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ITALIAN MAIOLICA

CATALOGUE OF THE COLLECTIONS

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ITALIAN MAIOLICA
CATALOGUE OF THE COLLECTIONS
Catherine Hess

T H E

J.

P A U L

M A L I B U

G E T T Y
.

1988

M U S E U M
I

1988 T h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m
17985 Pacific C o a s t H i g h w a y
M a l i b u , California 90265
M a i l i n g address:
P . O . B o x 2112
Santa M o n i c a , California 90406
C h r i s t o p h e r H u d s o n , H e a d of Publications
A n d r e a P. A . Belloli, E d i t o r - i n - C h i e f
Karen Jacobson, Manuscript Editor
Patrick D o o l e y , D e s i g n e r
Karen Schmidt, Production Manager
T h e a P i e g d o n , P r o d u c t i o n Artist
Elizabeth C . B u r k e , P h o t o g r a p h C o o r d i n a t o r
Jack Ross a n d D o n Hull, P h o t o g r a p h e r s
T y p o g r a p h y b y Wilsted & Taylor, O a k l a n d , California
C o l o r separations a n d d u o t o n e s b y T o p p a n G r a p h i c Arts
Center/West
Printed by Dai N i p p o n Printing Co.,
LTD
LIBRARY O F C O N G R E S S C A T A L O G I N G - I N - P U B L I C A T I O N

Hess, C a t h e r i n e , 1 9 5 7 Italian maiolica: catalogue of the collections /


C a t h e r i n e Hess.
p.
cm.
Includes bibliographies.
ISBN 0 - 8 9 2 3 6 - 1 3 8 - 7

1. Majolica, I t a l i a n C a t a l o g s . 2. Majolica, Renaiss a n c e I t a l y C a t a l o g s . 3. M a j o l i c a 1 6 t h c e n t u r y


I t a l y C a t a l o g s . 4. M a j o l i c a C a l i f o r n i a M a l i b u
Catalogs. 5. J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m C a t a l o g s .
I. J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m . II. Title. III. Series.
NK4315.H47 1988
738.3'7 dci9
88-17737
C o v e r : A Candelieri Plate. Venice, circa 1540-1560.
H : 5.7 c m (21/4in.); D i a m : 47.7 c m (183/4in.). M a l i b u ,
J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m 84.DE. 120 (see n o . 33).

DATA

CONTENTS

FOREWORD

John

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Catherine

LIST OF

ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION

CATALOGUE

PROFILES

Walsh

Hess

ix

xi

xiii

12

125

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In memory
of

Jorg Rasmussen

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FOREWORD

W i t h each passing year, a visit t o the G e t t y M u s e u m has m o r e surprises f o r the u n w a r y . U n t i l


1984 the visitor saw o n l y antiquities, paintings, and decorative arts, f o r these h a d b e e n t h e exclusive
interests of J. Paul G e t t y and his Trustees. Since t h e n the m e n u has b e e n diversified, t h a n k s to M r .
Getty's generous bequest and the decision to b r o a d e n the collection so that it could include sculpture
and other E u r o p e a n w o r k s of art outside the M u s e u m ' s traditional t e r r i t o r y o f e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y
France. Today's visitor, passing t h r o u g h a fair-sized vestibule c o n n e c t i n g t w o paintings galleries,
encounters a small collection o f Italian maiolica that is, piece f o r piece, o n e of t h e finest in existence.
M o s t of the i m p o r t a n t centers and styles are represented. T h e best pieces astonish t h e connoisseur as
well as the l a y m a n , w h e t h e r t h e y are the r o b u s t early Florentine vessel w i t h oak-leaf d e c o r a t i o n
(no. 7) or the suave M a n n e r i s t Venetian dish w i t h g r o t e s q u e o r n a m e n t (no. 33).
W i t h the exception of a small n u m b e r of i m p o r t a n t pieces, m o s t of o u r maiolica c a m e t o the
M u s e u m in 1984 as a single purchase, h a v i n g b e e n assembled b y a talented collector in E n g l a n d . T h e
M u s e u m ' s t h e n n e w l y a p p o i n t e d curator o f sculpture, Peter Fusco, h a d a r g u e d n o t o n l y that the pieces
w e r e exceptionally fine and desirable b u t also that such a collection could h a r d l y b e p u t t o g e t h e r again.
Like a n o t h e r splendid c o l l e c t i o n o f E u r o p e a n g l a s s p u r c h a s e d s o o n a f t e r w a r d , this w a s a chance
that h a d to b e taken. E v e n t s h a v e p r o v e n o u r curator right.
Maiolica has m a n y j o y s , as collectors h a v e always k n o w n . It is an art o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a n
almost alchemical c o n j u r i n g of glistening solid f o r m and vivid color o u t o f o r d i n a r y elements. T h e
concave walls of a b a m b o o container b e c o m e the potter's albarello. T h e refined t u r n i n g s a n d t w i s t i n g s
of a goldsmith's pitcher are t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a r o b u s t vernacular vessel. C h r i s t in the f o r m o f a halflength m a r b l e bust, austere in m o n o c h r o m e , is t u r n e d into a vivid likeness in b r i g h t colors. A n d the
stories of the O l d Testament and classical a u t h o r s (including the Metamorphoses

of O v i d ) , once v i s u -

alized b y painters and already t r a n s f o r m e d b y p r i n t m a k e r s , are g i v e n n e w life b y the r e s o u r c e f u l decorators of maiolica. F o r all its complexities, h o w e v e r , the best maiolica c o m b i n e s a h a r m o n y of shape,
decoration, and color w h i c h vibrates in the heart t o d a y j u s t as it m u s t always h a v e d o n e .
T h i s catalogue o w e s its existence to Peter Fusco's w i s d o m and taste. Fortunately, a part of his
w i s d o m w a s to entrust w o r k o n the collection to C a t h e r i n e Hess, Assistant C u r a t o r of Sculpture and
W o r k s of A r t , a p r o m i s i n g y o u n g scholar w h o has c o m e t o m a t u r i t y w i t h this project. I w a n t to t h a n k
t h e m and o t h e r staff m e m b e r s at the M u s e u m w h o s e efforts c o m b i n e d t o p r o d u c e this catalogue.
J o h n Walsh
Director

ix

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This catalogue, like m a n y of the w o r k s it d o c u m e n t s , w a s largely a collaborative effort. M u c h


as alchemists, potters, glaze painters, w o r k s h o p directors, and patrons w o r k e d together to foster
advances in fifteenth- and sixteenth-century maiolica production, so have curators, art historians, and
other scholars j o i n e d forces to b r i n g this publication to fruition. I a m greatly indebted to these collaborators f o r their gracious and generous assistance.
First I w o u l d like to thank Peter Fusco, Curator, D e p a r t m e n t of Sculpture and W o r k s of Art,
for his s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t the project; after all, it is thanks to his vision that this collection o f ceramics
is n o w at the M u s e u m . M y interest in and excitement about Renaissance maiolica w e r e stimulated b y
the late J o r g Rasmussen of the M u s e u m f u r Kunst u n d Gewerbe, H a m b u r g , w h o s e gentle direction
was crucial in shaping the f o r m and content of this catalogue. Rainer Zietz, the L o n d o n - b a s e d dealer
w h o gathered the m a j o r i t y of these wares, was an unfailing source of provocative and i n f o r m a t i v e
discussion. I w o u l d also like to t h a n k h i m and his wife, Barbara, for their hospitality.
I a m beholden to m a n y other scholars w h o s e contributions t o o k various f o r m s , including
helping m e gain access t o a n d o f t e n walking m e t h r o u g h p u b l i c and private collections of Italian
maiolica. T h e y include J o h n Mallet, Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n ; T i m o t h y Wilson, British
M u s e u m , L o n d o n ; T j a r k H a u s m a n n , K u n s t g e w e r b e m u s e u m , Berlin; C a r m e n Ravanelli Guidotti,
M u s e o Internazionale delle Ceramiche, Faenza; W e n d y Watson, M o u n t H o l y o k e College A r t
M u s e u m , South Hadley, Massachusetts; Grazia Biscontini Ugolini, Castello Sforzesco, Milan; C a t e rina Marcantoni, f o r m e r l y o f the M u s e o Correr, Venice; Chantal Meslin-Perrier, Muse National de
la Renaissance, Ecouen; Pierre Enns, Muse du Louvre, Paris; A n g e l o Mazza and M a s s i m o Medica,
M u s e o Civico Medievale, Bologna; G u i d o D o n a t o n e , C e n t r o Studi per la Storia della Ceramica M e r i dionale, Naples; and T i m o t h y Schroder and Tina O l d k n o w , Los Angeles C o u n t y M u s e u m o f Art.
O t h e r scholars w h o have enhanced m y research include Laurie Fusco, Senior M u s e u m Lecturer; M a r c o Spallanzani, Istituto di Storia Economica, Universit degli Studi, Florence; Alessandro
Alinari, Florence; G i n o Corti, Villa I Tatti, Florence; Claudio de P o m p e i s , M u s e o delle Genti d'Abruzzo, Pescara; R u d o l f Drey, L o n d o n ; Richard Palmer, Wellcome Institute, L o n d o n ; R o g e r Price,
Wellcome M u s e u m o f the H i s t o r y of Medicine, L o n d o n ; H u g o Blake, University o f Lancaster; and
Wesley Trimpi, D e p a r t m e n t of Classics, Stanford University.
M y questions about the m e d i u m w e r e untiringly answered b y Roseline Delisle and Paul
Mathieu, master ceramists in their o w n right. I a m indebted to the designer o f this publication, Patrick
Dooley, and to A n d r e a P. A. Belloli, M a r y H o l t m a n , and Karen Schmidt, D e p a r t m e n t of Publications, f o r their fine w o r k . P e g g y Fogelman, A m y Lyford, and N i n a Banna, D e p a r t m e n t o f Sculpture
and W o r k s of Art, helped carry o u t the o f t e n tedious tasks of compiling, translating, and p r o o f r e a d i n g
the material. I w o u l d also like to thank the manuscript editor, Karen Jacobson, for her unflagging
patience and w e l c o m e suggestions. Finally, those closest to me, Laurence Frank and B r u c e Kijewski,
provided constant inspiration, intellectual and otherwise.
Catherine Hess
Assistant Curator, Department of Sculpture and Works of Art

xi

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LIST OF

ABBREVIATIONS

In bibliographies and notes, frequently cited w o r k s have been

H a u s m a n n 1972

identified by the following abbreviations:


Ballardini 1933-1938

G. Ballardini. Corpus della maiolica


italiana. 2 vols. R o m e , 1933-1938.

Ballardini 1975

G. Ballardini. La maiolica italiana.


Faenza, 1975.

Bellini and C o n t i 1964

M . Bellini and G. Conti. Maioliche


italiane del rinascimento. Milan, 1964.

B o d e 1911

W. v o n Bode. Die Anfange der Majolikakunst in Toskana. Berlin, 1911.

Bojani et al. 1985

G. C . Bojani, C . RavanelliGuidotti,
and A. Fanfani. La Museo Internazionale delle Ceramiche in Faenza: La
donazione Galeazzo
Cora. Milan,

K u b e 1976

Liverani 1960

Hausmann.

Majolika.

Berlin,

C h o m p r e t 1949

J. C h o m p r e t . Repertoire de la majolique italienne. 2 vols. Paris, 1949.

C o r a 1973

G. Cora. Storia della maiolica di Firenze e del contado del XIV e del XV
secolo. 2 vols. Florence, 1973.

C o r a and Fanfani 1982

G. C o r a and A. Fanfani. La maiolica


di Cafaggiolo. Florence, 1982.

Falke 1914-1923

O . v o n Falke.
Majolikasammlung
Pringsheim in Miinchen. 2 vols. T h e
Hague, 1914-1923.

A. N . Kube. Italian Majolica:


XVXVII Centuries. M o s c o w , 1976.
G. Liverani. Five Centuries of Italian
Majolica. N e w York, 1960.

M a r t i 1944-1952

M . Gonzalez Mart. Cermica del


levante espanol. 3 vols. Barcelona,
1944-1952.

R a c k h a m 1940

B. R a c k h a m . Catalogue of Italian
Maiolica. 2 vols. L o n d o n , 1940.

R a c k h a m 1959

B. R a c k h a m . Islamic Pottery and Italian Maiolica. L o n d o n , 1959.

Valeri 1984

A. M o o r e Valeri. "Florentine 'Zaffera a Rilievo' Maiolica: A N e w L o o k


at the 'Oriental Influence.' " Archeologia medievale 11 (1984), pp. 4 7 7 500.

Wallis 1903

H . Wallis. Oak-Leaf Jars: A Fifteenth


Century Italian Ware Showing Moresco
Influence. L o n d o n , 1903.

Watson 1986

W. Watson. Italian Renaissance Maiolica from the William A. Clark Collection. L o n d o n , 1986.

Wilson 1987

T. Wilson. Ceramic Art of the Italian


Renaissance. L o n d o n , 1987.

1985.

Giacomotti 1974

T.
I972.

J. Giacomotti. Catalogue des majoliques des muses nationaux.

Paris,

1974.

xiii

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INTRODUCTION

There were no mortal men until, with the consent of the goddess Athene, Prometheus, son of
Iapetus, formed them in the likeness of gods. He used clay and water of Panopeus of Phocis,
and Athene breathed life into them.
Hesiod, T h e o g o n y
And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the
breath of life; and man became a living soul.
Genesis 2:7
Inexorable is . . . the generosity of the earth. Even omitting all of the benefits of the fruits, of
wine, of apples, of herbs, of shrubs, of medicines and of metals, . . . only objects of terracotta
. . . fulfill us, giving us the tiles for roofs, the bricks for walls, the receptacles for wine, the
tubes for water and all of those objects which one makes on the wheel and forms with one's
hands. For these reasons, Numa established as seventh college, that of the potters.
Pliny the Elder, N a t u r a l H i s t o r y

C e r a m i c objects h a v e existed in m a n y shapes and in m a n y countries f o r t h o u s a n d s of years.


P r o d u c e d f r o m earth m i x e d w i t h water, dried b y air, and b a k e d b y fire, t h e y w e r e r e g a r d e d in ancient
times as the e m b o d i m e n t of the f o u r essential elements that m a d e u p the universe: earth, water, air,
and fire. T h e rediscovery of the w r i t i n g s o f E m p e d o c l e s , Euclid, Pliny, and others in the Renaissance
led to a revival of the n o t i o n that b a k e d clay w a s a m i c r o c o s m m i r r o r i n g the m a c r o c o s m . T h e potter's
seemingly divine act o f using a m e d i u m representing the elements o f the universe to create f o r m f r o m
n o n f o r m helps account f o r the cross-cultural appeal of ceramic w o r k , w h i c h l o n g a g o included n o t
only utilitarian vessels b u t also v o t i v e offerings to the gods. M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y , h o w e v e r , it is clay's
ability to f o r m functional objects that explains the l o n g h i s t o r y and r e m a r k a b l y w i d e geographical and
cultural dissemination of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n .
T h i s l o n g h i s t o r y and w i d e dissemination can b e attributed to three chief factors: first, the r a w
materials r e q u i r e d t h e different clays f o r the ceramic b o d y , and the minerals, ash, and sand f o r
glazesare a b u n d a n t and accessible; second, ceramic w a r e is easily shaped (by h a n d , o n a wheel, or
in a m o l d ) a n d h a r d e n e d (by d r y i n g or firing); and third, the objects p r o d u c e d are f u n d a m e n t a l l y utilitarian (see figs. 1 , 2 ) .
C e r a m i c w a r e s h a v e been p r o d u c e d in Italy since ancient times. T h e colonizing Greeks (ninth
to e i g h t h c e n t u r y

B.C.)

and the Etruscans (seventh t o fifth century

B.C.),

f o r example, w e r e able, even

m a s t e r f u l ceramists. T h e d e v e l o p m e n t and efflorescence of tin-glazed e a r t h e n w a r e , or maiolica, o n the


peninsula in the f o u r t e e n t h , fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries m a r k a particularly rich chapter in this
history. Certainly Italy's location in the M e d i t e r r a n e a n basin, at the center o f an area t o u c h e d b y

FIGURE I. CIPRIANO PICCOLPASSO (Italian, 1524-1579). Potters at

Their

Wheels (muodo di lavoraral torno). F r o m Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio (1557),
fol. 16r. D r a w i n g . L o n d o n , Victoria and A l b e r t M u s e u m . P h o t o courtesy
B o a r d o f Trustees, Victoria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m .
FIGURE 2. CIPRIANO PICCOLPASSO. Ceramists Stoking and Firing a Kiln (ritrattodella Jornace). F r o m Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio (1557), fol. 35r. D r a w ing. Victoria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n . P h o t o courtesy B o a r d of
Trustees, Victoria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m .

diverse cultural influencesByzantine, Islamic, and N o r t h A f r i c a n h e l p e d d e t e r m i n e n o t only the


h i g h level o f technical virtuosity b u t also t h e b e a u t y and variety that maiolica wares display.
T h e t e r m maiolica can b e traced either to the Balearic island of M a j o r c a (Majolica), w h i c h
served as an e n t r e p o t f o r the M o r e s q u e lusterware b o u n d for the Italian m a r k e t in the f o u r t e e n t h a n d
fifteenth centuries (see fig. 3),1 o r to the Spanish n a m e f o r luster products, obra de mdlequa.2 Medieval
potteries at M a l a g a (mlequa) as well as at M u r c i a and Almera in the M o o r i s h s o u t h w e r e likely the
first to p r o d u c e ceramic lusters in Spain. U n t i l the sixteenth century maiolica referred exclusively to
wares decorated w i t h iridescent lusters of Spanish or Islamic origin. 3 O n l y later did this t e r m c o m e to
refer t o t h e m o r e c o m m o n unlustered e a r t h e n w a r e as well.
T i n glazes can likewise be traced to Spain f r o m as early as

A.D.

1000.4

B u t a r o u n d 1400, Ibn

A h m a r ' s N a s r i d k i n g d o m , w h i c h h a d united Malaga w i t h M u r c i a and Granada, b e c a m e increasingly


unstable, a n d M o o r i s h masters w e r e forced n o r t h to the m o r e p r o s p e r o u s Valencian ceramic centers.
T h e y b r o u g h t w i t h t h e m Islamic m o t i f s and techniques that w e r e t h e n e x p o r t e d t o Italy thanks t o
active trade and the m i g r a t i o n of artisans b e t w e e n Spanish w o r k s h o p s and the b u r g e o n i n g Italian centers of p r o d u c t i o n . T h e s a m e m e t h o d s of transfer also served t o i n t r o d u c e Persian, E g y p t i a n , Turkish,
a n d C h i n e s e ceramics t o E u r o p e , b u t it w a s the p o t t e r y of M o o r i s h Spain w h i c h , t o g e t h e r w i t h Arabic
w a r e s f r o m n o r t h e r n Africa, exerted the strongest influence o n early Italian maiolica.
B y t h e late fifteenth c e n t u r y Italian i m p o r t a t i o n o f H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e w a r e h a d d w i n d l e d as
Italian potters b e c a m e adept in the tin-glazed m e d i u m . Italian tastes h a d also changed, a n d quintessentially Renaissance embellishments such as narrative elements supplanted the medieval and Islamicinspired m o t i f s still f o u n d o n Spanish wares f r o m the s a m e period.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

W h i l e retaining s o m e of the original glazing techniques, Italian Renaissance maiolica featured


distinctively Italian colors and o r n a m e n t a t i o n , as m a n y of the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s w o r k s illustrate. M o r e over maiolica w a r e of the fifteenth a n d sixteenth centuries served a r a n g e of p u r p o s e s that crossed
social strata: f r o m practical c o m m o n - w a r e vessels t o the decorative a n d occasionally p r o p a g a n d i s t i c
objects of the p o w e r f u l . Initially, the shape and glaze o f these w a r e s f o l l o w e d their f u n c t i o n as receptacles; later on, h o w e v e r , the shape and surface decoration b e c a m e aesthetic concerns, t a k i n g o n significance in a n d of themselves.
T h a n k s n o t o n l y to advances in glazing and f i r i n g techniques a n d to d e v e l o p m e n t s in pictorial
representation b u t also to active p a t r o n a g e that n u r t u r e d its progress, Italian maiolica o f the Renaissance displays exceptionally brilliant a n d colorful surface decoration. T h i s decoration w a s achieved b y
covering already fired e a r t h e n w a r e w i t h a p r i m a r y bianco (white) glaze. W i t h firing, this glaze b e c a m e
vitreous, establishing the a p p r o p r i a t e o p a q u e w h i t e g r o u n d f o r painted decoration. T h e bianco glaze
w a s m a d e u p of a glassy lead o x i d e opacified b y the addition o f tin o x i d e (ashes) along w i t h a silicate
of p o t a s h f r o m w i n e lees m i x e d w i t h sand. Firing again in the kiln secured the painted p i g m e n t s t o
this w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e i n n o v a t i o n of a d d i n g tin n o t only enabled the potters t o p r o d u c e a p u r e w h i t e
g r o u n d b u t also m a d e the glazes m o r e stable w h e n fired; previously, the p i g m e n t s h a d t e n d e d t o r u n
or blur. Maiolica painters o f t e n reserved the precious tin glazes f o r the f r o n t o f a dish, w h e r e the glaze's
brilliance and stability f o r painted decoration w a s m o r e crucial, relegating the less precious lead glaze
to the reverse side (see n o . 22).
Late medieval maiolica displays a limited r a n g e of colors c o m p o s e d p r i m a r i l y o f g r e e n f r o m
acetate or carbonate p r o d u c e d b y the action of v i n e g a r o n copper, w h i t e f r o m tin ( t h o u g h n o t used
overall at this early date), and b r o w n f r o m m a n g a n e s e . A l t h o u g h rare, light blue a n d y e l l o w also
appear at this time. 5 B y the early f o u r t e e n t h century, especially in E m i l i a - R o m a g n a a n d Tuscany, o n e
finds the first k n o w n d a r k blue-glazed w o r k s of the Christian West. 6 B y the m i d - Q u a t t r o c e n t o , Italian
vasai, or potters, h a d developed a rich palette that included a deep blue f r o m cobalt o x i d e m i x e d w i t h
quartz or sand, a m o r e p u r p l e - c o l o r e d m a n g a n e s e b r o w n , and brilliant yellows a n d o r a n g e s f r o m m i x tures of a n t i m o n y and ferric oxide. A l t h o u g h red occasionally appeared, n o t r u e red f r o m v e r m i l i o n
w a s used b e f o r e 1700, since this p i g m e n t p r o v e d t o o volatile to s u r v i v e c o n t e m p o r a r y f i r i n g
techniques.
T h e application of silver and c o p p e r oxides in a s u b s e q u e n t firing p r o d u c e d the gold, red, o r
pearly metallic reflections characteristic of lusterware. T h e s e oxides w e r e sprinkled o r p a i n t e d in a thin
w a s h o n t o the surfaces of the ceramics. I n t r o d u c i n g s m o k e i n t o the kiln d u r i n g firing b y n a r r o w i n g
the air inlets to the fire c h a m b e r and a d d i n g w e t or resinous fuel (such as r o s e m a r y o r j u n i p e r branches)
r e m o v e d the o x y g e n f r o m the p i g m e n t s , leaving the painted areas w i t h a t h i n metal coat. W h e n
r u b b e d , these m e t a l deposits p r o d u c e d the s h i m m e r i n g , iridescent surface characteristic o f luster (see
nos. 22, 23). S o m e t i m e s a final coperta (cover) glaze w a s applied, w h i c h f u n c t i o n e d like a clear varnish,
f u s i n g the p i g m e n t s and leaving a particularly shiny, jewellike surface. (A coperta is a t y p e o f marzacotto
[cooked m i x t u r e ] m a d e b y f u s i n g sand w i t h calcined w i n e lees.)
Maiolica painters n e e d e d a sure h a n d in a p p l y i n g p i g m e n t s because o n c e applied, t h e y w e r e
partly a b s o r b e d i n t o the p o r o u s clay b o d y and could n o t be i m p e r c e p t i b l y altered or erased. T h e s e
artists also n e e d e d a t h o r o u g h k n o w l e d g e of the materials t o ensure that the decoration desired b e c a m e
the decoration achieved, since p i g m e n t s c h a n g e color w i t h firing. Luckily, painted maiolica decoration

I N T R O D U C T I O N3

FIGURE 3. MASTER OF MARY OF BURGUNDY (French, active 1475-1490). T w o miniatures


f r o m t h e H o u r s o f E n g e l b e r t o f N a s s a u , circa 1477-1490. G o l d and t e m p e r a on vellum.
O x f o r d , B o d l e i a n Library M s . D o u c e 2 1 9 , fols. 145v-146r. P h o t o courtesy Bodleian Library.
T h e ceramics depicted are either H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e or H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e - i n s p i r e d wares.

FIGURE 4. ANDREA MANTEGNA (Italian, circa 1431-1506). Adoration of the Magi, circa 1495-1505 (detail).
D i s t e m p e r o n canvas, 48.5 x 65.6 c m (191/8X257/8in.). Malibu, J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m 85. PA. 417. T h e m a g u s
in the f o r e g r o u n d offers his gift to t h e C h r i s t child in a small b l u e - a n d - w h i t e b o w l , an early e x a m p l e of
C h i n e s e porcelain i m p o r t e d to E u r o p e .

has the great advantage of never dulling or d a r k e n i n g w i t h age, unlike c o n t e m p o r a n e o u s fresco o r oil
painting. A l t h o u g h limited b y available materials and techniques, maiolica p i g m e n t s thus p r o v i d e
s o m e o f the f e w examples of colors used in the Renaissance that h a v e r e m a i n e d u n c h a n g e d .
Fifteenth- and sixteenth-century alchemists and experts in such subjects as pyrotechnics, m e t allurgy, and m i n e r a l o g y helped advance the techniques of maiolica p r o d u c t i o n . A r o u n d the b e g i n n i n g
of the sixteenth century, after H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e l u s t e r w a r e h a d b e e n i m p o r t e d t o Italy f o r several
decades, Italian alchemists b e g a n to a t t e m p t to create a goldlike luster o n maiolica. Present in every
court, these alchemists u n d e r s t o o d n o t only the talismanic value of gold b u t also its appeal f o r their
patrons. O f the h o u s e o n Alcina's m y t h i c a l island, L u d o v i c o A r i o s t o w r o t e in the sixteenth century:
"It s e e m e d s o m e alchemist did m a k e this hold; / T h e walls s e e m e d all o f gold, b u t yet I t r o w / All is
n o t gold that m a k e s a g o l d e n s h o w . " 7 Scientific w r i t e r s such as Vannoccio B i r i n g u c c i o a n d G e o r g
Agricola emphasized the p o w e r of fire. 8 O t h e r s explained h o w the " d i v i n e " properties of fire m a d e
possible the potters' gift of life (permanence) t o earth (clay), m u c h as the g o d s of the creation m y t h s
of the M e d i t e r r a n e a n w o r l d gave life to m a n .
References to the divine and m y t h i c a l n a t u r e of the ceramic craft are f o u n d in the m o s t e x h a u s tive and didactic sixteenth-century m a n u a l o n ceramic p r o d u c t i o n . Cavaliere C i p r i a n o Piccolpasso of
Castel D u r a n t e w r o t e Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio at the suggestion of C a r d i n a l Francois de T o u r n o n
w h e n the cardinal w a s visiting Castel D u r a n t e as a guest of the d u k e o f U r b i n o . Piccolpasso instructed
novice potters to prepare and light the kiln fire "al far della luna . . . raccordandosi far s e m p r e tutte le
cose col n o m e di j e s u C r i s t o " (by the light of the m o o n . . . r e m e m b e r i n g t o d o all things in the n a m e
o f Jesus Christ). 9
T h a n k s to Piccolpasso, w e are able to reconstruct c o n t e m p o r a r y m e t h o d s of g a t h e r i n g and
f o r m i n g clay, m a k i n g and a p p l y i n g glazes, and firing ceramic pieces. H i s m a n u a l r e c o r d e d f o r the first
t i m e " t u t t i gli segreti de l'arte del vassaio . . . quello che gia t a n t ' a n n i stato a s c o s t o " (all of the secrets
o f the potter's art . . . w h i c h have been kept h i d d e n f o r m a n y years). 10 Besides b e i n g h i d d e n (ascosto),
these secretsthe keys to success and f a m e w e r e jealously g u a r d e d as well. T h i s explains w h y ,
despite the m o b i l i t y of ceramists and their wares, o n e can o f t e n distinguish the m e t h o d s , ceramic
shapes, and decorative styles o f different centers of p r o d u c t i o n .
S o m e types of maiolica decoration b e c a m e the specialties of the centers in w h i c h t h e y w e r e
developed. In Tuscany, especially in the Florentine w o r k s h o p s o f G i u n t a di Tugio (see nos. 79) a n d
others, o n e finds zaffera a rilievo (relief-blue) decoration. T h e t e r m zaffera derives f r o m the A r a b i c alsafra, either m e a n i n g brilliant11 o r originating f r o m the Arabic t e r m f o r the cobalt m i n e r a l f r o m w h i c h
this p i g m e n t w a s made. 1 2 T h e artists used this cobalt p i g m e n t in i m p a s t o f o r m , outlined w i t h m a n ganese b r o w n , t o paint m o t i f s r e s e m b l i n g o a k leaves and berries, s o m e t i m e s f r a m i n g figural subjects
and heraldic devices; t h e y o f t e n painted this vitreous blue i m p a s t o s o thickly that the decoration
appears t o be in relief (see n o . 5).
T h e East influenced alla porcellana (porcelainlike) decoration t h r o u g h Persian designs, Turkish
Iznik pottery, and especially C h i n e s e porcelain o f the M i n g d y n a s t y (1368-1644), w h i c h arrived in
Italy in the fifteenth c e n t u r y (see fig. 4). T h i s decoration imitated porcelain, w i t h painted blue foliage
and floral sprays o n a w h i t e g r o u n d (see n o . 21). A l t h o u g h p o p u l a r as well in Tuscany and the M a r c h e s ,
alla porcellana e m b e l l i s h m e n t b e c a m e a specialty of Venetian w o r k s h o p s , p r o b a b l y because o f the city's
location o n the Adriatic Sea, a strategic position f o r trade w i t h the East.

I N T R O D U C T I O N5

FIGURE 5. CIPRIANO PICCOLPASSO. Ceramists Painting Their Wares (muodo di dipingiare). F r o m Li tre
libri dell'arte del vasaio (1557), fol. 57V. D r a w i n g . L o n d o n , Victoria and Albert M u s e u m . P h o t o c o u r tesy B o a r d o f Trustees, Victoria and Albert M u s e u m .

Bianco sopra bianco ( w h i t e - o n - w h i t e ) decoration likewise displays delicate arabesque foliage a n d


floral sprays (see n o . 30). A s Piccolpasso testified, 13 this decoration w a s c o m m o n in p o t t e r y centers such
as U r b i n o and n e i g h b o r i n g Castel D u r a n t e (renamed U r b a n i a u n d e r P o p e U r b a n VIII, 1623-1644).
T h e artists covered t h e ceramic surface w i t h a slightly grayish g r o u n d t o m a k e their designs, traced in
p u r e w h i t e , stand out.
Like alla porcellana motifs, berettino glazes m a y h a v e originated in Venice as a result o f M i d d l e
and Far E a s t e r n influences. C e r a m i s t s achieved berettino's characteristic l a v e n d e r - g r a y color b y m i x i n g
t i n - w h i t e glaze w i t h cobalt ore f r o m the O r i e n t . T h i s delicate blue served as a g r o u n d o n w h i c h t h e y
painted designs (primarily flowers, foliage, and grotesques 1 4 ) in intense blue h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h t h r e a d like b a n d s of w h i t e (see nos. 26, 28). A similar berettino blue g r o u n d w a s also p o p u l a r in Faenza and,
later, in Liguria.
A r o u n d the b e g i n n i n g of the sixteenth century, painted figural a n d abstract decorations w e r e
equally p o p u l a r o n maiolica pieces p r o d u c e d in the rival centers of D e r u t a , Faenza, Florence, G u b b i o ,
and M o n t e l u p o . F a e n z a f r o m w h i c h the t e r m faience is derived 1 5 was o n e o f t h e m o s t influential o f
these centers and p r o d u c e d w o r k s that display an e x t r e m e l y varied palette, r a n g e of shapes, a n d decorative repertoire. B y 1520, h o w e v e r , this balance b e t w e e n the figural and the abstract h a d b e e n upset.
S o m e painters at Faenza a n d Castel D u r a n t e and, later, N i c o l a da U r b i n o and Francesco X a n t o Avelli
at U r b i n o pioneered istoriato, or historiated, w a r e , o n w h i c h painted "stories"usually historical, religious, or m y t h o l o g i c a l c o v e r m o s t , if n o t all, o f the surface (see n o . 31). Istoriato p a i n t i n g t h u s s h o w s
the greatest influence of c o n t e m p o r a r y fresco and oil p a i n t i n g of the h u m a n i s t tradition, particularly
in the illusionistic representation o f deep space.

I N T R O D U C T I O N

FIGURE 6 .

CORNELIS BEGA ( D u t c h ,

circa

1620-1664).

The

FIGURE 7. A m p h o r a w i t h

Compendiario

Painting.

Italian

1663 (detail). O i l o n panel, 35.5 x 31.7 c m (14 X121/2

(Faenza), late sixteenth century. T i n - g l a z e d earthenware, H : 22

in.). M a l i b u , J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m 84.PB.56. A n albarello cov-

c m (811/16in.); D i a m (foot): 6.8 c m (211/16in.). Faenza, M u s e o

ered w i t h a s w a t c h o f leather, p a r c h m e n t , o r fabric sits o n the

Internazionale delle C e r a m i c h e inv. 21159/c, C o r a D o n a t i o n .

w i n d o w ledge at t h e left.

P h o t o courtesy M u s e o Internazionale delle C e r a m i c h e .

Alchemist,

In earlier maiolica f o r m s o n e finds a u n i o n of shape, decoration, and use. In istoriato wares,


h o w e v e r , the painted stories w e r e of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e , w h i c h explains w h y m u c h full-scale istoriato
p a i n t i n g w a s executed o n shallow, concave vessels w h o s e surfaces w e r e largely u n i n t e r r u p t e d b y rims,
depressions, or m o l d e d designs. T h e shift in emphasis f r o m functional ceramic receptacles to pictorial
glazed surfaces is reflected n o t only in istoriato w a r e b u t also in maiolica plaques and piatti da pompa
(show dishes), w h i c h w e r e p r o d u c e d solely f o r display (see no. 22).
P r i n t s a n d e n g r a v i n g s proliferated in the m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y and b r o u g h t once-esoteric
i m a g e r y i n t o p o p u l a r use. Especially in the M a r c h e s of central Italy, maiolica painters used p r i n t s b y
G e r m a n and Italian masters such as M a r t i n Schongauer, Albrecht D u r e r , and M a r c a n t o n i o R a i m o n d i
as cartoons f o r their ceramic paintings (see nos. 30, 31, 34). T h e y adapted the scenes a n d figures f r o m
the p r i n t s to t h e generally circular shapes of the ceramics and transferred the designs t o t h e wares.
F r o m Piccolpasso w e k n o w that ceramists copied prints f r e e h a n d (see fig. 5). Yet, since so m a n y
i m a g e s appear r e p e a t e d l y a n d a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l l y o n istoriato plates, it is also possible that painters
used the c a r t o o n s as templates in o r d e r to c o p y m o r e precisely the desired scenes and figures. T h e y
m a y h a v e t r a n s f e r r e d these i m a g e s b y p r i c k i n g the cartoons w i t h small holes, t h r o u g h w h i c h a d a r k
p o w d e r w a s f o r c e d o n t o the ceramic surface, or b y painting o n e side of the c a r t o o n w i t h glaze and
t h e n pressing the w e t p i g m e n t to the fired clay.
In addition to d r a w i n g o n sources in the visual arts, maiolica painters also used the w o r k s of
c o n t e m p o r a r y literary figures to o r n a m e n t their wares. T h e inscriptions and m o t t o e s o f t e n w r i t t e n o n
decorative banderoles painted across the f r o n t of vases, plates, and j u g s w e r e usually r e c o r d i n g s of
p o p u l a r w i s d o m that f r e q u e n t l y e m p h a s i z e d the clever t u r n of phrase. F a m o u s c o n t e m p o r a r y w r i t e r s

I N T R O D U C T I O N7

w e r e s o m e t i m e s e n g a g e d t o i n v e n t these witticisms, causing A n g e l o Poliziano to c o m p l a i n in 1490 of


those w h o w a s t e d his t i m e b y e m p l o y i n g h i m to c o m p o s e " u n m o t t o . . . o u n verso . . . o u n a
i m p r e s a . . . pei i cocci di casa" (a m o t t o . . . verse . . . o r device . . . f o r h o u s e h o l d pots). 1 6 T h o u g h
h e l a m e n t e d such a t t e m p t s to display erudition, wit, and status b y e m b l a z o n i n g even h o u s e h o l d c r o c k ery w i t h w i t t y m o t t o e s and heraldic a r m s , the d e m a n d f o r the latest fashion and cleverest m a x i m n o n e theless inspired i n n o v a t i o n s and increased c o m p e t i t i o n a m o n g w o r k s h o p s .
In contrast t o these innovations in decoration, p o t t e r y shapes c o n t i n u e d to reflect late medieval
f o r m s well i n t o the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Typical a m o n g these shapes, j u g s , t w o - h a n d l e d
jars, tondini, and albarelli are represented in the M u s e u m ' s collection. Tondini are small, r o u n d e d b o w l s
w i t h w i d e , flat r i m s (see nos. 21, 29). Albarelli are cylindrical storage j a r s m o s t o f t e n used in the h o m e
and in p h a r m a c i e s f o r c o n s e r v i n g and t r a n s p o r t i n g preparations in viscous, paste, or d r y f o r m , i n c l u d i n g pharmaceuticals as well as various n o n m e d i c i n a l spices, herbs, dyes, and o i n t m e n t s (see nos. 6,
1 0 - 1 2 , 14, 17, 24, 25). T h e y w e r e closed w i t h a lid or w i t h a piece of paper, p a r c h m e n t , o r cloth tied
a r o u n d the t o p r i m (see fig. 6). T h e i r n a m e p r o b a b l y derives f r o m the A r a b i c al-barani or al barril, referring to containers used in the East to store drugs. 1 7
D u r i n g the second half of t h e sixteenth century there w e r e significant changes in p o t t e r y
shapes, reflecting a n e w interest in h i g h l y decorative, u n d u l a t i n g f o r m s . T o w a r d the m i d d l e of this
century, as pictorial maiolica decoration w a s passing f r o m v o g u e , potters and painters b e g a n b r e a k i n g
u p and r e a r r a n g i n g into c o m p a r t m e n t s b o t h the ceramic surface and the painted decoration. Maiolica
potters i n v e n t e d the crespina18 f o r m in i m i t a t i o n of h i g h l y valued m e t a l repousse vessels. T h e s e crespine
w e r e g a d r o o n e d (the r o u n d e d m o l d i n g w a s decoratively notched), e m b o s s e d , a n d m o l d e d in shell,
m a s k , a n d o t h e r b a r o q u e shapes (see n o . 27). O n e finds the ultimate expression of this f o n d n e s s f o r
irregular surfaces a n d surface decoration in the sculptural flasks, basins, vases, and w i n e coolers of the
late sixteenth c e n t u r y as well as in the sketchy compendiario (shorthand) style of p a i n t i n g (see fig. 7).
Compendiario

p a i n t i n g e x e c u t e d in a limited palette, o f t e n o n w a r e s w i t h p u r e w h i t e g r o u n d s (called

bianchi di Faenza,

Faentine w h i t e w a r e s ) a l s o enabled w o r k s h o p s to t u r n o u t large n u m b e r s of f i n -

ished pieces quickly and efficiently, to m e e t the d e m a n d s of an ever-increasing m a r k e t .


A l t h o u g h m u c h o f the maiolica that has survived intact consists of the masterpieces a n d l u x u r y
items that w e r e carefully k e p t and displayed, the p o p u l a r pieces that h a v e e n d u r e d help illuminate n o t
o n l y the vessels' significance b u t also the social practices w i t h w h i c h t h e y w e r e associated. T h e s t u d y
of maiolica, and of the m i n o r arts in general, affords an o p p o r t u n i t y to u n d e r s t a n d better the daily life
of various social classes, since the objects w e r e n o t destined solely f o r use b y courtly p a t r o n s and the
C h u r c h ; the m a j o r i t y o f maiolica w a s inexpensive w a r e i n t e n d e d f o r e v e r y d a y use.
O n e gets an idea of the role o f courtship, m a t r i m o n y , and c h i l d b e a r i n g a n d y o u t h , beauty,
hospitality, and d e c o r u m i n Renaissance life w h e n o n e considers the o f t e n elaborate maiolica f o r m s
m a d e to serve these social practices and h o n o r these ideals. Bella donna (beautiful lady) plates and
coppe amatorie (love cups) w e r e o f t e n decorated w i t h classicized busts o f beautiful w o m e n or heroic
m e n or w i t h a lover's portrait a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n a m e or love m o t t o (see n o . 22); piatti da ballata w e r e
used t o offer sweets t o houseguests; maiolica flasks, ewers, rinfrescatoi (coolers), a n d basins held
scented w a t e r offered t o guests to w a s h their h a n d s and cooled w i n e glasses and bottles (see n o . 34);
and tazze da impagliata a n d boli da puerpera w e r e vessels used b y and given as gifts to p r e g n a n t w o m e n .
T h e impagliata ( n a m e d f o r the s t r a w [paglia] beds o n w h i c h w o m e n gave birth) a n d puerpera

I N T R O D U C T I O N

(mid-

FIGURE 8 . C I P R I A N O PICCOLPASSO. A

di cinque pezzi).

Parturition

Set

(schudella

D r a w i n g . F r o m Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio

(1557), fol. 11r. L o n d o n , Victoria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m . P h o t o


courtesy B o a r d o f Trustees, Victoria a n d Albert M u s e u m .

