Emitting electrode system:
The most essential part of precipitator is emitting electrode system. This is supported by four
insulators. The frames for holding the emitting electrodes are located centrally between the
collecting electrode curtains.
Rapping System:
Rapping system are provided for collecting and emitting electrodes. Geared motors drive
these rappers. The hammers are positioned at an angular displacement of 210 degree/195
degree for collecting rapping mechanisms of 300 mm pitch/400 mm pitch respectively. For
emitting electrode the same is positioned at 240 degree. The rapping system employs
tumbling hammers, which are mounted on a horizontal shaft. As shaft rotates slowly the
70

hammers tumble on to the shock bar/shock beam which transmits the blow to the electrodes.
One complete revolution of the rapping shaft will clean the entire field. The rapper
programmer decides the frequency of rapping. Rapping frequency chart is given in this
manual. The tumbling hammer disposition and the periodicity of rapping are selected in such
a way that less than 2% of the collecting area is rapped at any instance. This avoids reentertainment of dust and puffing at the stack.
The rapping shaft of emitting electrodes system is electrically isolated from the geared motor
drive by a shaft insulator. The space around the shaft insulator is continuously heated to avoid
condensation.
Insulator housing:
The support insulator, supporting the emitting electrodes system is housed in insulator
housing. The HV DC connection is taken through a bushing insulator mounted on the
insulator-housing wall.
In order to avoid the condensation on the support insulators, each insulator is provided with
one electrical heating element. Heating elements of one pass are controlled by one
thermostat.
5.3.2 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM:
High voltage transformer rectifier (HVR) with electronic controller (EC):
The transformer rectifier supplies the power for particulate charging and collection. The basic
function of the EC is to fed the precipitator with maximum power input under the constant
current regulation. Should there be any flashover between collecting and emitting electrodes,
the EC will sense the flashover and quickly react by bringing he input voltage to zero and
block it for a specific period. After the ionized gases are cleared and the dielectric strength
restored, the control will quickly bring back the power to preset value and raised it to the
original non-sparking level. Thus EC ensure adequate power input to the precipitator while
reckoning the electrical disturbances within the precipitator. Regulated AC power from EC is
to fed to the primary of the transformer, which is stepped up and rectified to give a full wave
power output. The transformer-rectifier is mounted on the roof of the precipitator while the
EC is located in an air-conditioned control room.

71

Auxiliary control panel (ACP):


The ACP controls power supply to the EP auxiliary viz. rapping motors and heating elements
dampers, etc. The complete ACP is of modular type with individual modules for each feeder.
Each module houses the power and controls circuits with meters, push buttons, switches and
indicating lamps.
Following are the modules for the outgoing feeders.
Hopper heaters for each field
Support insulator heaters
Collect electrode-rapping motor for each field.
Emitting electrode-rapping motor for each field
The program control circuit for the sequence and timing of operating for rapping motors is
controlled by either synchronous programmer housed in the AP or RAPCON. For the
continuous operation of the rapping motors, provision is available in all rapping motor
modules to operate the rapping motor in AUTO or MANUAL mode. Thermal overload relay
is provided for overload protection to the rapping motors. Local pushbuttons are available for
tripping the motor to meet exigencies and for maintenance purposes.
Ammeters with selected switches to indicate current of the heating element feeders are
provided. Indicating lamps are provided for main supply on, rapping motor on, off and
trip, space heaters on and control supply on.
Safety Interlock:
A safety interlock system is incorporate to prevent accidental contact with live parts of the
precipitator and enable energisation only when EP is boxed up. The interlock System covers
all the inspection doors of casing hopper, support insulator housing, EC panel and
disconnecting switches.
Disconnecting switch:
Each field with one disconnecting switch for isolation of emitting system from the associated
transformer. In the ON position the emitting system is connected to the transformer and in the
OFF position the emitting system is grounded.
72

5.4 GENERAL SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS


Following general safety instructions should be adopted during operation, maintenance and
inspection of the Electrostatic Precipitator and its associated system. EP, being high voltage
equipment, requires special precautions to be observed in order to avoid accidents to
personnel and damage equipment. Basic instruction suggested in this section is meant only to
guide the users in formulating detailed safety rules to govern day-to-day operations and
maintenance of the equipment.
It is essential on the part of personnel handling the EP, Transformers and other associated
equipment to be full conversant with these instructions, lay out of the equipment and
regulation laid under the relevant Indian Electricity Rules pertaining to High-Voltage
equipment.
Electric equipment and lines should always be considered as live unless they are positively
known to be de-energized. Line clearance or permits to works are to be taken for working
on line or equipment which are in service but disconnected from the supply for the purpose of
carrying out work.
Permits for works shall be taken only by authorized person and shall be issued by the
authorized persons in-charge. Persons who have taken the permit should themselves return it
and this procedure should be followed even when the issuer and the receiver happen to be the
same.
When the line clearances are taken in person, the employee taking the line clearance should
satisfy himself that the equipment on which he has to work is isolated from the mains on
either side as seen visually, and is grounded before he acknowledges the liner clearance.
Do not depend on tripping of contactors, breakers for isolation of feeders and equipment from
mains. Ensure that isolation is visually clear in air medial (opening of isolator, removal of
link fuses, racking out of breakers etc.)
Portions of circuits on which line clearance issued should be clearly displayed with cautions
boards Men on Line, Men Working Do not Switch On etc. Do not switch On board
should be hung on switches controlling the portion of circuits on line clearance.
It is advisable to padlock the isolating switches in the OFF positions before attempting any
work on the connected equipment.
73

While working with with HV testing equipment the following precautions shall be taken note
of:
1. Use of cables with adequate insulation
2. Use of rubber hand gloves, Provision of earthing to discharge the equipment.
3. All earthing rods and other safety equipments shall be checked for soundness and good
working conditions periodically.
5.5 SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS:
The area housing EP and EP control rooms shall be made inaccessible to unauthorized person
without a written permission.
The person authorized to work on EP must be fully trained in tendering first-aid in case of
injuries from electric shock and also the use of for fighting equipments. The following safety
accessories shall be provided in the EP control room:
1. Rubber mat in-front of the panels.
2. Adequate number of fire-fighting equipment at suitable locations.
3. First-aid kit.
4. Display of first-aid kit, artificial respiration and fire fighting instructions.
An elaborate earthing scheme is provided for the EP, which connects all the electrical
equipments/components mounted on the precipitator at two points. Earthing strips are
provided across the gasket joints to ensure continuity of earthing. Flexible earthing cables are
also provided for connecting all the doors/covers to the respective body. The earthing scheme
on EP ultimately gets connected to earth-pit at two locations.
An earth mat is also provided in the EP control room below the ground level to which all the
control and power panels are earthed at two points. The soundness of all the earth
connections shall be checked periodically.
Adequate number of earthing rods is provided for earthing the high voltage system during the
any work/maintenance of high-voltage line/parts when power supply is switched off.

74

BEFORE COMENCING INSPECTION OR MAINTENANCE WORK ON THE


TRANSFORMERS OR INSIDE EP
Switch off the high-voltage power supplies and lock the disconnecting switch handle in the
OFF position. In the OFF position the disconnecting switch the emitting electrodes system of
the respective fields gets earthed directly. However, befor gaining access to the required
high-voltage system, it is essential to discharge the static charges of EP field using earthing
rods. Ensure that the end clamp of the cable of the earthing rod is properly connected to the
earthed, before rod is used. Applications of earthing rods to the various systems are shown in
figure 1
While conducting any test on HV system/equipments such as transformers, disconnecting
switch, insulator housing etc. ensure that the test area is adequately guarded and isolated
during the period f testing. When high-voltage testing is done with inspection doors covers of
casing, insulator housing, disconnecting switch open, atleast two persons, one of whom
holding a responsible position must be present. All cables shall be discharged before and after
the application of the test voltage. For meggering, temporary conductors used for testing
purpose shall be of adequate size.
Before gaining access to EP internals for any maintenance/shut down work. It is absolutely
essential to observe the following safety measures:
1. All the HV systems are switched off and grounded by earthing rods.
2. The EP internals have cooled down sufficiently.
3. Rapping motors are switched off and the local push buttons are locked in OFF positions.
The personnel entering EP shall wear safety gas masks. Hand lamps and tools for works
inside the EP are to be 24V supply. It is always safer to carry out any work inside EP with a
team of atleast two persons. After maintenance work or before start-up, authorized person
may switch on EP only after fulfilling the following conditions.
1. The area must be cleared of men and foreign material.
2. The temporary grounding devices are removed.
3. The inspections doors are closed.

