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Reservoir Management

Section 3

Colorado School of Mines


In Egypt

L Chorn, PhD, MBA


Associate Professor of
Petroleum Engineering

AGENDA
Fluid flow in porous media (conclusion)
Radius of investigation
Principle of Superposition
Horners Approximation
Example problems
Reserves, Resources, and Speculative Potential
Definitions
Movements (Section 3, Part 2)
Estimation (Section 3, Part 3)

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
Radius of Investigation
This term implies the distance that a pressure transient has moved
into a formation following a rate change in the well. This distance is
related to formation rock and fluid properties and elapsed time.
1) The pressure transient moves further into the reservoir as flow time increases. There is
always a point in the reservoir beyond which the drawdown in pressure from the original
value is negligible.
2) The pressure at the wellbore decreases steadily with increasing flow time; likewise,

pressures at other locations also decrease with time.

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
Radius of Investigation
This allows us to determine the length of time required to
conduct a well test to insure we have acquired the proper
data. It only applies to cylindrical, isotropic reservoirs.

kt
ri
948 ct

1/ 2

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation

Radius of Investigation
For example, given the following reservoir properties, the
radius of penetration of a pressure transient is:
q

177 STB/day

1 cp

1.2 RB/STB

10 md

t
(hours)

r
(feet)

150 ft

0.1

32

0.15

1.0

100

ct

70.3 x10-6 psi-1

10.0

316

re

3000 ft

100.0

1000

rw

0.1 ft

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
Radius of Investigation has several uses in pressure transient
test analysis and design. A qualitative use is in explaining the
shape of the test results. A quantitative use is in the design of
the test itself. If, for example, we wish to test the reservoir
properties at 500 ft from the wellbore, the Radius of
Investigation tells us how long to conduct the test to be sure
we have achieved our goals.
The time suggested by this approach gives us the time
required to achieve pseudo steady-state flow in the test
region.

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
Thus far, our analyses are applicable only for describing the
pressure distribution in an infinite reservoir, caused by the
production of a single well at a constant rate, beginning at
time zero.

The Principle of Superposition can remove some of these


restrictions, including the modeling of a variable rate well.

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition considers that the total
pressure decrease at any point in the reservoir is the sum of
pressure decreases at that point caused by flow in all wells in
the reservoir.
( pi pwf ) total at Well A
( pi pwf )due to Well A

Well A
rAC

Well C

rAB

Well B

( pi pwf )due to Well B


( pi pwf )due to Well C

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition for multiple wells becomes:

q A B 1688 ct rwA2
( pi pwf )Well A 70.6
ln
2s A

kh
kt

qC B 948 ct rAC 2
q B B 948 ct rAB 2
70.6
Ei
70.6
Ei

kh
kt
kh
kt

so we can treat the problem of any number of constant rate


wells in an infinite reservoir.

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition may also be applied to
simulate pressure behavior in bounded reservoirs. Consider
the well configuration shown below:

IMAGE
WELL

NO FLOW
BOUNDARY

ACTUAL
WELL

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition allows us to model several
effects:
1) Pressure distribution for a well between two intersecting
no-flow boundaries intersecting at 90;
2) Pressure behavior of a well between two parallel
boundaries;
3) Pressure behavior for wells enclosed by no-flow
boundaries approximated by a rectangle

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition using an image well is simply
a two-well-in-an-infinite reservoir problem:
qB
( pi pwf ) 70.6
kh

1688 c r 2

t w 2s
ln

kt

qB
70.6
kh

948 c (2L)2
t

Ei


kt

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The most important application of the Principle of
Superposition is in modeling variable-rate producing wells.
Consider a well rate which varies over time from q1 to q2 to q3.
q2
q

q1

q3
t1

t2

At some time t > t2, what is the pressure at the sandface of the
well?

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
We will assume that there are three wells in this field, each
contributing a flow rate, as shown:
q2
q

q1

q3
t1

Well 1:

q1

t2

Well 2:

q2 - q1

t1

Well 3:

t2
q3 - q2

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
The Principle of Superposition allows us to add the wells
contributions with their representative rates and times.