FIGURES 9 a - b . Trencher (Tagliere) and B r o t h B o w l (Scodella)


f r o m a Parturition Set. Italian ( U r b i n o ) , circa 1525 -1530. T i n glazed e a r t h e n w a r e , H (bowl): 10 c m(315/16in.); D i a m : 23 c m
(9 in.); D i a m (trencher): 19 c m (71/2in.). L o n d o n , Victoria and
Albert M u s e u m inv. 2258-1910. P h o t o courtesy B o a r d of
Trustees, Victoria and Albert M u s e u m . T h e trencher served as
a cover for the b o w l . Scenes of childbirth decorate the painted
interiors o f b o t h .

wife) dishes w e r e o f t e n m a d e as sets of u p t o nine pieces, including various b o w l s , a saltcellar,


s o m e t i m e s an e g g c u p , and a cover to b e pieced together in the shape o f a vase (see fig. 8). In these
dishes w o m e n w o u l d be served special f o o d s c h i c k e n , b r o t h , a n d s o u p d u r i n g p r e g n a n c y a n d
parturition (see fig. 9).
In addition to its widespread d o m e s t i c use, maiolica w a s avidly c o m m i s s i o n e d a n d collected
b y the u p p e r classes. P o p e Sixtus IV s h o w e d his high estimation of maiolica w h e n h e w r o t e t o C o s tanza Sforza in 1478 that glazed ceramics w e r e as precious as if they h a d been m a d e o f gold or silver. 19
M o r e o v e r Marchesa Isabella d'Este, P o p e Julius II, P o p e Leo X , G r a n d D u k e C o s i m o I de' Medici,
D u k e G u i d o b a l d o da M o n t e f e l t r o , a n d D u k e Francesco M a r i a della R o v e r e all c o m m i s s i o n e d w o r k s
b y the f o r e m o s t maiolica artists o f their time. T h e maiolica v o g u e s o o n spread t o o t h e r countries
t h r o u g h gifts and foreign commissions; the h o u s e h o l d s o f Andreas I m h o f in N u r e m b e r g and Cardinal
D u p r a t a n d C o n s t a b l e A n n e de M o n t m o r e n c y in France all included pieces of Italian maiolica.
A t least t w o objects in the M u s e u m ' s collection have n o b l e heritage: the Fontana basin (no. 34)
likely originates f r o m a ducal collection of U r b i n o , and the porcelain flask (no. 36) w a s executed f o r
G r a n d D u k e Francesco I de' Medici. A l t h o u g h unable to afford the m o s t refined pieces b y the m o s t
s o u g h t - a f t e r ceramists, families of lesser f a m e b u t surely of a certain affluence also c o m m i s s i o n e d a n d
collected maiolica. T h r e e o f the M u s e u m ' s maiolica objects (nos. 12, 23, 30) w e r e either o r d e r e d b y or
given t o the w e l l - t o - d o families w h o s e a r m s they bear.
T h e first a t t e m p t s t o identify and catalogue Italian Renaissance maiolica b e g a n in the nineteenth
century. In 1873, f o r example, the collector and art historian Charles D r u r y E d w a r d F o r t n u m p u b lished his extensive catalogue of H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e , N e a r Eastern, and Italian ceramics in the S o u t h
K e n s i n g t o n M u s e u m , L o n d o n , w h i c h w a s f o l l o w e d in 1875 b y his abridged h a n d b o o k . It w a s n o t until
after the t u r n of the century, h o w e v e r , that m a j o r studies classifying pieces according t o date, type,
and center o f p r o d u c t i o n w e r e u n d e r t a k e n . T h e s e include O t t o v o n Falke's 1907 h a n d b o o k o f the
maiolica collection of the Berlin K u n s t g e w e r b e m u s e u m (Schlossmuseum) and W i l h e l m v o n Bode's
1911 Die Anfange der Majolikakunst

in Toskana. In 1933 B e r n a r d R a c k h a m , then keeper o f the d e p a r t -

m e n t o f ceramics at the Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , completed his guide t o the m u s e u m ' s collection
o f Italian maiolica, a n d seven years later he published a catalogue o f the same collection. Also in 1933
Gaetano Ballardini, p r o m o t e r of the Scuola della C e r a m i c a and f o u n d e r o f the M u s e o Internazionale
delle C e r a m i c h e in his native Faenza, published the first v o l u m e of his Corpus della maiolica italiana.
Giuseppe Liverani, Ballardini's successor at the Faenza m u s e u m , published his c o m p r e h e n s i v e La
maiolica italiana in 1957.
T h e J. Paul G e t t y M u s e u m ' s collection of maiolica, r a n g i n g in date f r o m the early fifteenth to
the eighteenth century, is c o m p o s e d of wares of outstanding quality and in fine condition a n d includes
examples f r o m m o s t o f the m a j o r p o t t e r y centers. A w i d e variety o f maiolica f o r m s a n d styles is r e p resented. T h e collection includes popular, d o m e s t i c objects as well as m o r e l u x u r i o u s items. It is n o
surprise that o n e can trace the p r o v e n a n c e of a great n u m b e r o f these w o r k s t o illustrious n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y collectors such as Charles D a m i r o n o f Lyons; A l f r e d P r i n g s h e i m of M u n i c h ;
W i l h e l m v o n B o d e o f Berlin; R o b e r t Strauss of L o n d o n ; Alessandro Castellani o f R o m e ; J. P i e r p o n t
M o r g a n of N e w York; and Baroness Marie-Hlne and B a r o n s A d o l p h e , Maurice,

Alphonse,

E d o u a r d , and G u y de Rothschild of Paris.


T h e present catalogue organizes this collection in a r o u g h l y chronological progression, accord-

10

I N T R O D U C T I O N

i n g to stylistic trends. T h e s e divisions d o not, as o n e m i g h t fear, p r o v i d e a false sense of order; g o v erned to s o m e extent b y technical advances, a general course of stylistic d e v e l o p m e n t is indeed discernible. C o u p l e d w i t h , t h o u g h s o m e w h a t s u b s u m e d under, the b r o a d divisions is a b r e a k d o w n o f
objects according t o centers of p r o d u c t i o n . C o n v e n i e n t l y f o r p u r p o s e s of classification, o n e can recognize a general shifting o f d o m i n a n c e f r o m o n e center to another; these shifts w e r e dictated as m u c h
b y changing political and e c o n o m i c circumstances as b y fluctuating fashions and taste. Tuscan w o r k shops flourished f r o m r o u g h l y the M i d d l e A g e s to 1450, f o l l o w e d b y Faentine w o r k s h o p s in the early
Renaissance, and those of C a f a g g i o l o , Castel D u r a n t e , D e r u t a , G u b b i o , Venice, and, a b o v e all,
U r b i n o f r o m 1520 on. Castelli d A b r u z z o , a l t h o u g h active d u r i n g the Renaissance, is h e r e represented
in its later p e r i o d of maiolica p r o d u c t i o n in the seventeenth a n d eighteenth centuries. A t a t i m e w h e n
porcelain h a d surpassed tin-glazed e a r t h e n w a r e in popularity, potters at Castelli p r o d u c e d w a r e s that
constitute a final, s u p r e m e l y pictorial phase of this tin-glazed art. F r a m i n g this presentation of the
M u s e u m ' s maiolica collection are t w o f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Spanish w o r k s a n d a late s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y
porcelain flask, objects that e x e m p l i f y the ceramic types that preceded and f o l l o w e d Italian maiolica of
the Renaissance.

1. Maiolica specifically refers to tin-glazed e a r t h e n w a r e dating

11. ' ' D o l c e color d'oriental zaffiro [like the saffron flower]," as

f r o m the Renaissance; majolica is an application o f the original

D a n t e writes in the Purgatorio, chap. 13,1. 1.

t e r m to the colorful lead- and tin-glazed wares o f the nineteenth

12. Liverani 1960, p. 21.

century (R. Charleston, World Ceramics [London, 1975], p.

13. Piccolpasso (note 3), vol. 1, fol. 7or.

345)-

14. So called after the decorations in ancient R o m a n ruins that

2. A. C a i g e r - S m i t h , Lustre Pottery ( L o n d o n , 1985), p. 127. G.

w e r e believed t o b e grottoes, g r o t e s q u e e m b e l l i s h m e n t is char-

Ballardini r e m i n d s us, h o w e v e r , that b y the m i d d l e of the thir-

acterized b y fantastic and highly decorative c o m b i n a t i o n s of

teenth century obra de mdlequa (alternate spellings include melica,

animals and h u m a n s (for t w o different approaches to grotesque

melicha, maliqua, and malica), t h o u g h certainly referring to a

e m b e l l i s h m e n t o n maiolica, see nos. 33, 34).

place (Malaga), b e c a m e a generic t e r m f o r a process (luster)

15. T h i s French t e r m m o s t o f t e n refers to French, G e r m a n , and

m u c h as the French t e r m faience ( f r o m Faenza) w a s later applied

Scandinavian e a r t h e n w a r e dating f r o m the sixteenth century

to tin-glazed e a r t h e n w a r e (" ' O b r a de Malica' e ceramiche di

on. Faentine ceramics, particularly bianchi di Faenza and com-

G r a n a d a , " Faenza 10, no. 3/4 [1922], p. 60).

pendiario wares, w e r e p o p u l a r in sixteenth-century France, and

3. See, f o r e x a m p l e , C . Piccolpasso, The Three Books of the Pot-

this p r o b a b l y explains the o r i g i n of the t e r m .

ter's Art (translation o f Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio), trans, and

16. Bellini and C o n t i 1964, p. 27.

ed. R. L i g h t b o w n a n d A . C a i g e r - S m i t h , vol. 1 (1557; reprint,

17. C . Piccolpasso, Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio, ed. G. C o n t i

L o n d o n , 1980), fols. 46v, 47r, 50r.

(Florence, 1976), p. 219. C o n t i believes that these Eastern j a r s

4. A. C a i g e r - S m i t h , Tin-Glaze

w e r e originally m a d e f r o m sections o f b a m b o o ; this m a y help

World (London,

Pottery in Europe and the Islamic

1973), p. 54, n. 3. Because these tin glazes could

t o explain the origin o f the ceramic albarello shape.

p r o d u c e a particularly w h i t e surface, they w e r e crucial to the

18. F r o m the Italian crespa, m e a n i n g w r i n k l e or ripple.

d e v e l o p m e n t and appeal of lusterware. Fired o n t h e m o r e c o m -

19. Bellini and C o n t i 1964, p. 21.

m o n lead-based glazes, luster appears dull, whereas it b e c o m e s


fully brilliant w h e n set off against a stabler and p u r e r w h i t e
ground.
5. A. M o o r e Valeri, "II campanile di G i o t t o e le origini della
maiolica blu in Toscana," Faenza 72, n o . 5/6 (1987), p. 281.
6. This dark blue glaze w a s apparently m a d e o f copper in its
oxidized f o r m . For a m o r e c o m p l e t e discussion o f this early
blue glaze, see ibid., pp. 2 8 1 - 2 8 8 .
7. Orlando Furioso,

6.57.

8. See V. Biringuccio, Delapirotechnia

(Venice, 1540); G. A g r i -

cola, De re metallica (Basel, 1556).


9. Piccolpasso (note 3), vol. 1, fol. 64V.
10. Ibid., P r o l o g u e .

INTRODUCTION 11

i Tile Floor

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n s c r o l l s a c r o s s t h e h e x -

agonal tiles, speratens, ne oblyer; on the square tiles, a coat


of arms of barry of six argent and gules.

Manises(?) (Spain), circa 1425-1450


Overall: 110 x 220 cm (427/8X85 3/4in.); square tiles: 11.2
to 12.4 cm (47/16to 4 7/8 in.); hexagonal tiles: 10.8 to
11.1 x 21 to 21.8 cm (41/4to 43/8x 81/4to 89/16in.)
84.DE. 7 4 7

T H I S PAVEMENT CONSISTS OF INTERLINKED

OCTAGO-

nal units (alfardon den mig) composed of square tiles (rajoles) with a coat of arms, surrounded by hexagonal tiles
(alfaradones) with a m o t t o on scrolls. B o t h types of tiles
are painted with cobalt blue foliage (often called oak
leaves on Florentine examples). T h e triangular fills (rigoletes de puntes) m a y have been cut f r o m old tiles at a later
date. T h e coat of arms (barry of six argent and gules) is
probably Tuscan, but the family to which it belongs has
yet to be identified.
O n the scrolls the mottoes speratens and ne oblyer
("have h o p e " and " d o not forget"), possibly religious or
family devices, are written in Gothic script. These m o t toes may be derived f r o m an O l d Catalan or O l d French
dialect.1
T h e floor's octagonal units composed of square and
hexagonal tiles are characteristic of Spanish pavements,
and the foliate pattern is typical of the ceramic centers of
Manises, Paterna, and Valencia. Although the design of
these tiles is certainly Spanish in origin, it is difficult to
determine whether the floor was also manufactured in
Spain. Valencian potters produced large quantities of
similarly inscribed tiles as well as ceramic plates and vessels for Italian export in the fifteenth century. 2
Matching hexagonal tiles inscribed speratens are in
the Kunstgewerbemuseum, Berlin (inv. 01, 43c),3 and the
Muse National de Cramique, Sevres (inv. MNC 8447),
and one inscribed ne oblyer was formerly in the Robert
Forrer collection, Zurich. 4 A matching square tile with
shield is in the M u s e u m Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam. 5 Similar, but not identical, individual tiles are in
the M u s e o Nacional de Cermica, Valencia; the Victoria
and Albert M u s e u m , London (inv. 6 0 7 - 6 1 0 , 1893); the
Museo Arqueologico Nacional, Madrid; the Museos
d'Arte, Barcelona; the Hispanic Society of America,
N e w York (inv. E712); the Art Institute of Chicago (inv.
1984.923); and the M u s e o Correr, Venice.6 Comparable
tiles can also be seen in the panel paintings of Jaime H u guet, Pedro Alemany, and Gabriel Guardia, Spanish artists active f r o m the mid-fifteenth to the early sixteenth
century. 7

12

MANISES

(SPAIN)

TILE

FLOOR

PROVENANCE: Grassi collection, Florence, before 1920;


[Ruth Blumka, N e w York].
EXHIBITIONS: Beyond Nobility: Art for the Private Citizen
in the Early Renaissance, Allentown Art M u s e u m , September 1980-January 1981, no. 122.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Berendsen et al., Tiles (London,
1967), p. 76; E. Callmann, Beyond Nobility: Artfor the Private Citizen in the Early Renaissance, exh. cat. (Allentown
Art M u s e u m , 1980), pp. 115-116.
CONDITION: Surface chips; n u m e r o u s abraded areas.

1. G. C o r t i s u g g e s t e d this d e r i v a t i o n in c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h
t h e a u t h o r , J a n u a r y 25, 1985.
2. H a u s m a n n 1972, p . 50, n o . 32. A . W. F r o t h i n g h a m , i n " V a lencian L u s t e r w a r e w i t h Italian C o a t s o f A r m s in the C o l l e c t i o n
o f t h e H i s p a n i c S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a , "Faenza

39, n o . 3/5 (1953),

p . 92, m e n t i o n s F e r r a r e s e n o t a r i a l r e c o r d s o f 1442 listing n u m e r o u s Valencian c e r a m i c s t h a t h a d b e e n carried t o Italy o n


M a j o r c a n ships.
3. H a u s m a n n 1972, p. 50, n o . 32.
4. R . F o r r e r , Geschichte der europaischen Fliessen-Keramik

(Stras-

b o u r g , 1901), pi. 38.


5. B e r e n d s e n et al. 1967, f a c i n g p . 76.
6. F o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e C o r r e r tiles, see M . G o n z a l e z
M a r t i , " A z u l e j o s v a l e n z i a n o s e x p o r t a d o s a Italia," Faenza

34,

n o . 4 / 6 (1948), p p . 9 1 - 9 2 , pl. 22a; E . C o n c i n a , " D o c u m e n t i e d


a p p u n t i p e r la p a v i m e n t a z i o n e G i u s t i n i a n ad azulejos

valen-

ziani," Faenza 61, n o . 4 / 5 (1975), p p . 8 0 - 8 2 . P r o d u c e d i n Valencia f o r t h e c h u r c h o f S a n t ' E l e n a , Venice, these tiles are f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e active artistic e x c h a n g e b e t w e e n Italy a n d
Spain in t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T h e h e x a g o n a l azulejos, inscribed
Justiniano,

a n d t h e s q u a r e units, d e c o r a t e d w i t h a c r o w n e d ea-

gle, m a y h a v e b e e n o r d e r e d b y F r a n c e s c o G i u s t i n i a n t o e m b e l lish t h e t o m b o f his father, G i o v a n n i , in S a n t ' E l e n a . In light o f


archival d o c u m e n t s , C o n c i n a has s u g g e s t e d d a t i n g these tiles
s o o n after 1460 (p. 82).
7. F o r e x a m p l e s , see J . A . d e Lasartc, Jaime Huguet

(Madrid,

1955), figs. 38, 48; A . L. M a y e r , Geschichte der spanischen

Malerei

(Leipzig, 1922), pl. 73; C . R . P o s t , A History of Spanish

Painting

( C a m b r i d g e , 1938), vol. 7, pt. 1, fig. 116.

2 Hispano-Moresque Deep Dish


(Brasero)
Valencia (Spain), mid-fifteenth century
H : 10.8 c m (41/4in.); Diam: 49.5 cm (191/2in.)
85.DE.441
T H I S DEEP DISH HAS A FLAT BASE, NEARLY VERTICAL

sides sloping slightly outward, and a flat rim. T h e


painted decoration is executed in cobalt blue pigment and
copper red luster; Spanish M o o r s had mastered the m e tallic luster technique by the eleventh century, and by
1415 Mlagan and Murcian potters had brought this technique to the Valencian region. 1
T h e center of the obverse is inscribed IHS (Jesus
H o m i n u m Salvator). Saint Bernard of Siena, w h o died
in 1444, w o u l d hold up this m o n o g r a m for veneration
at the end of his sermons, and it came to be associated
with the saint and his missionary w o r k . After his canonization in 1450, the m o n o g r a m began to appear on
works of art, thus substantiating the dating of this piece
to midcentury.
T h e deep dish is further embellished with a radiating
leaf pattern that extends over the rim and d o w n the sides
of the exterior; the reverse displays alternating wide and
narrow concentric bands. T h e decoration of three-part
leaves with tendrils f r o m which spring small flowers
with petals of varying n u m b e r is occasionally identified
as b r y o n y leaves (a tendril-bearing vine of the gourd
family), 2 parsley leaves (hoja deperejil),3 or fiordaliso (normally translated as fleur-de-lis but also c o m m o n l y used
to indicate a small carnation). 4 O n e finds this leaf-spray
embellishment in various configurations on HispanoMoresque wares of the second and third quarters of the
fifteenth century. 5 This foliate motif spread f r o m Spain
to Italy and became popular on Italian wares toward the
end of the century. 6 Works decorated in this manner were
also favored and collected in France, where this leaf-spray
motif is referred to as feuillages pers (greenish blue foliage), and are included in important inventories such as
that of King Rene of Anjou. 7
This type of Valencian deep dish was often used as
a serving trencher, although its large scale, elaborate decoration, and excellent state of preservation suggest that
the Museum's dish was intended for display, perhaps on
a credenza. Similar dishes with leaf-spray embellishment
and the San Bernardino m o n o g r a m , m a n y of which are
braseros and display concentric bands on the reverse, include those in the Kunstmuseum, Dusseldorf; 8 formerly
in the Bak collection, N e w York; 9 formerly in the

14

VALENCIA

(SPAIN) . DEEP

DISH

N o . 2, reverse

Vieweg collection, Brunswick; 1 0 in the Muse du


Louvre, Paris (inv. OA 1223, 1224, 4029, 4032); in the
Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello, Florence; 11 formerly in the M . Boy collection, Paris; 12 in the Victoria
and Albert M u s e u m , London; 1 3 formerly in the Emile
Gaillard collection, Paris; 14 in the Hispanic Society of
America, N e w York; 15 in the Toledo M u s e u m of Art; 16
in the Gonzalez Marti collection, Valencia; 17 and formerly in the Francis Wilson M a r k collection, Palma de
Mallorca and London. 18
MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: O n

obverse,

in

center,

IHS.
PROVENANCE: [Leonardo Lapiccirella, Florence]; sold,
Christie's, London, July 1, 1985, lot 270; [Rainer Zietz,
Ltd., London].
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: G. Conti, L'arte della maiolica in Italia


(Milan, 1973), pl. 8; Apollo, no. 122 (1985), p. 405, no. 5.
CONDITION: Some m i n o r chips and glaze faults.

1. A . Lane, " E a r l y H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e P o t t e r y , "


Magazine

Burlington

88 ( O c t o b e r 1946), p p . 2 5 1 - 2 5 2 .

2. See, f o r e x a m p l e , A . W . F r o t h i n g h a m , Catalogue of HispanoMoresque Pottery ( N e w Y o r k , 1936), p. 158; i d e m , Lustreware

of

Spain ( N e w Y o r k , 1951), p. 139.


3. See M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , vol. 1, p p . 459ff.
4. Fiordaliso m a y i n d e e d b e t h e m o s t acceptable n a m e f o r this

decoration, since it appears (as fioralixi) in c o n t e m p o r a r y i n ventories (M. Spallanzani, " M a i o l i c h e di Valenza e di M o n t e l u p o in una casa pisana del 1480," Faenza 72, n o . 3/4 [1986], pp.
164-170). M o r e o v e r these inventories w e r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h
listing w o r k s so that t h e y could b e readily identified; o n e can
u n d e r s t a n d w h y t h e n a m e of a c o m m o n a n d easily recognizable
flower such as the carnation m i g h t have b e e n used t o describe
this decoration.
5. E . A . Barber, Hispano-Moresque

Pottery ( N e w York, 1915),

P- 346. See, for example, B o j a n i et al. 1985, p. 188, n o . 467.


7. J. H a y w a r d and T. H u s b a n d , The Secular Spirit: Life and Art
at the End of the Middle Ages ( N e w York, 1975), p. 53.
8. Kunstmuseum

Dusseldorf: Eine Auswahl

(Dusseldorf, 1962),

p. 2 6 6 , no. 8 9 2 , fig. 1 0 4 .
9. A Highly Important Collection of Early Italian Maiolica Formed
by Dr. Bak of New York, sale cat., Sotheby's, N e w York, D e c e m b e r 7, 1965, lot 2.
10. Vieweg Collection,

sale cat., R u d o l p h Lepke,

Brunswick,

Berlin, M a r c h 18, 1930, lot 147.


11. G. C o n t i , Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo Nazionale

di Fi-

renze, Palazzo del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o . 517; i d e m , L'arte


della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d edn. (Milan, 1980), pl. 68.
12. Objets d'art . . . composant la collection de feu M. Boy, sale
cat., Galerie G e o r g e s Petit, Paris, M a y 15-24, 1905, lot 53.
13. J. A . de Lasarte, Ars hispaniae, vol. 10 ( M a d r i d , 1952), p. 68,
fig- 15514. Objets d'art . . . composant la collection Emile Gaillard, sale
cat., Gaillard h o m e , Paris, J u n e 8 - 1 6 , 1904, p. 85, n o . 406.
15. F r o t h i n g h a m , Lustreware (note 2), pp. 136, 138-139, figs.
98, 9916. Museum News (Toledo M u s e u m o f Art) 5, n o . 3 (1962), p.
58.
17. M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , v o l . 1, p . 4 6 1 , p i . 17, f i g . 5 6 5 .

18. W. G. Blaikie M u r d o c h , " P o t t e r y a n d Porcelain: M r . Francis W. M a r k ' s Collection of H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e P o t t e r y , " Connoisseur 62 ( A u g u s t 1922), p. 201, no. 5.

16

VALENCIA

(SPAIN)

DEEP

DISH

3 Jug with Pecking Bird (Boccale)

imal designsincluding lions, hares, leopards, and dogs


as well as b i r d s o n Italian wares appear to have been
based instead o n Florentine textiles and other decorative
arts of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. These Flor-

Tuscany, early fifteenth century


7

H : 25 c m (9 /8 in.); D i a m (at lip): 9.5 c m (33/4in.); max.

entine products in turn appear to have been influenced by

W : 16.2 c m (63/8in.)

Islamic motifs originating in the Eastern Mediterra-

84.DE.95

nean. 10 Maiolica decoration therefore m a y display Islamic


motifs that w e r e indirectly transmitted to the ceramic

T H I S JUG IS FORMED

OF AN

OVOID

BODY,

STRAP

handle, flared rim, and pinched spout. It is a simple yet


remarkably elegant piece because of its gently attenuated
shape and strongly rendered surface decoration. A long-

m e d i u m t h r o u g h other Renaissance Italian decorative


arts.
MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS:

beaked bird stands on the g r o u n d line, f r o m which

PROVENANCE: Private

sprouts foliage, against a b a c k g r o u n d of berries and dots

[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].

in copper green and manganese b r o w n pigments. T h e


interior is lead glazed.
T h e oldest piece of maiolica in the M u s e u m ' s collection, this j u g corresponds to the archaic style, according to G. Ballardini's classification. 1 This style prevailed
f r o m roughly the thirteenth to the beginning of the fifteenth century and is generally characterized by simple
motifsinitials,

coats of arms,

stylized

animals

painted in copper green outlined in manganese b r o w n .

None.

collection,

The

Netherlands;

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: N o n e .

CONDITION: A chip in the base, and m i n o r chips o n the


handle and rim; w h a t appear to be three chips a r o u n d the
central section are actually areas of the clay b o d y on
w h i c h deposits of calcined lime or other impurities have
expanded and " p o p p e d o u t , " or exploded, during firing.

Like the present w o r k , archaic-style maiolica j u g s f r o m


Tuscany as well as f r o m s u r r o u n d i n g regions c o m m o n l y
display a guilloche pattern encircling the neck and par-

1. See Ballardini 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , vol. 1, Le maioliche datate fino al

allel lines dividing the piece into decorative panels. 2

1530, p p . 1 3 - 1 4 ; f o r a h e l p f u l s c h e m a , see vol. 2, Le

Also popular was the motif of a single bird, often


portrayed pecking at a berry or leaf, adorning the b o d y
of a j u g or jar. 3 In reference to a Faentine example decorated with this motif, Ballardini has suggested that this

maioliche

datate dal 1531-1535, p. 10. B a s e d o n classifications o f ancient


p o t t e r y , Ballardini's categories are o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
w a r e s ' d e c o r a t i v e glaze m o t i f s . A l t h o u g h scholars h a v e b e c o m e
increasingly a w a r e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f s u c h factors as o b j e c t
s h a p e as w e l l as clay b o d y a n d glaze c o m p o s i t i o n i n g r o u p i n g

pecking bird (becca I'uva) m a y allude to the n a m e of a

maiolica w a r e s , Ballardini's classification r e m a i n s h e l p f u l i n es-

p r o m i n e n t family of the area. 4 B o t h the rather thickly

tablishing a basic c h r o n o l o g y o f maiolica d e c o r a t i o n . M o r e r e -

painted green glaze and the appearance of berries and


lobed leaves relate this decoration to the zaffera a rilievo
(relief-blue) embellishment popular in Tuscany p r i m a r ily in the second quarter of the fifteenth century (see nos.

cently, G . C o r a established n i n e t e e n m a j o r categories o f early


Italian maiolica w h i c h v a r y o n l y slightly f r o m Ballardini's
s c h e m a ( C o r a 1973, vol. 1, p. 33). O n e m u s t r e m e m b e r , h o w ever, t h a t w h i l e useful, t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d t e r m s e m p l o y e d
b y Ballardini a n d o t h e r s can p r o v e m i s l e a d i n g , especially w h e n

5 - 9). 5 Indeed the connections between earlier archaic ce-

u s e d to i d e n t i f y t h e subjects o f d e c o r a t i v e m o t i f s . A . M o o r e

ramics and zaffera a rilievo products m a y be m o r e direct

Valeri has p o i n t e d o u t , for e x a m p l e , that t h e " P e r s i a n p a l m e t t e "

than initially thought. Traditionally, all ceramics of the

bears n o r e s e m b l a n c e t o a p a l m e t t e a n d t h a t in t h e N e a r E a s t t h e

relief-blue typology were dated to the fifteenth century. 6


Recent archaeological excavations in Tuscany
unearthed

zajfera

wares

together

with

have

fourteenth-

century archaic types, however, so that one can be certain


that zajfera w o r k s were already being produced in the

"peacock-feather" motif originally had n o connection w i t h


peacocks, s y m b o l i z i n g i n s t e a d t h e rising s u n (Valeri 1984, p p .
4 9 0 - 4 9 1 , n. 62).
2. F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s , see C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs. 6c, 8 a - b , 11,
13a, 3 1 a - d , 32, 33, 3 1 0 a - c , 3 1 3 a - d , 318b.
3. See ibid., figs. 8 a - b , 44c, 51a, 64b, 6 5 a - c , 69a, 69c, 69d,

second half of the fourteenth century. 7 Consequently,

7 o a - c , 7 1 a - c , 137a, 138a, 3 0 9 a - c .

and as this j u g demonstrates, relief-blue decorations do

4. Ballardini 1975, p. 49.

not represent as great a departure f r o m earlier decorative

5. O n e k n o w s o f w o r k s d e c o r a t e d w i t h typical relief-blue

types as was previously believed. 8

leaves, dots, and animals p a i n t e d i n a t h i n c o p p e r g r e e n glaze,

O n c e t h o u g h t to be derived directly f r o m Islamic


9

and Islamic-inspired ceramic decoration, the stylized an-

as o n this j u g , instead o f t h e m u c h m o r e c o m m o n thick cobalt


p i g m e n t ( G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 1 0 - n , fig. 28). C o r a 1973, vol.

JUG

TUSCANY

17

2, pl. 21a, r e p r o d u c e s a n early f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y F l o r e n t i n e


f r a g m e n t d i s p l a y i n g s i m i l a r l y s h a p e d a n d o u t l i n e d leaves, also
painted in copper green.
6. A c c o r d i n g t o C o r a ' s classification o f early F l o r e n t i n e cer a m i c s , zaffera a rilievo (his g r o u p V ) dates f r o m circa 1 4 1 0 1450 a n d zaffera diluita (his g r o u p VI) dates f r o m circa 1 4 1 0 1480 ( C o r a 1973, v o l . 1, p p . 7 3 - 8 3 ) .
7. Valeri 1984, p p . 4 7 7 - 4 7 8 .
8. C o m p a r e , f o r e x a m p l e , a m i d - f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y archaic j u g
d e c o r a t e d w i t h leaves in c o p p e r g r e e n glaze f r o m V i t e r b o
(L. G a l e a z z o a n d G . Valentini, Maioliche arcaiche e rinascimentali
inraccoltaprivata

[Foligno,

1975], p p . 1 0 8 - 1 0 9 ) a n d a Tuscan j u g

w i t h s i m i l a r d e c o r a t i o n b u t i n zaffera diluita ( B o j a n i et al. 1985,


n o . 706). F o r a s i m i l a r boccale w i t h a " p e c k i n g b i r d " b u t p a i n t e d
i n relief c o b a l t b l u e , see C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, pis. 64b, 6 5 a - c .
9. F o r e x a m p l e s o f Islamic a n i m a l m o t i f s , see E . K u h n e l ,

The

Minor Arts of Islam ( N e w Y o r k , 1971), figs. 51, 84, 8 8 , 9 0 ; i d e m ,


Beitrage zur Kunst des Islam (Leipzig, 1925), pl. 99. F o r b i r d m o tifs o n H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e w o r k s , see M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , v o l s .
1, figs. 1 5 0 , 1 5 3 , 1 8 3 , 1 9 2 , 2 7 7 , 2 8 0 , 3 5 6 , 4 5 9 , 4 9 4 - 4 9 6 , 538,612,
631, 640, 6 4 8 - 6 5 2 , 700; 2, p p . 4 7 2 - 4 7 8 ; 3, figs. 5 5 6 - 5 6 3 , 668,
670, 6 7 8 - 6 8 0 , 6 8 9 - 6 9 1 .
10. First discussed i n H . Wallis, The Oriental Influence on the Ceramic Art of the Italian Renaissance

( L o n d o n , 1900), p p . i x - x x x ;

m o s t r e c e n t l y e x a m i n e d i n M . Spallanzani, Ceramiche
a Firenze nel rinascimento

orientali

(Florence, 1978), p p . 1 0 0 - 1 0 2 ; Valeri

1984, pp- 4 7 7 - 5 0 0 .

N o . 3, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

18

TUSCANY

JUG

4 Dish (Bacino)
Florence, circa 1425-1440
H : 4.4 c m (1 3/4 in.); D i a m : 25.3 c m (915/16in.)
84.DE.94
T H I S M O D E S T D I S H DISPLAYS S O P H I S T I C A T E D

GEOMET-

ric and vegetal glaze decoration in green, ocher, and pale


b r o w n i s h purple. T h e radiating sections of scalelike o r namentation a r o u n d the rim, slanting "shuttle" pattern
alternating w i t h w a v y lines a r o u n d the deep well border,
and curvilinear pattern in the well all c o m p l e m e n t the o b ject's simple shape. M o r e o v e r this dish is one of the rare
early, u n d o u b t e d l y functional pieces that have remained
intact. A l t h o u g h unembellished,

the reverse shows

traces of lead and tin glazes.


This w o r k belongs to the green family, the first
phase of the severe style, w h i c h dates f r o m roughly 1425

No. 4, reverse

to 1450 and includes ceramic products decorated mainly


w i t h a copper green pigment. 1 This style differs f r o m the

border, is f o u n d on Tuscan maiolica f r a g m e n t s of the late

earlier archaic style n o t only in its emphasis o n m o r e an-

fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries. 5 A related Flor-

imated and varied decorative motifs b u t also in the use of

entine deep dish f r o m the first half of the fifteenth cen-

n e w p i g m e n t s s u c h as ocher, blue, yellow, and a m o r e

tury was f o r m e r l y in the Wilhelm v o n B o d e collection,

purple-tinted manganese b r o w n a c c o m p a n y i n g

the

Berlin, and is n o w in the Fitzwilliam M u s e u m , C a m bridge. 6 Like the Getty M u s e u m ' s bacino, a j u g f r o m

traditional copper green.


D a t i n g f r o m a r o u n d 1420 to the turn of the century,

Montalcino of the m i d - f o u r t e e n t h century displays a

the severe style marks an i m p o r t a n t development in

looped scroll on a hatched background. 7 A l t h o u g h ap-

maiolica embellishment, since for the first time n e w de-

parently derived f r o m the same sources, the looped scroll

signs d r a w n f r o m a variety of media (such as textiles, ar-

on the j u g is abruptly cut off by the b o r d e r lines; the jug's

chitectural decoration, manuscript illumination, and ce-

glaze painter, f r o m the m o r e provincial center of M o n -

ramics), originating in centers outside the peninsula

talcino, apparently did not understand the flowing nature

(such as Spain and the N e a r East), strongly influenced

of the scroll m o t i f displayed b y the M u s e u m ' s dish.

Italian maiolica glaze motifs. In addition to the green

T h e variety of this bacino's decorative motifs and the

family, the severe style included such diverse types of

use of an ocher glaze suggest this w o r k was executed after

glaze decoration as zaffera a rilievo,

Italo-Moresque,

the first decades of the fifteenth century; its decoration,

Gothic-floral, peacock feather, Persian palmette, and alia

however, is not as innovative as that o n w o r k s of the

porcellana.

midcentury. 8

Influenced b y Islamic m e t a l w o r k designs, this dish's


well displays looped scrolls and leaf sprigs that emanate
f r o m a c r u c i f o r m m o t i f and gracefully feed into a band
around the well, all reserved on a hatched g r o u n d . N o t
only d o identical looped scrolls appear over and over
again o n Islamic m e t a l w o r k objects, 2 but the hatched
g r o u n d strongly resembles the b a c k g r o u n d "filler" used

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS:

None.

PROVENANCE: A. Pringsheim, M u n i c h ; E. R. Paget,


London; A. Kauffmann, L o n d o n ; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd.,
London].
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

to set off m e t a l w o r k motifs by means of hatching or

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Falke 1914-1923, vol. 1, p. 4, fig. 4;

punching. 3 This same filler ground, against w h i c h the

Cora 1973, vol. 2, no. 5od, pl. 50.

m a i n decoration is reserved, appears o n Islamic ceramics, 4 suggesting that they also served to transmit Islamic motifs to Italy.
Similar decoration, particularly of the well and well

20

FLORENCE

DISH

CONDITION: S o m e areas of overpainting f r o m r i m to


r i m across the center of the dish and o n the rim; a glaze
fault and a few glaze chips a r o u n d the r i m .

1. Ballardini 1975, p p . 4 9 - 5 1 .
2. See, f o r e x a m p l e , A . G r o h m a n n , " D i e BronzeschaleM.3881911 i m Victoria and A l b e r t M u s e u m , " in Aus der Welt der islamischen Kunst (Berlin, 1959), figs. 4, 5; E. Baer, Metalwork

in

Medieval Islamic Art (Albany, 1983), figs. 112,117, 173,176, 178,


180, 184, 2 i 3 ; E . A t i l e t a l . , Islamic Metalwork in the Freer Gallery
of Art ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1985), n o . 19.
3. A f e w examples a m o n g m a n y can b e f o u n d in Baer (note 2),
fig. 183; A t i l e t al. (note 2), n o . 26, fig. 64. For examples o f this
h a t c h w o r k m o t i f o n o t h e r early Italian ceramics, see L. Galeazzi
and G. Valentini, Maioliche arcaiche e rinascimentali in raccoltaprivata (Foligno, 1975), p p . 17, 20; E. C a l l m a n n , Beyond

Nobility:

Art for the Private Citizen in the Early Renaissance, exh. cat. (All e n t o w n A r t M u s e u m , 1981), nos. 120, 121.
4. See, f o r e x a m p l e , R . C h a r l e s t o n , World Ceramics (London,
1968), p. 70, nos. 204, 205.
5. See C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs. 24b, 28a; R a c k h a m 1940, vols.
1, p. 20, n o . 76; 2, pi. 5.
6. B o d e

1911,p.

Rackham,

Catalogue of the Glaisher Col-

lection of Pottery and Porcelain in the Fitzwilliam

Museum

bridge, 1935), n o . 2164; C o r a 1973, vol. 2, n o . 50c.


7. Galeazzi a n d Valentini (note 3), p. 20.
8. See, f o r e x a m p l e , C o r a 1973, vol. 2, pi. 53.

22

FLORENCE

DISH

(Cam-

5 Two-Handled "Oak-Leaf"
Drug Jar (Orciuolo Biansato)

w o r k s h o p a r o u n d 1427 " f o r a f e w years at least." 7 D i

Florence, circa 1420-1440

this j a r of almost certain Florentine origin. 8 T h e h a r p y

H : 31.1 c m (121/4in.); D i a m (at lip): 14.3 c m (55/8in.);

was a m o n s t e r said to t o r m e n t misers and w a s c o m -

m a x . W : 29.8 c m (11 3/4 in.)

m o n l y used d u r i n g the Renaissance as a s y m b o l f o r av-

Branca's presence in di Mazeo's w o r k s h o p m a y explain


the unusual presence of h a r p i e s m o r e c o m m o n o n
w o r k s f r o m centers such as O r v i e t o and V i t e r b o o n

85.DE.56

arice. It is uncertain w h e t h e r the harpies here are invested


w i t h this m e a n i n g . T h e y m i g h t have served as a d m o n i AN

t o r y e m b l e m s referring to the generosity o f the hospital

exceptionally b o l d and rare shape: it has a broad, almost

f o r w h i c h this d r u g j a r w a s m a d e . Harpies also decorate

cylindrical b o d y w i t h a tall neck, h i g h foot, and ribbed,

a Florentine d r u g j a r f o r m e r l y in the W i l h e l m v o n B o d e

o u t w a r d - j u t t i n g handles. T h e center of each side displays

collection, Berlin, 9 and another in the M u s e e d u Louvre,

a t h r e e - r u n g e d ladder s u r m o u n t e d b y a cross f r a m e d o n

Paris (inv. OA 3982). 10 A f u r t h e r e x a m p l e of a t w o - h a n -

dled d r u g j a r displaying symmetrically placed, striped

and on the other side b y t w o h u m a n - f a c e d birds, or h a r -

birds is in the M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello,

pies. T h e surface is f u r t h e r decorated w i t h leaves and dots

Florence. 11

THIS

LARGE

TWO-HANDLED

DRUG

JAR

IS

OF

o n e side b y t w o birds, s o m e t i m e s identified as peacocks,

(often called bacche, "berries"). This decoration is painted

A t h r e e - r u n g e d ladder s u r m o u n t e d b y a cross is the

in an exceptionally thick, cobalt blue i m p a s t o (zajfera a

e m b l e m of the Sienese Santa M a r i a della Scala hospital.

rilievo) outlined in and scattered w i t h touches of m a n -

This e m b l e m refers to the hospital's location in f r o n t of

ganese p u r p l e o n a pinkish w h i t e g r o u n d . Vertical p a t -

the steps (scala) of the city's cathedral. Santa M a r i a della

terns in m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e of double dashes b e t w e e n

Scala was primarily a f o u n d l i n g hospital. 12 Established

three parallel stripes b o r d e r each side of the jar's body.

a r o u n d the tenth century, the hospital later b e c a m e so i m -

T h e interior is tin glazed.

p o r t a n t that it o p e n e d branches outside Siena. O n M a y

T h e leaf decoration o n this j a r is o n e of the first dec-

17, 1316, the Florentine t o w n council authorized the

orative typologies to b e recognized and discussed as a co-

o p e n i n g of a b r a n c h in the Tuscan capital o n w h a t was to

herent group. 2 In 1898 W. v o n B o d e first described this

be called Via della Scala. T h e Florentine b r a n c h b e c a m e

decoration as pastoser Blaudekor

p r o m i n e n t , maintaining almost c o m p l e t e a u t o n o m y u n -

(blue i m p a s t o decora-

tion), 3 and five years later H . Wallis identified the m o t i f

til 1535, w h e n it w a s c o m b i n e d w i t h the Florentine O s -

as oak leaves. 4 T. H a u s m a n n , h o w e v e r , has described the

pedale degli Innocenti. 1 3 Since all Tuscan branches o f the

painted decoration as grape leaves. 5 A c c o r d i n g to H a u s -

Santa M a r i a della Scala hospital apparently used t h e

m a n n , this t y p e o f o r n a m e n t a t i o n was adapted in Flor-

cross-and-ladder e m b l e m , o n e cannot be certain< for

ence f r o m H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e ceramic decoration of

w h i c h b r a n c h the present j a r w a s p r o d u c e d . Maiolica

vines and feathered leaves, which, w h e n painted w i t h the

p r o d u c t s displaying the e m b l e m include m i d - f i f t e e n t h -

Florentine thick blue impasto, b e c a m e simplified to re-

century t w o - h a n d l e d d r u g jars 1 4 and m i d - s i x t e e n t h - c e n -

semble oak leaves. T h e H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e deep dish in

t u r y dishes. 15

the M u s e u m ' s collection (no. 2), f o r example, displays


this t y p e of Spanish ceramic decoration, especially p r e v alent in Valencia. Recent scholarship, however, favors
identification of the foliage as oak leaves and questions its
derivation f r o m H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e sources. 6
B e l o w each handle is a P, possibly i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h
a b a c k w a r d C , w h i c h m a y b e the m a r k of the Florentine
w o r k s h o p of Piero di M a z e o and c o m p a n y , active at the
t i m e the j u g was m a d e . D i M a z e o (born 1377/87 in B a c chereto) w o r k e d as a ceramist in his h o m e t o w n b e f o r e

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n

each

side,

three-

r u n g e d ladder s u r m o u n t e d b y a cross; b e l o w each h a n dle, P, possibly i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h b a c k w a r d C.


PROVENANCE: W i l h e l m v o n B o d e , Berlin; G l o g o w s k i ,
Berlin (sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , J u n e 8, 1932, lot 58);
A u g u s t Lederer, Vienna; Erich Lederer, Geneva.
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Wallis 1903, pp. 9 (fig. 7), 35; B o d e

m o v i n g to n e a r b y Florence, w h e r e h e b e c a m e head of an

1911, pi. 14; C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, fig. 648; C o r a 1973,

i m p o r t a n t w o r k s h o p together w i t h t w o partners and a

vols. 1, p. 76; 2, pls. 61, 62, 63c; G. C o n t i , L'arte della

g r o u p of craftsmen, m a n y of w h o m also c a m e f r o m B a c -

maiolka in Italia, 2 n d edn. (Milan, 1980), pls. 45, 46; Valeri

chereto. O n e potter, A n t o n i o di Branca, was a native of

1984, fig. 4b.

V i t e r b o and is k n o w n t o have w o r k e d in di Mazeo's

DRUG

JAR . FLORENCE

23

CONDITION: Previously b r o k e n a n d repaired; s o m e o v -

erpainting, particularly around the lip and neck on the


left of the side w i t h birds and on the right-hand bird; approximately three-quarters of the glaze on the top r i m
has w o r n off

1. B o j a n i et al. 1985, v o l . 1, n o s . 181, 222, 225, 707.


2. T h i s t y p e o f e m b e l l i s h m e n t is alternately k n o w n as pastoser
Blau, zaffera a rilievo, relief-blue, o r o a k - l e a f d e c o r a t i o n .
3. See W . v o n B o d e , " A l t f l o r e n t i n e r M a j o l i k e n , " i n

Ausstellung

von Kunstwerken

e x h . cat.

des Mittelalters

und der Renaissance,

( K u n s t g e s c h i c h t l i c h e Gesellschaft, Berlin, 1899).


4. Wallis 1903, p. x x . A l t h o u g h q u i t e d i f f e r e n t i n a p p e a r a n c e
f r o m r e l i e f - b l u e pieces, t h e r e v e r s e o f an u n u s u a l b a s i n in t h e
C o r c o r a n G a l l e r y o f A r t , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . (inv. 26.315), a n d
an o c t o f o i l b o w l i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s C o u n t y M u s e u m o f A r t
(the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f w h i c h is c u r r e n t l y b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d )
clearly display o a k leaves w i t h a c o r n s (inv. 46.16.2; W a t s o n
1986, n o . 5, a n d Valeri 1984, p. 492, f i g . 10, respectively);
w h e t h e r t h e s e o a k leaves can b e related t o t h e F l o r e n t i n e zaffera
m o t i f s has n o t y e t b e e n f u l l y e x a m i n e d .
N o . 5, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

5. H a u s m a n n 1972, p . 96.
6. Valeri 1984, p p . 4 9 0 - 4 9 3 .
7. C o r a 1973, v o l . 1, p. 76.
8. I b i d . , p p . 61, 67, 76.
9. Wallis 1903, p. 22, fig. 20; C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, fig. 635;
B o d e 1911, p. 14 (right); A Highly

Important

Italian Maiolica Formed by Dr. Bak of New

Collection of Early

York, sale cat., S o t h -

eby's, N e w Y o r k , D e c e m b e r 7, 1965, l o t 19.


10. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 1 2 - 1 3 , n o . 30.
11. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, f i g . 68; G . C o n t i , Catalogo
Museo

Nazionale

di Firenze,

Palazzo

del Bargello

dellemaioliche:
(Florence,

1971), n o . 509.
12. K . P a r k , Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance

Florence

( P r i n c e t o n , 1985), p. 104, n. 60.


13. C o r a 1973, v o l . 1, p. 76.
14. Ibid., v o l . 2, figs. 91, 92c.
15. See B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 1, n o s . 6 4 - 6 7 ; R a c k h a m
1940, v o l . 1, n o s . 642, 643.

N o . 5, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

24

FLORENCE

DRUG

JAR

6 Cylindrical
(Albarello)

"Oak-Leaf"Jar

Florence, circa 1420-1440


H : 16.5 c m (61/2in.); D i a m (at lip): 9.7 c m (313/16in.); m a x .
D i a m : 12.2 c m (413/16in.)
85.DE.57

THIS

ESSENTIALLY

CYLINDRICAL

VESSEL,

THOUGH

slightly w i d e r at the base, is characteristic of the albarello


f o r m . T h e surface is painted w i t h a vertically placed fish
o n either side s u r r o u n d e d by leaves and dots (or " b e r ries") in a thick cobalt blue i m p a s t o ( z a f f e r a a rilievo) o u t lined in m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e o n a pinkish w h i t e g r o u n d .
T h e b a c k g r o u n d is scattered w i t h m a n g a n e s e dots and
curved lines that echo the d o t shapes. D o w n o n e side and
a r o u n d the r i m , w a v y m a n g a n e s e lines are p u n c t u a t e d b y
blue dots. T h e interior is tin glazed. T h e vessel's small
size suggests that it m u s t be a quartuccio, or quarter
measure.
A l t h o u g h c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t to b e of H i s p a n o M o r e s q u e derivation, this fish m o t i f appears to be derived instead f r o m archaic maiolica p r o t o t y p e s that m a y
in t u r n have been based o n Islamic models. 1 A d r u g j a r in
a private Florentine collection w h i c h displays a h o r i z o n tally placed fish m a y be o n e of the f e w maidlica objects
w i t h this m o t i f that directly relate t o H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e
or N e a r Eastern types. 2 T h e fish m o t i f in the m o r e c o m m o n vertical position is f o u n d o n other early Florentine
jars, a l t h o u g h of the t w o - h a n d l e d f o r m , also w i t h o a k leaf and b e r r y embellishment. 3
MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

None.

PROVENANCE: U g o Grassi, Florence; A u g u s t Lederer,


Vienna; Erich Lederer, Geneva.
EXHIBITIONS:

None.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Rothenstein, " S h o r t e r Notices: T w o


Pieces of Italian P o t t e r y , " Burlington Magazine

85 ( A u -

gust 1944), p. 205, pl. C ; C o r a 1973, vols. 1, p. 78; 2, fig.


83 c; G. C o n t i , L'arte della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d edn.
(Milan, 1980), no. 48.
CONDITION: M i n o r chips and overpainting o n the r i m .

1. Valeri 1984, p p . 478, 4 8 0 - 4 8 1 , n . 24.


2. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, f i g . 82; Valeri, p p . 480, n . 24; 494, n . 85.
3. F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s , see C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, f i g s . 8 3 a - b , 8 4 a c, pl. 85; Wallis 1903, p. 32, f i g . 30. F o r e x a m p l e s o n a r c h a i c
m a i o l i c a , see C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, pls. 14a, 16a, 17a, 20.

26

FLORENCE . CYLINDRICAL

JAR

N o . 6, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

7 Two-Handled "Oak-Leaf"Jar
(Orciuolo Biansato)
Florence, circa 1425 - 1 4 5 0
H : 39.4 c m (151/2in.); D i a m (at lip): 19.3 c m (7 5/8 in.);
m a x . W : 40 c m (153/4in.)
84.DE.97
T H I S T W O - H A N D L E D JAR IS T H E LARGEST K N O W N VES-

sel o f its kind. Its high-shouldered, ovoid b o d y is e m bellished o n each side w i t h a r a m p a n t lion a m o n g dots
(or "berries") and branches of leaves in a thin blue i m pasto outlined in and s u r r o u n d e d b y dashes and w a v y
lines in m a n g a n e s e purple. T h e thin i m p a s t o , or zaffera
diluita, is a s o m e w h a t later and rarer t y p e of decoration
than the thicker zaffera a rilievo.1 T h e short neck and strap
handles are likewise painted w i t h blue dots and m a n ganese lines o n a thin bluish w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e interior
is glazed b u t m u c h abraded.

N o . 7, alternate v i e w

This piece displays a painted asterisk b e l o w each


handle, w h i c h m a y serve a purely o r n a m e n t a l function,
since asterisks w e r e a c o m m o n decorative motif. 2 B e cause t h e areas b e l o w handles o n j u g s and jars are c o n ventionally inscribed w i t h makers' m a r k s , h o w e v e r , it
seems m o r e likely that the asterisks o n this w o r k indicate
a given w o r k s h o p . G. C o r a has identified the six-pointed
asterisk o n this d r u g j a r as the m a r k o f the w o r k s h o p o f
Giunta di Tugio (circa 1382-circa 1450), the m o s t i m p o r t a n t maiolica ceramist of his t i m e in Florence. 3 D i
Tugio, y o u n g e s t son of Tugio di Giunta, was b o r n in
Bacchereto, like his father and other fifteenth-century
ceramists w h o b e c a m e active in Florence (such as Piero
di Mazeo 4 ). D i Tugio was trained in his father's w o r k shop, w h i c h h e t o o k over at the t i m e of the latter's death
a r o u n d 1419 and m a n a g e d f o r the next thirty years. A c cording t o d o c u m e n t s , b y 1417 di Tugio w a s a m e m b e r
of t h e council of t h e oliandoli, or oil merchants. 5
Lions frequently embellish zaffera a rilievo ceramics
and are particularly appropriate as a Florentine motif,
since they p r o b a b l y refer to that city's lion e m b l e m , or
marzocco. Since the lion w a s also popular o n wares f r o m
Valencian centers such as Paterna and Manises, 6 it is c o m m o n l y t h o u g h t to b e of H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e origin, alt h o u g h recent scholarship suggests that it derived instead
f r o m Italian heraldry or archaic ceramics. 7 T h e w h i t e
starlike disk o n the lion's chest, a design w h o s e significance has yet to b e explained, appears o n H i s p a n o - M o r esque w o r k s 8 and m a y have been transferred to Italian ceramics w i t h t h e influx of Spanish wares in the fifteenth
century. T h i s design also appears o n animals embellish-

28

F L O R E N C E . T W O - H A N D L E DDRUGJ A R

N o . 7, alternate v i e w

ing c o n t e m p o r a r y a n d earlier fabrics, a n d these fabrics,

imals h e r e are s y m m e t r i c a l l y displayed, m u c h i n t h e s a m e w a y

possibly themselves influenced b y Spanish or N e a r E a s t -

t h a t a n i m a l m o t i f s are p a i n t e d f a c i n g o n e a n o t h e r o r a d d o r s e d

e r n p r o t o t y p e s , m a y h a v e served as the s o u r c e f o r the ce-

o n o a k - l e a f j a r s ; see also Valeri 1984, p. 480, figs. 4 - 6 . F o r a

r a m i c designs.

O t h e r Florentine t w o - h a n d l e d j a r s w i t h leaves and

discussion o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f textiles as t r a n s m i t t e r s o f Isl a m i c d e s i g n s t o Italy, see M . Spallanzani, Ceramiche orientali a


Firenze nel rinascimento

(Florence, 1978), p p . 101-102.

r a m p a n t lions include t h o s e in the British M u s e u m , L o n -

10. See Wallis 1903, p. 23, f i g . 21; C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig. 81b;

d o n (inv. 1903,5-15,i);10 i n t h e K u n s t g e w e r b e m u s e u m ,

W i l s o n 1987, n o . 20.

B e r l i n (inv. 8 5 , 6 2 1 ) ; " i n t h e F i t z w i l l i a m M u s e u m , C a m -

11. H a u s m a n n 1972, p p . 9 4 - 9 6 , n o . 71.

b r i d g e (inv. C76-1961, C77-1961);12 i n t h e M u s e e

12. Bellini a n d C o n t i 1964, p . 61.

Na-

t i o n a l d e C e r a m i q u e , Sevres (inv. 5292); 13 i n t h e R o c h e

maiolica d r u g j a r collection, Basel;

14

in t h e collection o f

t h e p r i n c e s o f L i e c h t e n s t e i n , V a d u z (inv. 1267); 15 f o r -

m e r l y in the O t t o Beit collection, London; 1 6 f o r m e r l y in


the D a m i r o n collection, Lyons; 1 7 a n d in the W a d s w o r t h

13. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, f i g . 79c; C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, p. 80,


fig. 636; G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 1 2 - 1 3 , n o . 34.
14. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, f i g . 80b.
15. Ibid., fig. 8 l a ; H . B o s s e r t , Geschichte

des

Kunstgewerbes

(Berlin, 1935), p . 17; E . H a n n o v e r , Pottery and Porcelain

(Lon-

d o n , 1925), v o l . 1, p . 100, fig. 112; Wallis 1903, f i g . 32.

A t h e n e u m , H a r t f o r d (inv. 1917.433). T h e B r i t i s h M u -

16. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig. 8 1 c ; B . R a c k h a m , "Italian M a j o l i c a , "

s e u m also has a large albarello w i t h a r a m p a n t lion (inv.

in Catalogue of Pottery and Porcelain: Otto Beit Collection

MLA1898, 5-23,1). 1 8 T h e m o s t s i m i l a r l y s h a p e d l a r g e t w o -

d o n , 1916), p p . 7 6 - 7 7 , n o . 740.

(Lon-

h a n d l e d j a r w i t h h i g h s h o u l d e r accentuated b y the h a n -

17. A Very Choice Collection of Old Italian Maiolica,

dlesis in the British M u s e u m (inv. MLA 1902, 4-24, 1).19

of M. Damiron,

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : B e l o w e a c h h a n d l e , a s i x -

18. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, figs. 80a, 80c; W i l s o n 1987, n o . 23.

p o i n t e d asterisk.

19. B o d e 1911, ill. p. 18; C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig. 57c; W i l s o n

1938,

1987,

PROVENANCE: C o n t i n i - B o n a c o s s i , Florence; [ N e l l a L o n -

gari, Milan]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] ,


EXHIBITIONS:

None.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C o r a 1973, vols. 1, p p . 83, 457; 2, pl.


112.

CONDITION: A crack r u n s f r o m u n d e r o n e h a n d l e t o t h e

base; t w o small losses in the neck are filled a n d painted;


small chips a r o u n d the r i m a n d along the handles.

1. C o r a 1973, p p . 8 2 - 8 3 ; A . M o o r e Valeri, h o w e v e r , has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c h r o n o l o g y o f zajfera w o r k s m i g h t b e b e t t e r d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e existence o r lack o f I t a l o - M o r e s q u e i n f l u e n c e


r a t h e r t h a n b y t h e t h i c k n e s s o r d i l u t i o n o f t h e c o b a l t glaze (Valeri 1 9 8 4 , p. 4 9 6 , n . 1 0 2 ) .
2. F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s , see C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, figs. i 4 2 a - b .
3. C o r a 1973, v o l s . 1, p . 39, n. 12; 2, pl. 350 (M222, M223).
4. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f this artist, see e n t r y n o . 5 a b o v e .
5. C o r a 1973, v o l . 1, p . 55, n . 1.
6. F o r e x a m p l e s , see M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , vols. 1, figs. 290, 329,
641; 2, figs. 342, 644, 680, 681, 699, 799, 8 0 1 - 8 0 4 , 942; 3, figs.
551-5547. Valeri 1984, p. 478, n. 7.
8. See M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , vols. 1, figs. 276, 278, 279, 282; 3, fig.
575.
9. See, f o r e x a m p l e , a t h i r t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Sicilian altar f r o n t a l
w i t h e m b r o i d e r e d l e o p a r d s , p a r r o t s , a n d g r i f f i n s in A . S a n t a n gelo, Tessutid'arteitaliani:

Dal XII al XVIII

secolo ( M i l a n , 1959),

pl. 4. A s o n n u m e r o u s e x a m p l e s o f textiles, m o r e o v e r , t h e a n -

30

F L O R E N C E . T W O - H A N D L E DDRUGJ A R

Lyons,

the Property

sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e 16,

l o t 7 3 , p. 7 5 .

no. 21.

8 Two-Handled "Oak-Leaf"
Drug Jar (Orciuolo Biansato)

a w i d e cross section of Florence's population while c o n -

Florence, circa 1431

Tugio w o r k s h o p . D o c u m e n t s relating to this c o m m i s -

H : 25 c m (97/8in.); D i a m (at lip): 12. 5 c m (415/16in.); m a x .

sion describe p a y m e n t s m a d e b y the hospital b e t w e e n

W : 24.5 c m (95/8in.)

1430 and 1431 for nearly one t h o u s a n d albarelli, orciuoli,

84.DE.98

and other vaselli.10 This i m p o r t a n t c o m m i s s i o n w a s de-

centrating o n the needs o f the poor. 9


This pharmaceutical j a r is one of a large n u m b e r o f
d r u g containers that the hospital ordered f r o m the di

cisive for the w o r k s h o p , as it u n d o u b t e d l y served to inT H E B O D Y OF THIS T W O - H A N D L E D OVIFORM D R U G JAR

is covered w i t h a yellowish w h i t e tin-glaze g r o u n d decorated w i t h branches of leaves in cobalt blue impasto,

crease n o t only di Tugio's wealth but also his reputation.


Including the Getty M u s u e m ' s piece,

approxi-

mately t w e n t y d r u g jars w i t h the Santa Maria N u o v a

f r a m i n g o n each side a r u n n i n g saddleback boar, also in

crutch e m b l e m are k n o w n , and it seems likely that many,

blue. Blue dots (or "berries") and manganese purple lines

if not all, of t h e m w e r e p r o d u c e d as part of the 1431 di

further embellish the body, neck, and ribbed strap h a n -

Tugio commission. T h e y include one decorated w i t h ea-

dles. T h e impasto decoration is outlined in manganese

gles f o r m e r l y in the Stieglitz M u s e u m , Saint Petersburg,

purple. T h e interior is tin glazed.

n o w in the State H e r m i t a g e , Leningrad (inv. F-3118); 11

A copper green and manganese purple crutch, e m -

t w o o n e w i t h birds, the other w i t h f i s h i n the M u s e e

b l e m of the Florentine Santa Maria N u o v a hospital, is

d u Louvre, Paris (inv. OA 6304, OA 6305); 12 another w i t h

painted o n each of the t w o handles, and the areas b e l o w

fish f o r m e r l y in the O p p e n h e i m e r collection, London; 1 3

each handle bear six-pointed asterisks, the m a r k of

a third w i t h fish in a private collection, Florence; 14 a d r u g

Giunta di Tugio's w o r k s h o p in Florence. A r o u n d 1431 di

j a r w i t h a r a m p a n t lion in the National Gallery of Vic-

Tugio apparently altered the asterisk m a r k inherited

toria, M e l b o u r n e (inv. 3649.3); 15 t w o o n e w i t h rabbits,

f r o m his father's w o r k s h o p b y s u r r o u n d i n g it w i t h dots. 2

the other w i t h

W i t h their addition, the asterisk m a r k began to resemble

M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 389-1889, c.2063-1910); 16 an-

fleurs-de-lisin

the Victoria and Albert

a flower, as is the case o n this d r u g jar, which therefore

other w i t h fleurs-de-lis f o r m e r l y in the G l o g o w s k y col-

m u s t have been executed a r o u n d this time.

lection, Berlin; 17 a third w i t h fleurs-de-lis in the M u s e o

Also used as a m o t i f o n Spanish ceramics, 3 the sad-

Nazionale di C a p o d i m o n t e , Naples; 1 8 one w i t h g e o m e t -

dleback boar o n this vessel m i g h t have been part of the

ric decoration f o r m e r l y in the A. v o n Beckerath collec-

coat of a r m s or device of a family that had supported the

tion, Berlin; 19 one w i t h cranes in the M e t r o p o l i t a n M u -

Florentine hospital in s o m e way. T h e image is so g e n -

s e u m of Art, N e w York; 20 one w i t h leaf decoration in the

eralized, however, that it seems m o r e likely that the boar

M u s e u m of Fine Arts, B o s t o n (inv. 23.268); one w i t h

was used for decorative effect, possibly referring either

San B e r n a r d i n o m o n o g r a m s in the M u s e o Internazion-

to one of the animal's m a n y symbolic qualitiesas one

ale delle Ceramiche, Faenza (inv. 21054/c); 21 one w i t h

of the f o u r heraldic beasts of the hunt, it represents speed

crowns in the collection of the princes of Liechtenstein,

and f e r o c i t y o r to a scene f r o m G r e c o - R o m a n m y -

Vaduz (inv. 1269);22 another w i t h crowns in a private col-

thology. 5 O n e finds similar wild boars o n maiolica j u g s

lection, Milan; 23 one w i t h profile portraits o f a bearded

and ceramic fragments; this animal can be seen as a h e -

m a n w e a r i n g a pointed cap and a w o m a n w e a r i n g a

raldic e m b l e m on a Florentine j u g of the third quarter of

p l u m e d hat in the Cleveland M u s e u m of A r t (inv.

the fifteenth century 7 as well as o n an early sixteenth-cen-

43.54) ;24 and one w i t h curly-haired figures in profile f o r -

tury maiolica plate f r o m G u b b i o in the Victoria and A l -

merly in the Volpi collection, Florence. 25 C o r a also m e n -

bert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 1725-1855); neither coat of

tions, b u t does n o t reproduce, a d r u g j a r f r o m this same

a r m s has been identified.

Santa Maria N u o v a g r o u p , also f o r m e r l y in the Volpi

In the early M i d d l e Ages hospitals w e r e simple hos-

collection. 26 T w o f u r t h e r d r u g jars w i t h the crutch e m -

pices set u p outside cities to offer f o o d and lodging to pil-

b l e m of the Santa Maria N u o v a hospital b u t of slightly

grims and travelers. T h e Santa Maria N u o v a hospital, b y

different shape and w i t h simplified leaf decoration w e r e

the m i d - f o u r t e e n t h century the largest in Florence, w a s

sold at auction in Paris. 27 Maiolica j u g s and jars bearing

the first hospital in that city dedicated primarily to caring

the same crutch e m b l e m w e r e also p r o d u c e d for the

for the sick. F r o m d o c u m e n t s such as the hospital's ac-

Santa Maria N u o v a hospital in the sixteenth and seven-

count b o o k s and M a t t e o Villani's Cronica, w e k n o w that

teenth centuries. 28

Santa Maria N u o v a supplied high-quality medical care to

TWO-HANDLED

DRUG

JAR . FLORENCE

31

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: O n

each strap handle,

copper green and m a n g a n e s e purple crutch; b e l o w each


handle, a six-pointed asterisk s u r r o u n d e d b y dots.
PROVENANCE: S i r T h o m a s I n g i l b y , B t . , N o r t h

York-

s h i r e 2 9 ( w i t h d r a w n , S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u l y 2, 1974, l o t
2 6 1 ; s o l d , S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , A p r i l 14, 1981, l o t 13);
[Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London],
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: G .

Norman,

"Documented

History

Helps Jar to M a k e Fifty-Six T h o u s a n d P o u n d s , "

Times

( L o n d o n ) , A p r i l 15, 1981; J . C u a d r a d o , " P r i z e d P o t t e r y


T r i u m p h s o f t h e I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , " Architectural

Digest

4 1 ( F e b r u a r y 1984), p . 127.
CONDITION: A crack r u n s f r o m the base to the t o p o f o n e
o f t h e h a n d l e s o n o n e side; t h e r e are m i n o r chips o n t h e
handles a n d in the glaze o f the b o d y .

N o . 8, alternate v i e w
1. C o r a 1973, vols. 1, p . 39, n. 12; 2, pi. 350 (M225); see e n t r y
no. 7 above.

18. Ibid., fig. 89a.

2. Ibid., v o l . 1, p. 80.

19. B o d e 1911, p. 18, pl. 19; Wallis 1903, p. 8; Falke ( n o t e 6),

3. F o r e x a m p l e s , see M a r t i 1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , vols. 2, fig. 673; 3, fig.

n o . 23.

575.

20. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , vol. 1, n o . 4, pi. 3; G . Szabo, The Robert

4. P r o f e s s o r M . Spallanzani, Florence, h a s b r o u g h t it t o m y at-

Lehman Collection ( N e w Y o r k , 1975), n o . 143.

t e n t i o n t h a t s u c h F l o r e n t i n e families as t h e Foresi, Iacopi, P o r -

21. B o j a n i e t a l . 1985, n o . 425; C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, pl. 95.

cellini, a n d V e n e r i i n c l u d e d b o a r s o r p i g s o n their coats of a r m s .

22. C o r a 1973, vol. 2, fig. 90c (as " f o r m e r l y L i e c h t e n s t e i n col-

5. T h e C a l y d o n i a n b o a r h u n t , f o r e x a m p l e , w a s a p o p u l a r s u b -

lection [?]"); B o d e 1911, p. 14 (center).

j e c t f o r istoriato scenes (see L i v e r a n i 1960, fig. 26); a plate f r o m

23. C o r a 1973, vol. 1, p. 78; this d r u g j a r is m e n t i o n e d b u t n o t

D e r u t a o f circa 1530 also displays a w i l d - b o a r h u n t ( w i t h s a d -

reproduced.

dleback b o a r ) , allegorically i n t e r p r e t e d as o n e o f H e r c u l e s ' la-

24. Ibid., vol. 2, figs. 5 5 a - b ; E . P. Pillsbury, Florence and the

b o r s (G. C o n t i , e d . , Una collezione di maioliche del rinascimento

Arts: Five Centuries of Patronage (Cleveland, 1971), n o . 93.

[ M i l a n , 1984], n o . 2 4 ) .

25. Ibid., vol. 2, fig. 55c.

6. See C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs. 37, 166c, 188c, 196b; O . v o n

26. Ibid., vol. 1, p. 80.

Falke, Die Majolikasammlung

27. Objets de haute curiosite provenant

Adolf von Beckerath, sale cat., R u -

Chompret,

d o l p h L e p k e , Berlin, N o v e m b e r 4, 1913, lots 79, 81, 82.

de la collection du Dr. f .

sale cat., H o t e l D r o u o t , D e c e m b e r 15, 1976, lot 23.

7. Falke ( n o t e 6), l o t 80.

28. C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 2; B o j a n i et al. 1985, n o . 577.

8. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 656; 2, pl. 103.

29. A c c o r d i n g t o N o r m a n (1981), t h e j a r h a d b e e n in t h e I n -

9. K . P a r k , Doctors and Medicine in Early Renaissance

Florence

( P r i n c e t o n , 1985), p p . 102-103, 106.


10. C o r a 1973, vol. 1, p. 273 ( d o c u m e n t r e p r o d . in vol. 2, pl.
360b).
11. K u b e 1976, n o . 1; B o d e 1911, p. 19.
12. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s . 31, 32.
13. Highly Important Collection of Italian Majolica . . . , sale cat.
( H . O p p e n h e i m e r collection), Christie's, L o n d o n , J u l y 15,
1936, lot 2; C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig. 84a.
14. C o r a 1973, vol. 2, pi. 85.
15. Highly Important Collection

. . . (note 13), lot 1; M . L e g g e ,

in A . B r o d y et al., Decorative Arts from the Collections of the National Gallery of Victoria ( M e l b o u r n e , 1980), p p . 1 4 - 1 5 .
16. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o s . 38, 39; 2, pl. 9.
17. C o r a 1973, vol. 2, fig. 88a.

32

FLORENCE

T W O - H A N D L E D

DRUG

JAR

gilby f a m i l y since t h e e i g h t e e n t h century.

9 Two-Handled Jar (Orciuolo


Biansato)
Florence, circa 1431-1450
H : 16.5 c m (61/4in.); D i a m ( a t lip): 10.5 c m (41/8in.); m a x .
W : 17.8 c m (7 in.)
85.DE.58
THIS

OVIFORM T W O - H A N D L E D

VESSEL DISPLAYS

ON

each side f o u r horizontal zones delineated b y m a n g a n e s e


p u r p l e lines. T h e s e zones display w a v y m a n g a n e s e p u r ple lines a n d a d o u b l e r o w o f cobalt blue dots (or " b e r ries") set into the curves o n a g r o u n d of small m a n g a n e s e
dots. T h e interior is lead glazed. T h e area b e l o w each
strap handle bears a six-pointed asterisk m a r k

sur-

r o u n d e d b y dots, attributed to the Florentine w o r k s h o p


of Giunta di Tugio. 1
O t h e r examples o f zaffera a rilievo j u g s and t w o handled j a r s display similar repetitive, almost g e o m e t r i c
decoration (including dots, dashes, w e d g e shapes, and
patterns of " b i g d r o p s " a goccioloniof

glaze), rather

t h a n the m o r e c o m m o n leaf embellishment. 2

N o . 9, alternate v i e w

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : B e l o w e a c h h a n d l e , a s i x -

p o i n t e d asterisk s u r r o u n d e d b y dots.
PROVENANCE: Stefano Bardini, Florence; Elie Volpi,
Florence (sold, J a n d o l o and Tavazzi, R o m e , April 2 5 M a y 3, 1910, lot 777); D r . Bak, N e w York (sold, Sotheby's, N e w York, D e c e m b e r 7, 1965, lot 15); A u g u s t Lederer, Vienna; Erich Lederer, Geneva.
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sale cat., L e m p e r t z , C o l o g n e , M a y 6,


1953, p. 56, n o . 414, pl. 44; C o r a 1973, vols. 1, p. 80; 2,
fig. 107b.
CONDITION: TWO chips in the r i m , chips along the h a n dles, and a n u m b e r o f blind cracks in the b o d y .

1. F o r m o r e o n this m a r k , see C o r a 1973, vols. 1, p. 39, n . 12;


2, pl. 350 (M225); see also e n t r y n o . 8 above.
2. F o r e x a m p l e s , see C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs. 99c, 101c, 1 0 2 a c, 103a, 103c, I 0 4 a - b , 106, 107a, 107c; sale cat., S e m e n z a t o ,
Florence, N o v e m b e r 11, 1987, l o t 290. A . M o o r e Valeri has
s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e a goccioloni p a t t e r n o n F l o r e n t i n e

zaffera

w a r e s relates t o c o n t e m p o r a r y textiles, c o s t u m e , o r h e r a l d r y ;
instead o f r e p r e s e n t i n g " b i g d r o p s , " it m a y b e d e r i v e d f r o m t h e
m e d i e v a l vair, o r squirrel pelt, w h i c h c o m m o n l y s e r v e d t o line
cloaks a n d a p p e a r s as a m o t i f o n furriers' coats o f a r m s (1984,
pp. 486-487).

34

F L O R E N C E . T W O - H A N D L E DDRUGJ A R

10 CylindricalJar (Albarello)
Florentine area, m i d - f i f t e e n t h century
H : 18.1 c m (71/8in.); D i a m (at lip): 9.5 c m (33/4in.); m a x .
W : 13 c m(51/8in.)
84.DE.96
T H E CYLINDRICAL SHAPE, WAISTED NECK, AND TAPER-

ing f o o t o f this piece are typical o f the albarello f o r m . T h e


small handle is an unusual addition w h o s e f u n c t i o n has
yet to be explained. It m a y have been used to suspend the
piece f o r storage or possibly t o tie together a g r o u p of
similar d r u g jars o n a shelf. M a r k s , perhaps graduations,
have been scratched o n the underside of the unglazed
b o t t o m , a l t h o u g h it is uncertain w h e t h e r these w e r e i n scribed at the t i m e the j a r w a s m a d e or at a later date. T h e
blue glaze decoration is divided into horizontal b a n d s foll o w i n g t h e object's shape: scrolls a r o u n d the neck; a scroll
and stylized leaf design a r o u n d the shoulder and o n the
handle; 1 a w a v y line w i t h stylized leaves a r o u n d the

N o . 10, u n d e r s i d e

curved section above t h e unglazed foot; and hatched


fields and k n o t w o r k w i t h i n a pattern of angular, discontinuous lines a r o u n d t h e b o d y . T h e interior is tin glazed.
T h e angular line decoration o n the exterior was inspired b y K u f i c script, an early f o r m of the Arabic alphabet. K u f i c calligraphy was k n o w n t h r o u g h o u t Spain
and Italy thanks to the spread of small and easily transportable g o o d s s u c h as textiles, 2 leatherwork, and coffers as well as c e r a m i c s d e c o r a t e d w i t h the script. E s pecially in Tuscany Kufic designs had a s t r o n g influence,
and there are K u f i c inscriptions in paintings b y i m p o r t a n t
Tuscan artists f r o m the late thirteenth to the late fifteenth
century, such as Duccio, Fra Angelico, Gentile da Fabriano, Filippo Lippi, and D o m e n i c o Ghirlandaio. 3
O n e finds an interesting m i x t u r e of N e a r and Far
Eastern influences o n this small jar. T h e scroll design
a r o u n d its neck and shoulder can also b e f o u n d o n Islamic
w o r k s , 4 a l t h o u g h it m a y originally have been derived
f r o m a Far Eastern source. 5 T h e k n o t w o r k o n the jar's
body, c o m m o n l y f o u n d o n pots f r o m Malaga a n d M a n i ses, can also b e traced to M o o r i s h and N e a r Eastern
6

sources. T h e h a t c h w o r k fields a r o u n d the jar's b o d y recall the b a c k g r o u n d patterns that w e r e used to fill in the
areas a r o u n d raised decoration o n Islamic m e t a l w o r k . 7
A l t h o u g h originally m e a n t to be read as b a c k g r o u n d ,
these rectangular hatched areas appear instead to p r o t r u d e f r o m the b o d y of the jar.
Because of the large quantity o f H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e
ceramics arriving in Italy b y the f o u r t e e n t h and fifteenth
centuries, Spanish rather than Islamic p r o d u c t s w e r e

36

FLORENTINE

AREA . C Y L I N D R I C A L

JAR

An Apothecary's

Shop. F r o m A v i c e n n a , Canon. N o r t h e r n Italy,

circa 1440 (detail). T e m p e r a o n v e l l u m . B o l o g n a , Biblioteca


U n i v e r s i t a r i a M s . 2197, fol. 38V. P h o t o c o u r t e s y Biblioteca
U n i v e r s i t a r i a . Albarelli
shelves at t h e r i g h t .

d e c o r a t e d w i t h K u f i c script line t h e

largely responsible for the spread of N e a r Eastern dec-

583, 586, 593, 595. F o r a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o n Italian maiolica, see

oration to that country. T h e Islamic-inspired o r n a m e n -

J . C a r s w e l l , Blue and White: Chinese Porcelain and Its Impact on

tation o n the vessel u n d e r discussion w a s p r o b a b l y influe n c e d less b y p a t t e r n s o n S p a n i s h j a r s t h a n b y t h e b l u e


d e c o r a t i o n o n a t y p e o f e a r l y f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y tile f r o m
Manises, however.8

the Western World, exh. cat. ( D a v i d a n d A l f r e d S m a r t Gallery,


U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o , 1985), p. 150, n o . 90.
2. Islamic fabrics, desired f o r their rich d e c o r a t i o n , w e r e i m p o r t e d i n t o Italy in large quantities i n t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y a n d
likely s e r v e d as a p r i m a r y s o u r c e f o r c e r a m i c e m b e l l i s h m e n t ,

In a d d i t i o n to this jar,
t w e n t y k n o w n albarelli

approximately

i n c l u d i n g K u f i c p a t t e r n s (R. L i g h t b o w n , " L ' e s o t i s m o , " in G.

o f v e r y similar f o r m and deco-

there are

Bollati a n d P. Fossati, eds., Storia dell'arte italiana, pt. 3, vol. 3

ration, only three of w h i c h include a small, single handle:

[Turin, 1980], p p .

o n e i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv.

3. F o r a discussion o f this p h e n o m e n o n , see G. Soulier, "Les

1150-1904);9 a second f o r m e r l y in the Delia Gherardesca

caracteres c o u f i q u e s d a n s la p e i n t u r e t o s c a n e , " Gazette

collection, Bolgheri;

10

a n d a t h i r d s o l d at a u c t i o n

in

M i l a n . 1 1E x a m p l e s w i t h o u t h a n d l e s i n c l u d e t h o s e i n t h e
Victoria and Albert M u s e u m

(inv.

1143-1904,

1147-

1904, 372-1889);12 i n t h e M u s e o I n t e r n a z i o n a l e della C e -

449-455).

5, n o . 9 ( 1 9 2 4 ) , p p .

beaux-arts

des

347-358.

4. See, f o r e x a m p l e , a blue, black, a n d w h i t e albarello o f t h e first


half o f t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y f r o m D a m a s c u s i n t h e M u s e e des
A r t s D e c o r a t i f s , Paris ( r e p r o d . in M . Spallanzani, Ceramiche orientali a Firenze

[Florence, 1978], pl. 1). A l -

nel rinascimento

r a m i c h e , F a e n z a (inv. 21100/c, 2 i 0 5 8 / c ) ; 1 3 i n t h e K u n s t g e -

t h o u g h this w o r k w a s likely p r o d u c e d f o r t h e F l o r e n t i n e m a r -

w e r b e m u s e u m , B e r l i n ( i n v . 14, 63); 1 4 i n t h e M u s e e N a -

ket, aside f r o m t h e shield w i t h

t i o n a l d e C e r a m i q u e , S e v r e s (inv. 22667);

15

f o r m e r l y in

t h e D u c r o t collection, Paris;16 i n t h e A r t u r o C a s t i g l i o n i
collection, Trieste;

17

t w o in Florence: o n e in the M u s e o

N a z i o n a l e , P a l a z z o d e l B a r g e l l o (inv. 13795), a n d a n o t h e r
in a p r i v a t e collection;18 in t h e M u s e o N a z i o n a l e di C a podimonte,

N a p l e s ( i n v . 46) ; 19 i n t h e R o c h e

maiolica

fleur-de-lis,

its p a i n t e d m o t i f s

are N e a r E a s t e r n .
5. See a b o v e ( n o t e 1).
6. A . C a i g e r - S m i t h , Tin-Glaze

Pottery in Europe and the Islamic

World ( L o n d o n , 1973), p . 59. F o r e x a m p l e s o f this k n o t w o r k


d e s i g n o n Islamic m e t a l w o r k , see A . G r o h m a n n , " D i e B r o n zeschale M.388-1911 i m V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , " i n Aus
der Welt der islamischen Kunst (Berlin, 1959), figs. 4 - 9 ; E. Baer,

d r u g j a r collection, Basel;20 a n d t w o pieces i n t h e p h a r -

Metalwork

m a c y o f t h e M i n o r i t e b r o t h e r s at San R o m a n o V a l d a r n o ,

this p a t t e r n o n H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e ceramics, see M a r t i 1 9 4 4 -

n e a r P i s a . 2 1 O n e f i n d s a n albarello

of similar f o r m , w i t h

in Medieval Islamic Art (Albany, 1983), fig. 180. F o r

1952, v o l . 2, figs. 472, 473; C a i g e r - S m i t h (1973), fig. 10.

the unusual single handle b u t w i t h different surface dec-

7. See e n t r y n o . 4 a b o v e .

o r a t i o n , in t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m (inv. 1131-

8. H a u s m a n n 1972, n o . 76; f o r f u r t h e r e x a m p l e s , see M a r t i

1904).

22

The

Getty

Museum's

example

is t h e

most

adroitly f o r m e d a n d d e c o r a t e d o f this g r o u p .
MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n

underside,

10. C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig. 131c.


inscribed

m a r k s (graduations?).
PROVENANCE: D r .

J.

1 9 4 4 - 1 9 5 2 , v o l . 3, p l . 4 , figs. 9 0 - 9 4 , 1 4 2 , 1 7 4 .

9. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 52; 2, pl. 12.


11. Sale cat., Finarte, M i l a n , N o v e m b e r 2 1 - 2 2 , 1963, lot 141,
pl. 7 5 .
12. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o s . 51, 68, 70; 2, pls. 12, 13.

Chompret,

Paris

(sold,

Hotel

D r o u o t , P a r i s , D e c e m b e r 15, 1976, l o t 19); [ R a i n e r Z i e t z ,


Ltd., London].

13. B o j a n i et al. 1985, n o s . 436, 437.


14. H a u s m a n n 1972, n o . 76.
15. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 54.
16. G . Ballardini, Le maioliche della collezione Ducrot

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: H o t e l

(Milan,

[ 1 9 3 - ] ) , p l . 3, n o s . 5, 6 ; C h o m p r e t 1 9 4 9 , v o l . 2 , n o s . 6 5 5 , 6 5 6 ;

sale cat., Sotheby's, L o n d o n , A p r i l 23, 1974, lot 38; sale cat.,


Drouot,

Paris,

December

15,

S e m e n z a t o , Florence, N o v e m b e r 11, 1987, lot 319.


17. A . Castiglioni, " L a f a r m a c i a italiana del q u a t t r o c e n t o nella

1976, l o t 19.

storia dell'arte c e r a m i c a , " Faenza

10, n o . 3 / 4 (1922), pl. 8c.

CONDITION: A hairline crack o p p o s i t e t h e h a n d l e that

18. G . C o n t i , Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo Nazionale

r u n s f r o m t h e lip d o w n t h e n e c k a n d t h e n f o r k s ; m i n o r

renze, Palazzo del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o . 339; C o r a 1973,

c h i p s at t h e l i p , h a n d l e , a n d b a s e .

vol. 2 , n o . 1 3 2 b .
19. M u s e o e Gallerie N a z i o n a l i di C a p o d i m o n t e , La

di Fi-

donazione

Mario de Ciccio (Naples, 1958), p. 23, n o . 46.


20. H .

E.

Thomann,

"Die

'Roche'-Apotheken-fayencen-

1. T h e s c r o l l w o r k a r o u n d t h e n e c k a n d a b o v e t h e s h o u l d e r is

s a m m l u n g , " Mitteilungsblatt,

nearly identical to, a n d a p p a r e n t l y d e r i v e d f r o m , t h e C h i n e s e

5 8 / 5 9 ( 1 9 6 2 ) , p l . 8.

"classic s c r o l l " m o t i f u s e d as b o r d e r d e c o r a t i o n p r i m a r i l y o n

21. C . Pedrazzini, La farmacia storica ed artistica italiana (Milan,

Keramik-Freunde

der Schweiz,

no.

p o r c e l a i n f r o m t h e Y u a n (1271-1368) a n d M i n g ( 1 3 6 8 - 1 6 4 4 )

1934). P- 147.

dynasties. See, f o r e x a m p l e , R . K r a h l , Chinese Ceramics in the

22. H . Wallis, The Albarello ( L o n d o n , 1904), fig. 23; R a c k h a m

Topkapi Saray Museum

38

F L O R E N T I N E

( L o n d o n , 1986), vol. 2, n o s . 571, 581,

AREA

C Y L I N D R I C A L

JAR

1940, vols. 1, n o . 56; 2, pi. 11.

11 CylindricalJar (Albarello)
Florentine area, circa 1440-1450
H : 18.6 c m (75/16in.); D i a m (at rim): 10.5 c m (41/8in.);
m a x . D i a m : 11.8 c m (45/8in.)
84.DE.100
T H I S ALBARELLO

W I T H WAISTED NECK AND TAPERING

f o o t is divided into horizontal zones b y light yellowish


green bands outlined in grayish blue. T h e w i d e zone
a r o u n d the b o d y displays a series of stylized flowers e n closed in circles and s u r r o u n d e d b y foliate scrolls. This
area is b o r d e r e d b e l o w b y incised flat l e a v e s s o m e t i m e s
called foglie di gelso, or m u l b e r r y leaves 1 alternating
w i t h curved ones in m a n g a n e s e p u r p l e and cobalt blue.
Blue foliate scrolls interspersed w i t h parallel lines o r n a m e n t the shoulder, and additional foliate scrolls r u n
a r o u n d the neck. 2
For essentially functional maiolica objects such as
this d r u g jar, efficiency of p r o d u c t i o n was a p r i m e concern. A p p a r e n t l y painted in haste, this w o r k affords o n e
the o p p o r t u n i t y t o v i e w the artist's h a n d in its painted
decoration. For the green stripes the artist dipped the
b r u s h once into the glaze, placed the p i g m e n t - l a d e n
b r u s h o n the body, and as the j a r w a s t u r n e d , the color
b e c a m e depleted, leaving a m u c h lighter green w h e r e the
end of the stripe meets the beginning. In addition the artist painted the rosette motifs w i t h o u t considering the size
of the piece, so that the last rosette was forced to fit i n t o

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

the r e m a i n i n g space and as a result appears m o r e oval

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sotheby's,

than r o u n d .

1983, lot 194.

T h e incised flat-leaf m o t i f in the lower section is


derived f r o m H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e designs 3 that spread to
Italy, b e c o m i n g particularly p o p u l a r in and a r o u n d Florence.

London,

November

CONDITION: C h i p s o n the r i m and a m i n o r

22,

crack

t h r o u g h the body, w i t h overpainting.

Similar rosette motifs also appear o n H i s p a n o -

M o r e s q u e w o r k s , and the Italian designs m a y be derived


f r o m , or at least have been influenced by, that source. 5 It

1. G . C o n t i , L'arte della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d e d n . (Milan, 1980),

is equally likely, however, that such a generalized m o t i f

pl. 7 0 .

w a s developed independently in Italy. O t h e r jars p r o -

2. F o r o t h e r e x a m p l e s o f this scroll m o t i f , d e r i v e d f r o m t h e

duced in the area o f Florence display similar floral m e -

C h i n e s e "classic scroll," see e n t r y n o . 10 above, esp. n . I.

dallions s u r r o u n d e d b y foliate scrolls

as well as the

H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e - i n s p i r e d incised leaves. 7 M o s t

of

these w o r k s can be dated to the second half of the fif-

3. See A . W. F r o t h i n g h a m , Lustreware

of Spain

( N e w York,

1951), figs. 85, 87.


4. See, f o r e x a m p l e , R a c k h a m 1940, vol. 2, n o s . 67, pl. 11; 80,
pl. 1 3 .

teenth century, a l t h o u g h the rather archaic quality of this

5. See, f o r e x a m p l e , F r o t h i n g h a m (note 3), figs. 7 0 - 7 2 .

jar's decoration suggests that it was executed shortly be-

6. F o r e x a m p l e s , see C o r a 1973, vol. 2, pl. 133, figs. i 3 4 a - b ,

fore midcentury.

1 3 5 a - b , 136c, 1 3 7 a - c , 1 3 8 a - c , 1 3 9 a - c , 1 4 2 a - c , 1 4 5 ; B o d e 1911,
pl. 2 0 .

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: N o n e .

PROVENANCE: Sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 22,

7. See C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, fig. 663; C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs.


I 7 8 a - b , 179, 1 8 1 a - c .