75

4. The interlocking system keys are returned to their original position.


5. A written permission is obtained from the competent authority.
A mechanical key interlock scheme is provided for the precipitator to ensure adequate safety
of the operating personnel. The design of the system guards against inadvertent contact of the
live HV system by personnel. Although, master keys to bypass the interlock sequence are
supplied, the same shall be used only under exigencies. Three master keys shall be in
possession of a senior responsible person of the plant. Attempts shall never be made to
bypass the interlock.
5.6 COMMISSIONING
COMMISSIONING CHECKS
GENERAL
Before entering inside ESP ensure that:
1. L.T. Switchboard, EC, ACP and disconnecting switches are OFF.
2. All electrical equipments are earthed.
3. Transformers negative bushing, emitting system framework inspection doors and covers
of insulator housing are earthed through discharge rods.
4. Interlock sequences are strictly adhered to.
5. All safety aspect as given in SAFETY INSTRUCTION are taken care of.
Inside the ESP ensure the following:
1. Debris and foreign material such as welding electrode bits, temporary supports, etc. are
removed.
2. No holes in the wall, roofs and hopper plates are left open.

76

Internals
Ensure that:
1. All critical distances are maintained within tolerance as per the drawing enclosed.
2. All bolts and nuts are arrested by tack welding. In case of HSFG bolts of collecting
electrodes and shock bars locking welding should not be done.
3. A slight play of the rapper shaft is maintained.
4. A minimum axial play of 5 mm on either side of the shaft insulator is maintained.
5. Correct style of scavenging screws in the case of horizontal drive arrangement is installed
concentrically around the shaft insulator where applicable. Scavenging screws should be
freely rotating and nt rubbing with the casing.
6. Shock bars are moving free.
7. Shock bar guide and its support are aligned properly.
8. Shock pads and hammers are aligned.
9. Set rings are in position as per allowable gap between gap and tact welded.
NOTE:
1. Plain bearings of the shaft shall never be greased.
2. Remove temporary earthing after completion of the job.

77

General Motors
Ensure that:
1. Correct lubrication oil level is maintained (level to be 50% of the viewing glass).
Overfilling will cause leakage.
2. Clutch, coupling and shaft are in alignment.
3. Filling plugs, cooling fan blades are covers in position.
4. Cables are terminated properly with crimped lugs and glands and terminal box covers are
watertight.
5. Cable armor and two earth-points of the motor are earthed.
6. Winding resistance across RY, YB and BR phases is equal.
7. IR value of the windings is above 2M ohm.
8. Trail run the Rapping System. The inner arm shall be locked by tact welding bolts and
nuts after the trail run of the system. Set rings should be tact welded with the shaft. The
hammer shall hit at the centre of the shock pad/shock beam. While replacing the
shaft/inner arm care to be taken to maintain the angle of successive hammers as per
drawing.
NOTE:
If the rapping shaft is allowed to rotate in the reverse direction even for a short while, the
shock bars will get damaged. Before the shaft is connected to the motor ascertain the correct
direction of the rotation of the motor as indicated in Rapping mechanism for Emitting and
Collecting System drawing.
For further details refer O&M instructions are furnished by the geared motor vendor.

78

Drive arrangement of emitting system rapping


Ensure that:
1. Anti-friction bearings are lubricated and sealed.
2. Heating elements are properly fixed.
3. Packing glands properly placed.
4. Insulators are healthy, clean and rigid.
5. The grip coupling contacts properly engaged.
Disconnecting switches
Ensure that:
1. Insulators are healthy, clean and rigid.
2. HV bus terminal and earth connections are inside are tight.
3. Operation of moving blade with HV and earth contacts is smooth and proper.
4. Copper cables between moving arms and insulator head is properly connected. Each
disconnecting switch is provided with a danger plate and two external earth connections
to earth grid.
5. Doors are closed tightly.
6. Interlocks provided at doors and handle are working properly.
Insulator housing
Ensure that:
1. Insulators are clean, healthy and rigid.
2. Copper tubes are straight, tight and have sufficient electrical clearance with respect earth
and other components such as thermostat and heating elements etc.
3. Heating elements are properly fixed.
4. Earthing is proper.
79

5. Screw legs and nuts for placement of alignment jigs are welded.
6. Doors are closed tightly.
7. Interlocks are working properly.
8. Each insulator housing is provided with a danger plate and two external earth connection
to earth grid.
9. Insulator housing is insulated with thermal insulation.
High voltage bus ducts
Ensure that:
1. Flanged joints are provided with gaskets and earthing cables.
2. Copper tubes are straight and tightly connected.
Heating element
Ensure that:
1. IR value is above 2M Ohm (use 500 V Megger only).
2. Continuity is ascertained.
3. Cables are terminated properly with crimped lugs and glands and terminal box cover is
watertight.
4. Cable armor and earth points are connected to earth.
Thermostat:
Ensure that:
1. Cables are terminated properly.
2. Cover is watertight.
3. Setting of thermostat is 1200 C for hopper heaters and 140o C for support insulator heater.
4. Contact continuity is verified.

80

Cables and Accessories


Ensure that:
1. Cables are connected with correct tag number, ferrules, color-coding etc. as per the
relevant cable schedule are terminated properly.
2. Cables are laid and supported properly.
3. Continuity and IR value are verified.
Auxiliary control panel
Ensure that:
1. All components are verified with the bill of materials.
2. IR values are measured and well above 2M ohms.
3. Supply is available at the output terminal of all feeders. (To be checked after closing the
relevant switches and contactors).
4. Contactors, relays and lamps are functioning properly.
5. Synchronous Programmer/RAPCON is working.
6. Direction of rotation of geared motors corresponds to that of rapping shafts.
NOTE:
1. For conducting functional test: Supply shall be arranged at the inputs terminals, outgoing
terminal shall be disconnected and thermostat and local push button shall be temporarily
shorted.
2. Setting of programmer cams as per the chart provided separately.
3. Setting of thermal overload relay shall correspond to motors full load current.

81

5.7 PREPARATION AFTER MAINTENANCE


1. Check the precipitator internals and remove the tools and other foreign materials.
2. Remove temporary earthing connectors if any, on the emitting system.
3. Check all the insulator visually.
4. Inspect the rapping motors and top-up with oil, if necessary.
5. Run the rapping motors and ascertain that they function properly.
6. Check that the heating elements function normally.
7. Check the dielectric strength of the transformer oil and centrifuge the oil if required.
Conduct open circuit test to ensure the healthiness of the transformer-rectifiers.
8. Close all the inspection doors and covers and ensure that the interlocking system is in
order.
9. Megger and test all the fields on air load.
10. Ensure that the ash handling system is working properly.
5.8 AIR LOAD TEST
Air Load Test is an important commissioning activity. This test gives the diagnosis of the
following:
1. Proper erection and alignment of EP as well as the healthiness of attended renovated
field.
2. Presence of any left out debris/ hanging pieces, which may limit the voltage or short the
electrodes.
3. Healthiness of insulator.
4. Healthiness of transformer and electronic controllers.
NOTE: Good air load test readings do not necessarily mean good electrical clearances. It is
necessary to check all the clearances physically during maintenance.

82

5.8.1 PREPERATIONS
1. Remove all the temporary earth connection made with discharge rods.
2. Close all insulator housing, disconnecting switch and inspection doors adopting the
interlock sequence and return the key to the electronic controller.
3. Check the IR value of individual fields using 1 KV megger. Megger shall be done between
earth and emitting system at disconnecting switch keeping the moving blade in between the
two fixed contacts.
5.8.2 PROCEDURE
1. Make supply available to ACPs and ECs. Ensure switching on of all heaters 4 hrs.
2. Switch on all rapping motors on continuous mode.
3. Keep Intermittent Charge Ratio= 1:1 and IM= 100% in BAPCON.
4. Switch on EC and slowly raise the current by increasing Is. Note the meter readings for
each interval of 50 mA. Raise upto rated current. Look for flashover if any and record.
5. The rapping motors are to be changed to intermittent rapping mode after taking the
voltage & current readings.
6. Keep all the fields energized for a period of 8 hours.
7. Switch off the ECs, ACPs and LT boards.
8. If the fields are properly erected and aligned, they can be loaded upto the rated current
without sparks.
5.8.3 START UP
1. Since the precipitator will contain moisture, I is essential to give the precipitator sufficient
time to heat up and dry out prior to operation. Switch on the heaters at least 24 hours before
start up.
2. The rapping motors shall be switched on before the gas is passed through and kept in the
intermittent operation mode.
3. The precipitator should not be energized until the temperature rise above the dew point.
83

4. During oil firing, when the flue gas temperature exceeds the dew point, energize the
transformer with a current setting of 50 mA in all.
5. If, however any flashover occurs, reduce the current level.
6. Record the flue gas temperature at APH outlet, meter readings on EC and ACP in log
sheet.
NOTE:
1. Operation of EP under continuous sparking during oil firing any cause fire hazards.
2. Acid dew point normally lie in the range 80o C to 120o C depending on the coal oil
composition, moisture content and start up conditions.
5.8.4 OPERATION
START UP PROCEDURE
1.