( pi pwf ) p 1 p 2 p 3
q B
( pi pwf ) 70.6 1
kh

1688 c r 2

t
w

ln
2s

kt

(q q ) B
70.6 2 1
kh

1688 c r 2

t w 2 s 70.6 (q3 q2 ) B
ln

k (t t1)
kh

1688 c r 2

t w 2s
ln

k (t t2 )

Brief Review of Flow in Porous Media


(Part 2)
Applications to Developed field interrogation
Horner (1951) introduced a simplification that applies
whenever the last production rate duration exceeds the radius
of investigation estimate described on slide # 4 of this lecture.
qlastB
pi p 70.6
kh

t p 24

948 c r 2
t

Ei


kt p

cummulative production from well, N p (STB)


most recentrate, q last (STB/D)

BREAK

Example Problem 1 in
Flow in Porous Media
Calculation of Pressures Beyond the Wellbore Using the Eifunction Solution
A well and reservoir have the following characteristics: The well is
producing only oil; it is producing at a constant rate of 2000 STB/D.
Data describing the well and formation are provided

0.72 cp

rw

0.5 ft

100 md

Bo

1.475 RB/STB

ct

1.5x10-5 psi-1

150 ft

pi

3000 psi

0.23

re

3000 ft

Calculate the reservoir pressure at a radius of 1 ft after 3 hours of


production; then, calculate the pressure at radii of 10 and 100 feet after 3
hours of production.

Determine of Ei is an accurate solution by computing value of

3.79 x105ct rw2


k
3.79 x105 * 0.23 * 0.72 *1.5 x10 50.52

0.1
2.35 t 3hours
So we can use the Ei equation IF the reservoir is acting as if it were infinite, or
until

948ct re2
k
948 * 0.23 * 0.72 *1.5 x105 * 30002

0.1
211,934 hours

So for t < 211,934 hours the equation is GOOD:


At a radius of 1 ft:

q B 948 ct r 2

Ei
p pi 70.6

kh
kt


20 *1.475 * 0.72 948 * 0.23 * 0.72 *1.5x10-5 *12
3000 70.6
Ei


0.1*150
0.1* 3


3000 100 * Ei- 0.007849
3000 100 * ln( 4.27)
2,573 psi

At a radius of 10 ft:

q B 948 ct r 2

Ei
p pi 70.6

kh
kt


20 *1.475 * 0.72 948 * 0.23 * 0.72 *1.5x10-5 *10 2
3000 70.6
Ei


0.1*150
0.1* 3


3000 100 * Ei- 0.7849
3000 100 * (0.318)
2,968 psi

At a radius of 100 ft:

q B 948 ct r 2

Ei
p pi 70.6

kh
kt


20 *1.475 * 0.72 948 * 0.23 * 0.72 *1.5x10-5 *1002
3000 70.6
Ei


0.1*150
0.1* 3


3000 100 * Ei- 78.49
3000 100 * (0)
3,000 psi

Example Problem 2 in
Flow in Porous Media
Analysis of Well from PI test
A well produces 100 STB/D at a measured flowing bottomhole pressure
of 1500 psi. A recent pressure survey showed that average reservoir
pressure is 2000 psi. Logs indicate a sand thickness of 10 ft. The well
drains an area with a drainage radius of 1000 ft; the borehole radius is
0.25 ft. Fluid samples indicate that, at current reservoir pressure, oil
viscosity is 0.5 cp and formation volume factor is 15. RB/STB.
1. Estimate the Productivity Index for the tested well;
2. Estimate the formation permeability from these data;
3. Core data from the well indicate an effective permeability to oil of 50
md. Does this imply that the well is stimulated or damaged? Compute
the skin factor.

To estimate the productivity index, use

PI

q
p pwf

100
(2000 1500)
0.2 STB / psi D

Can only calculate the average permeability, kj

re

PI *141.2qB ln 0.75 0.2 *141.2 *1.5 * 0.5ln 1,000 0.75


rw

0.25

kJ

h
10
16md

To calculate s use:

k
re
s 1 ln 0.75

ks
rw

50 1000
s
1 ln
0.75
16 0.25

s 16

Example Problem 3A in
Flow in Porous Media
Flow Analysis in Generalized Reservoir Geometry
A.

For each of the following reservoir geometries, calculate


the time in hours for which a) the reservoir is infinite
acting; b) the pseudo steady-state solution is exact; c) the
pseudo steady-state solution is accurate to 1%.
i)
ii)
iii)

Well centered in circular drainage area


Well centered in square drainage area
Well centered in one quadrant of square drainage area

1.0 cp

17.42x106 ft2

100 md

0.2

ct

1.5x10-5 psi-1

First, calculate the argument of the Ei expression:

ct A
2.64 x10

0.2 *1*1.5x10-5 17.42x106


2.64 x10 4 *100

*k

1320
Prepare the following table using the data from TABLE 1.2 (provided):
Infinite Solution

Pseudo-Steady state
solution (Approximate)

Pseudo-Steady state
solution (Exact)

Geometry

tDA

t(hours)

tDA

t(hours)

tDA

t(hours)

Circular

0.1

132

0.06

79.2

0.1

132

Sq-Centered

0.09

119

0.05

66

0.1

132

Sq-Quadrant

0.025

33

0.3

396

0.6

792

Example Problem 3B in
Flow in Porous Media
Flow Analysis in Generalized Reservoir Geometry
B.