1983, lot 194; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

CYLINDRICAL

JAR . F L O R E N T I N E

AREA

39

12 Two-Handled Armorial Jar


(Albarello Biansato)
Florentine area or U m b r i a , circa 1450-1500
H : 22.2 c m (83/4in.); D i a m (at rim): 11.4 c m (41/2in.);
m a x . W : 23.4 c m (93/16in.)
84.DE.99
T H I S VESSEL IS OF A GENTLY W A I S T E D ,

CYLINDRICAL

f o r m w i t h a tall, perpendicular r i m and t w o rope-twist


handles that t e r m i n a t e in deep indentations. T h e b o d y is
divided i n t o decorative panels that display o n o n e side a
blue and ocher testa di cavallo (horse's head, so called b e cause o f its shape) shield against a light copper green halfcircle b e l o w b l u e tendrils and dots. T h e colors that could
be fired o n maiolica i n t h e fifteenth century w e r e limited
to shades of blue, green, ocher, and purple. It is therefore
difficult, if n o t impossible, to identify simple coats of
a r m s that d o n o t h a v e specific distinguishing features.
A l t h o u g h t h e h o r i z o n t a l stripes o n this j a r are painted in
ocher a n d blue, these p i g m e n t s m a y stand f o r any alter-

N o . 12, alternate v i e w

n a t i n g light and d a r k colors, and thus this shield could


b e l o n g to a n y o n e o f a n u m b e r o f p r o m i n e n t c o n t e m -

and m i n i a t u r e illumination, f o r example) to decorate

p o r a r y families. F o r e x a m p l e a plate f r o m D e r u t a f o r -

their works. 6 Typical o f Gothic-floral-family maiolica,

m e r l y in the A d d a collection, Paris, displays an appar-

w h i c h flourished f r o m r o u g h l y 1460 t o 1490, 7 are a n u m -

ently identical shield that R a c k h a m identified as the

ber of jars w h o s e handles w e r e f o r m e d b y t w i s t i n g ropes

Baglioni coat o f arms. 1 H e r e p r o d u c e d another similarly

of clay. A l t h o u g h the f o r m of this j a r a n d its glaze color

striped coat o f a r m s o n a H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e plate f r o m

and decoration are traditionally considered m o r e char-

Manises, also f o r m e r l y in the A d d a collection, w h i c h he

acteristic of Florentine products, 8 similar w o r k s are also

believed t o b e c o m p a r a b l e t o the a r m s o f the Pagoni of

c o m m o n l y attributed to Faenza. 9 T h e similarity o f cer-

Venice, a n d the O r i g o o f Milan. A t w o - h a n d l e d albarello

tain Florentine and Faentine ceramics in this early period

attributed t o Faenza in t h e M u s e e d u Louvre, Paris (inv.

is testament to the influences traveling b e t w e e n these t w o

OA 3983), that is similar t o t h e Getty M u s e u m ' s j a r like-

centers as well as to the c o m m o n " l a n g u a g e " o f ceramic

wise displays an ocher and blue testa di cavallo coat of

f o r m and decoration that extended t h r o u g h o u t central It-

arms, w h i c h , according t o G i a c o m o t t i , could b e l o n g to

aly. It is also possible that this j a r w a s p r o d u c e d b y a Faen-

any o n e of a n u m b e r o f Italian families, such as the G i u s -

tine potter w o r k i n g in Florence, or vice versa. 10

tiniani o f Venice o r t h e Fabbrini of Florence. If the M u -

M o s t recently it has been established that objects

seum's j a r w a s m a d e in Tuscany, its testa di cavallo shield

w i t h rope-twist handles and decorated w i t h the s a m e zig-

(a c o m m o n Tuscan f o r m ) m i g h t m o r e reasonably b e c o n -

zag, tendril, dot, and splayed-line m o t i f s displayed o n

nected w i t h a f a m i l y f r o m that region. 4

this jar w e r e also p r o d u c e d in U m b r i a , specifically D e -

O n t h e o t h e r side o f this jar, stylized leaves, tendrils,

ruta." If this w o r k was indeed p r o d u c e d in an U m b r i a n

and dots f r a m e the inscription AM A. DIO (love God) .5 A

center, its shield likely belongs t o the Baglioni f a m i l y of

diagonal dash p a t t e r n in blue o r n a m e n t s the base, a tri-

Perugia, a scant fifteen kilometers t o the n o r t h

angular m o t i f o f splayed blue lines decorates the shoul-

Deruta. 1 2

der, a n d an ocher zigzag b e t w e e n blue stripes embellishes


the r i m . T h e interior is unglazed.
T h i s w o r k b e l o n g s t o the second phase of the severe

of

????? ??? ????????????? ?? ??? ????? ????????

PROVENANCE: A. P r i n g s h e i m , M u n i c h (sold,

Sothe-

style, o f t e n referred to as the Gothic-floral family because

by's, L o n d o n , J u n e 7, 1939, lot 3); [Alfred Spero, L o n -

central Italian ceramists d r e w n o t only o n Islamic motifs

don]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

b u t also o n E u r o p e a n G o t h i c o r n a m e n t (in architecture

40

FLORENTINE

AREA

OR

UMBRIA

ARMORIAL

JAR

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

79; sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , A p r i l 14, 1981, lot 14; sale cat.,

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F a l k e 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 1, n o . 11, p l . 8

(attributed to Siena or Florence of circa 1480); Bellini and

S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , A p r i l 23, 1974, lot 24.


9. See C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, figs. 3 7 2 - 3 7 5 ; G i a c o m o t t i 1974,
n o s . 87, 88, 9 1 - 9 3 .

C o n t i 1964, p. 89, fig. A (attributed to Faenza of circa

10. O n e m i g h t w e l l q u e s t i o n t h e logic b e h i n d s u c h an e x c h a n g e

1470).

o f ceramists; certainly t h e r e w a s n o lack o f talent, supplies, o r


active p o t t e r i e s in these t w o cities j u s t s e v e n t y k i l o m e t e r s f r o m

CONDITION: Glaze chips o n t h e handles, b o d y , a n d r i m ;

each o t h e r . D o c u m e n t a r y sources, h o w e v e r , attest t o j u s t this

loose glaze on the lower left of the shield side near the base

k i n d o f e x c h a n g e , o f c r a f t s m e n as w e l l as their p r o d u c t s , w h i c h

due to soluble-salt damage; a hairline crack in the neck o n

w a s p r o b a b l y d e t e r m i n e d as m u c h b y e c o n o m i c factors as b y

the reverse.

t h e q u e s t f o r n e w talent a n d n o v e l styles. A l t h o u g h these


sources date f r o m t h e late f i f t e e n t h a n d s i x t e e n t h centuries, t h e y
d o n o t e x c l u d e t h e possibility o f earlier e x c h a n g e s (see, f o r e x a m p l e , G . Ballardini, " M a i o l i c a r i f a e n t i n i e u r b i n a t i a F i r e n z e , "

1. R a c k h a m 1959, n o . 343, pl. 148b; a n o t h e r plate f r o m D e r u t a

Faenza 10, n o . 3 / 4 [1922], p p . 1 4 4 - 1 4 7 ) .

w i t h a similar shield, p o s s i b l y f r o m t h e s a m e service, sold at

11. G . B u s t i a n d F. C o c c h i , " P r i m e c o n s i d e r a z i o n i su alcuni

Galerie G e o r g e s Petit, Paris, M a y 9 - 1 0 , 1927, lot 27 ( r e p r o d .

f r a m m e n t i d a scavo in D e r u t a , " Faenza 73, n o . 1/3 (1987), p p .

u p s i d e d o w n in sale cat.); J . - B . Rietstap, in Armorial

1 4 - 2 0 ; see pl. 5c.

general

( G o u d a , 1884; r e p r i n t , B a l t i m o r e , 1972), p. 98, locates t h e f a m ily in Verona; V. R o l l a n d , in Illustrations to the Armorial

12. See a b o v e ( n o t e 1).

General

by Rietstap (1903; r e p r i n t , B a l t i m o r e , 1967),pl. 106b, locates t h e


f a m i l y in P e r u g i a .
2. R a c k h a m 1959, p. 62, n o . 263, pl. 105.
3. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 91.
4. R e s e a r c h c o n d u c t e d in t h e A r c h i v i o di Stato, F l o r e n c e (ms.
473, P r i o r i s t a M a r i a n i , C a r t e Pucci, C a r t e C e r a m e l l i Papiani);
Biblioteca N a z i o n a l e C e n t r a l e , F l o r e n c e ( P o l i g r a f o G a r g a n i ,
C a r t e Passerini); a n d K u n s t h i s t o r i s c h e s Institut, Florence (mss.
o f h e r a l d r y collections) b y M . Spallanzani, an e x p e r t in b o t h
Tuscan h e r a l d r y a n d early maiolica, has revealed s u c h c a n d i dates as t h e F l o r e n t i n e F a b b r i n i , M a r i g n o l i , Bagnesi, Biligardi,
a n d Soldi families. B o t h t h e F a b b r i n i f a m i l y a r m s (ASF, m s .
473) a n d t h e shield displayed o n t h e p r e s e n t j a r are azure a jess
d'or (blue w i t h a b r o a d , h o r i z o n t a l b a n d in gold); t h e F a b b r i n i
shield, h o w e v e r , exhibits a s m a l l snail in t h e u p p e r b a n d , a detail
the c e r a m i c p a i n t e r m i g h t u n d e r s t a n d a b l y h a v e o m i t t e d w h e n
a t t e m p t i n g t o r e n d e r t h e d e s i g n i n thick glazes.
5. C . Ravanelli G u i d o t t i , in Ceramiche occidentali del Museo

Civ-

ico Medievale di Bologna ( B o l o g n a , 1985), p . 95, n o . 69, discusses


A . L u c e Lenzi's analysis o f t h e o r i g i n a l oral p r o v e r b or p r a y e r
o n w h i c h this i n s c r i p t i o n is b a s e d ( " A m a D i o e n o n fallire
. . . ," Nueter

1 [ J u n e 1982], p p . 220".). T h i s p r o v e r b , w h i c h

b e g i n s " A m a D i o e n o n fallire / fai del b e n e e lascia dire / lascia


dir lasciar chi v o l e / a m a D i o di b u o n c u o r e . . . " (Love G o d
a n d d o n o t fail / d o g o o d d e e d s a n d let it b e said / let it b e said
b y a n y o n e / l o v e G o d w i t h a g o o d h e a r t . . . ), w a s e v i d e n t l y
w i d e l y k n o w n in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Italy.
6. L i v e r a n i 1960, p . 22.
7. Ballardini 1975, p . 53.
8. F o r e x a m p l e s , see O . v o n Falke, Die Majolikasammlung

Adolf

von Beckerath, sale cat., R u d o l p h L e p k e , Berlin, N o v e m b e r 4,


1913, lots 66, 76; C o r a 1973, vol. 2, figs. 2 o 6 a - c , 2 0 7 b - c , 208a,
208c, 2 0 9 b , 212a; B o j a n i et al. 1985, figs. 4 4 7 - 4 4 9 ; sale cat.,
Christie's, L o n d o n , O c t o b e r 3, 1983, lot 238; sale cat., C h r i s tie's, L o n d o n , D e c e m b e r 3, 1984, lot 465; The Robert

Strauss

Collection of Italian Maiolica, sale cat., Christie's, L o n d o n , J u n e


21, 1976, lot 6; sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , Florence, M a y 16, 1978, lot

42

FLORENTINE

AREA

OR

UMBKIA . ARMORIAL

JAR

13 Jug with Bust Medallion


(Brocca)

o n Florentine zaffera a rilievo jars. In addition the pinkish

Florentine area, circa 1450-1500

clays of the Faentine region. 10

b u f f color of this jug's clay b o d y m i g h t substantiate a


Florentine attribution, since Tuscan clays in general have
a m o r e reddish cast than the lighter, m o r e cream-colored

H : 34.6 c m (135/8in.); D i a m (at rim): 9.8 c m (37/8in.);


m a x . W : 33 c m (13 in.)

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: N o n e .

PROVENANCE: Savile family,

84.DE.101

tingham

R u f f o r d Abbey,

(sold, Christie's, L o n d o n ,

October

Not11-20,

T H I S IS A LARGE OVIFORM JUG W I T H A W I D E STRAP

1938, lot 879); [Alfred Spero, London]; 1 1 sold, Sotheby's,

handle, small m o u t h and neck, and l o n g s p o u t projecting

L o n d o n , D e c e m b e r 4, 1956, lot 24; R o b e r t Strauss, L o n -

almost horizontally f r o m the u p p e r b o d y . H . P. Fourest

d o n (sold, Christie's, L o n d o n , J u n e 21, 1976, lot 7); [Rai-

believes the f o r m to be archaic of the O r v i e t o style.

Because of its characteristic decoration, this piece


can be identified as an early e x a m p l e of the Gothic-floral
family dating f r o m r o u g h l y 1460 to 1490 (see no. 12).

ner Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] ,


EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Christie's Review of the Season ( L o n d o n ,

T h e area b e l o w the spout is decorated w i t h a bust in blue

1976), p. 394; H . Morley-Fletcher and R. Mcllroy, Chris-

and olive green reserved against a b a c k g r o u n d of styl-

tie's Pictorial History

ized, feathered leaves, all enclosed in a circular b a n d of

Cliffs, N . J . , 1984), p. 26, fig. 3.

copper green dots and heavily applied m a n g a n e s e pigm e n t incised w i t h scrolls linking circles. T h e subject of
the portrait appears to be a m a n , since his style of dress,
w i t h full sleeves and t u r n e d - b a c k collar, and l o n g hair
w e r e typical of m i d - f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y masculine fashion.
W i d e G o t h i c scrolling leaves (a cartoccio) in dark and light
blue, m a n g a n e s e purple, and green s u r r o u n d the circular

of European

Pottery

(Englewood

CONDITION: Touched-in glaze chips o n the left side of


the bust near the foliate scrolls; filling and repainting at
the t o p and b o t t o m o f spout; repainting a r o u n d the i n cised circles o n the left side and o n the area of hair b e l o w
the chin; s o m e extensive repainting o f the blue leaf decoration o n the left side near the top.

b a n d . T h e handle and rear third of this vessel are u n d e c orated. T h e interior is lead glazed.
O n l y t w o other j u g s of this shape are k n o w n , o n e
in the M u s e e N a t i o n a l de C e r a m i q u e ,

Sevres (inv.

21915), 2 and another f o r m e r l y in the D a m i r o n collection,


3

Lyons. B o t h o f these w o r k s are smaller than the Getty's


piece. A l t h o u g h the f o r m e r is attributed t o Faenza or Tuscany and the latter to Faenza, and a cartoccio leaf decora-

1. H . P. F o u r e s t , " E n a v a n t - p r o p o s sur la m a j o l i q u e italienne,"


Cahiers de la ceramique, de verre et des arts du feu, n o . 25 (1962), p.
13. O r v i e t o w a r e is so called b e c a u s e g r e e n a n d b r o w n archaic
maiolica has l o n g b e e n associated w i t h t h e O r v i e t o district, j u s t
north of Viterbo.
2. F. D u r e t - R o b e r t , " F a e n z a , " Connaissance

des arts, n o . 254

(1973), PP. 1 2 9 - 1 3 4 , n o . 2; G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 69.

tion is occasionally f o u n d f r a m i n g portrait busts o n Faen-

3. Sale cat., Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r , 22, 1983, lot 206.

tine products, 4 this j u g is almost certainly of Florentine

4. C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, figs. 348, 349, 351, 386; G i a c o m o t t i

origin because of the similarity b e t w e e n its painted dec-

1974, n o s . 94, 95, 99.

oration and that of n u m e r o u s Florentine examples.

5. K u b e 1976, n o . 3.

A l t h o u g h occasionally f o u n d o n Faentine e x a m 5

ples, identical inscribed decoration in thick m a n g a n e s e


p i g m e n t appears m o s t c o m m o n l y o n d r u g jars described
as Tuscan, specifically f r o m M o n t e l u p o or Florence. 6

6. See A . V. B . N o r m a n , Catalogue of Ceramics I: The Wallace


Collection ( L o n d o n , 1976), n o s . c8o, c 8 1 ; C o r a 1973, v o l . 2, fig.
209a; sale cat., S e m e n z a t o N u o v a G e r i Sri, M i l a n , N o v e m b e r
5, 1986, lot 74.
7. See C o r a 1973, vol. 2, n o s . 210a, 210c, 2 1 1 b - c , 219a, 219c.

Very similar G o t h i c leaf m o t i f s are c o m m o n o n Floren-

8. Ibid., n o . 210b; B o d e 1911, pl. 29.

tine w o r k s , 7 f o r example, a j u g f o r m e r l y in the Figdor

9. H a u s m a n n 1972, n o . 80.

collection, Vienna, 8 and o n e in the K u n s t g e w e r b e m u -

10. G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t t h e colors o f c e r a m i c b o d i e s m u s t ,

seum, Berlin (inv. 43,9), 9 b o t h of w h i c h are particularly

h o w e v e r , b e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h caution. N o t o n l y is it i m p o s s i b l e

close to the Getty M u s e u m ' s j u g . T h e shape of the Berlin


j u g , m o r e o v e r , strongly suggests a Florentine attribution; large j u g s w e r e a specialty o f Tuscan, especially

t o a t t r i b u t e w i t h c e r t a i n t y a g i v e n clay color t o a specific r e g i o n ,


b u t areas o f u n g l a z e d c e r a m i c b o d i e s b e c o m e d a r k e r w i t h h a n d l i n g . T h e superficial a p p e a r a n c e o f fired clay can t h e r e f o r e b e
misleading.

Florentine, ceramic w o r k s h o p s b e g i n n i n g in the late

11. A c c o r d i n g t o J. V. G . M a l l e t , c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the a u -

M i d d l e Ages, and wide, flat strap handles are c o m m o n

t h o r , N o v e m b e r 1987.

JUG . FLORENTINE

AREA

43

N o . 13, alternate v i e w

14 Two-Handled Cylindrical Jar


(Albarello Biansato)
Faenza, circa 1460-1480
H : 22.9 c m (9 in.); D i a m (at lip): 11.2 c m (4 7/16 in.); m a x .
W : 23.8 c m (93/8in.)
84.DE.102
T H I S GENTLY W A I S T E D J A R W I T H T W O RIBBED

HAN-

dles is painted o n o n e side w i t h the profile bust of a y o u n g


m a n in a feathered hat b o r d e r e d b y unusually slender
scrolling foliage, and o n the o t h e r w i t h a g e o m e t r i c X
pattern,

flowers,

and stylized leaves in horizontal sec-

tions. T h e decoration o n b o t h sides is painted in panels


b o r d e r e d b y a vertical braid design. T h e h i g h shoulder
displays a stylized m o t i f reminiscent of so-called San
B e r n a r d i n o rays. T h e s e rays w e r e painted a r o u n d the sacred m o n o g r a m IHS o n t h e tablet exhibited b y Saint B e r n a r d o f Siena t o p r o m o t e d e v o t i o n to the H o l y N a m e ,
and they b e c a m e a p o p u l a r decorative m o t i f o n fifteenth-

N o . 14, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

century maiolica (see n o . 2). T h e jar's e m b e l l i s h m e n t is


executed p r i m a r i l y in blue and ocher, a l t h o u g h a light

Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 364-1889), 8

copper green colors the y o u n g man's p o i n t e d hat o n o n e

and another albarello of circa 14701500 in the British

side, and c u r v i n g and straight b a n d s o n the other. T h e

M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. MLA 1878, 12-30, 412), display

interior is lead glazed. M a r k s , perhaps graduations, ap-

similar y o u n g m e n in profile w e a r i n g p o i n t e d

pear u n d e r the f o o t , a l t h o u g h it is uncertain w h e t h e r

p l u m e d hats and long, curled coiffures. 9 A Faentine w e t -

these w e r e scratched at the t i m e the j a r was m a d e or at a

d r u g j a r dated to the end of t h e fifteenth c e n t u r y in the

later date.

M u s e e des Arts Decoratifs, Lyons ( f r o m the Paul Gillet

and

collection), also s h o w s the profile bust o f a y o u n g m a n

T w o - h a n d l e d jars o f this f o r m , o f t e n decorated in a

in similar dress and w i t h p o i n t e d hat. 10

very similar palette, w e r e p o p u l a r a m o n g Tuscan and


Faentine potters b e g i n n i n g in the m i d - f i f t e e n t h century,

MARKS

w h i c h m a k e s it difficult t o distinguish b e t w e e n jars f r o m

AND

INSCRIPTIONS:

Under

foot,

inscribed

m a r k s (graduations?).

the t w o areas. 1 T h i s brightly colored piece can be tentatively attributed to Faenza, since Faentine glazes are g e n -

PROVENANCE:

erally shinier and m o r e brilliant than those of Florence.

1983, lot 237 (attributed to Tuscany); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd.,

M o r e o v e r the ribbed handle f o r m and painted g e o m e t r i c

London].

designs tended to be m o r e prevalent in Faenza than in

EXHIBITIONS:

Florence, w h e r e twisted handles and vegetal decoration

Sold, Christie's, L o n d o n , O c t o b e r 3,

None.

appear m o r e c o m m o n . T h e X pattern, f o r m e d b y f o u r

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Christie's, L o n d o n , O c t o b e r 3, 1983,

small m a r k s e x t e n d i n g f r o m the sides to the m i d d l e of a

lot 237.

square, and stiff leaves w e r e used to embellish Faentine


wares, 2 a l t h o u g h they also decorate ceramics

CONDITION: M i n o r glaze chips o n the handles and rim;

from

s o m e areas of glaze loss a r o u n d the base that, because of

nearby centers such as M o n t e l u p o , 3 Siena, 4 Florence, 5 and

their spacing and r o u g h l y oval shape, appear to b e finger

Deruta. 6 F u r t h e r s u p p o r t i n g a Faentine attribution, the

m a r k s m a d e w h e n the ceramist g r i p p e d the piece to dip

yellowish b u f f - c o l o r e d clay b o d y of this j a r is m o r e t y p -

it upside d o w n into glaze. T h e oils f r o m his fingers

ical of Faenza than the m o r e red or dark gray clays c o m -

w o u l d have kept the glaze f r o m adhering p r o p e r l y to the

m o n in Tuscany. 7

jar.

T h e depiction o f the y o u n g m a n in c o n t e m p o r a r y
dress o n o n e side of this j a r assists in dating the piece.
B o t h an albarello f r o m Pesaro o f circa 1480-1490 in the

46

FAENZA . T W O - H A N D L E D

CYLINDRICAL

JAR

1. See, f o r example, e n t r y no. 12 above; R a c k h a m 1959, figs,


110,111(for o t h e r albarelli w i t h G o t h i c - f a m i l y glaze d e c o r a tion, attributed, respectively, to Florence a n d to Faenza or Florence); H a u s m a n n 1972, fig. 84 (attributed t o "Florence?");
C o r a 1973, vol. 2, fig. 210c (attributed to " z o n a f i o r e n t i n a " ) ; J .
G i a c o m o t t i , La majolique de la renaissance (Paris, 1961), n o . 2, pl.
7 (attributed to Faenza, a l t h o u g h m o r e p r o b a b l y Florentine);
C h o m p r e t 1949, fig. 360 (attributed to Faenza).
2. See, for example, H a u s m a n n 1972, p p . 143-145, n o . 108;
G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 4 9 - 5 0 , nos. 164-166; Watson 1986, pp.
4 2 - 4 3 , n o . 5 (a plate w i t h this t y p e o f e m b e l l i s h m e n t is attributed t o "Faenza [?]").
3. See G. C o n t i , ed., Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo

Nazionale

di Firenze, Palazzo del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o . 113.


4. See W i l s o n 1987, p. 87, n o . 132.
5. R a c k h a m 1940, vol. 2, n o . 94.
6. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, pp. 130-131, nos. 451, 452.
7. See e n t r y n o . 13 above, n. 10.
8. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 110; 2, pl. 20; P. Berardi, L'antica
maiolica de Pesaro (Florence, 1984), p. 282, fig. 70.
9. W i l s o n 1987, pp. 3 6 - 3 7 , no. 31 (attributed to the central Italian regions of E m i l i a - R o m a g n a , t h e Marches, or U m b r i a ) .
10. J. G i a c o m o t t i , "Les m a j o l i q u e s de la collection Paul Gillet
au m u s e e lyonnais des arts decoratifs," Cahiers de la ceramique,
de verre et des arts du feu, n o . 25 (1962), ill. p. 33.

48

FAENZA

T W O - H A N D L E D

CYLINDRICAL

JAR

15 Peacock-Pattern Dish

closest example to this w o r k is a plate w i t h overall scroll


and leaf decor in the M u s e u m fur Kunst u n d Gewerbe,
H a m b u r g (inv. 1909.256)." T h e H a m b u r g plate differs,

Faenza(?), circa 1470-1500


H : 6.3 c m (21/2in.); Diam: 39 c m (153/8in.)
84.DE. 103

however, in its tondino shape and scrolling broad-leaf


decoration instead of the tapering-leaf and peacockfeather designs on the present w o r k . A l t h o u g h the clay
b o d y color and incised leaf scrolls of the Getty M u s e u m ' s

T H I S IS AN UNUSUALLY SHAPED PLATE W I T H A SMALL,

plate are m o r e typical of Tuscan wares, the shiny surface,

slightly bossed center and wide, sloping sides. T h e potter

the particularly dark blue glaze, and the peacock-feather

pierced t w o holes in one edge before the first firing. It has

motif are f o u n d m o s t often on Faentine ceramics.

been suggested that such holes served to hang plates for


firing, thereby optimizing available kiln space. Certainly
any combustible strap w o u l d have disintegrated in the

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

None.

PROVENANCE: Sir William Stirling-Maxwell, Bt., K.T.;

hot kiln, however, and if metal h o o k s were used, it is u n -

Lt. Col. W. J. Stirling, Keir; sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n ,

clear h o w they w o u l d have been attached to the kiln

J u n e 18, 1946, lot 79; F. D . Lycett-Green, G o u d h u r s t ,

walls.

Kent (sold, Sotheby's, London, O c t o b e r 14,21960,lot 24,

It is m o r e likely that ceramic plates were h u n g by

with incorrect provenance); R o b e r t Strauss, L o n d o n

such holes for display purposes, although w e do not

(sold, Christie's, London, J u n e 21, 1976, lot 14); [Cyril

k n o w whether or h o w maiolica display plates (including

H u m p h r i s , London]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].

istoriati and piatti da pompa) were used. In fourteenth- and


fifteenth-century paintings, c o m m o n vessels such as

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

maiolica j u g s occasionally appear, but the m o r e elaborate

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

ware is entirely absent, and there is n o p r o o f that various

( H a m b u r g , 1984), p. 71, n. 1 (attributed to "Faenza or

depictions of display credenzas portray maiolica rather

m o r e probably Tuscany").

than metalwork. M o r e o v e r the possibility that maiolica


ware m i g h t have been used for eating on special occasions cannot be ruled out. Since forks were still a novelty
in the fifteenth century, maiolica w o u l d have been pre-

J.

Rasmussen,

Italienische

Majolika

CONDITION: Glaze chips at the center and rim; s o m e repainting around cracks; six metal staples along a hairline
crack in the underside.

served f r o m scratches caused by scraping utensils.


This rare plate is brilliantly decorated in dark and
light blue, copper green, bright ocher, and manganese

1. S i m i l a r u n u s u a l e m b e l l i s h m e n t is also f o u n d o n t h e r e v e r s e

purple w i t h a star or flower medallion in the center sur-

o f a s m a l l p l a t e f o r m e r l y i n t h e B e c k e r a t h collection, B e r l i n ,

rounded by a bold, eight-pointed w h o r l of stiff, tapering

a t t r i b u t e d t o Faenza o f circa 1480 ( O . v o n Falke, Die

leaves alternating with peacock feathers. This embellishm e n t is filled in with small blue scrolls, foliage, and dots.
T h e reverse displays stars, scrolls, and foliate motifs in
ocher, copper green, and blue on a grayish white leadglazed ground. 1 T h e clay b o d y is of a pinkish buff color.
Very f e w such ornamentally glazed w o r k s w i t h out coats of arms, animals, profile busts, or pictorial
sceneshave survived. Plates, vases, albarelli, and j u g s
painted in this style were m o s t often produced for daily

kasammlung

Adolf von Beckerath,

Majoli-

sale cat., R u d o l p h L e p k e , B e r -

lin, N o v e m b e r 4, 1913, l o t 58).


2. See G . Strocchi, " L a ' P a v o n a ' cristiana e la ' P a v o n a ' di G a l e o t t o M a n f r e d i , " Faenza

1, n o . 4 (1913), p p . 1 0 5 - 1 0 8 ; h o w -

ever, C . R a v a n e l l i G u i d o t t i ( c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r ,
F e b r u a r y 1988) m e n t i o n s F a e n t i n e d o c u m e n t s f r o m w h i c h o n e
learns t h a t m a i o l i c a p a i n t e r s e m p l o y e d p e a c o c k - f e a t h e r d e c o r a t i o n as early as 1460, t h u s p r e d a t i n g M a n f r e d i ' s relationship
w i t h Pavoni. Therefore, although the duke m i g h t have p o p u l a r i z e d this p a t t e r n , it c o u l d n o t h a v e o r i g i n a t e d w i t h h i m ; see
C . R a v a n e l l i G u i d o t t i , " V a s e l l a m e d ' u s o e v a s e l l a m e celebra-

use and thus w e r e frequently b r o k e n or chipped. T h a t

t i v o , " Faenza

this dish was probably used as a display piece m a y explain

Vaselli in San Petronio a Bologna ( B o l o g n a , 1987). F o r a g e n e r a l

( f o r t h c o m i n g ) ; i d e m , II pavimento

della cappella

its g o o d state of preservation. Typical of Gothic-floral-

e x a m i n a t i o n o f F a e n t i n e s o c i e t y u n d e r t h e M a n f r e d i , see M .

family w o r k s , the peacock-feather motif was t h o u g h t to

G i o i a T a v o n i , " S t r u t t u r e e societa a Faenza nell'eta M a n f r e d i -

refer to Cassandra Pavoni (pavona means peacock), the

a n a , " Faenza

lover of Galeotto Manfredi, lord of Faenza in the late fif-

3. See G i a c o m o t t i 1974, figs. 84, 123, 125, 130.

teenth century. 2
A l t h o u g h one finds Faentine plates and plate sherds

61, n o . 4 / 5 (1975), p p . 9 4 - 1 0 5 .

4. R a s m u s s e n

1984,

no.

39

(attributed

to

"Faenza?

or

Tuscany?").

w i t h similar peacock-feather and stiff-leaf motifs, 3 the

PEACOCK-PATTERN

DISH

FAENZA

49

ROBERT CAMPIN (Flemish, 1375-1444). Annunication,

early fif-

N o . 15, reverse

t e e n t h c e n t u r y . O i l o n panel, 64.1 x 63.2 c m (251/4x 2 4 7/8 in.).


N e w Y o r k , M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m o f A r t 56.70, C l o i s t e r s C o l lection. P h o t o c o u r t e s y M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m o f A r t . T h e
s h a p e o f t h e maiolica j u g o n t h e table is c o m m o n t o early
f i f t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Tuscan boccali (see n o . 3); its d e c o r a t i o n is
m o r e typical o f F l o r e n t i n e ceramics d a t i n g f r o m m i d c e n t u r y .
J u d g i n g f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y p a i n t i n g s in w h i c h maiolica boccali
a n d albarelli are s h o w n h o l d i n g flowers, these vessels w e r e used
as vases i n a d d i t i o n t o s e r v i n g as pitchers a n d j a r s .

DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA (Italian, circa 1 2 5 5 / 6 0 - c i r c a 1318).


Last Supper,

circa 13081311. O i l o n panel. Siena, O p e r a del

D u o m o . P h o t o c o u r t e s y A r t R e s o u r c e , N e w Y o r k . A maiolica
j u g a p p e a r s b e t w e e n t w o saints i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d .
A t t r i b u t e d t o APOLLONIO DI GIOVANNI (Italian, 1415-1465).
Dido's

Feast, m i d - f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y (detail). C a s s o n e panel,

42.5 x 1 6 4 c m (16 3/4X64 9/16 in.). H a n n o v e r , N i e d e r s a c h s i c h e s


L a n d e s m u s e u m . P h o t o courtesy Niedersachsiches

Landes-

m u s e u m . A l t h o u g h w e c a n n o t b e sure t h a t t h e plates displayed


o n t h e credenza t o t h e r i g h t are c e r a m i c a n d n o t metal, maiolica
piatti da pompa m i g h t h a v e b e e n displayed similarly.

16 Ecce H o m o
Faenza or Florentine area(?), circa 1500
H : 60.3 c m (23 3/4 in.); W : 59.7 c m (231/2in.); D : 26 c m
(10 1/4

in.)

87.SE. 1 4 8

THIS

SCULPTURE

DEPICTS

THE

BUST

OF

CHRIST

c r o w n e d w i t h thorns. Like devotional images of the subject in other media, the bust is half-length, terminating
above the elbows and t h r o u g h the chest. As befits the
portrayal of Christ facing his accusers after being
scourged, the face is d r a w n and gaunt yet p r o u d and
compassionate. T h e sculpture presumably was m a d e as
a devotional object to be placed in a church or private
chapel.
Christ's hair falls o n his shoulders in corkscrew
curls. H e wears a tunic decorated w i t h finely d r a w n geometric patterns and a cloak over his left shoulder. T h e
eyebrows, eyes, and beard are painted with thin, blackish
blue lines; the c r o w n of thorns is painted w i t h a m i x t u r e

N o . 16, b a c k v i e w

of the same dark blue and emerald green. T h e neck of the


tunic and the base display incised and gilt decoration. T h e

and cloverleaf patterns o n Christ's tunic w e r e favored o n

back of this fully modeled bust is unembellished, except

late fifteenth- and early sixteenth-century

for the opaque white glaze g r o u n d and the incised ren-

maiolica, and there are countless examples of Faentine

dering of the hair.

wares of this period w i t h similar geometric patterns. 3

This remarkable w o r k possesses a sculptural force

Faentine

However, these geometric motifs spread t h r o u g h o u t

and sophistication rarely f o u n d in maiolica. A l t h o u g h

central Italy, appearing on c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r k s f r o m

the artist is u n k n o w n , the incisive depiction of a taut and

Tuscany and elsewhere. 4 In addition, whereas the bust's

sinewy face displaying a proud, almost h a u g h t y de-

painted decoration points to Faenza as its place of origin,

m e a n o r can be m o s t closely compared to the w o r k of late

its vigorous sculptural quality brings Tuscany to m i n d .

fifteenth-century Tuscan sculptors such as Lorenzo Vec-

T h u s it is possible that this w o r k , influenced as it appears

chietta (1412-1480), M a t t e o Civitali (1436-1501), A n -

to have been b y Florentine masters, was produced in a

drea Sansovino (circa 1460-1529), 1 and in particular the

Tuscan w o r k s h o p .

so-called Master of the Marble Madonnas. Like the M u -

Fifteenth-century maiolica objects that c o m e closest

seum's example in maiolica, three late fifteenth-century

to the present bust in scale and sculptural type include the

marble Ecce Homo busts by the latter master are vigor-

reliefs and freestanding figures produced in the Floren-

ously modeled and depict Christ's p r o u d mien with the

tine della Robbia w o r k s h o p , including several busts of

idiosyncratic corkscrew curls, parted beard, and c r o w n

Christ, probably influenced by Andrea del Verrocchio. 5

of thorns punctuated w i t h holes (perhaps to hold thorns

Della Robbia figures, however, appear " s w e e t e r " and

m a d e of another material). 2

less vigorously modeled than the present Ecce Homo and

This maiolica Ecce Homo is probably the product of

are nearly always glazed in large, m o n o c h r o m a t i c areas,

a collaboration b e t w e e n a sculptor, w h o w o u l d have

w i t h o u t the lively tracings and geometric motifs dis-

modeled the piece, and a ceramic artist, w h o w o u l d have

played b y this bust.

glazed and fired it. To j u d g e f r o m the surface decoration,

O t h e r comparable three-dimensional sculptures in

the ceramist responsible for the firing and glazing m o s t

maiolica include the Bust of the Saviour, attributed to San-

likely w o r k e d in Faenza around 1500. T h e w o r k exhibits

sovino, in the Bruschi collection, Arezzo; 6 the sixteenth-

b o t h the particularly shiny glazes and the palette of vivid

century Bust of Pope Paolo III Farnese, attributed t o ' ' U m -

and saturated yellow, green, and blackish blue typical of

bria (?)," in the M u s e o Internazionale delle Ceramiche,

that center. M o r e o v e r geometric motifs such as the cube

Faenza (inv. 21253/c); 7 and t w o late fifteenth- or early

52

FAENZA

OR

FLORENTINE

A R E A . ECCE

HOMO

( L o n d o n , 1964), vol.

sixteenth-century small busts of the y o u n g Saint J o h n the

Sculpture in the Victoria and Albert Museum

Baptist, o n e in the A s h m o l e a n M u s e u m , O x f o r d , 8 and

I, p p . 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 , n o . 232; G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s . 3 5 8 - 3 6 2 .

the o t h e r in the D e Ciccio Collection, M u s e o di C a p o -

6. T h i s w o r k displays t h e s a m e n o b l e gaze, g e n t l e c o r k s c r e w

d i m o n t e , N a p l e s (inv. 58).' A s i n t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s


Ecce Homo,

the subject of b o t h of these small busts (ap-

parently t w o versions o f the s a m e w o r k ) has an u n u s u -

curls, a n d plain w h i t e glaze g r o u n d w i t h o n l y a f e w details (eyes


a n d e y e b r o w s ) p i c k e d o u t w i t h t h i n d a r k b l u e lines as t h e G e t t y
M u s e u m ' s e x a m p l e , a l t h o u g h it has a gentler a n d less p o w e r f u l
aspect (G. B a t i n i et al., Omaggio a Deruta, e x h . cat. [ M o n t e San

ally p r o u d , a l m o s t h a u g h t y gaze, a n d t h e saint's a n i m a l -

S a v i n o a n d D e r u t a , 1986], p p . 1 3 5 - 1 3 7 , ill. p . 132).

skin tunic a n d hair are r e n d e r e d w i t h short, d a r k b l u e

7. B o j a n i et al. 1985, p. 300, n o . 772; C . Ravanelli G u i d o t t i ,

lines, m u c h like t h o s e d e f i n i n g C h r i s t ' s b e a r d . T h e s m a l l

" N o t e di i c o n o g r a f i a sui materiali del M u s e o di F a e n z a , "

busts, however, have a rather naive quality (possibly b e -

Faenza 72, n o . 3/4 (1986), p . 234, pl. 86.

c a u s e o f t h e i r size) t h a t is m o r e t y p i c a l o f t h e l a t e f i f teenth- to seventeenth-century three-dimensional


wells,

fountains,

and

small-scale

figures

ink-

commonly

p r o d u c e d in potteries along the M e t a u r o River in centers


s u c h as P e s a r o 1 0 a n d F a e n z a . "

9. A t t r i b u t e d t o Faenza o n t h e label attached t o its u n d e r s i d e .


10. See, f o r e x a m p l e , P. B e r a r d i , L'antica maiolica di Pesaro
(Florence, 1984), p p . 2 1 2 - 2 1 5 , fig. 93.
I I . See, f o r e x a m p l e , W a t s o n 1986, n o s . 3, 4; G . Gardelli, "A
gran fuoco": Maioliche rinascimentali dello stato di Urbino da colle-

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: N o n e .

zioniprivate,

PROVENANCE: P r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n , B e l g i u m ; s o l d , S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , A p r i l 7, 1 9 8 7 , l o t 4 4 ; [ R a i n e r Z i e t z , L t d . ,
London],

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Burlington

12. T h i s t h e o r y w a s p o s t u l a t e d b y J. P o p e - H e n n e s s y t o e x p l a i n
similar holes o n G i o v a n n i della R o b b i a ' s Ecce Homo i n t h e V i c pp. 2 3 3 - 2 3 4 , n o . 232).

dell'arte,

Magazine

1 2 9 ( M a r c h 1987),

n o . 4 5 ( 1 9 8 7 ) , p . 9 0 , f i g . 50.

CONDITION: S o m e m i n o r cracks a n d glaze faults; t h e


p r o p e r r i g h t t i p o f t h e b e a r d is c h i p p e d ; s o m e o f t h e o r i g inal gilding has w o r n off t h e n e c k o f the tunic a n d the
base; the c r o w n displays holes i n t o w h i c h thorns,

pos-

sibly o f w o o d , m a y h a v e b e e n inserted.12

1. Particularly close t o t h e p r e s e n t b u s t is the h a l f - f i g u r e Saint


John the Baptist in t h e M u s e o B a r d i n i , Florence.
2. U . M i d d e l d o r f , " A n E c c e H o m o b y t h e M a s t e r o f t h e M a r ble M a d o n n a s , " in Album

amicorum J. G.

(The

van Gelder

H a g u e , 1973), p p . 2 3 4 - 2 3 6 , esp. pls. 1, 2, 4, 5.


3. F o r c u b e l i k e m o t i f s , see t h e M u s e u m ' s F a e n t i n e albarelli o f
circa 1510 (no. 24), as w e l l as designs o n t h e tile floor o f the C a pella Vaselli, B o l o g n a , w h i c h w a s likely e x e c u t e d i n Faenza in
t h e last decades o f t h e f i f t e e n t h century. Similar cloverleaf p a t terns are f o u n d o n a large vase i n t h e V i c t o r i a a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 351-1872; R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, p. 46; 2,
n o . 157, pl. 28), a n d o n t h e Bust of an Old Woman i n t h e Fitzw i l l i a m M u s e u m , C a m b r i d g e (inv. c i - 1 9 5 5 ; Liverani 1960, pl.
18), b o t h o f w h i c h are d a t e d circa 1490 a n d a t t r i b u t e d t o Faenza.
4. T h e c u b e m o t i f o n C h r i s t ' s t u n i c also decorates a Sienese albarello i n t h e M u s e o I n t e r n a z i o n a l e delle C e r a m i c h e , Faenza
(inv. 21061/c), a n d b o t h t h e c u b e a n d cloverleaf p a t t e r n s are
f o u n d o n an early s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y j a r m a d e in C a f a g g i o l o (A.
Fanfani, " A n c o r a d u e r i g h e su C a f a g g i o l o , " Faenza 70, n o . 5
[1984], pls. 1 0 3 a - d ) .
5. See, f o r e x a m p l e , J . P o p e - H e n n e s s y , Catalogue

54

FAENZA

cxh. cat. ( P a l a z z o D u c a l e , U r b i n o , 1987), n o s . 6 2 -

69.

toria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n ( P o p e - H e n n e s s y [ n o t e 5],

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

ill. p . 1; IIgiornale

8. C . D . E . F o r t n u m , Maiolica: A Historical Treatise . . . ( O x f o r d , 1896), pl. 9 (attributed t o s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y C a f a g g i o l o ) .

OR

FLORENTINE

of

Italian

A R E A . ECCE

HOMO

s e u m of A r t , N e w York, 1 0 and the M u s e e d u Louvre,

17 Cylindrical Drug Jar


(Albarello)

Paris (inv. OA 5971). 11 A particularly close e x a m p l e t o this


albarelloof

a very similar shape and likewise encircled

b y a banderole label b u t painted instead w i t h peacockfeather d e c o r a t i o n w a s also f o r m e r l y in the P r i n g s h e i m

Faenza, circa 1480


H : 31.5 c m (123/8in.); D i a m (at lip): 11.1 c m (43/8in.);

collection, M u n i c h , and in t h e D a m i r o n

m a x . D i a m : 12.4 c m (47/8in.)

Lyons, and is presently in the M u s e e N a t i o n a l de C e r a m i q u e , Sevres (inv. MNC 25141). 12

84.DE.104
T H I S WAISTED DRUG VESSEL IS DECORATED W I T H A

banderole label inscribed S. ACETOSITATI

collection,

CIT[RUS]

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n
TOSITATI

banderole,

S.

ACE-

CIT[RUS].

(syrupus acetositatis citriorum, s y r u p of l e m o n juice) b o r -

PROVENANCE: A. P r i n g s h e i m , M u n i c h (sold,

dered above and b e l o w b y scrolling G o t h i c leaves (a car-

by's, L o n d o n , J u n e 7, 1939, lot 9); Charles D a m i r o n ,

toccio) in blue, green, ocher, and m a n g a n e s e purple.

Lyons; Paul D a m i r o n ; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

M e a n d e r i n g foliage in blue runs a r o u n d the neck and the


area above the foot. T h e interior is lead glazed.