Switch on the heating elements atleast 24 hours before the start up of the boiler.

2.

Switch on the rapping mechanism as soon as the boiler is lighted up.

3.

The precipitator design allows for start up from cold condition. However if the
precipitator is energized in cold condition, considerable moisture from the gases will
condense on the EP internals leading to formation of the ashcake, which is difficult to
dislodge by normal rapping. Hence, the transformers shall not be energized until the gas
temperature is above 100o C.

4.

For commissioning the transformer rectifiers refer suppliers manual furnished in section
1 of part III.
5.8.5 OPERATIONAL CHECKS
1. Check the normal function of the Transformer Rectifier, Electronic controllers, Auxiliary
control panels, Rapping mechanisms, Heating Elements and Ash handling system.
2. The following shall be recorded in a logbook atleast once ion a shift.
A. All the meter readings in the electronic controller and Auxiliary control panel.
B. Boiler load.
84

C. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of the precipitator.


D. The failure of components the outage and the probable cause will be recorded.
Corrective action wherever necessary shall be taken.
5.8.6 SHUTDOWN
1. Switch off the transformer rectifiers when the gas temperature has dropped below acid dew
point of the gas.
2. Continue the operation of the rapping motors in continuous mode for approximately 30
minute after switching off the fields.
3. Continue the operation of the fly ash evacuation system until all the hoppers are
completely emptied.
4. When the precipitator internal have cooled down to safe level, the access doors may be
opened after following the interlock sequence and switching off the ACP.
5. During shutdown, inspect the internals for:
a. Snapped or loose wires.
b. Excessive ash accumulation.
c. Dislocation, bending of shock bars, shock bar guides and collecting electrodes.
Bent collecting electrodes and collecting electrodes coming out of U guides.
d. Condition of rapping system like bent shafts, missing. Loose hammers.
e. Check the condition of plain bearing, rapping shaft and replace if necessary.
f. Any other abnormality.
6. Short term shutdown when no work inside EP is required.
7. Close the inlet and outlet dampers. Do not open the casing doors. This reduces the
precipitator start up time by retaining as much heat as possible. Heaters need not be
switched off.

85

A. Short term shutdown when the internal inspection of ESP is required.


B. Complete the internal check and close the doors as quickly as possible
C. Normally the precipitator does not require any periodical manual cleaning since the
rapping system ensure adequate cleaning of EP internal during the operation.
D. However operation of EP under the following conditions may cause excessive dust
deposit on the internals.
E. Prolonged operation of EP without rapping.
F. Energisation of EP with wet internals.
G. Operation of EP below acid dew point.
H. Flue gas entering the EP is misty due to incomplete oil combustion particularly at the
time of initial boiler operation.
I. Accumulation of such dust deposits not only cause the reduction of precipitator
efficiency but also results in unstable operation, rapid corrosion of electrodes, failure
of insulators and fire hazards.
J. Therefore during any shutdown, if excessive ash deposit is noticed, clean the internals
and identify the cause of such excessive deposit for rectification. Removal of such
sticky dust may be done with brushes, scrapers, compressed air or water.
K. Procedure for water washing:
1. Keep all the manhole doors on the roof casing and hopper open before water
washing.
2. The opening to the shaft insulators and support insulators shall be covered prior to
water washing to avoid any direct flushing on the inside of the insulators.
3. The hopper outlet shall be kept open for easy discharge of water without
stagnation in the hopper.
4. Hot water may be used for quickly dry-up. The water shall be free from any
chloride and other chemicals which can cause corrosion. The quality of the water
shall be analyzed and the record shall be maintained for future reference.
86

5. The water pressure in the flushing equipment shall be maintained between 2-3
kg/cm2. Higher water pressure may damage the functional parts. The water shall
be sprayed to internals through a nozzle.
6. The flushing shall commence from the top of the internal and proceed towards the
bottom.
7. All the fields in the casing shall be water washed at a time. If a field is left
unflushed high humidity inside the casing may leave sticky deposit in the fields,
which may lead to corrosion.
8. Dry off the support, shaft insulators using dry cloth.
5.9 IMPORTANT INSTRUCTIONS
1. Log the meter readings hourly.
2. Do not operate the controllers with more than 5 sparks per minute.
3. Never leave the control panels unattended.
4. Empty the hoppers continuously.
5. Do not use the hoppers as storage bins.
6. Do not energize the fields when fields when hopper is overfilled or when the internals are
damaged/ Dislocated.
7. Switch off the corresponding rapping motors when hoppers are overfilled.
8. Observe all safety aspects.
9. Use master keys only in exigencies.
10. Never bypass interlock sequence.
11. Energize the fields only after he fuel gas temperature reaches above dew point.
12. Keep the control room dust free/well ventilated and air-conditioned.
13. Do not keep the panels open.
14. Keep all the heaters in service.
87

CHAPTER 6
BATTERY BANK
6.1 220V DC System at Thermal Power Station
The 220V DC system supplies direct current as source of operating power for control,
signalling, relays, tripping and closing of switchgears, emergency motors of most important
auxiliary systems. Under normal conditions of station generation, the storage battery units are
kept floating in DC bus bars by means of the trickle chargers (also known as float chargers).
The trickle chargers of each battery unit, which is a rectifier with AC input, is normally made
to take all DC requirements of the power station without allowing the battery to discharge.
This is achieved by maintaining the DC output voltage of trickle charger a few volts higher
than the voltage of the battery.
With this, the trickle charger besides meeting all the DC requirements of the power station,
supplies a few hundred milliamps of direct current to the battery to compensate the loss in the
capacity of the battery due to action between the plates of the cell. With this arrangement, the
battery remains connected to the DC bus bars as a standby supply source and immediately
supplies the DC load in the vent of temporary failure of complete AC system.
The complete AC power system failure in a power station is known as emergency situation.
DC battery units are designed to supply station DC loads for an emergency period of one
hour. The tickle charger normally supplies the station DC load and the momentary loads will
also be catered for by the trickle charger and if such a load is more than its capacity, the
battery being in parallel with the trickle charger will supply the excessive load. The trickle
charger will normally be kept operating at around 1152.15 V ie 247 volts. In case of AC
mains failure the full battery of 115 cells will supply the load ie 230 volts. If the emergency
lasts for one hour with an appropriate load of 450 Amps, then battery will supply the load for
one hour when its end voltage will drop down to 1.75 volts per cell ie 201 volts.
After the emergency when the quick charger is closed the full battery will receive a boost
charge and at the same time only the voltage of 98 cells will appear across the load.
If a second emergency occurs during quick charging, then immediately all the 115 cells are
connected to the bus by closing the switch meant for the purpose. During routine daily testing
of emergency DC motors connected to main distribution board middle section, supply has to
be taken from the quick charger and the middle section has to be kept isolated from the left
and right sections of main distribution board. This is to test the quick charger.
6.2 Types of battery being used:
1. Lead-acid battery tubular
2. Lead-acid battery plaint
3. Ni-Cd battery
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6.3 PROCEDURE FOLLOWED IN COMMISSIONING A BATTERY


1. The battery is charged initially to its capacity. The lead acid Battery has a capacity of
1000AH ie it may be charged for 10 hrs with charging current of 100 A or 5 hrs with
charging current of 200 A. in case of Ni-Cd battery with a capacity of 2500 AH is
charged for 12.5 hrs. with a charging current of 200A.
2. Now the battery is discharged at the rate of 10% of its capacity in case of lead-acid
battery and 20% or 40% of its capacity in case of Ni-Cd battery.
3. Now the battery is recharged to its capacity.
4. Constant voltage charging of battery is called float charging. A lead acid battery of
cell voltage 2.2V is float charged upto 2.42 V. A Ni-Cd battery of cell voltage 1.2V is
float charged upto 1.41 V.
5. Constant current charging of a battery is called boost charging. A lead acid battery
with bank voltage 237 may be boost charged to 279V. A Ni-Cd battery with bank
voltage 242 may be boost charged to 283V.
6.4 EQUIPMENT USED IN 220V DC SUPPLY SYSTEM
6.4.1Sources of AC power
Two sources of AC power have been provided for both quick charger and trickle charger, one
is the normal source and other is standby. AC power supply to the chargers is through
transformers having off-load tap changing arrangement. An AC voltage-signaling relay
communicates; AC voltage low when the supply voltage becomes low.
6.4.2 Voltage level indicating device
A voltage level indicating device in MDB gives audio and visual annunciation when the DC
bus voltage changes beyond set low (180-210) and high limits (240-270).
6.4.3 AVR
The DC voltage is maintained at desired value automatically by means of AVR unit provided
at panel board.
6.4.4 Insulation monitoring device
This device annunciates when the insulation resistance of either positive bus to earth or
negative bus to earth falls below 20 kilo ohms and also when the ratio of insulation resistance
of positive bus to earth to negative bus to earth is 1.5 or above.
6.4.5 Flickering light device
This has been installed in the MDB, for flicker supply to control and check whether device is
in order or not. Control and signaling panels have two sets of bus bars, one fed by main
distribution board left section and the other by MDB right section. The loads of the first panel
89

