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What is meant by multiplexing?

Multiplexing is the process of combining a number of signals into a single signal,
so that it can be processed by a single amplifier or transmitted over a single radio
Multiplexing can be done at base band or at radio frequency.
Multiplexing is a key feature of all commercial long distance communication
systems and is part of the multiple access capability of all satellite
communication systems.


Differentiate between FDMA, TDMA and CDMA.

In frequency division multiple access (FDMA), all users share the satellite at the
same time, but each user transmits at a unique allocated frequency.
FDMA can be used with analog or digital signals.
In time division multiple access (TDMA), each user is allocated a unique time slot
at the satellite so that signals pass through the transponder sequentially.
Because TDMA causes delays in transmission, it is used only with digital signals.
In code division multiple access (CDMA), all users transmit to the satellite on the
same frequency and at the same time.
The earth stations transmit orthogonally coded spread spectrum signals that can
be separated at the receiving earth station by correlation with the transmitted
CDMA is inherently a digital technique.
Note : In each of the multiple access techniques discussed above, some unique
property of the signal (frequency, time, or code) is used to label the
transmission such that the wanted signal can be recovered at the receiving
terminal in the presence of all other signals.


What are the main problems involved with communication satellite orbits?
There are two main problems involved with communication satellite orbits and
these are: (i)
Launching and putting the satellite into geostationary orbit.
Maintaining the orbit (station keeping).


What are the three Keplers laws?

The orbit of the satellite is an ellipse with the center of the earth at one
The line joining the centers of the earth and the satellite, sweeps over
equal areas in equal time intervals.
(iii) The squares of the orbital periods of two satellites have the same ratio as
the cubes of their mean distances from the center of the earth.


Why are Keplers laws important from the point of view of satellites?
Keplers laws, are the laws that initially developed the techniques for launching
and putting communication satellites in geostationary (or any other) orbit.
The tracking of the satellite, its station keeping etc. all depend on Keplers laws.


What are the orbital aspects that are of importance?

The orbital aspects which are of importance are: (i)
Determination of the orbit of the satellite.
The distance between the satellite and earth sations.
(iii) Coverage angle.
Earth station pointing angles.
Solar interference.


Is a perfectly stationary orbit possible?

A perfectly stationary orbit is not possible, and so a satellite is constrained to
remain within a window whose limits are defined by an angular shift (as seen
from the center of the earth) around the required nominal position.
Usually, this window is about 75 km on the sphere containing the geostationary
satellite orbit.


What is meant by equatorial, polar and inclined orbits?

A satellite orbit is equatorial if the orbit plane coincides with the reference plane
of the primary body (i = 0).
An orbit is polar if the orbit plane contains the polar axis of the primary body
( i = 90).
An orbit is inclined if it is neither equatorial nor polar.


What is meant by direct orbits?

Inclined or equatorial orbits in which the satellites projection on the equatorial
plane of the primary body revolves in the same direction as the primary body
itself, are known as direct orbits.


What are the bandwidths available (in general) in most transponders?

Most transponders have bandwidths of 36, 54 or 72 MHz.


What is laser satellite communication and what are its advantages?

Laser satellite communication involves transmission at frequencies in the 1014 Hz
(optical range), which is around seven or eight orders of magnitude higher than
the radio frequency (RF) systems.
Transmission at such frequencies provides three main advantages which are : (i)
Greater band-width.
Smaller beam divergence angles.
(iii) Smaller antennas.