Sothe-

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

T h e l e m o n w a s widely used for pharmaceutical


purposes t h r o u g h o u t the Mediterranean, possibly as
early as the second century, in fever reducers, tonics, antiscorbutics, diuretics, and astringents. 1 P r o s p e r o B o r garucci described the preparation and use of s y r u p of
l e m o n juice (which he called sciroppo d'acetosita di cedro) in
his Delia fabrica de gli spetiali. A c c o r d i n g to Borgarucci,
this s y r u p served to reduce i n f l a m m a t i o n s of the viscera,
calm fevers (especially the " p o i s o n o u s and pestilential fevers of the s u m m e r " ) , q u e n c h thirst, and help counteract
d r u n k e n n e s s and dizziness. 2
A l t h o u g h the exceptionally high, almost vertical
neck and scrolling leaf decoration o f this pharmaceutical
container can b e f o u n d o n N e a p o l i t a n wares, 3 its slender
and elegantly p r o p o r t i o n e d cylindrical f o r m as well as
the b r i g h t glazes o n a p u r e w h i t e g r o u n d are m o r e typical
of Faentine albarelli o f the f o u r t e e n t h to the early sixteenth centuries. T h e G o t h i c design m o r e specifically
dates this w o r k to the late fifteenth century (see no. 12).
T h e f u n c t i o n o f these d r u g jars is reflected in their f o r m :
the waisted shape p r o v i d e d a g o o d grasp f o r r e m o v i n g
the j a r f r o m a shelf of similar vessels and for p o u r i n g its
contents, and the flanged lip o n a tall neck secured the
string that held a cover in place. 4
T h e elegance of its attenuated shape and its m a s t e r ful glaze painting m a k e this piece o n e o f the finest
fifteenth-century albarelli k n o w n . O t h e r Faentine albarelli w i t h scrolling G o t h i c leaf decoration b u t w i t h o u t labels include those in the collection of the late A r t h u r M .
Sackler, N e w York (inv. 79.5.9); 5 in the State H e r m i t a g e ,
Leningrad (inv. F 1593);6 f o r m e r l y in the R o b e r t Strauss
collection, L o n d o n ; 7 f o r m e r l y in the Fernandez collec-

Illustration o f Sir opus acetosus. F r o m Theatrum sanitatis.

North-

e r n Italy, late f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y . T e m p e r a o n v e l l u m . R o m e ,
B i b l i o t e c a C a s a n a t e n s e M s . 4182, fol. 183r. P h o t o c o u r t e s y
Foto M u r g i o n i Nadia, R o m e . T h e druggist stored p h a r m a ceuticals i n w h a t a p p e a r t o b e maiolica albarelli a n d w e t - d r u g

tion; 8 and t w o f o r m e r l y in the B a k collection,

New

p i t c h e r s o n t h e shelf b e h i n d h i m . T h e p r e p a r a t i o n illustrated

York. 9 Faentine albarelli

with

here, "vinegar s y r u p , " w a s used to calm coughs and cure

of similar shape b u t

peacock-feather decoration are in the M e t r o p o l i t a n M u -

diarrhea.

CYLINDRICAL

DRUG

JAR . FAENZA

55

BIBLIOGRAPHY: F a l k e 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 1, n o . 2 2 , p l . 15;
E . H a n n o v e r , Pottery

and Porcelain

117; C . D a m i r o n , Majoliques

( L o n d o n , 1925), f i g .

italiennes

(privately printed,

1944), n o . 2 7 (ill.); s a l e c a t . , S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 2 2 , 1983, l o t 2 1 2 .


C O N D I T I O N : S l i g h t l y a b r a d e d g l a z e at t h e r i m ;
flaws

minor

i n t h e g l a z e at t h e b a s e .

1. M . Grieve, A Modern Herbal ( N e w Y o r k , 1971), p p . 4 7 4 476.


2. P. B o r g a r u c c i , Delia fabrica de gli spetiali (Venice, 1567), p.
117.
3. See, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e j a r s e x e c u t e d f o r t h e A r a g o n e s e p h a r m a c y at C a s t e l n u o v o , r e p r o d u c e d in G . D o n a t o n e ,
napoletane della spezieria aragonese di Castelnuovo

Maioliche

( N a p l e s , 1970),

and t w o f u r t h e r N e a p o l i t a n albarelli in t h e C o r c o r a n G a l l e r y o f
A r t , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . (inv. 26.405, 26.399), r e p r o d u c e d in
W a t s o n 1986, n o s . 23, 24.
4. See, f o r e x a m p l e , c o v e r e d albarelli o n t h e w i n d o w l e d g e a n d
w o r k b e n c h i n C o r n e l i s Bega's Alchemist (see I n t r o d u c t i o n , fig.
6).
5. D . S h i n n , Sixteenth-Century

Italian Maiolica

(Washington,

D . C . , 1982), p. 11, n o . 1.
6. K u b e 1976, n o . 5.
7. Sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e 21, 1976, l o t 10.
8. C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, fig. 367.
9. A Highly Important Collection of Early Italian Maiolica
by Dr. Bak of New

Formed

York, sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , N e w Y o r k , D e -

c e m b e r 7, 1965, lots 22, 23, 25.


10. G . Szabo, The Robert Lehman Collection ( N e w Y o r k , 1975),
n o . 147.
11. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 127.
12. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , vol. 1, n o . 24, pl. 15; sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s ,
L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 22, 1983, lot 211.

N o . 17, alternate v i e w

56

FAENZA . CYLINDRICAL

DRUG

JAR

18 Dish with a Scenefrom the


Aeneid (Coppa)
Faenza, circa 1515-1520
H : 5.4 c m (21/8in.); D i a m : 24.6 c m (911/16in.)
84.DE. 1 0 6

T H I S COPPA,

OR F O O T E D C O N C A V E D I S H , FALLS W I T H I N

the transition to the so-called stile bello (beautiful style) of


the early sixteenth century, w h e n istoriato decoration
reached its height o f popularity and pictorial sophistication. 1 O n the obverse is a finely painted scene of a king
seated o n a high t h r o n e w i t h groups of w o m e n and m e n
to his proper right and left, respectively. A w i n g e d p u t t o
stands in the f o r e g r o u n d holding a blank scroll that elegantly echoes the scrolling supports of the throne. A n other p u t t o appears o n a cloud above. This istoriato piece
is painted in blue, yellow, pale orange, pale yellowish
green, pale purple, and o p a q u e white on a pale blue

N o . 18, r e v e r s e

ground. Blue radiating leaves filled w i t h concentric dark


ocher lines cover the reverse, encircling the foot.
O n the underside of the coppa is a circle divided into

ia's husband w o u l d be a foreigner and that this union


w o u l d produce a race destined to conquer the w o r l d .

four sections, w i t h a smaller circle in each of the four

This foreigner was Aeneas, w h o , after vanquishing Tur-

quarters. Since 1858 this m a r k has been identified as the

nus in battle, claimed Lavinia as his wife.

pyros rota (fire wheel), believed to be the m a r k and p u n -

T h e coppa's scene appears to be based o n a passage

ning device of the Faentine Casa Pirota w o r k s h o p . 2 This

(bk. 12,11. 5 4 - 8 0 ) in w h i c h A m a t a (Lavinia's mother, the

attribution w a s questioned by scholars as early as 1880,3

kneeling w o m a n in the foreground) pleads w i t h Turnus

and recent scholarship has cast further d o u b t o n it. O f the

(the y o u n g warrior before her) to refrain f r o m fighting

t w o k n o w n pieces with inscriptions indicating their

the Trojans for fear that he, her daughter's intended h u s -

manufacture in the Casa Pirota, 4 neither bears the

band, will die. 8 Lavinia (the h o o d e d figure s u r r o u n d e d by

crossed-circle m a r k . M o r e o v e r variants of the crossed

attendants), hearing her mother's entreaty, is filled w i t h

circle appear o n w o r k s f r o m centers other than Faenza

emotion, "her b u r n i n g cheeks steeped in tears, while a

(such as G u b b i o and Castel Durante) as simple decorative

deep blush kindled its fire, and mantled o'er her glowing

motifs or as spheres. W h e n depicted in the hands of small

face" (11. 6 5 - 6 7 ) . Turnus then "fastens his looks u p o n the

boys, for example, it resembles a pallone, or pneumatic

maid; [and], fired m o r e for the fray, briefly h e addresses

ball. 5 Finally, if the Faentine examples were intended to

Amata: 'Nay, I beseech thee, n o t w i t h tears, not w i t h

represent spheres, there w o u l d be n o reason to associate

such o m e n , as I pass to stern war's conflicts, d o thou send

t h e m w i t h the Casa Pirota, since they w o u l d not also

m e forth, O m y mother[-in-law]; n o r truly has Turnus

have been understood as wheels. 6

f r e e d o m to delay his d e a t h ' " (11. 7 0 - 7 5 ) . Latinus, en-

L o n g misinterpreted as a betrothal scene, the coppa's

throned and holding a scepter, presides over the scene.

painted decoration appears to depict instead a debate over

T h e posture of the flying p u t t o in the upper left s u g -

a betrothal described in an episode f r o m Virgil's Aeneid,

gests that the artist intended h i m to represent C u p i d a i m -

a w o r k f r o m w h i c h istoriato-waie

subjects were c o m -

ing his b o w and arrow, attributes the artist m a y have s i m -

m o n l y d r a w n in the sixteenth century. 7 As recounted in

ply forgotten to include after the figure h a d been painted.

the Aeneid, K i n g Latinus of Latium was approaching old

In the context of this passage f r o m the Aeneid, the ap-

age w i t h o u t a male descendant. H e did have one d a u g h -

pearance of C u p i d aiming his darts at Turnus w o u l d be

ter, Lavinia, w h o was sought in marriage by m a n y

appropriate b o t h because Turnus had been p r o m i s e d to

neighboring chiefs, including Turnus, king of the R u -

Lavinia in marriage and because C u p i d was Aeneas'

tulians. Lavinia's parents favored this union, but Latinus

brother.

had been w a r n e d by his o w n father in a dream that Lavin-

58

FAENZA

DISH

In such a carefully rendered scene, however, it is dif-

ficult to accept the proposition that the omission of C u -

2. J . C . R o b i n s o n , " C e r a m i c A r t , " in J. B . W a r i n g , ed., Art

pid's b o w and arrows was merely an oversight. It is pos-

Treasures of the United Kingdom from the Art Treasures

sible that this figure, deprived of b o w and arrow, actually

Manchester,

represents Cupid's rival, Anteros. In classical m y t h o l o g y


Anteros symbolized both reciprocity in a m o r o u s relations and terrestrial love (as opposed to C u p i d / E r o s ,
w h o represented celestial love). 9 According to an inter-

v o l . 1 ( L o n d o n , 1858), p p .

Exhibition,

13-14.

3. Sec C . M a l a g o l a , Memorie storiche sidle maioliche di Faenza


( B o l o g n a , 1880), p p . 1 4 0 - 1 4 1 ; A . Genolini, Maioliche
Marche e monogrammi

italiane:

(Milan, 1881), p. 57.

4. Located in t h e M u s e o C i v i c o , B o l o g n a (inv. 984; see G . B a l lardini, " A l c u n e m a r c h e di C a ' P i r o t a , " Faenza 28, no. 4 [1940],

pretation current in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen-

pp. 6 7 - 6 8 ; C . Ravanelli G u i d o t t i , Ceramiche occidentali nel Mu-

turies, Anteros symbolized physical love rejected and

seo Civico Medievale di Bologna | B o l o g n a , 1985], p p . 7 6 - 7 9 , n o .

chastised and therefore represented Amor virtutis, or the

42), a n d f o r m e r l y in the B a r o n G u s t a v d e R o t h s c h i l d collection,

castigator of love.

10

Identification of the coppa's figure

with Anteros instead of Eros m i g h t be m o r e appropriate, since the intended union of Turnus and Lavinia never

B u c k i n g h a m s h i r e ; n o w in the M u s e e N a t i o n a l de C e r a m i q u e ,
Sevres (ibid., p. 67; H . P. F o u r e s t , La ceramique

europeenne

[Paris, 1983], pl. 43).

5. For e x a m p l e s , see A . V. B . N o r m a n , Catalogue of Ceramics I:

came to pass. A l t h o u g h Anteros is usually depicted fight-

The Wallace Collection ( L o n d o n , 1976), n o . C67; G . C o n t i , L'arte

ing with or binding Eros 11 or being instructed by M e r -

della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d e d n . (Milan, 1980), n o . 220; G i a c o -

cury,12 the painter of this coppa m i g h t have invented his


o w n Anteros image to fit the composition.

m o t t i 1974, n o . 684.
6. F o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the crosscd-circle m a r k ,

13

T h e closest stylistic parallels to the decoration on


this dish include a plate with the subject of Perseus and
A n d r o m e d a in the Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n don (inv. c.2118-1910), 14 and a plaque dated 1518 depicting the abduction of Helen in the M u s e o Correr, Ven-

see B a l l a r d i n i ( n o t e 4), p p . 6 6 - 7 2 , p l s . 1 4 - 1 7 ; A . V. B .

m a n , " A N o t e o n the So-called C a s a P i r o t a M a r k , "


Magazine

Nor-

Burlington

111 ( J u l y 1969), p p . 4 4 7 - 4 4 8 .

7. See, f o r e x a m p l e , G . Ballardini, " A l c u n i aspetti della m a i o l ica Faentina nella seconda m e t a del c i n q u e c e n t o , " Faenza
n o . 3/4 (1929), pl. 17; The Pringsheim

Collection

17,

. . . of Superb

ice,15 both tentatively attributed to the Master Gonela or

Italian Majolica, sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e 7, 1939, lot

the Master C.I. Because the styles of these t w o artists are

77; sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , M a r c h 18, 1975, lot 36; sale

so similar, R a c k h a m suggested that the inscriptions C. I.

cat., Sotheby's, L o n d o n , M a r c h 11, 1980, lots 16, 17.

and Gonela after which they had been n a m e d indicated

8. I w o u l d like to t h a n k D r . W. T r i m p i , S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y ,

one and the same master.

16

A l t h o u g h almost certainly by

a different hand, istoriato w o r k s produced in the early


sixteenth-century Faentine w o r k s h o p of Francesco Torelli are also close in style to the Getty M u s e u m ' s coppa;17
the figures on the latter w o r k display m o r e subtle and so-

f o r his assistance in i d e n t i f y i n g t h e scene.


9. V. C a r t a r i , Imagini delli dei de gl'antichi (Venicc, 1647; r e p r i n t ,
G r a z , 1963), p. 258.

10. A. Alciati, Emblemata

( P a d u a , 1621), n o . 111.

11. See, f o r e x a m p l e , ibid.; E. P a n o f s k y , Studies in

Iconology

( N e w Y o r k , 1962), figs. 96, 100.

phisticated modeling, however, and do not have the

12. A s discussed in E. V e r h e y e n , " E r o s et A n t e r o s : ' L ' e d u c a -

wide, heavy foreheads often found on Torelli's figures.

tion de C u p i d o n ' et la p r e t e n d u e A n t i o p e ' d u C o r r e g e , " Gazette

des beaux-arts

65 ( M a y - J u n e 1965), p p . 3 2 1 - 3 4 0 .

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n u n d e r s i d e , c r o s s e d c i r -

13. For f u r t h e r discussion o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a n d d e p i c t i o n s

cle with a smaller circle in each of the four quarters.

o f A n t e r o s in the Renaissance a n d their r e l a t i o n s h i p to classical


texts, see P a n o f s k y ( n o t e 11), p p . 9 5 - 1 2 8 ; C . D e m p s e y , " ' E t

PROVENANCE: Sold, S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 21,

N o s C e d a m u s A m o r i ' : O b s e r v a t i o n s o n the Farnesc G a l l e r y , "

1978, lot 42; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London],

Art Bulletin

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Sotheby's,

London,

November

21,

16. R a c k h a m 1940, vol. 1, p. 81.


17. See G . Liverani, " U n a s c o n o s c i u t a b o t t e g a maiolicara del
p r i m o c i n q u e c e n t o a F a e n z a , " Faenza 43, n o . 1 (1957), pls. 1, 2.

CONDITION: A small hairline crack across t h e k n e e l i n g

w o m a n at the lower left toward the center of the plate;


m i n o r rim repairs; the male figure on the far right-hand
edge has been restored.

to Ballardini

1933-1938,

2 , p . 10; B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 7 5 , p p . 5 9 - 7 1 , 9 2 .

60

363-374.

15. B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 1, n o . 6 6 .

1978, lot 42.

1. A c c o r d i n g

50, n o . 4 (1968), p p .

14. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 258; 2, pl. 41.

FAENZA

DISH

vols.

1, p p .

13-14;

19 Dish with Three Saints


(Coppa)

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n o b v e r s e , at t o p , s h i e l d

w i t h a holy cross flanked by M and C b e l o w annulets; o n


scroll, PETRE

DILIGIS

Manara fa[e]n[tino]
B y Baldassare M a n a r a (active circa 1526-1547)

ME;

o n underside, Baldasara

or Baldasara Manara fa [e]n[za].

PROVENANCE: [Stora, Paris]; Charles D a m i r o n , Lyons

Faenza, circa 1535

(sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , J u n e 16, 1938, lot 20); Paul

H : 3.8 c m (1 1/2 in.); D i a m : 21.5 c m (87/16in.)

D a m i r o n ; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

84.DE.107

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
PAINTED IN OLIVE GREEN, COPPER GREEN, BLUE, YEL-

low, ocher, grayish yellow, o p a q u e white, and black, this


coppa depicts three saints in a m o u n t a i n o u s landscape
w i t h a city or large castle in the b a c k g r o u n d . In the center
Saint C a t h e r i n e o f Siena carries a scroll inscribed
DILIGIS

PETRE

ME (Peter, love me 1 ) and a vase or oil j a r in one

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C . D a m i r o n , Majoliques italiennes (privately printed, 1944), no. 79; C h o m p r e t 1949, vols. 1, p.
77; 2, fig. 500; sale cat., Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r
22, 1983, lot 209; Art at Auction:

The Year at

Sotheby's

( L o n d o n , 1983-1984), p. 290.

hand and her attributes of a lily and a b o o k in the other.

CONDITION: M i n o r chips a r o u n d the r i m , repainted,

She is flanked by Saint Peter o n her right and by a female

and one chip in the base.

saint h o l d i n g aloft a p a l m f r o n d , identifying her as a m a r tyr, o n her left. T w o putti appear above the saints s u p p o r t i n g a shield bearing a cross flanked by the letters M
and C b e l o w annulets (possibly a merchant's t r a d e m a r k
or m o r e likely the m a r k of a religious order). T h e reverse

1. T h e artist, possibly n o t fluent in Latin, m a y h a v e misspelled


or m i s c o p i e d this c u r i o u s i n s c r i p t i o n , w h i c h m a y h a v e b e e n i n t e n d e d to read " P e t e r loves m e " o r " P e t e r leads m e . "

of the dish is painted w i t h a yellow and ocher scale o r -

2. C . G r i g i o n i , " D o c u m c n t i relativi alia f a m i g l i a M a n a r a , "

n a m e n t and is signed Baldasara Manara fa[e]n[tino] or Bal-

Faenza 20, n o . 3/4 (1932), p. 181.

dasara Matiarafa[c]n[za]

in the center of the raised foot.

Baldassare M a n a r a was a m e m b e r of a family of


potters living in Faenza in the first half of the sixteenth
century. In Faentine records he is described as

figulus

(potter) of the chapelry of Saint T h o m a s . Manara's n a m e


appears as early as 1526, and he is k n o w n to have died
b e f o r e J u n e 15, 1547.2

3. J. V y d r o v a , Italian Majolica ( L o n d o n , 1960), p. 30, n o . 35.


4. W i l s o n 1987, p p . 7 0 - 7 1 , n o . 102; 144, n o . 221.
5. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, nos. 8 0 0 - 8 0 2 ; 2, pls. 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 .
6. C . J o i n - D i c t c r l c , Catalogue des ceraniiques I (Paris, 1984), n o .

367. C . D . E. F o r t n u m , Maiolica ( L o n d o n , 1873), pp. 4 8 2 - 4 8 3 ;


i d e m , Maiolica ( O x f o r d , 1896), pi. 19.
8. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , vol. 2, n o . 204; Ballardini 1933 - 1 9 3 8 , vol.

R o u g h l y thirty pieces are signed by or attributed to


the artist. A m o n g those that have been published are a
plate w i t h J o s e p h finding the gold cup (signed; Prague,
3

M u s e u m of Industrial A r t in v. 273 ); a plate w i t h the Ves-

2, n o . 127.
9. Falke 1914-1923, vol. 2, figs. 203, 204; Ballardini 1 9 3 3 1938, vol. 2, n o . 126.
10. R a c k h a m 1959, pls. 1 3 1 a - b , 133c.

tal Tuccia and a plaque w i t h Battistone Castellini (both


signed; L o n d o n , British M u s e u m inv. MLA 1855, 12-1,
94, MLA 1855, 3-13, 10);4 plates w i t h Narcissus at the
fountain (unsigned), w i t h the Resurrection (signed), and
w i t h a R o m a n battle scene (unsigned; L o n d o n , Victoria
and Albert M u s e u m inv. 4726-1901, 62-1876, c . 2 1 1 2 1910);5 a coppa w i t h P y r a m u s and Thisbe (signed; Paris,
Petit

Palais,

Dutuit

1063); 6

plates

with

Petrarch's

" T r i u m p h of T i m e " and w i t h Caesar receiving the head


of P o m p e y (both signed; O x f o r d , A s h m o l c a n

Mu-

seum); 7 a plate w i t h Atalanta and H i p p o m e n e s (signed;


Italy, private collection); 8 a plate w i t h the death of H e s peria (signed; C a m b r i d g e , Fitzwilliam M u s e u m ) ; 9 and
coppe w i t h an allegorical scene and w i t h the m a r t y r d o m
of Saint Cecilia (both unsigned; f o r m e r l y in the A d d a
collection, Paris). 10

DISH . FAENZA

61

N o . 19, reverse

20 Plate with Saint Peter


Faenza o r Cafaggiolo(?), circa 1500
H : 4.8 c m (1 7/8 in.); D i a m : 27.3 c m (10 3/4 in.)
84.DE. 108
T H I S UNUSUALLY SHAPED PLATE W I T H SMALL BASE AND

wide, sloping sides displays a finely painted, striking


close-up portrait of Saint Peter in blue, orange, ocher,
green, and yellow against a dark blue background. T h e
saint is pointing w i t h his right hand to a pair of keys held
in his left hand, w h i c h is out of view; to the right and left
of his head are the initials SP (for San Pietro). T h e r i m
inventively f o r m s part of the saint's yellow halo, so that
the circular shapes of n i m b u s and r i m c o m p l e m e n t each
other. Saint Peter's cloak is decorated with a geometric
interlace border. T h e reverse of the plate displays t w o
manganese purple bands a m o n g concentric lines in blue
o n a pinkish w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e clay b o d y is of a reddish

N o . 20, reverse

buff color.
This plate is one of very few w o r k s painted w i t h

1. See, f o r e x a m p l e , a plate w i t h t h e subject of M a r c u s C u r t i u s

dramatic close-up busts covering the entire obverse sur-

a t t r i b u t e d t o C a f a g g i o l o a n d d a t e d circa 1510-1515 in t h e H e r -

face; it is virtually unique in its forceful and vigorous

z o g A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m , B r a u n s c h w e i g (inv. 837; J. Less-

painting. It has been suggested that this piece was p r o -

m a n n , Italienische Majolika

duced in the Tuscan center of Cafaggiolo because a f e w

1), a n d an early s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y plate w i t h t h e subject o f t h e

plates attributed to that city exist s h o w i n g similarly dra-

fall o f P h a e t o n , also a t t r i b u t e d t o C a f a g g i o l o , i n t h e V i c t o r i a

matic close-up portraits rendered w i t h lively b r u s h strokes in a saturated palette.' F u r t h e r m o r e the unusual
rimless shape of the present plate appears in Cafaggiolo
in the early sixteenth century. 2 Faenza is m o r e likely to be
the source of this plate, however. Faentine w o r k s h o p s

[ B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1979], n o . 83, pi.

and A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. c. 2 0 8 2 - 1 9 1 0 ; C o r a a n d F a n fani 1982, n o . 106; R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, p. 109, n o . 314; 2,


p1. 52).
2. C o r a a n d Fanfani 1982, n o . 23.
3. See, f o r e x a m p l e , a F a e n t i n e plate o f H e r c u l e s a n d C e r b e r u s
dated circa 1520 i n t h e H e r z o g A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m , B r a u n -

excelled, even m o r e than those of Cafaggiolo, in vigor-

s c h w e i g (inv. 4 ; L e s s m a n n [ n o t e 1], p. 98, n o . 17). Interestingly,

ously rendered, lively subjects painted in an especially

this plate's s h a p e r i m l e s s w i t h s m a l l base a n d s l o p i n g s i d e s

brilliant and saturated palette. Moreover, although used

is v e r y similar t o t h a t o f t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s piece.

in other centers, the reverse concentric-circle design (a

4. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 6 0 - 6 1 , n o . 240.

calza, like the threads of a stocking) was m o s t c o m m o n


in the Faentine decorative repertory. 3 A similar sixteenthcentury Faentine plate, likewise decorated with the p o r trait of an apostle (Saint Paul), is in the M u s e e de la R e naissance, E c o u e n (Cluny 2975). 4
MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS:

None.

PROVENANCE: Private collection, Switzerland; [Rainer


Zietz, Ltd., London],
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: N o n e .

CONDITION: Repainted cracks t h r o u g h the b o d y in the


area of the keys, rim, face, and blue background; m i n o r
chips in the rim.

64

FAENZA

OR

CAFAGGIOLO

PLATE

21 Alla Porcellana Dish


(Tondino)
Attributed to J a c o p o di Stefano di Filippo (1490[?]-after
1576)
Cafaggiolo, circa 1500-1525
H : 4.8 c m (1 7/8 in.); D i a m : 24.3 c m (9 9/16 in.)
84.DE. 109

T H E CAVETTO,

OR WELL, OF THIS DEEP TONDINO

Dis-

plays a carrack (a b r o a d - b e a m e d merchant ship) within


interlocking ogival quatrefoils w i t h fleurs-de-lis and f o liage sprays. T h e r i m is decorated w i t h four musical trophiesa harp w i t h sheets of music, a lute w i t h a scroll
inscribed MVSICA,

a reed pipe and w i n d blower, and an

u r n and dulcimerdivided b y stylized foliage sprays and


arabesques. T h e reverse is embellished with three sprays
of scrolling foliage and m a r k e d in the center either

N o . 21, r e v e r s e

J[acop]o chafagguolo or In chafagguolo. All of the painted


decoration is executed in blue p i g m e n t on a thin, creamy,

Cafaggiolo w o r k s h o p , j u s t n o r t h of the Tuscan capital.

yellowish w h i t e g r o u n d . T h e clay b o d y itself is of a very

This w o r k s h o p , w h i c h w a s supported by m e m b e r s of

light yellowish buff color.

the Medici family, was located in a section of the Medici

This type of delicate foliage and floral embellish-

villa there. T h e brothers began signing their w o r k s w i t h

m e n t in blue o n a white ground, t e r m e d alla porcellana

the initials SP, referring either to their first names o r to

decoration because it imitates Chinese porcelain ware,

the Medici m o t t o , Semper (always). After the deaths of

was m u c h sought after in fifteenth- and sixteenth-

Piero and Stefano in 1507 and 1532, respectively, the di-

century Italy. This w o r k is a particularly elaborate ex-

rection of their w o r k s h o p was taken u p b y their sons. In

ample f r o m a g r o u p of similarly decorated alla porcellana

1568 Jacopo di Stefano is m e n t i o n e d in d o c u m e n t s as sole

tondini executed in Cafaggiolo in the first quarter of the

director. 9 T h e Medici patronage in Cafaggiolo enabled

sixteenth century. N i n e other k n o w n pieces f r o m this

the royal potteries there to produce s o m e of the m o s t el-

g r o u p include a tondino decorated w i t h a long-beaked

egant wares of the early sixteenth century.

bird (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum); 1 a tondino w i t h

It is indeed likely that J a c o p o painted the Getty M u -

a bird holding a serpent in its beak (Faenza, M u s e o In-

seum's tondino, because the elegantly painted alia porcel-

ternazionale delle Ceramiche inv. n. 21224/c); 2 a tondino

lana decoration, exactly measured to fit the dimensions

w i t h flowers (formerly in the Delia Gherardesca collec-

and circular f o r m of the piece, c o n f o r m s with the deco-

tion, Bolgheri); 3 a tondino with a serpentlike dolphin

ration o n other w o r k s b o t h signed by and attributed to

(Florence, M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello inv.

the artist. 10 T h e interpretation of this tondino's inscription,

F.G.S. n. 13798); a tondino w i t h a small branch bearing

however, is debatable. It is possible that the first w o r d , a

t w o pears (Museo Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello inv.

large J or I s u r m o u n t e d by w h a t appears to be a small

F.G.S. n. 13799); 5 a tondino w i t h a carrack (location u n -

circle, could signify in, since various plates f r o m C a -

known); and a tondino w i t h a small branch bearing three

faggiolo exist, m a n y w i t h alla porcellana

acorns (Berlin, private collection). 7 Like the Getty M u -

w h o s e reverses clearly bear the inscription In chafag-

seum's dish, all of these w o r k s are m a r k e dJ[acop]o chafag-

guolo.11 Yet according to the n o r m s of c o n t e m p o r a r y pa-

guolo or In chafagguolo o n the reverse.

leography, the w o r d in should have been abbreviated by

G. C o r a and A. Fanfani have interpreted this in-

decoration,

means of an i s u r m o u n t e d b y a straight or w a v y line, not

scription as the signature of Jacopo Cafaggiolo, also

a circle. O n all of the examples cited above, moreover,

k n o w n as J a c o p o di Stefano di Filippo or, in the seven-

the o r t h o g r a p h y of the inscriptionas well as the dec-

teenth century, as Jacopo Fattorini. 8 In 1498 Jacopo's fa-

orationvaries considerably f r o m that o n the M u s e u m ' s

ther and uncle, Stefano and Piero di Filippo, m o v e d to

tondino.

Florence f r o m their native M o n t e l u p o to w o r k in the

66

C A F A G G I O L O . ALLA

PORCELLANA

DISH

That the first w o r d signifies Jacopo is likewise u n -

certain, since the n a m e w o u l d normally have been ab-

2. C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 44; B o j a n i et al. 1985, n o . 389.

breviated Jac" or Jap, as it is on Jacopo's signature piece,

3. Bellini a n d C o n t i 1964, ill. p. 75; L i v e r a n i i 9 6 0 , f i g . 13; C o r a

a plate w i t h the subject of J u d i t h and Holofernes in the

a n d F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 51.

Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , London. 1 2 T h e o r t h o g r a p h y o n the Getty M u s e u m ' s tondino, as on all dishes f r o m
this group, is very similar to that o n Jacopo's J u d i t h and
Holofernes plate, however. M o r e o v e r the J u d i t h plate

4. G . C o n t i , Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo


renze, Palazzo

Nazionale

di Fi-

del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o . 483; C o r a a n d

F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 53; G . L i v e r a n i , Italian Maiolica,

Masterpieces

o f W e s t e r n a n d N e a r E a s t e r n C e r a m i c s , v o l . 5 ( T o k y o , 1980),
n o . 42.

and all of the tondini f r o m the alla porcellana g r o u p are dat-

5. C o n t i ( n o t e 4), n o . 484; C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 58.

able to the first quarter of the sixteenth century. If the

6. In C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982 (no. 60), it is m i s t a k e n l y stated t h a t

M u s e u m ' s tondino was n o t executed by J a c o p o di Stefano

this w o r k is in s t o r a g e at t h e M u s e o N a z i o n a l e , Palazzo del B a r -

di Filippo, it is curious that its artist apparently disappeared f r o m Cafaggiolo a r o u n d 1525 (more than fifty
years before Jacopo's death), although it is possible that
he simply died or m o v e d to another center a r o u n d that
year.

8. C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982, p . 66, n o . 48.


9. Ibid., p p . 19, 171.
10. See, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e v e r s e o f t h e artist's s i g n a t u r e plate,
cited b e l o w ( n o t e 12).

To complicate matters further, a plate w i t h the subject of the sacrifice of Abel in the British M u s e u m , L o n don,

gello, Florence.
7. Sale cat., Christie's, L o n d o n , A p r i l 12, 1976, l o t 175.

13

is clearly inscribed o n the reverse Jn chafaggiuolo,

with theJ s u r m o u n t e d by a small circle b e t w e e n t w o triangles. T h e meaning of the marks above Jn are n o t

11. C o r a a n d Fanfani 1982, n o s . 47, 57, 61, 63, 65, 72, 99, 102,
114, 129.
12. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 3 o 6 ; 2 , pl. 51; C o r a a n d F a n f a n i
1982, p. 67, n o . 50.
13. W i l s o n 1987, n o . 130.
14. G . G u a s t i , Di Cafaggiolo e d'altrefabbriche

di ceramiche in Tos-

k n o w n . In a letter written in Cafaggiolo in 1521 f r o m one

cana (Florence, 1902; r e p r i n t , B o l o g n a , 1973), r e p r i n t e d in C o r a

Giovanni Francesco Zeffi to Francesco da Empoli, one

a n d F a n f a n i 1982, p. 2 o f d o c u m e n t s .

finds the abbreviation jo lettera for una lettera.14 C o u l d jo


also have signified one?
A l t h o u g h the M u s e u m ' s tondino can be cautiously
attributed to Jacopo di Stefano di Filippo, the interpretation of its reverse inscription m u s t remain open to f u r ther, and one w o u l d h o p e m o r e conclusive, research.
MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n

r e v e r s e , J[acop]o

cha-

fagguolo or In chafagguolo in blue.


PROVENANCE: Charles Loeser, Torri Gattaia (sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , D e c e m b e r 8, 1959, lot 55); Robert
Strauss, L o n d o n (sold, Christie's, London, J u n e 21,
1976, lot 19); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C o r a and Fanfani 1982, p. 66, fig. 48; H .


Morley-Fletcher and R. Mcllroy, Christie's Pictorial History of European Pottery ( E n g l e w o o d Cliffs, N.J., 1984),
p. 44, fig. 1.
CONDITION: Very small chips and slight r u b b i n g o n the
inner and outer borders of the rim; three stilt marks in
the well.

1. A Very Choice Collection of Old Italian Maiolica


erty of M. Damiron,

Lyons,

. . . the Prop-

sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e

16, 1938, l o t 74; C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, fig. 54; Bellini a n d


C o n t i 1964, ill. p. 75; C o r a a n d F a n f a n i 1982, n o . 43.

68

C A F A G G I O L O . ALL

A PORCELLANA

DISH

Given the often formulaic nature of the busts and

22 Lustered Display Plate with


Female Bust (Piatto da
Pomp a)

r i m embellishments, D e r u t a n potteries probably turned


out these w o r k s at a fast pace. T h e M u s e u m ' s plate is a
particularly fine and beautifully rendered example, h o w ever. T h e y o u n g w o m a n is s h o w n in a self-assured pose,
with her chin up. T h e modeling of her face is especially

Deruta, circa 1500-1530

subtle, and an outline of blue glaze delicately sets off her

H : 8.8 c m (31/2in.); D i a m : 42.8 c m (167/8in.)

head and the banderole f r o m the b a c k g r o u n d .


Plates very similar to this o n e w i t h a quartieri r i m

84.DE. 110

decoration, a vertical scroll, and a female figure in profile


T H E CENTER OF THIS BLUE AND GOLD LUSTERED PLATE

adorned w i t h unusual headdress and tied b o d i c e i n -

displays an idealized bust of a y o u n g w o m a n in profile

clude one in the M u s e e de la Renaissance, E c o u e n (Cluny

wearing a w i n g e d headdress and tied bodice; the back-

2449) ;5 another in the Musee d u Louvre, Paris (inv. OA

g r o u n d is decorated with a vertical scroll and a floral

1238);6 a third sold at auction in Milan; 7 and a fourth, u n -

spray. T h e w h o l e is surrounded by a garland and an a

lustered, f o r m e r l y in the Pringsheim collection, M u -

quartieri (quartered or sectioned) r i m of alternating scale

nich. 8 T h e r e are a n u m b e r of plates of the same type, sev-

patterns, f o r m a l foliage, and radiating bands. T h e re-

eral of which are closely related to the Getty M u s e u m ' s

verse is painted with a transparent lead glaze, a less pre-

example. 9

cious m e d i u m than the tin glaze used for the obverse. B e fore the first firing, t w o holes were pierced t h r o u g h the
foot ring, f r o m which this plate was probably suspended

MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n


VIV[U]S

E MORTV[U]S

ERO

scroll,

VIVIS

ERO

VIV[U]S.

for display. In their haste, glaze painters apparently often

PROVENANCE: R. W. M . Walker, L o n d o n (sold, C h r i s -

failed to consider the position of the pierced holes w h e n

tie's, London, July 25, 1943, lot 73); A d d a collection,

painting scenes. T h e present plate, for example, w o u l d

Paris; sold, Christie's, London, N o v e m b e r 20, 1967, lot

hang askew if suspended f r o m its foot-ring holes.

87; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].

T h e scroll inscription VIVIS


MORTV[U]S

ERO

VIV[U]S

ERO

VIV[U]S

(when alive, I shall be

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

a m o n g the living, and w h e n dead, I shall be a m o n g the

BIBLIOGRAPHY: R a c k h a m

living) 1 may be a statement of u n d y i n g love; 2 a m e -

231; H . Morley-Fletcher and R. Mcllroy, Christie's Pic-

m e n t o m o r i signifying the patron's eternal love for a

torial History of European Pottery ( E n g l e w o o d Cliffs, N.J.,

w o m a n w h o has died, depicted as the figure in profile;

or a vanitas subject (the transitory nature of life had been


a d o m i n a n t t h e m e in Italian art since the Middle Ages). 4

1959, p . 143, n o . 3 5 4 b ,

pl.

1984), p. 52, fig. 7.


CONDITION: Chips along the r i m and base.

Idealized female images like the one on this plate


were clearly influenced stylistically and iconographically
by the w o r k of painters such as Perugino (circa 1 4 5 0 -

1. B . R a c k h a m , h o w e v e r , has p o s i t e d t h a t t h e i n s c r i p t i o n

1523) and Pinturicchio (circa 1454-1513), w h o came

s h o u l d b e read Vivis ero vivus et mortuis ero vivus (alive I shall b e

f r o m U m b r i a , the region in which Deruta is located.


These classicizing busts, often nearly identical in pose
and appearance, were presumably copied f r o m a w o r k shop's stock repertory. T h e ceramists n o d o u b t copied a
given image f r o m a d r a w i n g or print tacked to the studio

a m o n g t h e living, a n d alive I shall b e a m o n g t h e dead); see


R a c k h a m 1959, p. 143, n o . 354b, pl. 231. Since glaze painters
o f t e n did n o t c o m p o s e a n d p o s s i b l y did n o t even u n d e r s t a n d
t h e w o r d s t h e y c o p i e d f o r inscriptions, b o t h t h e a b b r e v i a t e d
f o r m s a n d the m e a n i n g o f this p h r a s e m u s t b e c o n s i d e r e d o p e n
to interpretation.

wall, as is illustrated in Cipriano Piccolpasso's maiolica

2. Like t h a t e x p r e s s e d in t h e a m o r o u s i n s c r i p t i o n Sogie tovesero

treatise (see Introduction, fig. 5). It is also possible that

perfihivivo

several glaze painters shared a popular image. T h e m o d e l

a n d e v e n after death) o n a basin in t h e C o r c o r a n Gallery o f A r t ,

drawing or engraving could have been copied freehand


or used as a template for the decoration. T h e cartoon used
as a template was likely either pricked with holes t h r o u g h

epo[i]lamorte (I will b e subject t o y o u as l o n g as I live

W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . ( W a t s o n 1986, p. 78, n o . 28).


3. T h e m e m e n t o m o r i t h e m e also appears explicitly o n m a i o l ica plates; see, f o r e x a m p l e , a l u s t e r e d tondino o f circa 1525 attributed to the w o r k s h o p of Maestro Giorgio Andreoli in the

which the ceramists forced a dark p o w d e r o n t o the ce-

R i n g l i n g M u s e u m o f A r t , Sarasota (C. D u v a l a n d W . J . K a r -

ramic surface (a technique k n o w n as pouncing) or else

cheski, Medieval

traced with w e t glaze and then pressed against the plate.

M u s e u m o f A r t , Sarasota, 1983], p p . 9 1 - 9 2 , n o . 82).

and Renaissance Splendor,

LUSTERED

DISPLAY

e x h . cat. [ R i n g l i n g

PLATE . DERUTA

69

4. O t h e r D e r u t a n plates w i t h similar f e m a l e b u s t s a n d similar


i n s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e transience o f life i n c l u d e t w o
f o r m e r l y i n t h e A d d a collection, Paris: o n e inscribed Um belmorire tuta la vita onora (a b e a u t i f u l d e a t h m a k e s h o n o r a b l e a w h o l e
life) a n d t h e o t h e r i n s c r i b e d Non

e si vago e fiore che no[n]

i[n]bia[n]ca o cassca (no. flower is so fair t h a t it d o e s n o t f a d e o r


fall); see R a c k h a m 1959, n o s . 354, 344. T h i s c o n c e r n m a y well
h a v e b e e n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e p l a g u e , a c o n s t a n t m e n a c e in early
Renaissance Italy t h a t h a d at o n e p o i n t r e d u c e d t h e p o p u l a t i o n
o f certain centers b y half.
5. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 516; E. Sarasino, Le maioliche di Deruta
(Milan, 1924), p . 61, pl. 52.
6. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 586.
7. Sale cat., Finarte, N o v e m b e r 2 1 - 2 2 , 1963, pl. 80, lot 158.
8. Falke 1914-1923, v o l . 1, n o . 124, pl. 68.
9. See C h o m p r e t 1949, vol. 2, figs. 200, 2 0 3 - 2 0 7 , 820, 823,
824; G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s . 517, 5 8 2 - 5 8 5 , 587.

N o . 22, reverse

70

DERUTA . LUSTERED

DISPLAY

PLATE

23 Lustered Armorial Plate


W o r k s h o p of Maestro Giorgio Andreoli
Gubbio, 1524
H : 7.3 c m (27/8in.); D i a m : 39.9 c m (1511/16in.)
84.DE.111

THE

WELL

OF

THIS

BRILLIANTLY

LUSTERED

PLATE

displays a shield bearing the coat of a r m s of the Vigeri


family of Savona. 1 T h e w i d e r i m is decorated w i t h four
heart-shaped motifs interspersed w i t h four dolphins, all
surrounded b y leaf scrolls. T h e gold and r u b y luster e m bellishment fills in the blue background decoration,
w h i c h is accented w i t h green and black. Four large and
four small foliate scrolls in gold luster decorate the reverse, w h i c h is inscribed in the center M G 1524, also in
gold luster, all on a pinkish white g r o u n d .
T h e inscription M G refers to the w o r k s h o p of

N o . 23, reverse

M a e s t r o Giorgio Andreoli of Gubbio. B o r n near Lake


M a g g i o r e in the late 1470s, Andreoli m o v e d around 1490

land M u s e u m of Art (inv. 43.56); 6 and o n e in the Hetjens-

to Gubbio, in central Italy, w h e r e he became director of

M u s e u m , Diisseldorf. 7

an active maiolica w o r k s h o p and was granted citizenship


and exempted f r o m paying taxes and duties by the duke
of U r b i n o . In 1519 P o p e Leo X renewed Andreoli's exemptions "in consideration of the h o n o r which redounds

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: O n r e v e r s e , a t c e n t e r , M
G 1524.

PROVENANCE: Sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 21,

to the city . . . and in consideration of [his wares'] great

1978, lot 41; [Cyril H u m p h r i s , London]; [Rainer Zietz,

usefulness and profitableness in revenue." 2

Ltd., London].