should be kept switched to the set of bus bars fed by MDB. Left section and the loads of the
second panel should be kept connected to the set of bus bars fed by MDB right section.
6.4.6 Heaters
Heaters are provided to raise the temperature of flue gases, as they become conductive when
heated. 24 heaters are provided for stage I electrostatic precipitators. Rating: 550W heaters
6.4.7 Zones
The flue gases from the boiler section reach electrostatic precipitator section through ducts.
The flue gases are allowed to pass through various zones each having its own heaters,
collecting and emissive electrodes and DC supply. These zones are provided to lessen the
burden on a single zone and to take the load of other zone in case of maintenance or damage
of a particular zone. Stage I have 16 zones eight belonging to PASS A and rest to PASS B.
Stage II has 20 Zones five belonging to each PASS A, PASS B, PASS C and PASS D.
6.4.8 Diodes
These are provided to rectify the AC voltage to the required DC voltage for electrostatic
precipitators to work. The required DC voltage is 70 kV, 1000 mA. Type: BY 127
6.4.9 Motors
Rapping motors are provided along with each zone. A hammer is coupled to each of the
motors shaft. Due to rotary motion of motor these hammers hit the collecting electrodes after
a certain time delay and the ash is allowed to flow down through outlet in form of slurry.
Rating: .5A motors
A GD screen (gas diverting) motor is also provided in electrostatic precipitator to provide a
zigzag motion of flue gas so as to allow the heavy dust particles to settle down and removed.
6.5 Features:
6.5.1Spark regulation
Flashovers of extremely low intensity are difficult to detect using the comparator technique.
Non detection results in sustained arcing which may damage the collecting electrode. For
such digital detection system is adopted.
6.5.2 Fast ramp control
In case of fast changes in operating conditions of precipitator many sparks may occur within
a short time reducing current to a low value, when the disturbance disappears, it may take a
relatively long time before the current can assume its normal value. This is the case
particularly if selected rate of rise is low

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6.6 Modes of operation


6.6.1 Back corona mode
In this mode the precipitator voltage decreases with increase in precipitator current. This
reduces the efficiency of precipitator and consumes unnecessary power.
6.6.2 Charge ratio mode
In a high resistive dust a potential gradient is created within the dust layers which causes
occurrence of local sparks in dust layer. This spurious discharges or BACK CORONA occurs
as soon as potential gradient is high. This has negative impact on efficiency.
6.6.3 Charge ratio
This mode supplies current in pulses and provides a dense corona for a short circuit time and
at same time gives a low current to avoid back corona.
6.7 Testing and Commissioning of Substation DC System
6.7.1 Objective
Power substation DC system consists of battery charger and battery. This is to verify the
condition of battery and battery charger and commissioning of them
6.7.2 Test Instruments Required
Following instruments will be used for testing:
1. Multimeter
2. Battery loading unit (Torkel-720 (Programma Make) or equivalent.
The Torkel-720 is capable of providing a constant current load to the battery under
test.
6.7.3 Commissioning Test Procedure
1. Battery Charger
2. Visual Inspection: The battery charger cleanliness to be verified. Proper cable
termination of incoming AC cable and the outgoing DC cable and the cable
connection between battery and charger to be ensured. A stable incoming AC supply
to the battery charger is also to be ensured.
3. Voltage levels in the Float charge mode and the Boost charge mode to be set
according to specifications using potentiometer provided.
4. Battery low voltage, Mains Off, charger Off etc., conditions are simulated and
checked for proper alarm / indication. Thus functional correctness of the battery
charger is ensued.
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5. Charger put in Commissioning mode for duration specified only one time during
initial commissioning of the batteries. (By means of enabling switch.)
6. Battery charger put in fast charging boost mode and battery set boost charged for the
duration specified by the battery manufacturer.
7. After the boost charging duration, the battery charger is to be put in float charging
(trickle charge) mode for continuous operation.Some chargers automatically switch to
float charge mode after the charging current reduces below a certain value.
8. Voltage and current values are recorded during the boost charging and float-charging
mode.
This test establishes the correct operation of the battery charger within the specified voltage
and current levels in various operational modes.
6.8 Battery Unit
1. Mandatory Condition: The battery set should have been properly charged as per the
commissioning instructions of the battery manufacturer for the duration specified.
2. Visual Inspection: Cleanliness of battery is checked and the electrolyte level checked
as specified on the individual cells. The tightness of cell connections on individual
terminals should be ensured.
3. The load current, minimum voltage of battery system, ampere-hour, duration etc., is
preset in the test equipment using the keypad.
For (e.g.) a 58 AH battery set, 5 Hr. duration specification 11.6 A and 5 Hr. duration are set.
Minimum voltage setting is = No. of cells x end cell voltage of cells as per manufacturer
specification.
4. It is to be ensured that the set value of the current and duration is within the discharge
capacity of the type of cell used. Also the total power to be dissipated in the load unit
should be within the power rating of the battery load kit.
5. Individual cell voltages to be recorded before the start of the test.
6. Battery charger to be switched off/load MCB in charger to be switched off.
7. Loading of the battery to be started at the specified current value.
Individual cell voltages of the battery set are to be recorded every half an hour.
8. It is to be ensured that all the cell voltages are above the end-cell voltage specified by
the manufacturer.
If any of the cell voltages falls below the threshold level specified by the
manufacturer, this cell number is to be noted and the cell needs to be replaced.

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9. Test set automatically stops loading after set duration (or) when minimum voltage
reached for the battery set.
10. Test to be continued until the battery delivers the total AH capacity it is designed for.
Value of AH and individual cell voltages to be recorded every half an hour.
6.9 Acceptance Limits
This test establishes the AH capacity of battery set at required voltage
The acceptance limit for the test is to ensure the battery set is capable of supplying the
required current at specified DC voltage without breakdown for the required duration.
6.10 Different types of battery used for auxiliary power supply in substations and power
plants
In industrial or substation applications mainly three types of batteries are used namely:
1. Vented / Flooded Lead Acid batteries
2. Sealed maintenance free batteries/Valve Regulated Lead Acid
3. Nickel Cadmium (Ni-cd) batteries
For UPS applications batteries are the most popular and hence are widely used. Hence, in this
detailing, mainly emphasize has been put on these type of batteries.
Vented / Flooded Lead Acid Batteries
There are two types for vented or flooded lead acid batteries namely tubular and Plante. The
difference between the two is the construction. For tubular battery normal life is 8-10 years.
The Plant battery is both mechanically and electrically more durable. The normal life for
Plant batteries is 15-20 years. Because this type of battery generates corrosive fumes when
charging and because the sulfuric acid electrolyte does evaporate to some extent, these
batteries must be used in a special room, which is well ventilated to the outside and kept
away from delicate electronic equipments.
It needs separate room/racks with acid proof tiles for installation. Because of evaporation, it
needs regular maintenance to check specific gravity, to add water and acid. These batteries
can withstand high temperature, voltage, and deep discharge with minimum damage to itself.
A notice should be exhibited in the battery room prohibiting smoking and use of naked
flames. These batteries cannot be transported in charged condition and therefore need
charging at site.
Typical initial charging of the battery will take about 55 to 90 hours. Nominal cell voltage is
2V/cell. The charger for this battery should be able to provide the first charge at 2.6 to 2.7
V/cell.

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These types of batteries are typically used for UPS Systems of very high rated capacity,
typically engaged for plant application, wherein maintenance and space is not really an issue.
Sealed Maintenance Free batteries (SMF)
These are also known as Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) batteries. These batteries are
the most popular for usage with UPS systems for computer or commercial application. Being
sealed, these batteries do not emit any fumes and hence can be very well installed next to
electronic equipment. These batteries also can be housed in a close enclosure if necessary.
These batteries are also maintenance free and avoid any hassles of checking specific gravity,
adding water or acid, etc.
These batteries have a relatively lesser life of approx. 3-5 years. The life expectancy typically
depends on the number of charge/discharge cycle experienced by the batteries and the
ambient temperature in which the batteries are used. These batteries are primarily the most
popular for commercial applications due to Install and forget approach.
The Performance and service life of these batteries can be maximized by observing the
following guidelines:
1. Permissible operating temperature range of SMF batteries is 15 deg C to 50 deg C, but
using within an operating range 5 C to 35 C will extend service life. Below 15 deg C, the
battery changes its chemical composition and cannot hold a charge. You will enjoy longer
service life, if batteries are operated in ambient temperature range of 20 deg C to 25 deg C
(68F to 77F). At lower temperature they have longer life and lower capacity while at higher
temperature they have higher capacity and lower life.
2. A good rule of thumb when determining battery service life in relation to temperature is
that for every 8.3 deg C (15F) average annual temperature above 25 deg C (77F), the life of
the battery is reduced by 50%. Therefore warranty of the battery should be ideally reduced to
50% for every 8.3 deg C (15F) increase in operating temperature above 25 deg C (77F).
3. SMF batteries are designed to have a float voltage of 2.3 V/cell. This means that a 12 V
battery (with 6 internal cells) has a float voltage of 13.8 Volts. Most of the battery
manufacturers recommend float voltage of 2.25 2.3 volts per cell. When there are more
cells (generally >120) in series, to compensate for higher temperatures, float voltage should
be decreased by approx. 3 mV per cell per deg C above 25 deg C. It should be increased by
the same amount when operated at a temperature less than 25 deg C to avoid undercharge.
The Cut off voltage is 1.67 V/cell for high rate of discharge
4. It is recommended that SMF batteries should not be left in totally discharged state more
than 72 hrs. The batteries may get partially or fully damaged due to SULPHATION if
charging does not start within 72 Hrs from totally discharged state. Sulphation is the
formation of lead sulphate on negative plates which acts as an insulator and has a detrimental
effect on charge acceptance.