For each of the wells in 3a, estimate the PI and


stabilized production rate with p pwf 500 psi , if
h

10 ft

rw

0.30 ft

3.0

1.2 RB/STB

Now calculate the PI and the stabilized production rate:

kJ

0.00708 * kh

10.06 * A
0.75 s
B 0.5 * ln
C r2

A
w

0.00708 *100 *10

10.06 *17.42 x106


0.75 3.0
1.2 *10.5 * ln
2

C
0
.
3
A

5.9

(12.94 0.5 * ln(C A )


and
q PI ( p pwf ) 500 * PI

Using these equations prepare the following table:


Geometry

CA

J (STB/D-psi)

Circular

31.62

0.526

263

Sq-Centered

30.88

0.526

263

Sq-Quadrant

4.513

0.484

242

Example Problem 3C in
Flow in Porous Media
Flow Analysis in Generalized Reservoir Geometry
C.

For the well centered in one of the quadrants of a square,


write equations relating constant flow rate and wellbore
pressure drops at elapsed times of 30, 200, and 400
hours.

For t = 30 hours, the reservoir is infinite acting, and the following equation applies:

qB
pi pwf 70.6
kh

1688 c r 2

t
w

ln
2s

kt

For t = 200 hours, the reservoir is no longer infinite acting, we cannot write a simple
equation for this time frame

For t = 400 hours, the reservoir can be represented with a pseudo steady-state equation

qB
pi pwf 141.2
kh

10.06 * A
0.75 s
0.5 * ln
C r2

Aw

Example Problem 4 in
Flow in Porous Media
Calculation of Radius of Investigation
You wish to run a flow test on a new infill well for sufficiently long to
ensure that well will drain a cylinder of more than 1000 ft radius.
Preliminary well and fluid data analysis suggest that k = 100 md; = 0.2;
ct = 2x10-5 psi-1; and = 0.5 cp. What length flow test appears advisable?
What flow rate do you suggest ?

The minimum length flow test that would propagate the pressure
transient approximately 2000 ft (assume twice the minimum radius, for safety)

948ct ri2
t
k
948 * 0.2 * 0.5 * 2 x10 5 * 20002

100
75.8 hours
In principal any rate is acceptable. In practice the rate needs to be great enough
that the pressure change with time occurs quickly enough that the test can
be conducted.

Example Problem 5 in
Flow in Porous Media
Use of Superposition
A flowing well is completed in a reservoir with the following properties:

0.44 cp

1.32 RB/STB

25 md

43 ft

ct

18x10-6 psi-1

0.16

pi

2500 psi

What will the pressure drop be in a shut-in well 500 ft from the flowing
well when the flowing well has been shut-in for 1 day following a period
of 5 days of flow at 300 STB/D?

The equation we will use is:

948 c r 2
t w
(q2 q1 ) Ei


k (t t1 )

B
( pi p ) 70.6
kh

948 c r 2
t w
q1 * Ei

kt

Calculate the argument for the Ei term:


948 ct rw2 948 * 0.16 * 0.44 *1.8x10-5 500 2

k
25
12.01

Then:

( pi p ) 70.6

0.44 *1.32
12.01
300
*
Ei

25 * 43
6 * 24

12.01
(0 300) Ei

1 * 24
11.44 * Ei(0.0834) Ei(0.5)
11.44 * (1.989 0.560)
16.35 psi

Example Problem 6 in
Flow in Porous Media
Application of Horners Approximation
Following completion, a well is produced for a short time and then shut-in for a
build-up test. The production history was as follows:
Production Time
(hours)

Total Production
(STB)

25

52

12

26

46

72

68

1. Calculate the pseudoproducing time, tp


2. Is Horners approximation adequate for this case? If not how should
the production history for this well be simulated?

First compute qlast

qlast

68 STB 24 hrs
*
22.7STB/D
72 hrs
day

Then:

t p 24

cummulative production from well, N p (STB)


most recentrate,q last (STB/D)

24 *166

176hours
22.7
Finally,

qlast

tlast
tnext to last

72 hrs
2.77 2 hours
26 hrs

Thus, we can assume that Horners approximation is adequate and the


superposition solution approach is not required.