T h e H i s p a n o - M o r e s q u e products that served as


models for Italian lusterware display predominantly blue

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

and gold or m o n o c h r o m e decoration, color schemes i m -

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sotheby's,

itated in Deruta. Lusterware f r o m Gubbio, however, is

1978, lot 41.

distinguished not only by its characteristic red, gold, or


silver iridescence but also by the vibrant p o l y c h r o m e

London,

November

21,

CONDITION: Small glaze fault o n the inside of the rim.

decoration u p o n which the lusters were fired. In addition


to applying the metallic lusters that appeared after a final
reduction firing (that is, in a kiln atmosphere rich in car-

1. I n f o r m a t i o n o n this f a m i l y is m e a g e r . W e k n o w t h a t a certain

b o n monoxide), it is not k n o w n w h e t h e r Andreoli also

M a r c o V i g e r i o w a s b o r n in S a v o n a in 1446. A cardinal b i s h o p

applied the p o l y c h r o m e decoration of the second firing

a n d learned h u m a n i s t , V i g e r i o w a s t h e g r a n d n e p h e w o f F r a n -

to the luster products bearing his mark. Because of his


great skill in the elusive luster technique, he was frequently engaged to luster the wares of other workshops,
including objects painted by famed artists f r o m other

cesco della R o v e r e ( w h o b e c a m e P o p e Sixtus I V in 1471) a n d


p a t r o n o f Saint Francis o f Paola. A l t h o u g h V i g e r i o died i n
1516, eight years b e f o r e this plate w a s m a d e , it is likely, t h o u g h
n o t certain, t h a t h e b e l o n g e d to t h e f a m i l y t h a t either o r d e r e d
o r w a s t h e recipient o f t h e f i n e table service t o w h i c h it b e l o n g s

centers such as Francesco X a n t o Avelli of Rovigo, w h o

(G. M o r o n i , Dizionario

w o r k e d in U r b i n o . Indeed, after adorning the w o r k s of

i860], p p . 9 7 - 9 8 ; D . R . C a m p b e l l , in New

other masters w i t h his luster, Andreoli often inscribed

pedia [ W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1967], u n d e r " V i g e r i o " ) .

these w o r k s w i t h his o w n mark. 3

2. Liverani i 9 6 0 , p. 46.

This lustered plate is one of six k n o w n pieces f r o m


a Vigeri family service, including t w o in the National
Gallery of Art, Washington, D . C . ; 4 one f o r m e r l y in the
Robert de Rothschild collection, Paris; 5 one in the Cleve-

72

GUBBIO . LUSTERED

ARMORIAL

PLATE

di erudizione storico-ecclesiastico [Venice,


Catholic

Encyclo-

3. A plate in t h e Petit Palais, Paris, p r o v i d e s at least o n e e x a m p l e


o f a w o r k t h a t w a s n o t o n l y l u s t e r e d b u t also p a i n t e d b y A n dreoli o r s o m e o n e in his w o r k s h o p ; this piece is s i g n e d in u n l u s t e r e d b l u e (C. J o i n - D i e t e r l e , Musee du Petit Palais:
de ceramiques I [Paris, 1984], p p . T72-173, n o . 54).

Catalogue

4. W i d e n e r C o l l e c t i o n inv. c - 5 6 , c - 5 7 ; s e e D . S h i n n , Maiolica
( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1982), n o s . 31, 32.
5. Ballardini 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , vol. 1, n o . 146.
6. I n s c r i b e d W o r M o n t h e r i m ; E . M o l i n i e r , La
Spitzer

collection

(Paris, 1892), vol. 4, n o . 160 bis; B . R a c k h a m ,

Italian

Maiolica, C a t a l o g u e o f P o t t e r y a n d P o r c e l a i n i n t h e C o l l e c t i o n
o f O t t o Beit, vol. 2 ( L o n d o n , 1916), n o . 807; B a l l a r d i n i 1933 1938, vol. 1, n o . 147; J. R o t h e n s t e i n , " S h o r t e r N o t i c e s : T w o
Pieces o f Italian P o t t e r y , " Burlington

Magazine

85 ( A u g u s t

1944), p. 205, pl. B ; Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum

of Art

31

( J a n u a r y 1944), p . 11 (right).
7. F o r m e r l y in t h e m u s e u m at Treves; R o t h e n s t e i n ( n o t e 6), p.
205, pi. A ; A . K l e i n , Fayencen Europas ( B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1980),
p. 133, fig. 140.

74

G U B B I O . L U S T E R ED

ARMORIAL

PLATE

24 CylindricalJar with Lame


Peasant (Albarello)
CylindricalJar with Woman
and Distaff (Albarello)

artist than that of the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s albarelli. If these


Faentine m a r k s could be linked (although there is n o evidence that w o u l d allow o n e to d o so w i t h any certainty
at present), m i g h t they have been c o m m i s s i o n e d b y the
same

early

sixteenth-century

collector

of

Faentine

maiolica? Recently, an a t t e m p t was m a d e to link the B/


B set w i t h ceramics m a d e at Castelli d'Abruzzo. 6 This
p r o p o s i t i o n is based o n the similarity b e t w e e n the d r u g

Faenza, circa 1510

jars' f o r m , palette, and decorative motifs and those of

H : 24.8 c m (93/4in.); D i a m (at lip): 12.9 c m (5r/i6 in.);

w o r k s of the " O r s i n i - C o l o n n a " typology, w h i c h have

m a x . D i a m : 15.9 c m (61/4in.); 16.8 c m (65/8in.)

been n e w l y and convincingly given t o Castelli. 7 A t pres-

84.DE.112.1-2

ent this n e w attribution of the albarelli, a l t h o u g h enticing, appears t e n u o u s and unpersuasive, and m o r e evi-

T H E C Y L I N D R I C A L B O D I E S OF THESE T W O C O N T A I N E R S

dence w o u l d

are painted in tones of orange, blue, green, and yellow

attribution w i t h a Castellan one. 8

be necessary to supplant

a Faentine

w i t h single f i g u r e s o n the first a l a m e peasant, possibly

T h e t w e n t y vessels f r o m this B / B set are clearly the

a beggar, w i t h a crutch h o l d i n g a ceramic j u g , and o n the

w o r k of different hands, since they v a r y b o t h in style and

second a w o m a n w i t h a distaff beside three f i g h t i n g

sophistication. T h e M u s e u m ' s albarelli can be considered

g e e s e w i t h i n panels b o r d e r e d b y blue lines. T h e u p p e r

a m o n g the m o s t adroitly rendered of the g r o u p . A n o t h e r

right corner of each figurative panel is painted w i t h o r -

feature distinguishing these jars is their size, according to

ange rays, and the back of each j a r is inscribed w i t h a B

w h i c h the w o r k s can be r o u g h l y divided into t w o sets.

s u r m o u n t e d b y an 0. Decorative g e o m e t r i c patterns r u n

Each piece in the first g r o u p , including fifteen o f the

a r o u n d the shoulder and base of each albarello.

t w e n t y pieces, is smaller (approximately t w e n t y

to

These jars b e l o n g to a set of t w e n t y k n o w n albarelli

t w e n t y - t w o centimeters high) and can b e characterized

inscribed B or B o n the reverse. O n the basis of the i n -

b y p r e d o m i n a n t l y a m o r o u s or erotic subjects. T h e con-

scription, these w o r k s w e r e f o r m e r l y attributed t o the

sistency of subject matter, w i t h the f r e q u e n t occurrence

Sienese w o r k s h o p of M a e s t r o Benedetto. 1 T h e i r style,

of cupids and other love imagery, suggests an intentional

h o w e v e r , differs considerably f r o m that of other k n o w n

thematic p r o g r a m f o r this set of jars. T h e subjects de-

w o r k s b y this artist. M o r e o v e r they are m o r e convinc-

picted include a cupid h o l d i n g a pierced heart and a blind-

ingly attributed to a Faentine rather than a Sienese w o r k -

folded cupid (Washington, D . C . , C o r c o r a n Gallery of

shop, since their distinctive g e o m e t r i c motifs, the v i g -

A r t inv. 26.400, 26.404); 9 a cupid h o l d i n g a r o p e ( C o -

orous m o d e l i n g of the figures, the saturated blue,

logne, K u n s t g e w e r b e m u s e u m E 1921);10 a cupid leading

orange, yellow, and green palette, and the shiny glazes

a d o g o n a leash (Paris, M u s e e d u L o u v r e inv. OA 2629);11

are characteristic of Faenza. Also, as one scholar has

a cupid w i t h a violin and a cupid bearing a tree t r u n k and

p o i n t e d out, the carefully rendered decoration o n the j u g

r o p e (formerly in the Peter H a r r i s collection, London); 1 2

held b y the l a m e peasant is typical of late fifteenth-

a cupid w i t h a d r u m and o n e w i t h a h o r n and skull (form e r l y in the P r i n g s h e i m collection, Munich); 1 3 a female

century Faentine boccali.

M a r k s like this B w o u l d n o r m a l l y indicate the

figure; 1 4 a w o m a n , possibly Temperance, h o l d i n g a w i n e

w o r k s h o p in w h i c h the pieces w e r e executed or possibly

cup and pitcher; 15 a y o u t h h o l d i n g a shield and b a n n e r and

the p e r s o n w h o c o m m i s s i o n e d the wares. It has been

another h o l d i n g a pierced heart and standing beside a

suggested that the B or B m a r k m i g h t refer to the n a m e s

b u r n i n g tent (Berlin, private collection); 16 a w o m a n lift-

Betini and Bolognesi, w h i c h are inscribed o n the h e x a g -

ing her skirt to expose her sex (Baltimore, Walters A r t

onal tiles in the Cappella San Sebastiano o f San Petronio,

Gallery inv. 48.2234); 17 a w o m a n lifting her skirt to a

Bologna. 3 Aside f r o m their c o m m o n Faentine origin 4

w i n g e d phallus ( H a m b u r g , M u s e u m f u r K u n s t u n d

and their similar inscriptions, h o w e v e r , there is n o indi-

G e w e r b e inv. 1959.151); 18 and a m a n h o l d i n g a small

cation that the San Petronio floor and the B / B albarelli

sphere facing a w o m a n w h o s e right f o o t rests o n a larger

w e r e p r o d u c e d b y the s a m e h a n d or even in the same

sphere and w h o holds an u r n w i t h flames (Naples, M u -

workshop.

Interestingly,

another Faentine

worka

small b o w l filled w i t h sculpted fruit in the M u s e e N a -

seo Nazionale della C e r a m i c a " D u c a di M a r t i n a " inv.


95 5).19

tional de C e r a m i q u e , Sevres (inv. 4655)5bears the same

T h e d r u g jars in the second g r o u p are larger (ap-

B m a r k o n its reverse b u t is clearly the w o r k o f a different

p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y - f o u r to t w e n t y - f i v e centimeters

CYLINDRICAL

JARS . FAENZA

75

high) and fewer in n u m b e r . This g r o u p includes the M u seum's t w o jars and three albarelli in the L o u v r e (inv. OA
7390, OA 6306, OA 7391) decorated w i t h the angel of the
Annunciation, a y o u t h bearing an animal o n his shoulders, and Prudence holding a compass and mirror. 2 0
Lacking further evidence, any attempt to establish a
thematic p r o g r a m linking the various jars f r o m the B / B
g r o u p m u s t be considered hypothetical. R. D r e y has suggested that the set or sets m i g h t portray the "vicissitudes,
tribulations and temptations to w h i c h the h u m a n race is
subject." 2 1 If so, the w o m a n w i t h distaff could be Clotho,
one of the three Fates, spinning the thread of h u m a n destiny, and the lame m a n could symbolize old age or
infirmity.
For the larger jars a possible religious t h e m e has
been suggested. 2 2 In the u p p e r right-hand corner of the
scenes o n all five jars f r o m this second group, rays e m a nate f r o m the sky. These rays appear o n only one of the
smaller albarelli, however. 2 3 Similar rays decorate various
contemporaneous luster dishes f r o m D e r u t a and m a y
signify God's benediction o n the subject. 24 T h e subjects
of the larger jars include, in addition to the scene of the
Annunciation, the figure of Prudence, w h o represented

N o . 24 (84.DE. 112.1), b a c k v i e w

one of the f o u r cardinal virtues adopted by the C h u r c h


to teach m o r a l lessons. T h e figure of a y o u t h bearing an
animal on his shoulders m i g h t represent Abel, y o u n g e r
son of A d a m , w h o offered G o d a l a m b f r o m his flock.
T h e figures o n the final t w o albarelli f r o m this group,
those in the M u s e u m ' s collection, are s o m e w h a t m o r e
problematic, since at first glance their subjects, dressed
in c o n t e m p o r a r y peasant clothes, appear to be genre or
allegorical figures. 25 T h e y m a y depict A d a m and E v e after the expulsion f r o m Eden, however. N o t only does the
painted landscape seem barren, but the fighting geese
m i g h t refer to the world's grief and discord after the Fall.
A d a m and E v e are occasionally depicted at their toil after
the expulsion, A d a m w i t h a spade or h o e to w o r k the barren land and Eve, n o w ashamed of her nudity, w i t h a distaff to weave her clothes. 26 C o u l d the peasant's crutch be
a liberal interpretation of A d a m ' s hoe?
N o t the rarest of subjects on maiolica ware, the
t h e m e of A d a m and E v e after the expulsion appears, for
example, o n four plates f r o m U r b i n o of a r o u n d the m i d dle of the sixteenth century. 27 These painted scenes copy
a curious print attributed to the Bolognese artist A m i c o
Aspertini (1474/75-1552), in which the biblical images
of the tree of knowledge, the expulsion f r o m paradise,
life after the expulsion, and the sacrifice of Cain are conflated.28 Like other c o n t e m p o r a r y representations, the

ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO (Italian, 1433-1498). Adam, circa 1470.


P e n a n d w a s h o n paper, 2 8 x 1 8 c m ( 1 1 x 71/16in.). Florence, G a -

print depicts the despondent E v e w i t h a distaff and A d a m

b i n e t t o D i s e g n i e S t a m p e degli U f f i z i 95F. P h o t o c o u r t e s y

w i t h a hoe. A l t h o u g h the m a n with a crutch on the M u -

Uffizi.

76

FAENZA

CYLINDRICAL

JARS

seum's j a r suggests an allegorical representation o f old


age o r i n f i r m i t y rather t h a n A d a m , w h o is usually d e picted as y o u t h f u l , A s p e r t i n i a n d his maiolica copyists
p o r t r a y e d A d a m in a similar m a n n e r : old a n d bearded.
W h e t h e r o n e can establish a biblical t h e m e f o r the G e t t y
examples m u s t b e the subject f o r f u r t h e r research.
In a b r o a d e r c o n t e x t the distaff, a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r
s p i n n i n g w o o l a n d t h e r e f o r e o f d o m e s t i c labor, w a s a
conventional a t t r i b u t e o f the industrious, r e c t i t u d i n o u s
w i f e in the sixteenth c e n t u r y a n d c o m m o n l y appears in
f e m a l e p o r t r a i t u r e a n d allegorical representations. 2 9 It
w a s also used in a negative c o n t e x t as a s y m b o l o f d o mestic discord. 3 0 In s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y E u r o p e a n art a n d
literature, m o r e o v e r , s p i n n i n g represented erotic activities, 31 and an erotic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f this jar's i m a g e m i g h t
connect this w o r k w i t h the smaller set o f albarelli. T h e set
o r sets t o w h i c h these larger j a r s b e l o n g could, h o w e v e r ,
b e i n c o m p l e t e , a n d discovery o f m i s s i n g pieces a n d p o s sible p r i n t sources f o r the p a i n t e d i m a g e s m i g h t well clarify the i c o n o g r a p h y o f the individual subjects as w e l l as
a possible t h e m a t i c c o n n e c t i o n a m o n g the jars.
A l t h o u g h p r o b a b l y n o t f r o m the s a m e set, an u n inscribed albarello in t h e C l e v e l a n d M u s e u m o f A r t (inv.
40.12) m a y well h a v e b e e n influenced by, o r p r o d u c e d in

N o . 24 (84.DE. 1 1 2 . 2 ) , b a c k v i e w

the s a m e w o r k s h o p as, t h e B- o r B-inscribed jars. T h i s


albarello, a l t h o u g h larger (about thirty centimeters high),
is o f c o m p a r a b l e shape a n d displays o r n a m e n t a t i o n s i m ilar to that o n t h e B/B albarelli; it is d e c o r a t e d w i t h g e o m e t r i c p a t t e r n s a r o u n d t h e s h o u l d e r a n d base a n d w i t h
the f i g u r e o f Venus (after an e n g r a v i n g b y M a r c a n t o n i o
R a i m o n d i o f t h e b i r t h o f Venus, w h i c h m a y h a v e been
inspired b y a p r i n t b y J a c o p o de' Barbari) in a panel o n
the body. 3 2
MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n b a c k o f e a c h j a r , B.

PROVENANCE: J. P i e r p o n t M o r g a n , N e w York; J o s e p h
E . Widener, Elkins P a r k (sold, S a m u e l T. F r e e m a n a n d
C o . , Philadelphia, J u n e 2 0 , 1944, lots 326, 327); D r . B a k ,
N e w Y o r k (sold, Sotheby's, N e w York, D e c e m b e r 7,
1965, lot 54); B e n j a m i n S o n n e n b e r g , N e w Y o r k (sold,
Sotheby's, N e w York, J u n e 5, 1979, lot 356); [Rainer
Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] ,
EXHIBITIONS:

None.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B. R a c k h a m , "A N e w C h a p t e r in the


H i s t o r y o f Italian Maiolica," Burlington

Magazine

27

( M a y 1915) , p. 50; Inventory of the Objets d'Art at Lynnewood Hall, Elkins Park, Estate of the Late P. A. B.

Widener

(Philadelphia: privately printed, 1935), p p . 67, 68; Bellini


a n d C o n t i 1964, p. 100, pls. A, C ; J. R a s m u s s e n , Italienische Majolika

78

( H a m b u r g , 1984), pp. 84, 86.

FAENZA . CYLINDRICAL

JARS

ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO. Eve, circa 1470. P e n a n d w a s h o n p a p e r , 2 7 . 5 X 18.5 c m (10 13/16 X71/4in.). F l o r e n c e , G a b i n e t t o D i segni e S t a m p e d e g l i U f f i z i 97F. P h o t o c o u r t e s y U f f i z i .

C O N D I T I O N : (84.DE. 1 1 2 . 1 ) S m a l l c h i p s o n t h e r i m a n d

12. B . R a c k h a m , " L a raccolta Beit di m a i o l i c h e italiane," Bol-

b a s e ; (84.DE. 1 1 2 . 2 ) r e s t o r a t i o n s o n t h e b a s e , b o t t o m , a n d

lettino d'arte 25, n o . 8 (1932), p. 343, fig. 4; t h e albarello w i t h a

rim, and s o m e painted areas (upper right corner of sky


and w o m a n ' s a p r o n and right sleeve).

c u p i d b e a r i n g a tree t r u n k is n o w in a p r i v a t e collection, F l o r ence (see G . C o n t i , L'arte della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d e d n . [Milan,


1980], n o . 142).
13. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , vol. 1, n o s . 8 6 - 8 7 , pl 51.
14. T h i s w o r k is cited as b e i n g in t h e G r a s s i m u s e u m , Leipzig,
in J. R a s m u s s e n , Italienische Majolika

( H a m b u r g , 1984), p. 84,

1. O . v o n Falke, in B . R a c k h a m , " A N e w C h a p t e r in t h e H i s -

although in correspondence w i t h the Getty M u s e u m dated

t o r y o f Italian M a i o l i c a , " Burlington

J u n e 17, 1986, t h e Leipzig m u s e u m s h o w s n o r e c o r d o f t h e

Magazine

27 ( M a y 1915),

object.

p. 50.
2. W a t s o n 1986, p . 46. O n e m u s t b e a r i n m i n d , h o w e v e r , t h a t

15. R a s m u s s e n (1984) l o c a t e d this j a r i n t h e M u s e o C i v i c o , B o -

a l t h o u g h t h e y b e l o n g t o a Faentine t y p o l o g y , these s t o u t j u g s

l o g n a (pp. 84; 86, n . 13), a l t h o u g h it a p p e a r e d i n a 1987 F l o r -

w i t h a central m e d a l l i o n encircled b y a " l a d d e r " m o t i f w e r e

e n t i n e sale ( S e m e n z a t o , N o v e m b e r 11, lot 305). See also G . B a l -

p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h o u t central Italy in t h e late f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y

lardini, Le maioliche della collezione Ducrot (Milan, [193-]), pl. 12;

XIV

B o l o g n e s i ( n o t e 3), pl. 3a. T h i s f i g u r e is b a s e d o n an e n g r a v i n g

secolo [Florence, 1984], figs. 24, 79, 81 [ a t t r i b u t e d t o

b y M a r c a n t o n i o R a i m o n d i entitled Young Woman Watering a

Pesaro]; H a u s m a n n 1972, n o . 80 [ a t t r i b u t e d t o Florence]; G .

Plant (K. O b e r h u b e r , e d . , The Illustrated Bartsch, v o l . 27 [ f o r -

(see, for e x a m p l e , P. B e r a r d i , L'antica maiolica di Pesaro dal


al XVII

Gardelli, 5 secoli di maiolica a Rimini [Ferrarz, 1982], figs. 54, 71

m e r l y v o l . 14, p t . 2] [ N e w Y o r k , 1978], n o . 383 [292]), w h i c h

75, 79, 82, 83 [ a t t r i b u t e d t o R i m i n i ] ; B o j a n i et al. 1985, n o s .

in t u r n , b e c a u s e o f stylistic similarities, m a y h a v e b e e n based

1 7 0 - 1 7 4 [ a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e general r e g i o n o f R o m a g n a ] ) .

o n a p r i n t b y J a c o p o de' B a r b a r i .

3. G . B o l o g n e s i , " D i a l c u n e m a i o l i c h e nella collezione G i o -

16. R a c k h a m ( n o t e 1), p. 51, pls. 3 0 - p .

v a n n i B o l o g n e s i , " Faenza 41, n o . 1 / 2 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , p . 8 ; h o w e v e r , t h e

17. C o n t i ( n o t e 12), n o . 130 (incorrectly d e s c r i b e d as located i n

existence o f a B e t i n i f a c t o r y in Faenza w a s q u e s t i o n e d b y

the M u s e u m fur Kunst u n d Gewerbe, H a m b u r g ) .

C . D . E. F o r t n u m as early as 1896, w h e n h e n o t e d t h a t t h e i n -

18. R a s m u s s e n ( n o t e 14), p. 85, n o . 129.

following the names of

19. T h e s u b j e c t a p p e a r s t o b e b a s e d o n a p r i n t b y M a r c a n t o n i o

t h r e e w o m e n ( C h o r n e l i a , Zetila, a n d X a b e t a ) m i g h t m o r e c o n -

R a i m o n d i after F r a n c e s c o Francia ( r e p r o d . i n O b e r h u b e r [note

s c r i p t i o n BE FAVE

[N]T

[I]CIE

v i n c i n g l y b e r e a d bella Faentina

( b e a u t y o f Faenza) (Maiolica

15], n o . 377-1 [286]).

[ O x f o r d ] , p. 254). T h i s p a v e m e n t is illustrated in Liverani 1960,

20. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p .

pl. 12.

21. C o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r , N o v e m b e r 1987.

62-63,nos.

4. T h e tile floor a n dB / B albarelli all display t h e typical Faentine

22. B y L. F u s c o in c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h t h e a u t h o r , A p r i l 1987.

d e c o r a t i v e r e p e r t o r y , a l t h o u g h t h e floor e m b e l l i s h m e n t is o f a n

23. D e c o r a t e d w i t h a c u p i d b e a r i n g a tree t r u n k a n d r o p e (see

earlier t y p e . D a t e d either 1487, a c c o r d i n g t o an i n s c r i p t i o n o n

a b o v e [ n o t e 12]).

o n e o f t h e floor tiles, o r 1492, a c c o r d i n g t o t h e b u i l d i n g h i s t o r y

24. A . C a i g e r - S m i t h , Lustre Pottery

o f t h e chapel ( B e r a r d i [ n o t e 2], p p .

pl. 23.

18-19,n.

21),

roughly

243,

244,

246.

( L o n d o n , 1985), p. 80,

t w e n t y years b e f o r e t h e j a r s w e r e m a d e , t h e San P e t r o n i o floor

25. A similar i m a g e o f a l a m e p e a s a n t embellishes a j a r f o r m e r l y

tiles are p a i n t e d w i t h a r e m a r k a b l y w i d e v a r i e t y o f f i f t e e n t h -

in t h e I m b e r t collection (sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , M a r c h

c e n t u r y severe-style o r n a m e n t , s u c h as t h e p e a c o c k - f e a t h e r ,

11, 1980, lot 38). O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f w o m e n w i t h distaffs

Persian p a l m e t t e , a n d G o t h i c leaf m o t i f s . T h e jars' p a i n t e d

a d o r n i n g maiolica o b j e c t s i n c l u d e a brocca o f t h e early s i x t e e n t h

scenes, h o w e v e r , are e x a m p l e s o f t h e early istoriato t r a n s i t i o n t o

c e n t u r y f r o m R i m i n i t h a t sold at a u c t i o n i n M i l a n ( S e m e n z a t o

t h e stile bello o f t h e first q u a r t e r o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century.

N u o v a G e r i Sri, N o v e m b e r 5, 1986, lot 123; t h e f i g u r e is u n -

5. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 289.

c o n v i n c i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d as " p o s s i b l y A t r o p o s " ) and a crespina of

6. C . F i o c c o a n d G . G h e r a r d i , "Sulla d a t a z i o n e del c o r r e d o

circa 1540 f r o m Faenza, a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e w o r k s h o p o f V i r g i -

' O r s i n i - C o l o n n a ' e sul servizio ' B o , ' " Faenza

l i o t t o C a l a m e l l i (G. C o n t i , e d . , Una collezione di maioliche del

72, n o . 5/6

rinascimento [Milan, 1984], n o . 37).

(1986), p p . 2 9 0 - 2 9 4 , pls. 9 4 - 9 8 .
7. See C . d e P o m p e i s et al., " N u o v i c o n t r i b u t i per F a t t r i b u -

26. See, f o r e x a m p l e , t h r e e e n g r a v i n g s b y C r i s t o f o r o di M i c h -

zione a Castelli della t i p o l o g i a O r s i n i - C o l o n n a , " Museo

ele R o b e t t a p o r t r a y i n g A d a m a n d E v e w i t h C a i n a n d A b e l

Genti d'Abruzzo:

delle

Quaderno 13 ( N o v e m b e r 1985), p p . 336.

(A. M . H i n d , Catalogue

of Early Italian Engravings

. . . in the

[London, 1909-1910], pp. 197-198, nos. 1-3),

8. O n e is a f f o r d e d t h e u n u s u a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o m p a r e closely

British Museum

t h e B / B a n d O r s i n i - C o l o n n a t y p o l o g i e s at t h e N e a p o l i t a n M u -

a n d A n t o n i o Pollaiuolo's p e n - a n d - w a s h d r a w i n g s o f A d a m

seo N a z i o n a l e della C e r a m i c a in t h e Villa Floridiana. H e r e o n a

a n d E v e , in t h e U f f i z i , Florence.

single shelf ( r o o m 18, case 131) o n e f i n d s a B - i n s c r i b e d albarello

27. C . Ravanelli G u i d o t t i , " ' A d a m o e u a ' su di u n istoriato al

f r o m t h e F a e n t i n e set b e t w e e n t w o w o r k s o f t h e Castellan

m u s e o di Faenza e su altri s i m i l i , " Faenza 65, n o . 6 (1979), pls.

O r s i n i - C o l o n n a t y p e . I m m e d i a t e l y , their differences are m o r e

99a-b, 100a-b, 101a-b.

s t r i k i n g t h a n their similarities.

28. Ravanelli G u i d o t t i has r e p r o d u c e d a n d discussed this p r i n t

9. W a t s o n 1986, p p . 4 6 - 4 7 , n o s . 8 - 9 .

as a s o u r c e f o r istoriato d e c o r a t i o n (see ibid., p p . 3 0 2 - 3 1 1 ) .

10. B . Klesse, Majolika

( C o l o g n e , 1966), p . 147, n o . 270.

80

FAENZA

CYLINDRICAL

29. F o r e x a m p l e , M a e r t e n v a n H e e m s k e r c k ' s Portrait of Anna


Pietersd Codde a n d C o r n e l i s B o s ' e n g r a v i n g The Righteous

11. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p. 62, n o . 245.

JARS

Wife,

b o t h illustrated i n R . G r o s s h a n s , Maerten van Heemskerck

(Ber-

lin, 1980), pls. 4, 147.


30. See, f o r e x a m p l e , Israhel v a n M e c k e n e m ' s Battle for the
Pants, r e p r o d u c e d in R . v a n M a r i e , Iconographie de I'art profane
. . . ( N e w Y o r k , 1971), vol. 2, fig. 486.
31. See, f o r e x a m p l e , an a n o n y m o u s n o r t h e a s t e r n Italian e n g r a v i n g o f an allegory o f sensual pleasures (J. L e v e n s o n et al.,
Early Italian Engravings from the National

Gallery of Art [Wash-

i n g t o n , D . C . , 1973], p p . 5 2 6 - 5 2 7 ) ; B a r t h e l B e h a m ' s p r i n t
Spinning

Room

(1524; M . G e i s b e r g , The German

Single-Leaf

Woodcut: 1500-1550, ed. W. L. Strauss [ N e w Y o r k , 1974], n o .


154); a n d t w o s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p a i n t i n g s o f lovers b y Pieter
Pietersz. (K. R e n g e r , Lockere Gesellschaft [Berlin, 1970], figs.
78 - 79). A . S t e w a r t has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t late m e d i e v a l F r e n c h ,
English, a n d G e r m a n w o r d s f o r spindle c o u l d m e a n phallus,
p r e s u m a b l y because o f their similar shapes ( " T h e First 'Peasant
Festivals': E l e v e n W o o d c u t s P r o d u c e d i n R e f o r m a t i o n N u r e m b e r g b y B a r t h e l a n d Sebald B e h a m a n d E r h a r d S c h o n circa
1 5 2 4 - 1 5 3 5 " [ u n p u b . P h . D . diss., C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1986],
p. 286). E v e n t o d a y t h e Italian filare, " t o s p i n w o o l , " c o l l o q u i ally refers t o m a k i n g l o v e o r flirting ( M . C o r t e l a z z o a n d P.
Zolli, Dizionario

etimologico della lingua italiana [ B o l o g n a , 1979],

u n d e r " f i l a " ) . E x a m p l e s o n maiolica objects o f the distaff p o r trayed as a sexual i n s t r u m e n t i n c l u d e a plate b y M a e s t r o G i o r gio A n d r e o l i d a t e d 1528 in t h e M u s e o C i v i c o , A r e z z o , s h o w i n g
H e r c u l e s s u g g e s t i v e l y p o i n t i n g a distaff at his w i f e , D e i a m i r a .
32. Falke 1914-1923, vol. 1, n o s . 8 5 a - b , pl. 50 ( u n c o n v i n c i n g l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Sienese w o r k s h o p o f M a e s t r o B e n e detto); Fiocco a n d G h e r a r d i (note 6), pl. 96a; W. M . Milliken,
"Italian M a j o l i c a , " Bulletin

of the Cleveland

Museum

of Art 27

( M a r c h 1940), p p . 3 3 - 3 4 . T h e subject a n d style o f t h e panel f i g u r e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e passages o f alla porcellana d e c o r a t i o n o n


t h e b o d y relate this j a r m o s t directly to t h e T e m p e r a n c e albarello
f o r m e r l y in t h e D u c r o t collection, Paris (see a b o v e [note 15]).

CYLINDRICAL

JARS . FAENZA

81

25 Cylindrical Drug Jar


(Albarello)
Faenza, circa 1520-1530
H : 37 c m (14 9/16 in.); D i a m (at lip): 12.5 c m (415/16in.);
m a x . D i a m : 16.5 c m (61/2in.)
84.DE.105

T H I S TALL A N D WAISTED CYLINDRICAL D R U G VESSEL IS

painted w i t h a label describing its contents,


P[ER]SICHI,

FILONIJ

in d a r k blue, s u r r o u n d e d b y fruit, foliate

arabesques, and interlacing in yellow, ocher, dark blue,


green, and white. T h e areas a r o u n d the neck and above
the base display a triangular pattern in dark blue and
white, and a r o u n d the shoulder is a garland in yellow,
ocher, and green; all o f this e m b e l l i s h m e n t is painted o n
a light blue berettino g r o u n d . T h e w h i t e tin glaze that covers the inside of this j a r is unusual; b e f o r e the early sixteenth century, areas that w e r e rarely seen, such as the
undersides of plates and interiors of jars, m o r e c o m m o n l y displayed less precious lead-based glazes.
T h e jar's inscription is a variant of philonium persicum
(Persian p h i l o n i u m ) , n a m e d after the first-century B.C.
physician P h i l o n of Tarsus. This pharmaceutical electuary w a s prepared f r o m o p i u m and other ingredients, including saffron, w h i t e pepper, c a m p h o r , h o n e y of roses,
and g r o u n d bloodstone, pearls, and amber. T h e resultant
confection served to relieve pain, induce sleep, i m p r o v e
b l o o d circulation, prevent miscarriages, and reduce the
pain of h e m o r r h o i d s and of heavy menstruation. 1

N o . 25, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

In place of the w h i t e tin-glaze g r o u n d characteristic


of m o s t maiolica, berettino w o r k s are distinguished b y a

these w o r k s d o n o t o f t e n bear dates or makers' m a r k s and

lavender-gray g r o u n d embellished w i t h delicate designs

very f e w have survived intact, b e i n g easily b r o k e n and

of floral and foliate sprays, arabesques, cherubs' heads,

chipped w i t h use. T h i s albarello is r e m a r k a b l e b o t h f o r its

grotesques, garlands, interlacing, and trophies. These

g o o d state of preservation and for its type, since berettino

designs, referred t o in c o n t e m p o r a r y d o c u m e n t s as gen-

decoration is m o r e c o m m o n o n plates 4 and is rarely f o u n d

tilezze

(refinements and

e vaghezze

embellishments),2

o n jars and flasks.

w e r e painted m a i n l y in cobalt blue highlighted w i t h

O t h e r albarelli similarly decorated w i t h festoons

touches of w h i t e , a l t h o u g h green and yellow w e r e s o m e -

and arabesques o n a light blue berettino g r o u n d include

times used f o r decorative emphasis, as o n this albarello.

those in the State H e r m i t a g e , L e n i n g r a d (inv. F 3087); 5

A c c o r d i n g to G. Liverani, " i n this t y p e of o r n a m e n t w e

f o r m e r l y in the A d d a collection, Paris; 6 r e p r o d u c e d in F.

f i n d the m o s t highly developed use of color b y the artists

Liverani and R. Bosi, Maioliche di Faenza;7 and sold at

of t h e Faventine school."

auction in Milan. 8 T h e M u s e u m ' s j a r is distinguished b y

Sherds f o u n d in Faenza and in areas to w h i c h Faen-

being b o t h the tallest of these examples a n d t h e o n l y o n e

tine p r o d u c t s w e r e e x p o r t e d indicate that a large n u m b e r

labeled w i t h an inscribed banderole. A n o v o i d vase w i t h

of maiolica w a r e s decorated w i t h wreaths, flowers, and

similar decoration is in t h e M u s e o Internazionale delle

f r u i t o n a berettino g r o u n d w e r e p r o d u c e d in various

Ceramiche, Faenza (inv. n. 21297/c). 9

Faentine w o r k s h o p s in the third and f o u r t h decades of


the sixteenth century. M o s t berettino p r o d u c t s w e r e apparently e m p l o y e d f o r h o u s e h o l d purposes,

82

FAENZA

CYLINDRICAL

DRUG

because

JAR

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n
P[ER]SICHI.

banderole,

FILONIJ

PROVENANCE: [Stora, Paris]; W h i t n e y W a r r e n ,

New

York (sold, Parke Bernet Galleries, N e w York, O c t o b e r


7, 1943, lot 448); sold, Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r
22, 1983, lot 197; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Sotheby's,

London,

November

22,

1983, lot 197.


CONDITION: M i n o r chips a r o u n d t h e r i m .

1. R . D r e y , Apothecary Jars ( L o n d o n , 1978), p p . 202, 222; P.


B o r g a r u c c i , Delia fabrica degli spetiali (Venice, 1567), p p . 4 5 3 4542. Liverani i 9 6 0 , p. 40.
3. Ibid.
4. See, f o r e x a m p l e , Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, n o . 184, pl. 96.
5. K u b e 1976, n o . 13.
6. R a c k h a m 1959, n o . 127A; C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, fig. 563.
7. F. L i v e r a n i a n d R . Bosi, Maioliche di Faenza (Faenza, 1974),
pi. 10.
8. S e m e n z a t o N u o v a G e r i Sri, M i l a n , N o v e m b e r 5, 1986, lot
89.
9. B o j a n i e t a l . 1985, p . 57, n o . n o .

84

FAENZA . CYLINDRICAL

DRUG

JAR

26 Plate with Hero and Leander


(Tagliere)

B e r g a n t i n o B o w l . 3 It is p r o b a b l e that m o r e t h a n o n e artist

Faenza, circa 1525

H e r m i t a g e , Leningrad. To this artist R a c k h a m attributed

is represented in R a c k h a m ' s G r e e n M a n g r o u p .
R a c k h a m also identified an artist he called M a s t e r
C . I. after a plate inscribed w i t h these initials in the State

H : 3.8 c m (1 1/2 in.); D i a m : 44 c m (175/16in.)

a panel w i t h a scene o f C o r i o l a n u s a n d his f a m i l y in the

84.DE.113

Victoria a n d Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 4277-1857),


w h i c h shares stylistic and c o m p o s i t i o n a l elements w i t h

THE

WELL

OF

THIS

LARGE

DISPLAY

PLATE

(PIATTO

the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s plate s h o w i n g H e r o and Leander. 4

da pompa) is decorated w i t h a scene f r o m the story o f

Also close in style is a panel w i t h the A b d u c t i o n o f

H e r o a n d Leander in green, yellow, black, ocher, orange,

H e l e n dated 1518 in the M u s e o C o r r e r , Venice, w h i c h

grayish green, o p a q u e white, and gray ( p r o d u c e d b y

R a c k h a m attributed to M a s t e r Gonela. 5 T h e plate for

painting w h i t e o n black) p i g m e n t s . T h e w i d e r i m is dec-

w h i c h this artist is n a m e d , 6 inscribed Gonela o n the r e -

orated w i t h scrolling foliage, cherubs' heads, a n d " m a n -

verse, shares w i t h the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s e x a m p l e stiff-

i n - t h e - m o o n " m o t i f s reserved in light blue w i t h touches

legged figures w i t h b u l b o u s , " g e o m e t r i c i z e d " m u s c u -

of w h i t e and cobalt b l u e o n a berettino glaze g r o u n d . A

lature, a l t h o u g h the figures o n the Gonela plate are m o d -

central s w a n , possibly a maker's m a r k consisting o f the

eled w i t h m o r e sophistication a n d subtlety. 7

artist's o r w o r k s h o p ' s rebus, s u r r o u n d e d b y t w o c o n c e n -

M u c h c o n f u s i o n continues to s u r r o u n d the lives and

tric b a n d s o f alla porcellana decoration in light and d a r k

activities o f these maiolica artists. W h e t h e r they are o n e

blue and w h i t e embellishes the reverse.

and the s a m e m a s t e r o r different c r a f t s m e n w o r k i n g in

T h e istoriato scene o n the o b v e r s e tells the sad story


o f H e r o , priestess o f A p h r o d i t e , w h o fell in love w i t h
Leander, a y o u t h f r o m A b y d o s . A c c o r d i n g to this m y t h ,

the s a m e Faentine w o r k s h o p , o r even in different centers


o f p r o d u c t i o n , remains to b e d e t e r m i n e d .
T h e M u s e u m ' s plate f o r m s part o f a g r o u p o f piatti

Leander w o u l d s w i m across the Dardanelles f r o m A b y -

da pompa

dos to Sestos every n i g h t to visit his beloved in her t o w e r .

decoration. T h i s g r o u p includes t w o plates w i t h the s u b -

W h e n Leander w a s d r o w n e d o n e n i g h t in a tempest, the

ject o f A l e x a n d e r and D i o g e n e s (Washington,

despairing H e r o t h r e w herself f r o m the t o w e r i n t o the sea

C o r c o r a n Gallery o f A r t inv. 26.309, 8 a n d f o r m e r l y in the

a n d perished. O n c e t h o u g h t an impossible feat, the

S c h l o s s m u s e u m , Berlin [inv. K1834]); 9 a plate w i t h the

t h a t c o m b i n e istoriato

subjects w i t h

berettino

D.C.,

s w i m m i n g o f the strait b e t w e e n Asia and E u r o p e w a s

J u d g m e n t o f Paris ( L o n d o n , Victoria and Albert M u -

p r o v e d possible w h e n L o r d B y r o n actually p e r f o r m e d it

s e u m inv. C.2110-1910); 10 a n d t w o others w i t h the s a m e

himself and r e c o u n t e d it in his p o e m " T h e B r i d e o f

subject (Ecouen, M u s e e de la Renaissance, C l u n y 2436,

Abydos."

2438);11 t w o plates w i t h the subject o f D i a n a a n d A c -

Leander is painted three times o n this plate, so that

taeon, b o t h o f w h i c h , like the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s plate, dis-

his story u n f o l d s in a c o n t i n u o u s narrative. T h e t o w e r

play a central s w a n w i t h t w o b a n d s of alla porcellana dec-

f r o m w h i c h H e r o gazes seems to project a w k w a r d l y

oration o n the reverse ( B r a u n s c h w e i g , H e r z o g A n t o n

f r o m the sea, evidence that the artist miscalculated the

U l r i c h - M u s e u m inv. 1155,12 and M u s e u m f u r K u n s t u n d

c o m p o s i t i o n a n d a t t e m p t e d to rectify the e r r o r b y p a i n t -

Kulturgeschichte der Stadt D o r t m u n d , Schloss C a p p e n -

ing over the b o t t o m p o r t i o n o f the t o w e r w i t h blue p i g -

b e r g C6909); 13 a n d a plate w i t h a scene o f the R a p e o f E u -

m e n t to w i d e n the strait o f water. T h i s interesting m i s -

r o p a (Toronto, G e o r g e R. G a r d i n e r M u s e u m o f C e r a m i c

take illustrates that o n c e the artist applied p i g m e n t s a n d

Art). 14

glazes, i m p e r c e p t i b l e changes could be m a d e only b y


completely w a s h i n g off the painted scene a n d a p p l y i n g
the colors anew.

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n

reverse,

at

center,

swan.

In b o t h style a n d color the painted decoration o n this

PROVENANCE: H e n r i Gautier, Paris (sold, H o t e l D r o u o t ,

plate is similar to that o n w o r k s attributed to the " G r e e n

Paris, M a y 4, 1929, lot28); G e o r g e D u r l a c h e r , E s q . , L o n -

M a n . " First identified in 1873, this artist w a s given his

d o n (sold, Christie's, L o n d o n , A p r i l 7, 1938, lot 26);

s o b r i q u e t because h e painted his figures w i t h yellow p i g -

H . S. Reitlinger, L o n d o n (sold b y his executors, S o t h e -

m e n t over a light blue g r o u n d , resulting in g r e e n - t o n e d

by's, L o n d o n , A p r i l 27, 1959, lot 142); R o b e r t Strauss,

flesh.1 B . R a c k h a m attributed to this artist a series o f

L o n d o n (sold, Christie's, L o n d o n , J u n e 21, 1976, lot 24).

w o r k s dating f r o m 1524 to 1550,2 i n c l u d i n g a b o w l n o w


believed t o be the w o r k o f the so-called M a s t e r o f the

EXHIBITIONS:

None.

PLATE . FAENZA

85

BIBLIOGRAPHY: C h o m p r e t 1 9 4 9 , v o l . 2, f i g . 4 5 8 ;
tie's Review

of the Season

(London,

M o r l e y - F l e t c h e r a n d R . M c l l r o y , Christie's
tory of European

Pottery

Chris-

1976), p . 397;
Pictorial

H.
His-

( E n g l e w o o d Cliffs, N . J . , 1984),

p. 36, fig. 5.
CONDITION: M i n o r repair to the u p p e r b o r d e r ; several

chips in the rim.

1. C . D . E . F o r t n u m , Catalogue of the Maiolica


Kensington

. . . in the South

( L o n d o n , 1873), p . 479.

Museum

2. R a c k h a m 1940, v o l . 1, p p . 9 9 - 1 0 0 .
3. G . L i v e r a n i , " F a t a i n Faenza i n la b o t e g a d e M a e s t r o P i e r e
B e r g a n t i n o , " Faenza 27, n o . 1 / 2 (1939), PP-

3-9.

4. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e f i g u r e s ' stiff a n d o p e n - l e g g e d stance, t h e


distant a r c h i t e c t u r e o f crenellated t o w e r s , a n d t h e p l a c e m e n t o f
f i g u r e s a n d o b j e c t s in t h e f o r e g r o u n d , m i d d l e g r o u n d , a n d
b a c k g r o u n d t o m o v e t h e e y e b a c k in space (see R a c k h a m 1940,
vols. 1, p p . 8 1 - 8 2 ; 2, n o . 259, pl. 42).
5. Ibid., v o l . 1, p . 81; B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 1, pl. 10. L i k e
t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s plate, t h e C o r r e r p a n e l displays r o c k y
crags i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d , crenellated a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d , a n d d r a p e r y w i t h r e g u l a r c u r v i n g folds, especially
a r o u n d t h e h e a d s . T h e panel, h o w e v e r , is p a i n t e d w i t h s h o r t e r ,
m o r e "nervous" and animated brushstrokes, and the figures
a p p e a r m o r e r e l a x e d a n d less stiff t h a n t h o s e o n t h e M u s e u m ' s
plate. T h e C o r r e r p a n e l is also close in style t o t h e M u s e u m ' s
F a e n t i n e d i s h w i t h a s c e n e f r o m t h e Aeneid

(see e n t r y n o . 18

above).
6. F o r m e r l y i n t h e D a m i r o n collection, L y o n s (A Very Choice
Collection of Old Italian Maiolica

. . . the Property of M.