94

5. In normal float / equalize use (2.25 to 2.35V/cell), gas generated inside battery is
recombined into negative plates, and return to water content of the electrolyte. Thus electrical
capacity is not lost because of this recombination. There is no need to add external water, but
due the corrosion of the electrodes battery will eventually lose capacity.
6. At ambient temperature of 30 40 deg C, the shelf life of batteries is 5-6 months only. A
freshening charge must be given to the batteries every 6 months, if needed to be stored for
longer periods. Batteries should be kept in dry, cool place. At ambient temperature of 20 deg
C (68F), the self-discharge rate is 3-4% (approx.) of rated capacity per month. The selfdischarge rate varies with ambient temperature.
7. SMF batteries are equipped with a safe, low pressure venting system, which operates at 7
psi to 10 psi (can vary slightly from manufacturer to manufacturer), automatically releasing
excess gas in the event that gas pressure rises to a level above the normal rate ensuring no
excessive buildup of gas in the batteries. Resealing is automatic once the pressure is returned
to normal.
8. Cyclic life of the battery depends on ambient operating temperature, the discharge rate, the
depth of discharge, and the manner in which the battery is recharged. The most important
factor is the depth of discharge. At a given discharge rate and time, the shallower the depth of
discharge, the longer is the cyclic life.
9. Failure mode at the end of life includes:
1. Capacity decrease
2. Internal short circuit
3. Damage to container/lid
4. Terminal corrosion
5. Reduced open circuit voltage.
10. The IEEE defines B (Bend of useful life) for a UPS battery as being the point when it
can no longer supply 80 percent of its rated capacity in ampere-hours (AH). The relationship
between AH capacity and runtime time is not linear, a 20% reduction in capacity results in a
much greater reduction in runtime. When battery reaches 80% of its rated capacity, the aging
process accelerates and the battery should be replaced. Some UPS/ Battery manufacturers
define B (Bend of useful life) for a UPS battery when battery capacity reaches 50-60% of
its rated capacity.
11. Mixed use of batteries with different capacities, different makes should be avoided as it
will cause accelerated aging of the whole string.
12. If two or more battery groups are to be used, connected in parallel, they must be
connected to the UPS through lengths of wires, cables or busbars that have the same loop line
resistance as each other. This makes sure that each parallel bank of batteries presents the
95

same impedance to the UPS as any other of the parallel banks thereby ensuring correct
equalization of the source to allow for maximum energy transfer to the UPS load.
13. The normal life SMF battery will support approx. 200 charge/discharge cycles at 25 deg
C (77F) and 100% depth of discharge.
14. The term B (Bend of useful life) for a UPS battery refers to the fact that these batteries
do not require fluid. But preventive maintenance like checking for cracks and deformation of
the container & lid, electrolyte leakage/spills tightening of the connection etc, particularly for
higher AH capacity batteries should be done to prevent any damage.
6.11 Nickel Cadmium Batteries (Ni-Cd)
Ni-cd batteries do emit hydrogen and oxygen gas, products of electrolysis, but there are no
corrosive gases as lead acid batteries, so these can be installed near electronic equipment.
Water consumption is relatively low and so therefore maintenance is low. Normal service life
is 20-25 years. These are most expensive of the various types of batteries previously
discussed. Initial cost may be approximately three times that of lead acid battery depending
upon their AH capacity.
These batteries do not experience the severe shortening of life when operated at elevated
temperatures and perform better at low temperatures than do the lead acid batteries. Nominal
cell voltage is 1.2 V/cell. The battery chargers and inverters have to be designed to operate
with low end cell cutoff voltages and higher recharging voltages needed for such batteries.
These batteries occasionally demand boost charging and typically find their applications
wherein UPSs support critical equipment in hazardous environment such as chemical,
fertilizer, cement industry.
Merits/demerits
As spelled earlier, all the above discussed types of batteries have their own merits and
demerits. Let us now look at them individually.
A) Vented / flooded Lead acid batteries
Merits
1. Most economical among three types of batteries.
2. Life is higher than SMF batteries.
3. Robust- not much sensitive to temperature.
Demerits
1. Needs periodic maintenance- twice a month.
2. Emits corrosive fumes.
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3. Needs special battery room with acid proof tilling.


4. Cannot be transported in charged condition, initial charging takes 55 to 90 hours.
5. Needs specially trained persons for handling due highly hazardous sulphuric acid.
B) Sealed maintenance free batteries / Valve Regulated Lead Acid
Merits
1. No maintenance as far as water filling, specific gravity check etc is concerned.
2. Can be shipped in charged conditions so ready to use.
3. User friendly.
Demerits
1. Leaving batteries in discharged state for longer life will reduce life significantly or
can damage them permanently.
2. Very sensitive to temperature
3. Service life lowest among the three types
4. Costlier than flooded / vented lead acid battery
C) Nickel Cadmium (Ni-Cd) batteries
Merits
1. Moderate maintenance
2. Higher service life
3. less sensitive to temperature
4. Fumes not corrosive so can be installed near electronic equipment
Demerits
1. Most expensive among three types
2. Cannot be transported in charged conditions
3. Compatibility with respect to charger and inverter needed to be considered

97

CHAPTER 7
PROTECTION SYSTEM

7.1 Relay: an introduction


7.1.1What is Relay
A relay is automatic device which senses an abnormal condition of electrical circuit and
closes its contacts. These contacts in turns close and complete the circuit breaker trip coil
circuit hence make the circuit breaker tripped for disconnecting the faulty portion of the
electrical circuit from rest of the healthy circuit.

7.1.2 Functions of protective Relay:


1.

To sound an alarm or to close the trip circuit of a circuit breaker so as to disconnect


Faulty Section.

2.

To disconnect the abnormally operating part so as to prevent subsequent faults. For


e.g. Overload protection of a machine not only protects the machine but also prevents
Insulation failure.

3.

To isolate or disconnect faulted circuits or equipment quickly from the remainder of


the system so the system can continue to function and to minimize the damage to the
faulty part. For example If machine is disconnected immediately after a winding
fault, only a few coils may need replacement. But if the fault is sustained, the entire
winding may get damaged and machine may be beyond repairs.

4.

To localize the effect of fault by disconnecting the faulty part from healthy part,
causing least disturbance to the healthy system.

5.

To disconnect the faulty part quickly so as to improve system stability, service


continuity and system performance. Transient stability can be improved by means of
improved protective relaying.

6.

To minimize hazards to personnel

7.2 Desirable qualities of protective relaying:


1. Selectivity
2. Discrimination
3. Stability
98

4. Sensitivity
5. Power consumption
6. System Security
7. Reliability
8. Adequateness
9. Speed & Time

7.3 Terminology of protective relay:


1.

Pickup level of actuating signal: The value of actuating quantity (voltage or current)
which is on threshold above which the relay initiates to be operated. If the value of
actuating quantity is increased, the electromagnetic effect of the relay coil is increased
and above a certain level of actuating quantity the moving mechanism of the relay just
starts to move.

2.

Reset level: The value of current or voltage below which a relay opens its contacts
and comes in original position.

3.

Operating Time of Relay: Just after exceeding pickup level of actuating quantity the
moving mechanism (for example rotating disc) of relay starts moving and it ultimately
close the relay contacts at the end of its journey. The time which elapses between the
instant when actuating quantity exceeds the pickup value to the instant when the relay
contacts close.

4.

Reset time of Relay: The time which elapses between the instant when the actuating
quantity becomes less than the reset value to the instant when the relay contacts
returns to its normal position.

5.

Reach of Relay: A distance relay operates whenever the distance seen by the relay is
less than the pre-specified impedance. The actuating impedance in the relay is the
function of distance in a distance protection relay. This impedance or corresponding
distance is called reach of the relay.

99

7.4 Types of Relays:


6.4.1 Types of protection relays
a) Based on Characteristic
i.
Definite time Relays. Inverse definite minimum time Relays (IDMT)
ii.
Instantaneous Relay
iii. IDMT with Instantaneous.
iv.
Stepped Characteristic
v.
Programmed Switches
vi.
Voltage restraint over current relay
b) Based on logic:
i.

Differential

ii.

Unbalance

iii.

Neutral Displacement

iv.

Directional

v.

Restricted Earth Fault

vi.

Over Fluxing

vii.

Distance Schemes

viii.

Bus bar Protection

ix.

Reverse Power Relays

x.

Loss of excitation

xi.

Negative Phase Sequence Relays etc.

c) Based on Actuating parameter:


i.

Current Relays

ii.

Voltage Relays

iii.

Frequency Relays

iv.

Power Relays etc.

d) Based on Operation Mechanism:


i.

Electro Magnetic Relay

ii.

Static Relay

iii.

Analog Relay

iv.

Digital Relay

v.

Numerical /Microprocessor Relay

100

vi.

Mechanical relay.
1.Thermal
1. OT Trip (Oil Temperature Trip)
2. WT Trip (Winding Temperature Trip)
3. Bearing Temp Trip etc.
2.Float Type
1. Buchholz
2. OSR
3. PRV Water level Controls etc.
3.Pressure Switches.
4.Mechanical Interlocks.
5.Pole discrepancy Relay.

e) Based on Applications:
i.

Primary Relays.

ii.

Backup Relays

7.4.2 Type of Relay based on Relay Operation Mechanism:


a) Electromagnetic Relay: Electromagnetic relays are further categorized under two
following categories.
i.

Electromagnetic Attraction Relay: This Relay works on Electromagnetic


Attraction Principle

ii.

Electromagnetic Induction Relay: This Relay works on Electromagnetic


Induction Principle

b) Solid State (Static) Relay: Solid-state (and static) relays are further categorized
under following designations.
i.

Analog Relay: In Analog relays are measured quantities are converted into
lower voltage but similar signals, which are then combined or compared
directly to reference values in level detectors to produce the desired output.

ii.

Digital Relay: In Digital relays measured ac quantities are manipulated in


analogue form and subsequently converted into square-wave (binary) voltages.
Logic circuits or microprocessors compare the phase relationships of the
square waves to make a trip decision.

iii.

Numerical Relay: In Numerical relays measured ac quantities are


sequentially sampled and converted into numeric data form. A microprocessor

101

performs mathematical and/or logical operations on the data to make trip


decisions.

7.4.3 Electromechanical Relay:


History of Relay: This is the first generation oldest relaying system and they have been
in use for many years. They have earned a well-deserved reputation for accuracy,
dependability, and reliability. There are two basic types of operating mechanisms: the
electromagnetic-attraction relay and electromagnetic-induction relay.
Measuring Principles: The electromechanical protective relay converts the voltages and
currents to magnetic and electric forces and torques that press against spring tensions in
the relay. The tension of the spring and taps on the electromagnetic coils in the relay are
the main processes by which a user sets in a relay.
Function of Relay: These relays are usually instantaneous in action, with no intentional
time delay, closing as soon after pickup as the mechanical motion permits. We can add
time delay by means of a bellows, dashpot, or a clockwork escapement mechanism.
However, the timing accuracy is considerably less precise than that of induction type
relays. As such, users seldom choose these relays with time delay in switchgear
applications.
1.

Electromechanical Relays can operate with either AC or DC on the coils.


Therefore, the DC component of an asymmetrical fault definitely affects these
relays using this principle.

2.

Most relays come enclosed in a semi flush-mounting draw out case. Installers
typically install relays usually on the door of the switchgear cubicle. They
bring sensor and control wiring to connections on the case. The relay inserts
into the case and connects by means of small switches or a bridging plug,
depending on the manufacturer.

3.

As such, we can disconnect and withdraw it from the case without disturbing
the wiring. When the relay is disconnected, the current transformer (CT)
connections in the case are automatically shorted to short circuit the CT
secondary winding and protect the CT from over voltage and damage.
102

7.5 Operation of Electromagnetic-attraction Relay: Figure shows a typical electromechanical relay. An input voltage is applied to the coil mechanism. The input voltage
magnetizes the core which pulls the arm towards it. This action causes the output contacts
to touch, closing the load circuit. When the input voltage is removed, the spring lever will
push the contacts away from each other, breaking the load circuit connection.

Fig 7.1 OPERATION OF ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY


7.6 Operation of Electromagnetic-Induction Relay: Induction relays are available in
many variations to provide accurate pickup and time-current responses for a wide range
of simple or complex system. They are actually like induction motors. On the relay, the
moving element (rotor) is usually a metal disk, although sometimes its a metal cylinder
or cup. The stationary part (stator) is one or more integral electromagnets, with current or
potential coils inducing currents in the disk, causing it to rotate. Until the rotational forces
are great enough to turn the disk and bring its moving contact against the stationary
contact, a spring restrains the disk motion.

FIG 7.2 ELECTROMECHANICAL RELAY

103

a)

This closes the circuit the relay is controlling. The greater the sensed fault, the greater
the current in the coils, and the faster the disk rotates.

b)

A calibrated adjustment called the time dial sets the spacing between the moving and
stationary contacts; this varies the operating time of the relay from fast (contacts only
slightly open) to slow (contacts nearly a full disk revolution apart). Reset action
begins upon removing the rotational force, either by closing the relay contact that trips
a breaker or by otherwise removing the malfunction the relay is sensing. The
restraining spring resets the disk to its original position. The time required to reset
depends on the type of relay and the time-dial setting (contact spacing).

c)

Most electromechanical Relays are typically rated for minimum input to output
isolation voltages of 1500 to 2000 VAC.

7.6.1 Limitations of Electromagnetic relays:


a)

Low speed of operation.

b)

Change in characteristics over a period due to ageing effect.

c)

Component failure leading to relay failure.

d)

Relay is Bulky: Because there are internal mechanical components with physical
dimension restraints, the package size of an electromechanical Relay can limit the size
of a PCB design Excessive power consumption.

e)

Imposes high burden on CT

f)

No fault data available except phase indication.

g)

Inherent in its design, the Electromechanical Relay must make mechanical contacts in
order to switch a load. At the point of these contacts, oxidation breakdown occurs
over extended life cycling (typically 106 operations), and the relay will need to be
replaced.

h)

When an electromechanical Relay is activated, bounce occurs at the contact site.


Bounce creates a window of time where the load circuit is flickering between open
and closed, a condition which may need to be considered in load design.

i)

Isolation voltage is another area where Electromechanical Relays are limited.

7.7 The Solid State Relay (Static Relay):


a)

History of Relay: The static relay are next generation relays .The Solid Static relays
was first introduced in 1960s. The term static implies that the relay has no moving
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mechanical parts in it. Compared to the Electromechanical Relay, the Solid Static
relay has longer life-span, decreased noise when operates and faster respond speed.
However, it is not as robust as the Electromechanical Relay.
b)

Static relays were manufactured as semi conductor devices which incorporate


transistors, ICs, capacitors, small micro processors etc.

c)

The static relays have been designed to replace almost all the functions which were
being achieved earlier by electromechanical relays.

d)

Measuring principles: The working principle of the Solid Static relays is similar to
that of the Electromechanical Relay which means the Solid Static relays can perform
tasks that the Electromechanical Relay can perform.

e)

The Solid Static relays use analogue electronic devices instead of magnetic coils and
mechanical components to create the relay characteristics. the measurement is carried
out by static circuits consisting of comparators, level detectors, filter etc while in a
conventional electro-magnetic relay it is done by comparing operating torque (or
force) with restraining torque (or force). The relaying quantity such as voltage/current
is rectified and measured. When the quantity under measurement attains certain welldefined value, the output device is triggered and thereby the circuit breaker trip circuit
is energized.

f)

In a solid state relay, the incoming voltage and current waveforms are monitored by
analog circuits, not recorded or digitized. The analog values are compared to settings
made by the user via potentiometers in the relay, and in some case, taps on
transformers.

g)

In some solid state relays, a simple microprocessor does some of the relay logic, but
the logic is fixed and simple. For instance, in some time over current solid state
relays, the incoming AC current is first converted into a small signal AC value, and
then the AC is fed into a rectifier and filter that converts the AC to a DC value
proportionate to the AC waveform. An op-amp and comparator is used to create a DC
that rises when a trip point is reached. Then a relatively simple microprocessor does a
slow speed A/D conversion of the DC signal, integrates the results to create the timeover current curve response, and trips when the integration rises above a set point.
Though this relay has a microprocessor, it lacks the attributes of a digital/numeric
relay, and hence the term microprocessor relay is not a clear term.