Damiron,

Lyons, sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e 16, 1938, l o t 75).


7. T h e G o n e l a p l a t e depicts t h e s t o r y o f C a e s a r a f t e r a d r a w i n g
o f a b o u t 1516 a t t r i b u t e d t o j a c o p o R i p a n d a in t h e M u s e e des
B e a u x - A r t s , Lille, w h i c h in t u r n is a c o p y o f a f r e s c o o f a b o u t
1509 b y G i r o l a m o G e n g a i n t h e Palazzo P e t r u c c i , Siena ( W i l s o n
1987, p . 115, f i g . 15). Several F a e n t i n e plates exist t h a t c o p y this
d r a w i n g , w h i c h m a y i n d e e d h a v e s e r v e d as a m a i o l i c a c a r t o o n ,
since t h e r i g h t side a p p e a r s t o f o l l o w a platelike c u r v e (J. B y a m
S h a w , " I a c o p o R i p a n d a a n d E a r l y Italian M a i o l i c a , "
Magazine

Burlington

61 [ J u l y 1932], p p . 1 9 - 2 5 ; i d e m , " U n a c o m p o s i z i o n e

di j a c o p o R i p a n d a e t r e piatti F a e n t i n i , " F a e n z a 2 1 , n o . 1 [1933],


p p . 3 - 9). T h i s d r a w i n g a n d a n o t h e r plate f r o m t h e s a m e d e s i g n
are r e p r o d u c e d in W i l s o n 1987, p p . 1 1 5 - 1 1 7 .
8. W a t s o n 1986, p p . 4 8 - 4 9 , n o . 10.
9. B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 2, fig. 165.
10. R a c k h a m 1940, v o l . 1, n o . 297.
11. C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, figs. 462, 464; G i a c o m o t t i 1974,
n o s . 335, 336.
12. J. L e s s m a n n , Italienische Majolika

( B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1979), p .

99, n o . 19, ill. p . 29.


13. Vieweg

Collection,

Brunswick,

sale cat., R u d o l p h L e p k e ,

Berlin, M a r c h 18, 1930, pl. 67, l o t 155.


14. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, pl. 94, f i g . 180; J . P. P a l m e r a n d
M . C h i l t o n , Treasures of the George R. Gardiner Museum
ramic Art ( T o r o n t o , [circa 1984]), p . 26.

86

FAENZA

PLATE

of Ce-

N o . 26, r e v e r s e

27 Molded Dish with an Allegory


of Love (Crespina)
Faenza, circa 1535
H : 7.3 c m (27/8in.); D i a m : 28 c m (11 in.)
84.DE.114
CERAMIC

CRESPINEFROM

THE

ITALIAN

CRESPA,

m e a n i n g w r i n k l e or r i p p l e w e r e f o r m s m o l d e d in i m itation o f m e t a l w o r k designs w h i c h w e r e popular f r o m


r o u g h l y the second quarter of the sixteenth century on.
T h e shallow b o d y of this f o o t e d crespina is m o l d e d w i t h
flutes that issue f r o m a l o w central boss. This convex
boss, s u r r o u n d e d b y a r o p e motif, displays a y o u t h in
c o n t e m p o r a r y dress seated against and b o u n d to a tree
painted in ocher, yellow, and blue, heightened w i t h
w h i t e . Light blue leaves, foliate scrolls, and stylized d o l phins, accented w i t h w h i t e and reserved o n alternately
dark blue and ocher g r o u n d s , decorate the petal-shaped
a quartieri panels a r o u n d the boss. T h e reverse is glazed
w i t h the s a m e light blue berettino and is painted w i t h alternately dark blue and ocher dashes f o l l o w i n g t h e
m o l d e d panels' shapes a r o u n d the foot. This dish belongs
to a g r o u p of w o r k s previously attributed to the so-called
G r e e n M a n because of the artist's palette. 1 A m o l d e d dish
in the s a m e style and perhaps painted b y the same artist
bears the m a r k attributed t o the w o r k s h o p of Virgiliotto
Calamelli o f Faenza. 2
T h e central figure o n the raised boss p r o b a b l y r e p resents an allegory of love: the y o u n g m a n is b o u n d to
love m u c h as he is b o u n d to the tree. Love portrayed in
this m a n n e r w a s apparently a popular subject o f the time.
T h e s a m e allegory appears, f o r example, in a Florentine
engraving of circa 14651480 entitled The Cruelty of
Love, m a d e f o r t h e decorative cover of a w o m a n ' s toilet
or w o r k b o x , in w h i c h a standing y o u t h b o u n d to a tree
faces a y o u n g w o m a n w h o holds his heart in her hand. 3
M o r e o v e r a lustered plate f r o m the w o r k s h o p of M a e stro G i o r g i o o f G u b b i o ( N e w York, M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m of A r t 65.6.10) portrays a m a n b o u n d to a tree c o n f r o n t e d b y a w o m a n w i t h a knife. W h e t h e r she intends
to liberate or w o u n d the m a n is unclear, b u t the inscription o n this piece, Medol limfamio tua: piu ch[e] [i]l morire
(your disgrace [of me?] h u r t s m o r e than death), expresses
a particularly painful v i e w of love.
In contrast to the glorified images of love popular
o n ceramic coppe amatorie, the series of m o l d e d dishes to
w h i c h t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s crespina belongs portrays love
as a bittersweet force that holds its victims captive. O t h e r
crespine f r o m this g r o u p include o n e w i t h the i m a g e of a

88

FAENZA . MOLDED

DISH

N o . 27, r e v e r s e

standing y o u t h b o u n d t o a tree ( L o n d o n , Wallace C o l lection); 4 o n e displaying a standing w o m a n b o u n d to a


tree ( H a m b u r g ,

Museum

fur Kunst u n d

Gewerbe

1880.511); a dish also s h o w i n g a w o m a n b o u n d t o a tree


and another w i t h a r u n n i n g cupid h o l d i n g a b o w (Paris,
M u s e e d u L o u v r e inv. NI6, OA 1591);6 three s h o w i n g cupids b o u n d to trees and another w i t h a cupid h o l d i n g a
heart in his p r o p e r left h a n d (Ecouen, M u s e e de la R e naissance, C l u n y 7549, 1878, 7541, 16861); 7 a m o l d e d
dish likewise displaying a cupid h o l d i n g a heart in his
p r o p e r left h a n d (Faenza, M u s e o Internazionale delle
C e r a m i c h e inv. 21338/c); 8 o n e w i t h a cupid h o l d i n g a
heart pierced b y an a r r o w (Sevres, M u s e e N a t i o n a l de
C e r a m i q u e inv. 2490) ;9 and a dish w i t h a three-quarter
i m a g e of a y o u t h b o u n d to a tree and pierced t h r o u g h the
heart b y an a r r o w ( L o n d o n , Victoria and Albert M u s e u m inv. 4626-1858). 10
O n e finds similarly decorated crespine painted w i t h
various religious, mythological, and p o p u l a r subjects in
British, French, A m e r i c a n , G e r m a n , and Russian collections. 11 A n e x a m p l e that is particularly close in style is attributed to the Calamelli w o r k s h o p ; it displays a w o m a n
seated against a tree h o l d i n g a distaff. 12 As o n the M u seum's

dish,

the central bosses

of

all the

above-

m e n t i o n e d crespine are s u r r o u n d e d b y r o p e motifs.


MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

None.

PROVENANCE: Prince T h i b a u l t d ' O r l e a n s , Paris (sold,


Sotheby's, L o n d o n , F e b r u a r y 5, 1974, lot 30); [Rainer
Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , F e b r u a r y 5, 1974,

lot 30.
CONDITION: Glaze chip o n the u n d e r s i d e a n d

minor

chips at the rim.

1. See e n t r y n o . 26 a b o v e f o r a discussion o f this artist.


2. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , vol. 2, pl. 98, fig. 188.
3. A . M . H i n d , Early Italian Engraving

(London, 1938-1948),

vol. 2, pl. 144, A . I V . 15.


4. A . V. B . N o r m a n , Catalogue of Ceramics I: The Wallace Collection ( L o n d o n , 1976), p p . 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 , n o . C56.
5. J. R a s m u s s e n , Italienische Majolika

( H a m b u r g , 1984), p p .

110-112, n o . 72.
6. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s . 940, 952.
7. Ibid., n o s . 942, 950, 951, 954.
8. B o j a n i et al. 1985, n o . 542.
9. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 949.
10. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 301; 2, pl. 50.
11. See, f o r e x a m p l e , ibid., n o s . 300, 302, 934, 935; G i a c o m o t t i
1974, p p . 3 0 6 - 3 1 2 ; W a t s o n 1986, n o s . 11, 12, 73; H a u s m a n n
1972, n o . 131; B . Klesse, Majolika

( C o l o g n e , 1966), n o s . 279,

280; J. L e s s m a n n , Italienische Majolika

( B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1979),

n o s . 2 0 - 2 5 ; K u b e 1976, n o . 17.
12. G. C o n t i , ed., Una collezione di maioliche del
(Milan, 1984), n o . 37.

90

FAENZA . MOLDED

DISH

rinascimento

28 Jug with Berettino Ground


(Boccale)

figure o n o n e of the jars in L o n d o n s h o w i n g a seated

Faenza, 1536

lection, M u n i c h ; 4 and a s p o u t e d e w e r and pair of candle-

H : 32.5 c m (1213/16in.); D i a m (at lip): 13.3 c m (51/4in.);

sticks in the Victoria and Albert M u s e u m (inv. C.2123-

m a x . W : 26 c m (101/4in.)

1910, c.2103-1910, C.2104-1910). 5 l n a p r i v a t e Florentine

84.DE.115

collection is a Faentine j u g of similar size (thirty-eight

T H I S J U G HAS AN OVOID BODY W I T H PINCHED SPOUT

fruit, flowers, and leaves; this w o r k was executed in the

and broad, ribbed handle. T h r e e large medallions o r n a -

w o r k s h o p of Virgiliotto Calamelli and is dated t o the

m e n t the body. T h e y depict a m a n , perhaps O r p h e u s ,

second half of the sixteenth century. 6

m a n , also perhaps O r p h e u s , playing a lira da braccio.3


O t h e r related berettino pieces o f unusual f o r m include an armorial e w e r f o r m e r l y in the P r i n g s h e i m col-

centimeters high) and f o r m b u t decorated w i t h delicate

playing a lira da braccio (lyre); a musician in c o n t e m p o r a r y


dress playing a lute; 1 and a bearded and t u r b a n e d old m a n
reading a b o o k , a c c o m p a n i e d b y the inscription Elixeo.
Laurel garlands encircle the medallions and r u n d o w n the
handle. T h e ocher, yellow, green, black, and o p a q u e

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n e a c h o f f o u r t a b l e t s u n -

der the medallions, 1536; in o n e medallion, Elixeo beside


a bearded and t u r b a n e d old m a n .
PROVENANCE; A. Castellani, R o m e (sold, H o t e l D r o u -

w h i t e decoration is s u r r o u n d e d b y a dark blue reserve set

ot, Paris, M a y 2 7 - 2 9 , 1878, lot 230);J. P i e r p o n t M o r g a n ,

against a light blue berettino g r o u n d , w h i c h covers the rest

N e w York; G e o r g e R. H a n n , Sewickley Heights, P e n n -

of the b o d y and consists of cherubs, dolphins, b o o k s ,

sylvania (sold, Christie's, o n the H a n n premises, Tree-

and foliate scrolls. Small labels inscribed w i t h the date

tops, Sewickley Heights, M a y 19, 1980, lot 91); [Rainer

1536 appear u n d e r each medallion and u n d e r the handle,

Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

and a w a v y r i b b o n pattern embellishes the areas a r o u n d


the r i m and base. T h e interior is tin glazed.
T h e old m a n labeled Elixeo m a y well b e t h e O l d Test a m e n t p r o p h e t Elisha (or Eliseus in the N e w Testament

EXHIBITIONS: M e t r o p o l i t a n

Museum

of

Art,

New

York, 1913-1916.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sale cat., H o t e l D r o u o t , Paris, M a y 2 7 -

[Luke 4:27]). If this figure is Elisha, an incident f r o m t h e

29, 1878, lot 230; sale cat., Christie's, M a y 19, 1980, lot

prophet's life m a y establish a t h e m a t i c connection a m o n g

91.

the three medallion figures o n the j u g . B e f o r e foretelling


the success o f their expedition against M o a b to the allied
kings o f Israel, J e h o s h a p h a t and E d o m , Elisha asked f o r
a minstrel to play a stringed i n s t r u m e n t . T h e m u s i c i n -

CONDITION: Restorations a r o u n d the r i m and t h e neck


o n either side; glaze faults (crawling), particularly in areas
of yellow glaze; chips o n the handle and a r o u n d t h e r i m .

duced an ecstatic state in w h i c h the p r o p h e t gave his o r acle (2 K i n g s 3:15ff.). This musical association a m o n g
w h a t appear to be a popular, a mythological, and a b i b -

1. A similar f i g u r e o f a m u s i c i a n , also w e a r i n g a c o n t e m p o r a r y

lical f i g u r e in t h e medallions m i g h t suggest that the p a -

cap a n d d i s p l a y i n g r u g g e d , chiseled features, a p p e a r s i n t h e

t r o n for w h o m the j u g was executed was a lover o f m u s i c


or perhaps a musician himself.
This j u g is rare because of its large size, unusual

s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o r t r a i t e n g r a v i n g o f P h i l o t h e o Achillini b y
M a r c a n t o n i o R a i m o n d i a f t e r F r a n c e s c o Francia (A. M . H i n d ,
A History of Engraving

and Etching

[ N e w Y o r k , 1923], f i g . 37;

K . O b e r h u b e r , e d . , The Illustrated Bartsch, v o l . 27 [ f o r m e r l y

f o r m , and exceptionally beautiful glaze painting. T h e r e

v o l . 14, p t . 2] [ N e w Y o r k , 1978], n o . 469 [349]).

are v e r y f e w k n o w n vessels f r o m the large g r o u p of Faen-

2. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o s . 303, 304; 2, pl. 50.

tine berettino w a r e s w i t h c o m p a r a b l y elaborate g r o t e s q u e

3. Ibid., v o l . 1, p. 103, n o . 303.

decoration. T h e closest parallel is a pair of cylindrical jars

4. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, n o s . 1 8 2 a - b , pl. 95; C h o m p r e t

in the Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n

(inv.

c.2108-1910, c.2107-1910). B o t h of these jars are decorated o n either side w i t h a p o l y c h r o m e subject in a circular medallion reserved against a berettino g r o u n d of
cherubs, dolphins, b o o k s , and foliate scrolls. T h e y are

1949, vol. 2, fig. 488.


5. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o s . 2 9 0 - 2 9 2 ; 2, pl. 46; C h o m p r e t
1949, v o l . 2, fig. 487.
6. G. Liverani, " D i u n b o c c a l e c i n q u e c e n t e s c o f a e n t i n o e di
altre c o s e , " Faenza

61, n o . 6 (1975), p . 140, pls. 8 8 a - b , 89a,

9oa-b.

likewise encircled w i t h w a v y r i b b o n s and include small


tablets inscribed w i t h the date, in this case 1540. Strikingly similar to t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s j u g is the medallion

JUG . FAENZA

91

N o . 28, alternate v i e w

N o . 28, alternate v i e w

N o . 28, alternate v i e w

29 Dish with a Cupid on a


Hobbyhorse (Tondino)
Castel Durante(?), circa 1510-1520
H : 2.4 c m

(15/16

in.); D i a m : 23.5 c m (91/4 in.)

84.DE.116

T H E WELL OF THIS TONDINO

IS D E C O R A T E D W I T H A

cupid o n a h o b b y h o r s e b e f o r e a l a g o o n landscape, w i t h
t w o b u s t portraits in medallions reserved o n a g r o u n d o f
harpylike figures, m o n s t e r s , cornucopias, and strings of
beads a r o u n d the w i d e r i m . T h e blue, dark reddish a m ber, b r o w n , yellow, green, purple, and o p a q u e w h i t e
e m b e l l i s h m e n t is exceptionally brilliant and jewellike, an
effect t h e ceramic artist achieved b y applying a final transparent coperta glaze t o t h e piece. P o p u l a r a r o u n d U r b i n o ,
coperta glazes p r o d u c e a shiny, porcelainlike surface that
enhances t h e p i g m e n t s beneath. T h e dark reddish a m b e r

N o . 29, r e v e r s e

p i g m e n t appears t o b e bole, a variety o f clay colored red


b y i r o n oxide, w h i c h is f o u n d in A r m e n i a and Tuscany

for attributing a n u m b e r o f maiolica w o r k s t o the artist. 5

a n d w a s used t o decorate Iznik pottery. T h e reverse dis-

T h e s e w a r e s d o n o t , h o w e v e r , appear t o f o r m a h o m o -

plays a b a n d o f blue and w h i t e foliate scrolls in t h e alla

geneous g r o u p , and attribution of t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s

porcellana style.

tondino to G i o v a n n i M a r i a m u s t b e considered tentative.

T h e b u s t portraits in medallions depict a bald m a n

T h e pieces m o s t closely related to this tondino,

in classical dress and a bearded m a n w e a r i n g a turbanlike

w h i c h p r o b a b l y f o r m a g r o u p , include a tondino also

hat. A l t h o u g h the significance of the t w o figures r e m a i n s

s h o w i n g a cupid o n a h o b b y h o r s e ( O x f o r d , A s h m o l e a n

unclear, their idiosyncratic appearance and p h y s i o g -

M u s e u m ) ; 6 o n e w i t h a cupid r i d i n g a d o l p h i n ( L o n d o n ,

n o m y m i g h t suggest that they w e r e i n t e n d e d as portraits

Victoria a n d Albert M u s e u m inv. c.2087-1910); 7 o n e

o f specific individuals. Portraits o f b o t h M o h a m m a d II

w i t h a cupid r i d i n g a g o o s e ( L o n d o n , British M u s e u m

(1430-1481), w h o b e c a m e sultan of the O t t o m a n Turks

MLA 1855, 12-1, 107); 8 a n d o n e displaying a cupid w i t h a

in 1451,1 and J o h n VIII Palaeologus (1390-1448), t h e

shield (Washington, D . C . , N a t i o n a l Gallery of Art, W i -

B y z a n t i n e e m p e r o r w h o traveled t o Italy in the early fif-

dener Collection inv. c - 3 8 ).9

teenth c e n t u r y t o discuss a possible u n i o n b e t w e e n t h e

O t h e r tondini w i t h central figures s u r r o u n d e d b y

Greek and Latin churches, display the distinctive h e a d -

bust portraits or o t h e r heads o r trophies a n d g r o t e s q u e

gear, p o i n t e d beard, a n d chiseled features o f the t u r b a n e d

decoration include a dish w i t h Saint J e r o m e (Victoria and

figure. 2 It has been suggested that the bald m a n m i g h t

Albert M u s e u m inv. c.2148-1910); 1 0 a tondino w i t h a c u -

represent Cicero. 3 A n y identification of these medallion

pid h o l d i n g a shield in the boss ( f o r m e r l y in t h e P r i n g s -

figures m u s t b e considered tentative, h o w e v e r , since

h e i m collection, Munich); 1 1 and a n o t h e r s h o w i n g a

similarities w i t h k n o w n portraits d o n o t appear c o n v i n c -

y o u n g m a n playing a lute (Lyons, M u s e e des Arts D e -

ing; these busts m a y s i m p l y represent generalized East-

coratifs). 12 A vase attributed t o G i o v a n n i M a r i a in the

e r n types.

H e r z o g A n t o n U l r i c h - M u s e u m , B r a u n s c h w e i g (inv.

T h i s dish has been attributed to Giovanni M a r i a of

379), displays a candelieri13 decoration w i t h grotesques,

Castel D u r a n t e because of its similarity t o a b o w l in the

cornucopias, harpylike figures, putti, and bead s w a g s

M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m o f Art, N e w York, 4 inscribed

very similar t o that of t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s tondino.14

1308 adi 12 de sete[m]br[e]

Zova[n]

maria v[asa]ro

dura[n]t[e]

M o s t o f the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d w o r k s have been at-

(made in Castel D u r a n t e by the

tributed to Castel D u r a n t e of circa 1510-1520; Faenza

facta fu

i[n]

Castel

potter G i o v a n n i M a r i a o n S e p t e m b e r 12, 1508); it is n o t

and Cafaggiolo, h o w e v e r , have also b e e n suggested, as

k n o w n , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r Giovanni M a r i a w a s the di-

has Venice. 15

rector o f the w o r k s h o p as well as the painter o f the b o w l .


This signed a n d dated piece has been used as a b e n c h m a r k

94

CASTEL

DURANTE

DISH

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

None.

PROVENANCE: A l e s s a n d r o C a s t e l l a n i , R o m e (sold, H o tel D r o u o t , Paris, M a y 27, 1878, l o t 34); C h a r l e s D a m i r o n , L y o n s ( s o l d , S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e 16, 1 9 3 8 , l o t


60); R o b e r t Strauss, L o n d o n (sold, Christie's,

London,

J u n e 21, 1976, lot 22); [ C y r i l H u m p h r i s , L o n d o n ] ; [ R a i ner Zietz, Ltd., London].


EXHIBITIONS:

None.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: B . R a c k h a m ,
t i o n , " Apollo,

"The Damiron

1 9 4 9 , v o l . 2, p l . 13, f i g . 9 3 ; Christie's
(London,
Mcllroy,

Collec-

n o . 25 ( 1 9 3 7 ) , p . 2 5 6 , f i g . 7; C h o m p r e t

1976), p.
Christie's

396; H .

Pictorial

Review

of the

Morley-Fletcher

History

Season
and

of European

R.

Pottery

( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 6 6 , f i g . 3.
CONDITION: M i n o r glaze chips o n the r i m .

1. See t h e p o r t r a i t m e d a l o f t h e s u l t a n b y C o s t a n z o da F e r r a r a ,
illustrated in C . W i l s o n , Renaissance Small Bronze Sculpture
Associated Decorative

Arts at the National

Gallery of Art

and

(Wash-

i n g t o n , D . C . , 1983), p. 42, n o . 2 (obverse).


2. See R . Weiss, Pisanello's Medallion

of the Emperor John

VIII

Palaeologus ( L o n d o n , 1966), f r o n t i s . , pls. 6, 9 - 1 2 , 1 4 - 1 6 .


3. See c a t a l o g u e s o f H o t e l D r o u o t , S o t h e b y ' s , a n d Christie's
sales cited a b o v e u n d e r " P r o v e n a n c e " a n d " B i b l i o g r a p h y . "
4. G. S z a b o , The Robert Lehman

Collection

( N e w Y o r k , 1975),

p p . 3 9 - 4 0 , n o . 150.
5. See B . R a c k h a m , " D e r M a j o l i k a m a l e r G i o v a n n i M a r i a v o n
Castel D u r a n t e , " p t . 1, Pantheon 2 ( S e p t e m b e r 1928), p p . 4 3 5 445; p t . 2, Pantheon

3 ( F e b r u a r y 1929), p p . 8 8 - 9 2 .

6. C . D . E . F o r t n u m , Maiolica: A Historical

Treatise . . . ( O x -

f o r d , 1896), pl. 19 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o Faenza o f circa 1520).


7. R a c k h a m ( n o t e 5), p t . 2, p. go, f i g . 22; R a c k h a m 1940, vols.
1, n o . 532; 2, pl. 83 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o C a s t e l D u r a n t e o f circa 1515).
8. M . L. S o l o n , A History

and Description

of Italian

Majolica

( L o n d o n , 1907), f i g . 10; R a c k h a m ( n o t e 5), p t . 2, p . 90, f i g . 21;


W i l s o n 1987, n o . 119 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o " p e r h a p s t h e M a r c h e s o r
V e n i c e " o f circa 1505-1525).
9. D . S h i n n , Maiolica ( W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1982), p . 19, n o . 24
( a t t r i b u t e d t o C a s t e l D u r a n t e o f circa 1520).
10. R a c k h a m ( n o t e 5), p t . 2, p. 89, fig. 20; R a c k h a m 1940, vols.
1, n o . 529; 2, pl. 83.
11. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, n o . 157, pl. 84 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o
"Faenza, possibly Cafaggiolo").
12. J . G i a c o m o t t i , " L e s m a j o l i q u e s d e la collection P a u l Gillet
au M u s e e des A r t s D e c o r a t i f s , " Cahiers de la ceramique, du verre
et des arts dufeu, n o . 25 (1962), p. 29 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o C a s t e l D u r a n t e
o r C a f a g g i o l o o f circa 1510).
13. L i k e a c a n d e l a b r a , t h a t is, a r r a n g e d s y m m e t r i c a l l y a r o u n d
a central axis.
14. J. L e s s m a n n , Italienische

Majolika

( B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1979),

n o . 16, pl. 17 ( a t t r i b u t e d t o Faenza o r C a s t e l D u r a n t e o f circa


1520).
15. T. W i l s o n , " M a i o l i c a in R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , " Apollo,
125 (1987), p . 186, n . 8; W i l s o n 1987, n o . 176.

96

CASTEL

d u r a n t e

DISH

no.

30 Armorial Plate with the


Flaying of Marsyas

tant patrons of maiolica in the sixteenth century. A r o u n d

B y Nicola (di Gabriele Sbraghe) da U r b i n o (circa 1 4 8 0 -

circa 1517-1520 in the M u s e o C o r r e r , Venice, 11 and t w o

1525, f o r example, h e p r o d u c e d a splendid credenza, or


table service, f o r Isabella d'Este. 1 0 O t h e r credenze attributed to Nicola include the C o r r e r or " R i d o l f i " service of

1537/38)

services dating to the 1530s: o n e executed for D u k e Fed-

U r b i n o , mid-1520 s

erico, Isabella's son, and another f o r Federico and his

H : 5.7 c m (21/4in.); D i a m : 41.4 c m (165/16in.)

wife, M a r g h e r i t a Paleologo. 1 2
T h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s plate belongs to yet another

84.DE.117

service, s o m e t i m e s referred t o as the ladder service, that


T H E WELL OF THIS LARGE ARMORIAL PLATE DISPLAYS A

was either c o m m i s s i o n e d b y or given t o a m e m b e r of the

coat of a r m s o n a shield held b y t w o putti s u r r o u n d e d b y

Brescian Calini family, w h o s e coat of a r m s appears in the

bianco sopra bianco decoration. T h e w i d e r i m is elegantly

central shield. 13 U s i n g Nicola's t w o signed and dated

painted w i t h a c o n t i n u o u s narrative sequence o f the

w o r k s together w i t h the dates ascribed t o his table ser-

c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n A p o l l o and Marsyas and the flay-

vices, o n e m a y place the Calini set r o u g h l y in midcareer,

ing of Marsyas. T h e palette consists of blue, ocher, c o p -

that is, in the mid-1520s, b e t w e e n the earlier, m o r e del-

per green, grayish green, yellowish green,

yellow,

icate, b l u e - t o n e d style o f the C o r r e r service and the

b r o w n , b r o w n i s h orange, black, and o p a q u e white. A

w a r m e r , compositionally m o r e c o m p l e x painting of the

w h i t e glaze g r o u n d covers the reverse, w h i c h is o t h e r -

1528 Saint Cecilia plate. In b o t h style and palette the Cali-

wise undecorated.

ni service is closest t o the E s t e - G o n z a g a g r o u p of circa

T h i s plate w a s painted b y arguably the m o s t tal-

1525.

ented and celebrated maiolica master of the C i n q u e -

Nicola's plate tells the story of t h e contest b e t w e e n

cento, w h o signed his w o r k s Nicola da Urbino. T h e artist

A p o l l o and Marsyas. A c c o r d i n g to the ancient legend,

has been identified thanks to a h a n d f u l o f pieces that bear

A t h e n a m a d e a flute that she played beside a stream.

his signature: a coppa painted w i t h a seated king, dated

Watching her reflected i m a g e in the water, she s a w her

1521 (Leningrad, State H e r m i t a g e F.363); 1 a plate f r a g -

face b e c o m e blue and her cheeks swollen, so she t h r e w

m e n t w i t h a scene inspired b y Raphael's Parnassus (Paris,

d o w n the flute and laid a curse o n a n y o n e w h o picked it

M u s e e d u L o u v r e OA 1244); 2 a plate dated 1528 w i t h a

up. M a r s y a s s t u m b l e d o n the flute, w h i c h m a d e beautiful

Cecilia

sounds, inspired b y the m e m o r y of Athena's music. H e

(Florence, M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello); 3 a re-

t h e n invited Apollo, master of the lyre, to a contest, the

cently published plate w i t h an O l d Testament scene

w i n n e r of w h i c h could inflict w h a t e v e r p u n i s h m e n t he

(Novellara, Santo Stefano); 4 and, perhaps, a plate w i t h

pleased o n the loser. T h e sly A p o l l o challenged M a r s y a s

the scene o f an animal sacrifice in the British M u s e u m ,

to play his i n s t r u m e n t upside d o w n , k n o w i n g that this

s c e n e i n s p i r e d b y R a p h a e l ' s Martyrdom

of Saint

L o n d o n (inv. MLA 1855, 3-13, 2 3 ) . ' A c c o r d i n g to archival

could be d o n e w i t h the lyre b u t n o t w i t h the flute. T h e

d o c u m e n t s , N i c o l a w a s apparently a m a n k n o w n as N i -

M u s e s declared the w i n n e r to be Apollo, w h o t o o k cruel

cola di Gabriele S b r a g h e (or Sbraga). Sbraghe is the only

revenge by flaying M a r s y a s alive.

p o t t e r recorded in U r b i n o w h o s e n a m e and dates of ac-

T h e figures o n this plate are adapted f r o m folio 49

tivity c o r r e s p o n d t o those of the artist w e have c o m e to

verso of the 1497 Venetian edition of O v i d ' s Metamor-

k n o w as Nicola da U r b i n o . 6

phoses. T h e plate's istoriato scenes, h o w e v e r , differ curi-

Frustratingly little is k n o w n a b o u t this i m p o r t a n t


7

ously f r o m the Venetian w o o d c u t , evidence that Nicola

e x p o n e n t of early istoriato painting. F r o m the inscription

interpreted the ancient legend liberally and inventively.

o n the Saint Cecilia plate w e k n o w that Nicola w o r k e d ,

In the w o o d c u t only the figure o f M a r s y a s is p o r t r a y e d

possibly as a visiting master, in the large and successful

nude, whereas o n Nicola's plate b o t h A p o l l o and M a r -

U r b i n o bottega of G u i d o da Castel D u r a n t e , o t h e r w i s e

syas are n u d e w h e n they m e e t in c o m p e t i t i o n and in the

k n o w n as G u i d o D u r a n t i n o . T h a t Nicola w a s also G u i -

flaying episode. In addition Nicola s h o w s M a r s y a s as an

do's father, a m a n m e n t i o n e d in d o c u m e n t s as N i c o l o

old m a n o n the far right b u t o t h e r w i s e portrays h i m as a

Pellipario, is n o longer accepted. 9

young man.

Nicola's w o r k is characterized b y a delicate and so-

Clearly inspired b y the w o o d c u t , the figure of

phisticated r e n d e r i n g of figures and space in an excep-

A t h e n a o n the plate plays a bagpipe. T h i s is n o t an u n -

tionally rich and varied palette. Because of Nicola's great

usual substitution. Renaissance artists o f t e n replaced the

skill, he was m u c h a d m i r e d and s o u g h t after by i m p o r -

ancient aulos (reed flute) m e n t i o n e d in the legend w i t h its

ARMORIAL

PLATE . U R B I N O

97

c o n t e m p o r a r y counterpart, the zampogna

(bagpipe). 14

A l t h o u g h Marsyas retrieves Athena's bagpipe on the


plate, he is then s h o w n playing a syrinx in competition
w i t h Apollo, w h o leans contemplatively against a rock
w i t h his quiver and ancient lyre. A l t h o u g h the syrinx is
usually played by Pan in ancient sculpture and Renaissance painting, it is also occasionally played by Marsyas. 15
For his syrinx-playing Marsyas, Nicola m i g h t have been
inspired by another w o o d c u t in the 1497 Metamorphoses
that shows the competition between Apollo and Pan. 16
T h e conflation of b o t h w o o d c u t scenes on this plate is
understandable, since they depict the t w o ancient legends
about musical contests.
O n the u p p e r right of the Marsyas w o o d c u t , his
flayed skin is displayed in a shrine, but o n the plate this
skin has been t r a n s f o r m e d into a sculpture o n a pedestal
in a classicized, circular temple. Nicola's temple was
likely inspired b y actual buildings of this type, such as
D o n a t o Bramante's Tempietto. T h o u g h separated by a
generation, b o t h B r a m a n t e and Nicola w e r e b o r n in Cas-

N o . 30, r e v e r s e

tel D u r a n t e , and o n m o r e than one occasion Nicola seems


to have d r a w n o n Bramante's architectural achieve-

schild); sold, Christie's, L o n d o n , April 12, 1976, lot 179,

m e n t s s u c h as his celebrated d o m e d and niched circular

pl. 13; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., London].

structuresfor his o w n architectural inventions. 17


In addition to the present w o r k , Nicola illustrated

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

the Apollo and Marsyas contest o n t w o other plates: one

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H .

f r o m the C o r r e r service 18 and another f r o m the Este-

Christie's

Gonzaga set in the Wernher collection, Luton, B e d f o r d -

Cliffs, N.J., 1984), p. 65, fig. 8.

shire.

19

A l t h o u g h the mythological subject is interpreted

differently o n the earlier plate in Venice, it is very similarly illustrated o n the Getty M u s e u m and the Este-Gonzaga pieces.
Including the M u s e u m ' s plate, there are eleven

Pictorial

Morley-Fletcher

History

of European

and R.

Pottery

Mcllroy,

(Englewood

CONDITION: B r o k e n and repaired, w i t h the breaks generally confined to the top half of the piece; overpainting
in small areas of landscape to the left, in the bianco sopra
bianco, and above the head of the p u t t o on the right side.

k n o w n w o r k s f r o m the Calini service. Their subjects are


Apollo and Pan (London, British M u s e u m inv. MLA
1855, 12-1, 73), 20 the sacrifice of Iphigenia (Ecouen, M u see de la Renaissance, C l u n y 1863), 21 the death of Achilles
( N e w York, Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art 84.3.2), 22 and
an allegorical scene w i t h Calliope and a y o u t h (Washington, D . C . , C o r c o r a n Gallery of Art inv. 26.34s), 23 Five
further pieces w i t h scenes of Saint George and the
dragon, Perseus and A n d r o m e d a , the Brazen Bull of
Phalaris, C y c n u s changed into a swan, and an unidentified subject are in the Royal Scottish M u s e u m , E d i n burgh. 2 4 A final plate w i t h the Rape of Europa, w h o s e
present whereabouts are u n k n o w n , was f o r m e r l y in the
D a m i r o n collection, Lyons. 25
MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

The Contest between Apollo and Marsyas.


None.

From Ovid,

Metamor-

phoses (Venice, 1497), fol. 49V. W o o d c u t . W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . ,


L i b r a r y o f C o n g r e s s , R a r e B o o k a n d Special C o l l e c t i o n s D i -

PROVENANCE: Ralph Bernal, L o n d o n (sold, Christie's,

vision, R o s e n w a l d cat. n o . 322. P h o t o c o u r t e s y L i b r a r y o f

London, M a r c h 5, 1855, lot 1767, to Wareham for R o t h -

Congress.

98

URBINO . ARMORIAL

PLATE

21. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 820.


1. K u b e 1976, n o . 58.

22. B . R a c k h a m , " S o m e U n p u b l i s h e d M a i o l i c a b y P e l l i p a r i o , "

2. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o . 829.

Burlington

3. G . C o n t i , Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo Nazionale


Palazzo

di Firenze,

Magazine

52 ( M a y 1928), pi. 3 D .

23. W a t s o n 1986, n o . 45.


24. E x c e p t f o r t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s plate, all o f these pieces are

del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o . 16.

4. F. Liverani, " U n p i a t t o di N i c o l a e a l t r o , " Faenza 71, n o . 4 /

illustrated i n R a c k h a m ( n o t e 22), pis. 1 - 4 .

6 (1985), n o s . 4 - 6 , pi. 125; W i l s o n 1987, p p . 4 4 - 4 5 , 49, n o . 62.

25. AVery

5. W i l s o n 1987, p . 50, n o . 6 3 . J . V. G . M a l l e t has q u e s t i o n e d t h e

erty of M. Damiron,

Choice Collection of Old Italian Maiolica

. . . the Prop-

Lyons, sale cat., S o t h e b y ' s , L o n d o n , J u n e

a t t r i b u t i o n o f this plate t o N i c o l a ( " M a n t u a a n d U r b i n o : G o n -

16,193 8, lot 57; B . R a c k h a m , " T h e D a m i r o n C o l l e c t i o n o f Ital-

zaga P a t r o n a g e o f M a i o l i c a , " Apollo, n o . 1 1 4 [ 1 9 8 1 ] , p . 164, n .

ian Maiolica11," Apollo, n o . 26 (1937), p . 256, fig. 9.

6), a n d B . Wallen has rejected it ( " A M a j o l i c a Panel i n t h e W i d e n e r C o l l e c t i o n , " in Report and Studies in the History

of Art

[ W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1968], p. 100, n. 2, figs. 8, 9).


6. A . Darcel, Notice des fayencespeintes

italiennes (Paris, 1864),

p . 181; P. B e r a r d i , L'antica maiolica di Pesaro dal XIV

al XVII

se-

colo (Florence, 1984), p. 17, n . 9; F. N e g r o n i , " N i c o l o Pellipario: C e r a m i s t a f a n t a s m a , " Notizie

da Palazzo

14, n o . 1

Albani

(1985), p p . 1 5 - 2 0 ; J . V. G . M a l l e t , " I n b o t t e g a di M a e s t r o
G u i d o D u r a n t i n o in U r b i n o , " Burlington

Magazine

129 ( M a y

1987), pp- 2 8 4 - 2 8 6 .
7. F o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e artist's life a n d w o r k , see, in a d d i t i o n t o t h e w o r k s cited a b o v e , J. R a s m u s s e n , " Z u m W e r k des
M a j o l i k a m a l e r s N i c o l o da U r b i n o , " Keramos

58 ( D e c e m b e r

1972), p p . 5 1 - 6 4 ; W i l s o n 1987, p p . 4 4 - 5 1 .
8. M a l l e t ( n o t e 6), p . 286.
9. Wallen ( n o t e 5), p p . 9 5 - 1 0 5 ; N e g r o n i ( n o t e 6), p p . 1 3 - 2 0 .
10. E x a m p l e s f r o m this service are r e p r o d u c e d in G . C h a m b e r s
a n d J. M a r t i n e a u , eds., Splendours

of the Gonzaga

(London,

1981-1982), n o s . 131-133, 135, 136, 138; f o r d a t i n g o f this set,


see J. V. G . Mallet, " T h e G o n z a g a a n d C e r a m i c s , " ibid., p . 40.
11. H . Wallis, Seventeen Plates by Nicola Fontana da Urbino at the
Correr Museum,

Venice ( L o n d o n , 1905).

12. M a l l e t , i n C h a m b e r s a n d M a r t i n e a u , eds. ( n o t e 10), p . 40;


see also e x a m p l e s r e p r o d u c e d as n o s . 194, 195, 197.
13. F o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e s e a r m s , see C . Ravanelli G u i d o t t i ,
"L'araldica della n o b i l e f a m i g l i a C a l i n i su alcuni piatti c o m p e n d i a r i , " Faenza 71, n o . 4 / 6 (1985), p p . 3 9 4 - 3 9 9 ; f o r a discussion
o f t h e C a l i n i f a m i l y , see H . v o n S c h r a t t e n h o f e n , " L a n o b i l e f a miglia b r e s c i a n a C a l i n i di C a l i n o , " Rivista del collegio araldico 25
( J u n e 1927), p p . 2 4 3 - 2 5 7 ; a n d f o r t h e p o s t u l a t i o n t h a t this s e r vice m a y h a v e b e e n e x e c u t e d f o r L u i g i C a l i n i o n t h e o c c a s i o n
o f his first son's b i r t h , see W a t s o n 1986, p p . 112-114.
14. E . W i n t e r n i t z , " T h e C u r s e o f Pallas A t h e n a , " in Studies in
the History of Art Dedicated to W.E. Suida on His Eightieth

Birthday

( L o n d o n , 1959), p p . 1 8 7 - 1 8 9 .
15. Ibid., p . 189, n. 13.
16. T h e w o o d c u t is r e p r o d u c e d i n Wallis ( n o t e 11), p. 15, fig. 5.
17. F o r a discussion o f a r c h i t e c t u r e i n N i c o l a ' s w o r k , see B .
R a c k h a m , " N i c o l a Pellipario a n d B r a m a n t e , " Burlington

Mag-

azine 86 ( J u n e 1945), p p . 1 4 4 - 1 4 8 ; f o r a general e x a m i n a t i o n


o f a r c h i t e c t u r e p a i n t e d o n maiolica, see C . B e r n a r d i ,

Immagini

architettoniche nella maiolica italiana del cinquecento (Milan, 1980).


18. Wallis ( n o t e 11), p . 39, fig. 16; G . C o n t i , L'artedella

maiolica

in Italia, 2 n d e d n . (Milan, 1980), n o . 188.


19. M . U r w i c k S m i t h , The History and Treasures of Luton
The Wemher Collection ( L o n d o n , 1978), p . 22.
20. W i l s o n 1987, n o . 53.

100

URBINO . ARMORIAL

PLATE

Hoo:

31 Plate with the Abduction of


Helen

g r o u p of w o r k s h o p heads (capi-bottega) agreed t o resist

B y Francesco X a n t o Avelli (circa 1486/87-circa 1544)

control of his p r o d u c t s f r o m the w o r k s h o p directors.

the employees' d e m a n d s and s i m p l y n o t hire t h e m w i t h o u t the consent of t h e other capi.7 It is certainly possible
that b y signing his wares, X a n t o was a t t e m p t i n g to w r e s t
Xanto's w o r k s are distinguished b y d y n a m i c and

U r b i n o , 1534
H : 6.3 c m (21/2in.); D i a m : 46.1 c m (181/8in.)

v i g o r o u s l y m o d e l e d figures in c r o w d e d c o m p o s i t i o n s

84.DE.118

frequently based o n engravings b y M a r c a n t o n i o Raim o n d i and others, w h i c h h e o f t e n inventively and eclect-

T H E ENTIRE OBVERSE SURFACE OF THIS LARGE

ISTO-

ically excerpted and r e c o m b i n e d . For the present plate's

riato plate is painted w i t h a scene of the A b d u c t i o n of

istoriato decoration, X a n t o d r e w u p o n an e n g r a v i n g of

H e l e n b y the Trojans in brilliant blue, yellow, b r o w n ,

the same subject either by M a r c a n t o n i o or b y M a r c o

ocher, buff, orange, m a n g a n e s e purple, turquoise, sev-

Dente, called M a r c o da R a v e n n a (active 1510-1527), af-

eral tones of green, black, and o p a q u e w h i t e . T h e w a r m ,

ter Raphael. T h i s i m a g e w a s apparently a favorite of the

o r a n g e - t o n e d palette o f this w o r k is typical of X a n t o ' s

artist and his peers, including Nicola da U r b i n o , since it

p r o d u c t i o n and of istoriato painting in U r b i n o a r o u n d

appears w i t h slight variations o n n u m e r o u s plates of the

1530. T h e center of the reverse is inscribed in blue w i t h

early sixteenth century. T h e consistency of these A b -

the date and artist's signature as well as a verse, adapted

duction of H e l e n scenes indicates that instead of c o p y i n g

f r o m Petrarch's " T r i u m p h o f Love," 1 describing the

the engraving freehand, the artists m a y have used a t e m -

painted m y t h o l o g i c a l scene: 1534This is the shepherd

plate of s o m e s o r t p r o b a b l y either traced or p u n c h e d

who ill-fatedly

w i t h holes, t h r o u g h w h i c h p o w d e r was f o r c e d t o

and that famous


confusion.

admired

the beautiful face of Helen

of

Greece

abduction for which the world was thrown

Francesco

Xanto

Avelli

da Rovigo

in

into

Urbino.

transfer the i m a g e to the ceramic plates.