h)

Function of Relay: Early versions used discrete devices such as transistors and
diodes in conjunction with resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc., but advances in
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electronics enabled the use of linear and digital integrated circuits in later versions for
signal processing and implementation of logic functions. While basic circuits may be
common to a number of relays, the packaging was still essentially restricted to a
single protection function percase, while complex functions required several cases of
hardware suitably interconnected.
i)

User programming was restricted to the basic functions of adjustment of relay


characteristic curves. Therefore it can be viewed in simple terms as an analogue
electronic replacement for electromechanical relays, with some additional flexibility
in settings and some saving in space requirements.

j)

In some cases, relay burden is reduced, making for reduced CT/VT output
requirements. in a static relay there is no armature or other moving element and
response is developed by electronic, magnetic or other components without
mechanical motion.

k)

A relay using combination of both static and electro-magnetic units is also called a
static relay provided that static units accomplish the response.

l)

Additional electro-mechanical relay units may be employed in output stage as


auxiliary relays. A protective system is formed by static relays and electro-mechanical
auxiliary relays.

m)

The performance of static relay is better than electromagnetic relays as they are fast
acting and accuracy of measurement is better than electromagnetic relay.

n)

The constraint in static relay is limited function/features. In the last decade, some
micro processors were introduced in this relay to achieve the functions like (i) Fuse
failure features (ii) Self check feature (iii) Dead Pole detection and iv) Carrier aided
protection features.

a)

Operation of Relay: The essential components of static relays are shown in fig. The
output of CT and PT are not suitable for static components so they are brought down
to suitable level by auxiliary CT and PT. Then auxiliary CT output is given to
rectifier. Rectifier rectifies the relaying quantity i.e., the output from a CT or PT or a
Transducer

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FIG 7.3 FUNCTION OF STATIC RELAY


The rectified output is supplied to a measuring unit comprising of comparators, level
detectors, filters, logic circuits. The output is actuated when the dynamic input (i.e., the
relaying quantity) attains the threshold value. This output of the measuring unit is
amplified by amplifier and fed to the output unit device, which is usually an electromagnetic one. The output unit energizes the trip coil only when relay operates.
7.7.1 Advantages of Solid State Relay:
1.

Static Relay burden is less than Electromagnetic type of relays. Hence error is less.

2.

Low Weight

3.

Required Less Space which results in panel space saving.

4.

Arc less switching

5.

No acoustical noise.

6.

Multi-function integration.

7.

Fast response.

8.

Long life (High Reliability): more than 109 operations

9.

High Range of Setting compared to electromechanical Relay

10.

More Accurate compared to electromechanical Relay

11.

Low Electromagnetic Interference.

12.

Less power consumption.

13.

Shock and vibration resistant

14.

No contact bounce

15.

Microprocessor compatible.

16.

Isolation of Voltage

17.

No moving parts: There are no moving parts to wear out or arcing contacts to
deteriorate that are often the primary cause of failure with an Electro Mechanical
Relay.
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18.

No mechanical contact bounce or arcing: A solid-state relay doesnt depend on


mechanical forces or moving contacts for its operation but performs electronically.
Thus, timing is very accurate even for currents as low as the pickup value. There is no
mechanical contact bounce or arcing, and reset times are extremely short.

19.

Low input signal levels: Ideal for Telecommunication or microprocessor control


industries. Solid state relays are fast becoming the better choice in many applications,
especially throughout the telecommunication and microprocessor control industries.

20.

Cost Issues: In the past, there has been a rather large gap between the price of an
electromechanical relay and the price of a solid state relay. With continual
advancement in manufacturing technology, this gap has been reduced dramatically
making the advantages of solid state technology accessible to a growing number of
design engineers.

7.7.2 Limitations of solid state relays:


a)

Auxiliary voltage requirement for Relay Operation.

b)

Static relays are sensitive to voltage transients which are caused by operation of
breaker and isolator in the primary circuit of CTs and PTs.

c)

Serious over voltage is also caused by breaking of control circuit, relay contacts etc.
Such voltage spikes of small duration can damage the semiconductor components and
also cause mal operation of relays.

d)

Temperature dependence of static relays: The characteristics of semiconductor


devices are affected by ambient temperature.

e)

Highly sophisticated isolation and filter circuits are required to be built into the relay
design to take care of electromagnetic interference and transient switching
disturbances in the power system.

f)

Highly reliable power supply circuits are required.

g)

Effect of environmental conditions like humidity, high ambient temperature, dust


accumulation on PCB leading to tracking.

h)

The component failure.

i)

Non availability of fault data.

j)

Characteristic variations with passage of time.

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7.8 Digital Relay:


a)

History of Relay: Around 1980s the digital relay entered the market. Compared to
the Solid State Relay, the digital relay takes the advantages of the development of
microprocessors and microcontrollers. Instead of using analog signals, the digital
relay converts all measured analog quantities into digital signals.

a)

Digital protection relays is a revolution step in changing Relay technology. In Digital


Relay Microprocessors and micro controllers are used in replacement of analogue
circuits used in static relays to implement relay functions. Digital protection relays
introduced in 1980. However, such technology will be completely superseded within
the next five years by numerical relays.

b)

By the mid-1990s the solid state and electromechanical relay had been mostly
replaced by digital relay in new construction. In distribution applications, the
replacement by the digital relay proceeded a bit more slowly. While the great majority
of feeder relays in new applications today are digital, the solid state relay still sees
some use where simplicity of the application allows for simpler relays, and which
allows one to avoid the complexity of digital relays

c)

Measuring principles: Compared to static relays, digital relays introduce Analogue


to Digital Convertor (A/D conversion) of all measured analogue quantities and use a
microprocessor to implement the protection algorithm. The microprocessor may use
some kind of counting technique, or use the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to
implement the algorithm.

d)

The Microprocessors used in Digital Relay have limited processing capacity and
memory compared to that provided in numerical relays.

e)

Function of Relay: The functionality tends therefore to be limited and restricted


largely to the protection function itself. Additional functionality compared to that
provided by an electromechanical or static relay is usually available, typically taking
the form of a wider range of settings, and greater accuracy. A communications link to
a remote computer may also be provided.

f)

The limited power of the microprocessors used in digital relays restricts the number of
samples of the waveform that can be measured per cycle. This, in turn, limits the
speed of operation of the relay in certain applications. Therefore, a digital relay for a
particular protection function may have a longer operation time than the static relay
equivalent. However, the extra time is not significant in terms of overall tripping time
and possible effects of power system stability.
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g)

Operation of Relay: Digital relay consists of: (1) Analogue input subsystem, (2)
Digital input subsystem, (3) Digital output subsystem, (4) A processor along with
RAM (data scratch pad), main memory (historical data file) and Power supply.

h)

Digital relaying involves digital processing of one or more analog signals in three
steps: Conversion of analogue signal to digital form Processing of digital form
Boolean decision to trip or not to trip

FIG 7.4 PROCESS OF DIGITAL RELAY


7.8.1 Advantages of Digital Relay:
1.

High level of functionality integration.

2.

Additional monitoring functions.

3.

Functional flexibility.

4.

Capable of working under a wide range of temperatures.

5.

They can implement more complex function and are generally more accurate

6.

Self-checking and self-adaptability.

7.

Able to communicate with other digital equipment (pear to pear).

8.

Less sensitive to temperature, aging

9.

Economical because can be produced in volumes

10.

More Accurate.

11.

plane for distance relaying is possible

12.

Signal storage is possible

7.8.2 Limitations of Digital Relay:


1.

Short lifetime due to the continuous development of new technologies.

2.

The devices become obsolete rapidly.

3.

Susceptibility to power system transients.

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4.

As digital systems become increasingly more complex they require specially trained
staff for Operation.

5.

Proper maintenance of the settings and monitoring data.

7.9 Numerical Relay:


7.9.1 History of Relay:
The first protection devices based on microprocessors were employed in 1985. The
widespread acceptance of numerical technology by the customer and the experiences of the
user helped in developing the second generation numerical relays in 1990.
Conventional electromechanical and static relays are hard wired relays. Their wiring is fixed,
only their setting can be manually changed. Numeric relays are programmable relays. The
characteristics and behavior of the relay are can be programmed.
First generation numerical relays were mainly designed to meet the static relay protection
characteristic, whereas modern numeric protection devices are capable of providing complete
protection with added functions like control and monitoring. Numerical protection devices
offer several advantages in terms of protection, reliability, and trouble shooting and fault
information.
The distinction between digital and numerical relay rests on points of fine technical
detail, and is rarely found in areas other than Protection. They can be viewed as natural
developments of digital relays as a result of advances in technology. Typically, they use a
specialized digital signal processor (DSP) as the computational hardware, together with the
associated software tools.
7.9.2Measuring principles:
The input analogue signals are converted into a digital representation and processed
according to the appropriate mathematical algorithm. Processing is carried out using a
specialized microprocessor that is optimized for signal processing applications, known as a
digital signal processor or DSP for short. Digital processing of signals in real time requires a
very high power microprocessor.

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The measuring principles and techniques of conventional relays (electromechanical


and static) are fewer than those of the numerical technique, which can differ in many aspects
like the type of protection algorithm used, sampling, signal processing, hardware selection,
software discipline, etc. These are microprocessor-based relays in contrast to other relays that
are electromechanically controlled.
7.9.3 Function of Relay:
Modern power system protection devices are built with integrated functions. Multifunction
like protection, control, monitoring and measuring are available today in numeric power
system protection devices. Also, the communication capability of these devices facilitates
remote control, monitoring and data transfer.
Traditionally, electromechanical and static protection relays offered single-function, single
characteristics, whereas modern numeric protection offers multi-function and multiple
characteristics.
The measuring principles and techniques of conventional relays (electromechanical and
static) are fewer than those of the numerical technique, which can differ in many aspects like
the type of protection algorithm used, sampling, signal processing, hardware selection,
software discipline, etc.
First generation numerical relays were mainly designed to meet the static relay protection
characteristic, whereas modern numeric protection devices are capable of providing complete
protection with added functions like control and monitoring. Numerical protection devices
offer several advantages in terms of protection, reliability, and trouble shooting and fault
information. Numerical protection devices are available for generation, transmission and
distribution systems

FIG 7.5 NUMERICAL RELAY

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Numerical relays are micro processor based relays and having the features of recording of
parameter used as disturbance recorder flexibility of setting & alarms & can be used one
relay for all type of protections of one equipment hence less area is required. Wide Range of
setting, more accurate, Low burden hence low VA of CT is required which minimize the cost.
Numeric relays take the input analog quantities and convert them to numeric values. All of
the relaying functions are performed on these numeric values.
The following sections cover relay hardware, relay software, multiple protection
characteristics, adaptive protection characteristics, data storage, instrumentation feature, selfcheck feature, communication capability, additional functions, size and cost-effectiveness.
Numerical protection devices are available for generation, transmission and distribution
systems. Modern power system protection devices are built with integrated functions. Multifunctions like protection, control, monitoring and measuring are available today in numeric
power system protection devices. Also, the communication capability of these devices
facilitates remote control, monitoring and data transfer.
These relays provide great precision and convenience in application in the sophisticated
electronic products. By combining several functions in one case, numerical relays also save
capital cost and maintenance cost over electromechanical relays. The disadvantages of a
conventional electromechanical relay are overcome by using micro controller for realizing
the operation of the relays. Micro controller based relays perform very well and their cost is
relatively low
Also, the communication capability of these devices facilitates remote control, monitoring
and data transfer. Traditionally, electromechanical and static protection relays offered singlefunction, single characteristics, whereas modern numeric protection offers multifunction and
multiple characteristics. Some protections also offer adaptable characteristics, which
dynamically change the protection characteristic under different system conditions by
monitoring the input parameters.
Operation of Relay: A current signal from CT is converted into proportional voltage signal
using I to V converter.

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The ac voltage proportional to load current is converted into dc using precision rectifier and
is given to multiplexer (MUX) which accepts more than one input and gives one output.
Microprocessor sends command signal to the multiplexer to switch on desired channel to
accept rectified voltage proportional to current in a desired circuit.

FIG 7.6 MICROPROCESSOR BASED NUMAERICAL RELAY


Output of Multiplexer is fed to analog to digital converter (ADC) to obtain signal in digital
form. Microprocessor then sends a signal ADC for start of conversion (SOC), examines
whether the conversion is completed and on receipt of end of conversion (EOC) from ADC,
receives the data in digital form. The microprocessor then compares the data with pick-up
value. If the input is greater than pick-up value the microprocessor send a trip signal to circuit
breaker of the desired circuit.
In case of instantaneous over current relay there is no intentional time delay and circuit
breaker trips instantly. In case of normal inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse and long
inverse over current relay the inverse current-time characteristics are stored in the memory of
microprocessor in tabular form called as look-up table.
7.9.4 Advantages of Numerical relays:
1. Compact Size: Electromechanical Relay makes use of mechanical comparison
devices, which cause the main reason for the bulky size of relays. It uses a flag system
for the indication purpose whether the relay has been activated or not. While
Numerical Relay is in Compact Size and use Indication on LCD for Relay activation.
Digital protection can be physically smaller, and almost always requires less panel
wiring than equivalent functions implemented using analog technology.

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2. Flexibility: A variety of protection functions can be accomplished with suitable


modifications in the software only either with the same hardware or with slight
modifications in the hardware.
3. Reliability: A significant improvement in the relay reliability is obtained because the
use of fewer components results in less interconnections and reduced component
failures.
4. Multi-Function Capability: Traditional electromechanical and static protection
relays offers single-function and single characteristics. Range of operation of
electromechanical relays is narrow as compared to numerical relay.
5. Different types of relay characteristics: It is possible to provide better matching of
protection characteristics since these characteristics are stored in the memory of the
microprocessor.
6. Digital communication capabilities: The microprocessor based relay furnishes easy
interface with digital communication equipments. Fibre optical communication with
substation LAN
7. Modular frame: The relay hardware consists of standard modules resulting in ease of
service.
8. Low burden: The microprocessor based relays have minimum burden on the
instrument transformers.
9. Sensitivity: Greater sensitivity and high pickup ratio.
10. Speed: With static relays, tripping time of cycle or even less can be obtained.
11. Fast Resetting: Resetting is less.
12. Data History: Availability of fault data and disturbance record. Helps analysis of
faults by recording details of (1) Nature of fault, (2) Magnitude of fault level, (3)
Breaker problem, (4) C.T. saturation, (5) Duration of fault.
13. Auto Resetting & Self Diagnosis: Electromechanical relay do not have the ability to
detect whether the normal condition has been attained once it is activated thus auto
resetting is not possible and it has to be done by the operating personnel. while in
Numerical Relay auto Resetting is Possible
14. By combining several functions in one case, numerical relays also save capital cost
and maintenance cost over electromechanical relays
15. Separate connection is not required, zero sequence voltages and currents can be
derived inside the processor

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16. Basic hardware is shared between multiple functions, the cost of individual protection
functions can be reduced significantly.
17. Loss of voltage feature helps block the relay in case of momentary/permanent loss of
voltage.
7.9.5 Limitations of Numerical Relay:
a)

Numerical Relay offers more functionality, and greater precision. Unfortunately, that
does not necessarily translate into better protection.

b)

Numerical Relay can make faster decisions. However, in the real world, faster
protection itself is of no value because circuit breakers are still required to interrupt at
the direction of the protective equipment, and the ability to make circuit breakers
interrupt faster is very limited.

c)

Numerical Relay protection often relies on non-proprietary software, exposing the


system to potential risk of hacking.

d)

Numerical Relay protection sometimes has exposure to externally-sourced transient


interference that would not affect conventional technology.

e)

Numerical Relay protection shares common functions. This means that there are
common failure modes that can affect multiple elements of protection. For example,
failure of a power supply or an input signal processor may disable an entire protective
device that provides many different protection functions. This problem has receive a
lot of design attention, and experience generally has supported the notion that the
equipment has a very high reliability once it is past the infant mortality stage. But it
remains something to be aware of.

f)

A multifunction numeric relay can provide three phase, ground, and negative
sequence directional or non-directional over current protection with four shot recloser,
forward or reverse power protection, breaker failure, over/under frequency, and
over/under voltage protection, sync check, breaker monitoring and control, It would
take 10 11 single function Solid State or Electromechanical relays at least 5 to 6
times the cost. Additionally Numeric relays have Communications capabilities,
sequence-of-events recording, fault reporting, rate-of-change frequency, and metering
functions, all in an integrated system.

116

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE:


The above discussion clearly highlights that the proposed 920 MW coal-based power plant
has been proposed to meet the required power demand from various sectors. Keeping in view
the new techniques of generation and automation it has been one of the best in its class.
While construction and operation of the plant can generate wastes but a detailed waste
management programme and Environmental Management plan have been developed to
mitigate the pollution potential. The project will meet all the stipulated environmental norms.
Water use has been minimised by maximum use of wastewater and by rainwater harvesting.
Utilisation of ash for cement production will also be an environment-friendly step. Though
there are some forest areas and sanctuary around, it can be concluded that the implementation
of EMP will ensure that the overall effect will not have any significant impact on local
environment.

117

LIST OF REFERENCES
1. Induction motor manual of caca motors by bhel
2.220KV switchyard panel manual by abb
3. http://electrical-engineering-portal.com
4. http://google.com
5. Manual of electrostatic precipitator by bhel
6. Library of GHTP Lehra Mohabbat

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