O t h e r versions of this subject either signed b y or at-

X a n t o w a s the m o s t talented and prolific follower

tributed t o X a n t o include t w o plates in the M u s e e d u

of the celebrated early sixteenth-century ceramic artist

Louvre, Paris ( C l u n y 915, OA 1839) 8 and o n e each in the

Nicola da U r b i n o . A l t h o u g h an abundance of X a n t o ' s

Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. c.2232-

w o r k s have c o m e d o w n to u s m a n y o f w h i c h are

1910); 9 in the M u s e o Internazionale delle C e r a m i c h e ,

signed, dated, and o t h e r w i s e inscribedlittle is k n o w n

Faenza; 10 f o r m e r l y in the S c h l o s s m u s e u m , Berlin (prob-

about the artist. H e appears to have been a learned and

ably destroyed); 1 1 in the Colocci H o n o r a t i collection,

multitalented m a n . F o r his istoriato w o r k s and their i n -

Jesi; 12 and f o r m e r l y in the P r i n g s h e i m collection, M u -

scriptions, he d r e w u p o n a variety of i m p o r t a n t artistic

nich. 13 A piatto dapompa in the collection o f the late A r t h u r

and literary sources, w h i c h h e often inventively m o d i f i e d

M . Sackler, N e w York (inv. 78.2.20), is painted w i t h the

to suit his compositions and verse. X a n t o was also a poet,

same subject and is attributed to Nicola da Urbino. 1 4

and over a period o f several decades h e w r o t e a series of

M a n y of these plates bear inscriptions that are identical

sonnets h o n o r i n g Francesco M a r i a I della Rovere, d u k e

or nearly so to that o n the Getty's plate, w h i c h is a m o n g

of U r b i n o (r. 1508-1538). 3 T h e s e sonnets contain n u -

the largest and m o s t faithful t o the original engraving.

m e r o u s allusions to historical events and therefore assist


in establishing a b i o g r a p h y of the artist as well as a c h r o n o l o g y of his w o r k .

B o r n in R o v i g o in the late 1480s, X a n t o m o v e d to


U r b i n o by 1530, the year in w h i c h he b e g a n inscribing in
Urbino o n his wares, 5 and f o r the f o l l o w i n g decade and a

MARKS A N D INSCRIPTIONS: O n r e v e r s e ,
/ Quest'e'l

pastor

e, quelfamoso

rapto /pel

.Fra[ncesco]:Xa[n]to.

.M.D.XXXIIII

che mal mird'l bel / volto / D'Helena


qualfu'l

A[velli],

mondo

Greca,

sotto sopra volto.

/ da Rovigo,

i[n] /

Urbino.

in blue.

half h e executed a vast n u m b e r of signed w o r k s exhib-

PROVENANCE: R a l p h Bernal, L o n d o n ; sold, Sotheby's,

iting an exceptional consistency of style. T. Wilson has

L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 21, 1978, l o t 4 4 ; [RainerZietz, Ltd.,

suggested that a trade dispute of 1530 in w h i c h X a n t o w a s

London].

e m b r o i l e d m a y have i n d u c e d the artist to begin signing


his plates w i t h his full name. 6 A c c o r d i n g to d o c u m e n t s ,
X a n t o w a s clearly a w o r k s h o p e m p l o y e e at the t i m e o f
this dispute. H e a t t e m p t e d to i m p r o v e his position b y
banding

together

with

other

employees (dipendenti

dell'arte figulina) to d e m a n d higher wages; in response a

EXHIBITIONS: P. D . C o l n a g h i and C o . Ltd., L o n d o n ,


J u n e 1 0 - J u l y 31, 1981.
B I B L I O G R A P H Y : A . G o n z a l e z - P a l a c i o s , e d . , Objects for a

"Wunderkammer," exh. cat. ( C o l n a g h i and C o . , L o n d o n ,


1981), pp. 124-125, no. 65.

PLATE . U R B I N O

101

CONDITION: M i n o r

cracks

and

repairs,

partly

over-

painted, o n the r i m ; a break in the u p p e r left section o f


the dish, w i t h m o d e r a t e to h e a v y overpainting;

some

glaze faults; s e v e n stilt m a r k s o n t h e o b v e r s e a l o n g t h e


r i m ( o r i g i n a l l y , t h e r e w e r e e i g h t , b u t o n e is m i s s i n g b e cause o f the repair).

1. " T r i o m f o d ' a m o r e , " b k . 1,11. 1 3 6 - 1 3 8 : " S e c o e '1 paster c h e


m a l il s u o b e l v o l t o / m i r o si fiso, o n d ' u s c i r g r a n t e m p e s t e , / e
f u n n e il m o n d o s o t t o s o p r a v o l t o . "
2. See e n t r y n o . 30 a b o v e .
3. T h e s e s o n n e t s are p r e s e n t l y i n t h e Vatican L i b r a r y ; f o r f u r t h e r references, see W a t s o n 1986, p. 25, n . 51.
4. See J. V. G . M a l l e t , " L a b i o g r a f i a di F r a n c e s c o X a n t o Avelli
alla luce dei s u o i s o n e t t i , " Faenza 70, n o . 4 / 6 (1984), p p . 3 8 4 402.
5. A c c o r d i n g t o a plate d a t e d 1530 in t h e C a s t e l l o S f o r z e s c o ,
M i l a n (inv. M232).
6. W i l s o n 1987, p. 52; see also J. V. G . M a l l e t , " I n b o t t e g a di
M a e s t r o G u i d o D u r a n t i n o i n U r b i n o , " Burlington

Magazine

N o . 31, r e v e r s e

129 ( M a y 1987), p . 33.


7. Interestingly, t h e s e d o c u m e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e w o r k s h o p
heads involved in the dispute included G u i d o D u r a n t i n o and
N i c o l a di G a b r i e l e S b r a g h e (F. N e g r o n i , " N i c o l o Pellipario:
C e r a m i s t a f a n t a s m a , " Notiziedi

Palazzo Albani 14, n o . 1 [1985],

p. 18, n. 33).
8. C h o m p r e t 1949, v o l . 2, figs. 988, 995; G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s .
856, 866.
9. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 634; 2, pl. 100.
10. " A c c e s s i o n i al M u s e o , " Faenza

32, n o . 3 / 4 (1946), pl. 19a.

11. B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 2, n o . 191.
12. Ibid., n o . 41.
13. Ibid., n o . 192, f i g . 182; Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, n o . 267,
pl. 138.
14. Falke 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 2 3 , v o l . 2, n o . 254, pl. 131.
MARCANTONIO RAIMONDI (Italian, circa 1480-1534) a f t e r R a phael (Italian, 1 4 8 3 - 1 5 2 0 ) . The Abduction

of Helen, circa 1 5 1 0 -

1520. E n g r a v i n g , 29.6 x 4 2 . 4 c m(115/8X16/3/4in.). V i e n n a , G r a phische

Sammlung

Albertina.

102

URBINO

PLATE

Albertina

1970/425.

Photo

courtesy

32 Pilgrim Flask and Cover with


Marine Scenes (Fiasca d a

tesque-decorated ceramics, leaving to his father the plainer, and p r o b a b l y m o r e profitable, w h i t e and c o m m o n
wares. 1 W h e t h e r O r a z i o c o n t i n u e d t o paint the pieces
p r o d u c e d in his w o r k s h o p after 1565 or w h e t h e r h e then

Pellegrino)

f u n c t i o n e d solely as capo-bottega ( w o r k s h o p head) is n o t


known.

B y the F o n t a n a W o r k s h o p

T h e present flask can b e dated b e t w e e n 1560 and

U r b i n o , circa 1560-1570

1570, w h e n the Fontana w o r k s h o p b e g a n t o apply clas-

H : 44.1 c m (17 3/8 in.); m a x . W : 2 8 . 6 c m(111/4in.)

sical istoriato embellishment t o decorative f o r m s such as

84.DE.119A-B

vases, flasks, and basins. A n o t h e r Fontana i n n o v a t i o n o f


this period w a s the use of m a r i n e m o t i f s t r i t o n s , n e -

T H I S VESSEL IS MOLDED IN THE FORM OF A PILGRIM

reids, sea horses, and various sea m o n s t e r s s e t against

flask w i t h a tall, tapering neck and screw cover sur-

decorative expanses of blue waves, as o n the M u s e u m ' s

m o u n t e d b y a vase-shaped k n o p ; b o t h neck and cover are

flask.

decorated w i t h black birds a m o n g clouds, c o m m o n l y

Fontana flasks of identical shape and v e r y similar

f o u n d o n Fontana wares. T h e handles, in the f o r m of

marine-inspired decoration, possibly f r o m the s a m e set

h o r n e d g r o t e s q u e masks, have curling "beards" that be-

as the present w o r k , include o n e in the H e r z o g A n t o n

c o m e relief volutes c o m p l e m e n t i n g the shape of the flask

U l r i c h - M u s e u r a , B r a u n s c h w e i g (inv. 919), 2 and another

body. T h e ceramic pilgrim-flask f o r m reflects the influ-

in the H e l e n F o r e s m a n Spencer M u s e u m o f A r t , L a w -

ence of metal pilgrim flasks patterned after the dried

rence (inv. 60.76). 3 Further Fontana w o r k s h o p examples

g o u r d s used b y travelers to carry d r i n k i n g water, w h i c h

of the same flask f o r m are in the Victoria and Albert M u -

w e r e suspended f r o m side loops. T h e h o r n e d m a s k s o n

seum, L o n d o n (inv. 8408-1863, 8409-1863), 4 and f o r -

the sides o f the M u s e u m ' s flask and the holes cut f r o m

m e r l y in the Basilewski collection, Paris. 5 Five similarly

either side of the base w o u l d never have been used to sus-

shaped flasks p r o d u c e d in the w o r k s h o p o f O r a z i o F o n -

p e n d the object; they w e r e retained as decorative r e m i -

tana are in the M u s e o Nazionale, Palazzo del Bargello,

niscences of the earlier functional f o r m s .

Florence. 6 Like the Getty M u s e u m ' s example, a p i l g r i m

T h e flask is painted o n b o t h sides w i t h m a r i n e

flask o f the late 1560s or early 1570s in t h e N a t i o n a l m u -

scenes: a triton a b d u c t i n g a nereid o n o n e and t w o f i g h t -

seum, S t o c k h o l m (inv. NM 60), displays m a r i n e subjects

ing tritons o n the other. T h e palette consists of blue, buff,

( A m p h i t r i t e or Galatea c r o w n e d b y a p u t t o , a triton ab-

dark m a n g a n e s e purple, copper green, yellowish green,

ducting a nereid, and other sea creatures, against an over-

b r o w n i s h ocher, yellow, turquoise, black, and o p a q u e

all b a c k g r o u n d of blue waves). 7

white; this exceptionally rich and varied coloring is t y p ical of Fontana w o r k s h o p ceramics. T h e w o r k s h o p was
established b y O r a z i o Fontana (1510-1571), eldest son of

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S :

None.

PROVENANCE: T h o m a s F. Flannery, Jr., Chicago; sold,

the master p o t t e r G u i d o D u r a n t i n o , w h o t o o k the F o n -

Sotheby's, L o n d o n , N o v e m b e r 22, 1983, lot 160; [Ed-

tana f a m i l y n a m e after h e m o v e d to U r b i n o f r o m his na-

w a r d Lubin, N e w York]; [Rainer Zietz, Ltd., L o n d o n ] .

tive Castel D u r a n t e . In the early sixteenth century G u i d o


helped shift the d o m i n a n t area f o r maiolica p r o d u c t i o n

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

and i n n o v a t i o n f r o m Faenza to U r b i n o and its n e i g h b o r -

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Sotheby's,

ing Castel D u r a n t e b y i n t r o d u c i n g istoriato decoration

1983, lot 1 6 0 .

there. Together w i t h Francesco X a n t o Avelli, Guido's


descendants b r o u g h t this t y p e of decoration to m a t u r i t y
in their U r b i n o w o r k s h o p .

London,

November

22,

CONDITION: C r a c k s and restorations o n the side loops


and o n the cover.

Orazio's brothers C a m i l l o and Nicola and his


n e p h e w Flaminio w e r e also maiolica potters, a l t h o u g h
O r a z i o appears to have been the m o s t celebrated of the

1. J. V. G . M a l l e t , " I n B o t t e g a di M a e s t r o G u i d o D u r a n t i n o in

Fontana ceramists. H e w o r k e d w i t h his father f o r m o s t

U r b i n o , " Burlington

of his career, until 1565, w h e n he set u p his o w n bottega

2. J. L e s s m a n n , Italienische Majolika

n o t far f r o m that of his father in U r b i n o ' s B o r g o San Pa-

230.

olo. F r o m that t i m e on, it appears that O r a z i o occupied


himself m a i n l y w i t h the l u x u r i o u s istoriato and g r o -

104

URBINO . PILGRIM

FLASK

Magazine

129 ( M a y 1987), p p . 2 8 7 - 2 8 8 .

3. Helen Foresman Spencer Museum

( B r a u n s c h w e i g , 1979), n o .
of Art: Handbook

of the Col-

lection ( L a w r e n c e , [circa 1978]), p p . 2 8 - 2 9 ; B- C o l e ,

Italian

Maiolica from Midwestern

Collections ( B l o o m m g t o n , 1977), n o .

37; C h o m p r e t 1949, vols. 1, p . 194; 2, p. 130, fig. 1033; Catalogue of the Celebrated Fountaine Collection,

sale cat., Christie's,

L o n d o n , J u n e 16, 1884, lot 376.


4. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o s . 840, 841; 2, pl. 133.
5. Illustrated in A . D a r c e l a n d H . D e l a n g e , Recueil des faiences
italiennes des XV, XVI,

XVII

siecles (Paris, 1867), pl. 97; it is

likely t h a t this is t h e " u n p u b l i s h e d " flask that passed f r o m t h e


Basilewski collection i n t o t h e State H e r m i t a g e , L e n i n g r a d , in
t h e late n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y ( K u b e 1976, n o . 84).
6. G. C o n t i , L'arte della maiolica in Italia, 2 n d e d n . (Milan, 1980),
figs. 291, 292; these flasks f i g u r e a m o n g t h e w a r e s traditionally
t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n e x e c u t e d f o r t h e table service o f D u k e
G u i d o b a l d o II della R o v e r e o f U r b i n o , a l t h o u g h p r o o f o f this
c o m m i s s i o n has n o t y e t c o m e t o light. See also i d e m ,
delle maioliche: Museo Nazionale

di Firenze,

Palazzo

Catalogo

del Bargello

(Florence, 1971), n o s . 25, 27, 46, 50, 52.


7. H . D a h l b a c k L u t t e m a n , Majolikafran

Urbino

(Stockholm,

1981), n o . 20.

PILGRIM

FLASK . U R B I N O

105

N o . 32, alternate v i e w

N o . 32, alternate v i e w

3 3 A C a n d e l i e r i Plate
Venice, circa 1540-1560
H : 5.7 c m (2 r 4 in.); D i a m : 47.7 c m (18 3/4 in.)
84.DE.120
T H I S PLATE IS EMBELLISHED W I T H C H E R U B S '

HEADS,

griffins, cornucopias, bead swags, drapery, dolphins,


and foliate scrolls a r r a n g e d a candelieri. A central male f i g u r e s u p p o r t s a basket o n his head flanked b y birds and
s u r m o u n t e d b y a panel inscribed .S.P.Q.R.1

The gro-

tesque decoration is painted in greenish grisaille (that is,


in various tones o f gray as a t r o m p e l'oeil of m a r b l e relief) enriched w i t h w h i t e and reserved o n a dark blue
g r o u n d . T h e reverse displays a r o w o f radiating dashes
and a b o r d e r o f scrolling alla porcellana foliage in dark
blue o n a light blue berettino g r o u n d .
This plate appears to be a u n i q u e masterpiece. N o

N o . 33, r e v e r s e

o t h e r k n o w n w o r k of t h e period approaches its M a n nerist elegance and sophisticated r e n d e r i n g o f figures and

h o l d i n g a cornucopia s u r r o u n d e d b y trophies ( L o n d o n ,

decoration. O n e finds the m o s t closely related t r o p h y

Victoria and Albert M u s e u m inv. 1744-1855). 6 T h e s e

and a candelieri d e s i g n s o f t e n in grisaille, o n a light or

three plates share w i t h the G e t t y M u s e u m ' s w o r k similar

dark blue g r o u n d , and w i t h "filled-in" b a c k g r o u n d s of

shapes and c o m p a r a b l e dimensions. F u r t h e r m o r e they

w h i t e scrolling r i b b o n s o n wares f r o m the first half o f

display grisaille decoration "filled i n " w i t h

the sixteenth c e n t u r y f r o m Castel D u r a n t e and Venice.

scrolling r i b b o n s o n the obverse and alla porcellana foliage

T h i s k i n d of decoration has traditionally been associated

o n the reverse, all o n a berettino g r o u n d .

delicate

w i t h Castel D u r a n t e , and objects decorated in this style

T h e Getty M u s e u m ' s plate is distinguished b y its ex-

are o f t e n described as painted in the maniera durantina.2

ceedingly m a n n e r e d and refined painting style. T h e cen-

Similar stylistic e l e m e n t s s u c h as the elaborate a cande-

tral f i g u r e is almost astonishingly bizarre, a favorite effect

lieri designs and delicately rendered faces w i t h straight

of M a n n e r i s t artists. T h i s figure's expression of surprise,

and p o i n t e d noses, p o i n t e d chins, small m o u t h s , and

elongated p r o p o r t i o n s , and twisted torso that ends in f o -

dark " d o t s " f o r e y e s c a n be f o u n d o n pieces attributed

liage and leafy scrolls at the thighs and shoulders all c o n -

to G i o v a n n i Maria, a ceramist active at Castel D u r a n t e in

tribute to its fantastic nature. Also f a v o r e d b y the M a n -

the first decades of the sixteenth century. 3 It is altogether

nerists was an e x t r e m e elegance in surface decoration,

possible that the artist w h o painted this piece was b o r n

exemplified o n the present w o r k b y such details as the

or trained in Castel D u r a n t e b u t b e c a m e active in Venice

beautifully draped fabric along the plate's u p p e r edge and

a r o u n d the m i d d l e of the century, since, j u d g i n g f r o m its

the w a y in w h i c h the g r o t e s q u e f i g u r e o n the right grace-

shape and glaze colors rather than its painting style, this

fully crosses his left h a n d over his right a r m , t h r o w i n g a

plate w a s almost certainly executed in Venice.

s h a d o w o n his extended f o r e a r m .

U n u s u a l l y large plates w i t h wide, shallow wells

T h e decoration o n the present w o r k is of such h i g h

w e r e p r o d u c e d in Venice, and b o t h the b l u e - a n d - w h i t e

quality, and the style of painting is so r e m a r k a b l y current

enamel o n a light grayish blue g r o u n d and the reverse alia

w i t h the prevailing M a n n e r i s t tendencies of the first half

porcellana b o r d e r o n t h e s a m e berettino g r o u n d are typical

of the sixteenth century, that o n e w o u l d w i s h t o attribute

of Venetian wares. 4 T h e closest analogies to the present

its design t o a c o n t e m p o r a r y master. 7 A r o u n d t h e m i d -

w o r k include a large Venetian plate dated 1534 that sold

sixteenth c e n t u r y artists Battista Franco (1498-1561) and

at auction in R o m e ; 5 another Venetian plate, also dated

Taddeo Z u c c a r o (1529-1566) b o t h p r o d u c e d designs for

1534, decorated w i t h figures of S a m s o n and Delilah sur-

maiolica plates f r o m w h i c h several pieces w e r e c o m m i s -

r o u n d e d b y trophies (Milan, Castello Sforzesco 70); and

sioned b y D u k e G u i d o b a l d o II della R o v e r e of U r b i n o

a plate dated circa 1550-1560 and attributed to the w o r k -

(r. 1538-1574) and executed b y such w o r k s h o p s as that

shop of D o m e n i c o da Venezia w i t h a p u t t o and a w o m a n

of the Fontana in U r b i n o . 8 A l t h o u g h these plate designs

108

VENICE . A

CANDELIERI

PLATE

A t t r i b u t e d t o GIOVANNI ANTONIO DA BRESCIA (Italian, active circa 1 4 9 0 - a f t e r 1525). Ornament

Panels with Grotesque Figures, late

f i f t e e n t h - e a r l y s i x t e e n t h century. E n g r a v i n g s , 9.1 X 2 6 . 1 c m (3 9/6 X101/4in.); 11 X26.7 c m (4 5/16 X 101/2in.). R o m e , I s t i t u t o N a z i o n a l e


per la G r a f i c a F.C. 35116, F.C. 35117. P h o t o s c o u r t e s y Istituto N a z i o n a l e p e r la Grafica.

often feature grotesques, trophies, or a candelieri putti

w r o t e that "[Designs o f ] grotesques [on maiolica] have

embellishing the rims, the wells are always decorated

been almost discarded, and I do n o t k n o w w h y ; it is a

with narrative scenes emphasizing the often complicated

delicate style of painting, the use of w h i c h is derived

placement of figures in three-dimensional space, an in-

f r o m I k n o w n o t w h a t source; they cost t w o florins a

terest almost completely lacking in the M u s e u m ' s plate.

h u n d r e d in the state [of U r b i n o ] , and at Venice 8 lire." 11

J. M a r r y a t has suggested that the M u s e u m ' s plate is

Piccolpasso m u s t have been referring to the type of dec-

based o n a design b y Franco. T h e painting style, h o w -

oration o n the M u s e u m ' s plate and not to the m o r e del-

ever, differs significantly f r o m any of the artist's k n o w n

icate grotesque designs o n w h i t e g r o u n d influenced by

maiolica designs. T h e Mannerist treatment of the plate's

Raphael's frescoes of 1518-1519 for the Vatican Loggie

surface decoration is m o r e closely related to the style of

(see no. 34), w h i c h became extremely popular, especially

Zuccaro,

10

although n o comparable w o r k s that w o u l d

on Fontana w o r k s h o p ceramics, in the third quarter of

convincingly link this artist w i t h the present plate have

the sixteenth century. T h e type of grotesques o n the

c o m e to light.

present plate m i g h t instead have been inspired b y prints

In the mid-sixteenth century Cipriano Piccolpasso

110

VENICE . A

CANDELIERI

PLATE

of c o n t e m p o r a r y ornament, such as those, executed by

the engravers Agostino M u s i (called A g o s t i n o Veneziano; circa 1490-circa 1540)

12

or Giovanni A n t o n i o da

Brescia (active circa 1490-after 1525).

R e n a i s s a n c e V e n i c e , " Apollo, n o . 125 (1987), pls- 3 - 8 . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f V e n e t i a n w a r e s w i t h berettino glaze a n d alla porcellana


m o t i f s , see i b i d . , p p . 6 3 - 6 6 ; A . A l v e r a B o r t o l o t t o , " A p r o p o s i t o dei piatti v e n e z i a n i c o n d e c o r o 'alla p o r c e l l a n a , ' " Faenza

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n o b v e r s e ,

.S.P.Q.R.

69, n o . 3 / 4 (1983), p p . 3 1 0 - 3 1 2 , pls. 8 2 - 8 5 ; W i l s o n 1987, p p .


184-189.

PROVENANCE: " R o y a l c o l l e c t i o n " ( a c c o r d i n g t o J . M a r -

5. Christie's, M a y 8 - 9 , 1984, l o t 154.

r y a t , A History

6. R a c k h a m 1940, v o l s . 1, p p . 3 2 6 - 3 2 7 , n o . 968; 2, pl. 156.

of Pottery

and Porcelain

[ L o n d o n , 1857], p .

34, fig. 18);13 Robert Strauss, L o n d o n (sold, Christie's,

7. In g e n e r a l m a i o l i c a d e s i g n s w e r e s o m e w h a t r e t a r d a t a i r e in

London, J u n e 21, 1976, lot 52); [Rainer Zietz, Ltd.,

relation t o c o n t e m p o r a r y oil a n d f r e s c o p a i n t i n g ; f o r e x a m p l e ,

London].

t h e d e p i c t i o n o f t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l space in m a i o l i c a p a i n t i n g

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

n e a r l y a c e n t u r y a f t e r Alberti's p e r s p e c t i v e studies. C e r a m i c a r t -

w a s o n l y a t t e m p t e d a r o u n d 1500, t w o c e n t u r i e s a f t e r G i o t t o a n d

BIBLIOGRAPHY: M a r r y a t 1857, p . 34, f i g . 18 ( d e s c r i b e d

ists w e r e a p p a r e n t l y f u l l y o c c u p i e d w i t h m a s t e r i n g t h e n e w a n d
difficult t e c h n i q u e s o f m a i o l i c a p r o d u c t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e p a r -

as "probably after a design of B. Franco"); H . M o r l e y -

ticularly d e m a n d i n g tasks o f glaze m a n u f a c t u r e , p a i n t i n g , a n d

F l e t c h e r a n d R . M c l l r o y , Christie's

f i r i n g a n d w e r e less c o n c e r n e d w i t h r i v a l i n g t h e stylistic i n -

ropean Pottery

Pictorial

History

of Eu-

( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , N . J . , 1 9 8 4 ) , p . 86, f i g .

novations of other art f o r m s .

1 (unconvincingly attributed to the master of the Vene-

8. F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f B a t t i s t a F r a n c o a n d m a i o l i c a , see M . Fa-

tian dish of circa 1520 with a r m s of the I m h o f and Schlau-

giolo, e d . , Virgilio nell' arte e nella cultura europea, e x h . cat. (Bibli-

dersbach families, f o r m e r l y in the A d d a collection,


Paris).

14

oteca N a z i o n a l e C e n t r a l e , R o m e , 1981), p p . 2 4 5 - 2 4 8 ; T. C l i f f o r d a n d J. V. G . M a l l e t , " B a t t i s t a F r a n c o as a D e s i g n e r o f


M a i o l i c a , " Burlington

Magazine

118 ( J u n e 1976), p p . 3 8 7 - 4 1 0 .

CONDITION: H a i r l i n e cracks o n t h e r i g h t e d g e a n d o n t h e

F o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a d d e o Z u c c a r o ' s m a i o l i c a d e s i g n s , see

left side, w i t h retouching.

J. A . G e r e , " T a d d e o Z u c c a r o as a D e s i g n e r f o r M a i o l i c a , " Burlington Magazine

105 ( J u l y 1963), p p . 3 0 6 - 3 1 5 ; M . L a s k i n , J r . ,

"Taddeo Zuccaro's Maiolica Designs for the D u k e of U r b i n o , "


in Essays Presented to Myron P. Gilmore,
1. R a t h e r t h a n i n d i c a t i n g specific R o m a n p a t r o n a g e , this Senatus populusque

romanus i n s c r i p t i o n likely serves b o t h a d e c o -

r a t i v e a n d a generalized s y m b o l i c f u n c t i o n , since it c o m m o n l y
appears o n maiolica wares, m o s t often w i t h t r o p h y motifs,
f r o m p o t t e r y centers t h r o u g h o u t Italy.
2. F o r e x a m p l e s o f c o m p a r a b l e d e c o r a t i o n o n w o r k s p r o d u c e d
in C a s t e l D u r a n t e , see G i a c o m o t t i 1974, n o s . 7 4 7 - 7 7 2 ; C h o m p r e t 1949, figs. 6 5 - 1 0 1 ; B a l l a r d i n i 1 9 3 3 - 1 9 3 8 , v o l . 1, pl. 28,
figs. 213, 2 1 7 - 2 2 0 , 223; R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 615; 2, pl.
97; L. C o r r a d i , e d . , La ceramica rinascimentale

metaurense,

exh.

cat. (Palazzo D u c a l e U r b a n i a , R o m e , 1982), n o . 50; M . M a n cini della C h i a r a , Maioliche del Museo Civico di Pesaro ( B o l o g n a ,
1979) nos. 83, 85. O n e f i n d s s i m i l a r l y m a n n e r e d g r o t e s q u e
d e c o r a t i o n o n t h e r i m o f a p l a t e o f u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n in t h e V i c toria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n , w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o R a c k -

ed. S. Bertelli a n d G .

R a m a k u s (Florence, 1978), p p . 2 8 1 - 2 8 4 , pls. 1, 2; W. W a t s o n ,


" T a d d e o Z u c c a r o ' s Earliest D r a w i n g f o r M a i o l i c a , " P a p e r d e l i v e r e d at "Italian R e n a i s s a n c e C e r a m i c s : A Specialist C o l l o q u i u m , " B r i t i s h M u s e u m , L o n d o n , S e p t e m b e r 2 - 5 , 1987 (in
preparation).
9. M a r r y a t 1857, p . 34, fig. 18.
10. See, f o r e x a m p l e , t h e n u d e m a n seen f r o m t h e rear o n t h e
l e f t - h a n d side o f Z u c c a r o ' s d e s i g n f o r Banquet in a Piazza

(Las-

k i n [ n o t e 8], pl. 1).


11. C . P i c c o l p a s s o , The Three Books of the Potters Art (translat i o n o f Li tre libri dell'arte del vasaio), trans, a n d e d . R . L i g h t b o w n
a n d A . C a i g e r - S m i t h , v o l . 1 (1557; r e p r i n t , L o n d o n , 1980), fol.
67r.
12. K . O b e r h u b e r , e d . , The Illustrated Bartsch, v o l . 2 7 ( f o r m e r l y
v o l . 14, p t . 2) ( N e w Y o r k , 1978), n o s . 564-II (396), 579-II (399).

h a m , " p o i n t s t o C a s t e l D u r a n t e " ( R a c k h a m 1940, v o l . 1, n o .

13. Sir G e o f f r e y d e Bellaigue, S u r v e y o r o f t h e Q u e e n ' s W o r k s

994), as w e l l as a r o u n d t h e r i m o f a l a r g e p l a t e f r o m C a s t e l D u -

o f A r t , has, h o w e v e r , f o u n d n o i n d i c a t i o n t h a t this dish o n c e

rante of a r o u n d the mid-sixteenth century in the M u s e o Civico,

b e l o n g e d t o t h e E n g l i s h r o y a l collection ( c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h

P e s a r o ( C h i a r a 1979, n o . 79). Grisaille d r a p e r y u s e d i n a m a n n e r

t h e a u t h o r , F e b r u a r y 1988).

similar t o t h a t o n t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s e x a m p l e e l e g a n t l y

14. R a c k h a m 1959, n o . 450, pls. 208, 2 0 9 B .

f r a m i n g t h e d e c o r a t i o n i s f o u n d o n a C a s t e l D u r a n t e plate
d a t e d 1553 w i t h t h e s u b j e c t o f A p o l l o a n d D a p h n e in t h e M u s e o
C i v i c o , P e s a r o ( C h i a r a 1979, n o . 58).
3. See, f o r e x a m p l e , R a c k h a m 1940, v o l . 2, n o s . 5 3 5 - 5 3 7 , pl.
84.
4. F o r V e n e t i a n plates t h a t are similar i n b o t h s h a p e a n d d e c o ration, see A . A l v e r a B o r t o l o t t o , Storia della ceramica a

Venezia

(Florence, 1981), pls. 3 6 c - d , 43a, 46a, 4 7 a - d , 4 8 a - e , 51, 55a;


i d e m , " D u e p i t t o r i m a i o l i c a r i nella Venezia del c i n q u e c e n t o , "
Arte veneta 34 (1980), p. 154, figs. 1, 2; T. W i l s o n , " M a i o l i c a in

A CANDHUBRI

PLATE . VENICE

111

34 Basin with Deucalion and


Pyrrha (BacileTrilobato)
B y O r a z i o F o n t a n a (1510-1571) o r H i s W o r k s h o p
U r b i n o , circa 1565-1571
H : 6.3 c m (21/2in.); D i a m : 46.3 c m (18 1/4 in.)
86.DE. 5 3 9

B A S I N S OF THIS TYPE WERE MOST LIKELY USED TO

h o l d scented water, w h i c h w a s offered t o guests at the


d i n i n g table so that t h e y could w a s h their h a n d s b e t w e e n
the courses o f a meal. T h i s trilobed basin's elaborate
m o l d e d a n d p a i n t e d decoration, h o w e v e r , suggests that
it served solely f o r display. T h e t h r e e m o l d e d lobes are
painted to r e s e m b l e shells. Delicate grotesques o n a
painterly w h i t e g r o u n d fill these lobes a n d r u n a r o u n d the
r i m , w h e r e t h e y are dispersed a candelieri a r o u n d c a m e o like m e d a l l i o n s s h o w i n g single figures in silhouette. A

N o . 34, r e v e r s e

f i s h e r m a n catching a large fish, a sea n y m p h r i d i n g a sea


m o n s t e r , a n d a nereid either r i d i n g o n o r b e i n g a b d u c t e d

m u s A u r e a . O r a z i o used these so-called Raphaelesque o r

b y a t r i t o n are p a i n t e d o n a b a c k g r o u n d o f blue w a v e s

g r o t e s q u e m o t i f s to embellish increasingly large areas o f

b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e shell-like cartouches. T h e blue w a v e

his w o r k s , a n d in his later a n d m o r e " b a r o q u e " objects,

d e c o r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s o n the reverse, o n w h i c h six s w a n s

such as the M u s e u m ' s basin, g r o t e s q u e s d o m i n a t e the

are m o l d e d in relief f o l l o w i n g the c o n t o u r s o f the basin's

glaze decoration w h i l e the traditional Renaissance n a r -

three lobes. M o l d e d strap w o r k encircles each o f the three

rative scenes are relegated to medallions or cartouches. 2

pairs o f s w a n s a n d is d e c o r a t e d w i t h g e o m e t r i c patterns

N o t only the p a i n t e d e m b e l l i s h m e n t b u t also the

p r i m a r i l y in ocher, o r a n g e , a n d black, w h i c h are typical

f o r m s o f F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p ceramics reflect the n e w , o r -

o f F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p ceramics in design a n d palette.

nate style o f the m i d - s i x t e e n t h century. O r a z i o p r o d u c e d

T h e r e m a i n d e r o f the d e c o r a t i o n is executed in tones o f

ceramic w o r k s i n c l u d i n g oval trays, piatti da impagliata

ocher, yellow, blue, grayish green, yellowish green, t u r -

(parturition sets), basins, a n d j a r s i n shapes that w e r e

quoise, buff, black, a n d o p a q u e w h i t e .


T h e central boss displays the scene o f D e u c a l i o n a n d
P y r r h a ( O v i d , Metamorphoses, b k . 1,11. 315 415).1 D e u calion, s o n o f P r o m e t h e u s a n d C l y m e n e , w a s the N o a h
o f the Greeks. A f t e r s u r v i v i n g the deluge sent b y Z e u s ,
D e u c a l i o n a n d his wife, P y r r h a , w i t h d r e w to a t e m p l e o n
M o u n t Parnassus to ask t h e g o d s h o w t h e t w o m i g h t r e n e w their race. T h e oracle told the couple to cast b e h i n d
t h e m the b o n e s o f their m o t h e r . P y r r h a w a s horrified,
b u t D e u c a l i o n u n d e r s t o o d that the oracle w a s r e f e r r i n g
to their m o t h e r the earth. T h e t w o b e g a n to cast stones,
w h i c h , u p o n h i t t i n g the g r o u n d , a s s u m e d h u m a n shape.
T h e stones t h r o w n b y D e u c a l i o n b e c a m e m e n a n d those
thrown by Pyrrha became women.
O r a z i o F o n t a n a w a s o n e o f the m o s t s o u g h t - a f t e r
and i n n o v a t i v e ceramists active in m i d - s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Italy (see n o . 32). H e helped develop a n e w genre o f
maiolica decoration inspired b y Raphael's frescoes in the
Vatican Loggie, w h i c h in t u r n w e r e inspired b y antique
paintings that h a d recently b e e n rediscovered in the D o -

112

URBINO

BASIN

Deucalion and Pyrrha. F r o m O v i d , Metamorphoses

( L y o n s , 1559),

p. 23, fol. 11r. S a n t a M o n i c a , G e t t y C e n t e r f o r t h e H i s t o r y o f


A r t a n d t h e H u m a n i t i e s 85-B8407. P h o t o c o u r t e s y G e t t y C e n ter L i b r a r y Special C o l l e c t i o n s .

Medici; 5 others m a y have arrived in Florence f r o m U r bino w i t h Vittoria della Rovere, Guidobaldo's greatgranddaughter and last of the della Rovere ducal line, o n
the occasion of her marriage to Ferdinando II de' Medici
in 1637.6 This Bargello g r o u p includes f o u r trilobed basins of identical f o r m , w h i c h apparently originate f r o m
the same mold; all four are decorated primarily w i t h istoriato scenes. A l t h o u g h the M u s e u m ' s basin differs f r o m
the four in the Bargello b o t h in decoration and in shape
(it was clearly m a d e f r o m a different mold), it is stylistically consistent with the oval plates f r o m the Bargello
group, w h o s e surfaces are similarly b r o k e n u p into cavities and bosses as well as decorated w i t h Orazio's tradem a r k grotesques.
Related pieces, possibly also originally part of a d u cal collection of U r b i n o , include one in the Victoria and
Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 78-1885); 7 another f o r merly in the A d d a collection, Paris; 8 and a third f o r m e r l y
in the Schlossmuseum, Berlin. 9 T h e w o r k s m o s t closely
related to the Getty M u s e u m ' s example include basins in
the Veneziani collection, Rome, 1 0 and f o r m e r l y in the
Spitzer collection, Paris. 11 O t h e r trilobed basins of an apparently identical shape to the Getty M u s e u m ' s w o r k and
ENEA v i c o (Italian, 15231567). The Sun in a Chariot,

mid-

s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y . E n g r a v i n g , 2 4 . 7 X 19.6 c m (93/4X 7 3/4 in.).


Budapest, Szepmiiveszeti M u z e u m . P h o t o courtesy Szepmiiveszeti M u z e u m . T h e t y p e o f delicate g r o t e s q u e d e c o r a t i o n
seen i n this p r i n t w a s also a specialty o f t h e F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p .

presumably f o r m e d in similar, if not identical, molds include one in the M u s e e du Louvre, Paris (inv. OA 1467),12
and one in the British M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. MLA 1889,
9-2, 28) .13
MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: N o n e .

PROVENANCE: B a r o n A d o l p h e de Rothschild, Paris, behighly decorative, sculptural, and often fantastic, m u c h

tween 1870 and 1890; B a r o n Maurice de Rothschild,

like the elegant grotesques he favored. H e m o l d e d this

Paris, until 1916; [Duveen, N e w York]; private collec-

trilobed basin into a particularly plastic shape, emphasiz-

tion, Stuttgart; sold, R e i m a n n and Monatsberger, Stutt-

ing the object's curved, bulging quality.

gart, J a n u a r y 1986; [Alain Moatti, Paris].

T h e M u s e u m ' s basin has traditionally been t h o u g h t


to belong to a service of maiolica ware executed by O r azio for D u k e Guidobaldo II della Rovere of U r b i n o , alt h o u g h n o p r o o f of this commission has c o m e to light.

Because of its elaborate decoration and f o r m , however,


it is altogether possible, even likely, that the present bacile
did c o m e f r o m a ducal collection of U r b i n o . Stylistically,

EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .
BIBLIOGRAPHY: Antiquitaten-Zeitung,

n o . 25 (1985), p .

611.
C O N D I T I O N : B r o k e n a n d r e p a i r e d at t h e t o p a n d i n t h e

proper right lobe.

this w o r k falls easily within the years of Orazio Fontana's


activity and can therefore be dated circa 1565-1571, the
years between the opening of this artist's o w n w o r k s h o p ,

1. A c c o r d i n g t o A . H e n k e l a n d A . S c h o n e (Emblemata: Hand-

separate f r o m that of his father, and his death.

buch zur Sinnbildkunst

O n e finds the largest g r o u p of similar w o r k s , c o m prising t h i r t y - t w o objects also traditionally described as


part of the Guidobaldo II service, in the M u s e o N a z i o n -

des XVI.

und XVII.

Jahrhunderts

gart, 1976], p. 1590, f r o m N . R e u s n e r , Emblemata

[Stutt-

[Frankfurt,

1581], vol. 3, n o . 5), F o n t a n a c o p i e d this scene f r o m a w o o d c u t


b y either Virgil Solis o r J o s t A m m a n . T h i s w o o d c u t is r e p r o d u c e d i n La vita et Metamorfoseo d'Ovidio,figurato

& abbreviato in

ale, Palazzo del Bargello, Florence. 4 M a n y of these o b -

forma d'epigrammi da M. Gabriello Symeoni

jects entered the Bargello f r o m the collections of Fran-

2. T h e t y p e o f g r o t e s q u e e m b e l l i s h m e n t f a v o r e d b y t h e F o n -

cesco I, Cardinal Ferdinando, and D o n A n t o n i o de'

tanas w a s also p o p u l a r i n a n d s p r e a d b y g r a p h i c i m a g e s in t h e

114

URBINO

BASIN

(Lyons, 1559), p. 23.

s e c o n d half o f t h e sixteenth century, s u c h as t h o s e b y E n e a


Vico; see W. L. Strauss, ed., The IllustratedBartsch,

vol. 30 (for-

m e r l y vol. 15, pt. 3) ( N e w York, 1985), n o s . 4 6 7 - 4 8 9 ( 3 6 1 367).

3. M . Spallanzani, " M a i o l i c h e di U r b i n o nelle collezioni di


C o s i m o I, del C a r d i n a l e F e r d i n a n d o e di Francesco I de' M e dici," Faenza 65, n o . 4 (1979), p. i n .
4. G . C o n t i , Catalogo delle maioliche: Museo Nazionale
renze, Palazzo

di Fi-

del Bargello (Florence, 1971), n o s . 2 - 1 3 , 15, 17,

18, 21, 24, 25, 27, 34, 39, 4 4 - 4 6 , 4 8 - 5 2 , 54, 57, 58.
5. Spallanzani (note 3), p p . 111-126; i d e m , " C e r a m i c h e nelle
raccolte M e d i c e e , " Le arti del principato

Mediceo

(Florence,

1980), p p . 78, 80, 81, 84, 86.


6. G . B . Passeri, Istorie delle pitture in maiolica fatta

in Pesaro

(Venice, 1758), chap. 13; A . del Vita, " L e m a i o l i c h e nel M u s e o


C i v i c o di B o l o g n a : III. Le M a i o l i c h e M e t a u r e n s i , " Dedalo 5
(1924-1925), p p . 171, 182, n. 15; R a c k h a m 1940, n o . 846 (as
n o t e d in G. C o n t i , " L a maiolica nel M u s e o del B a r g e l l o , "
Faenza 55, n o . 3/4 [1969], p. 61, n . 9); see also C . D . E. F o r t n u m , A Descriptive

Catalogue of the Maiolica . . . in the South

Kensington Museum

( L o n d o n , 1873), p. 321; O . v o n F a l k e , Ma-

jolika (Berlin, 1907), p p . n - 1 3 ; Spallanzani ( n o t e 3), p p . I l l ,


112.
7. R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, n o . 846; 2, pl. 133.
8. R a c k h a m 1959, n o . 432, pls. 2 0 2 - 2 0 3 .
9. Falke (note 6), fig. 40; this w o r k w a s d e s t r o y e d i n 1944.
10. Bellini a n d C o n t i 1964, p. 152.
11. E. M o l i n i e r , La collection Spitzer

(Paris, 1892), n o s . 53, 54,

pi. 13.
12. G i a c o m o t t i 1974, p p . 3 5 8 - 3 6 1 , n o .

1081. T h e loose,

s k e t c h y quality o f this w o r k ' s p a i n t e d d e c o r a t i o n is typical,


h o w e v e r , o f t h e Patanazzi w o r k s h o p o f U r b i n o (circa 1 5 8 0 1625). M o r e o v e r , o n t h e r i m o f each o f t h e t h r e e lobes o n e f i n d s
the device o f t h e Ferrarese d u k e A l f o n s o II d ' E s t e : a
p y r e w i t h his m o t t o Ardetaeternum

flaming

(it b u r n s eternally) i n s c r i b e d

o n a scroll, w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t it w a s p a r t o f a service e x e c u t e d
b y t h e Patanazzi w o r k s h o p o n t h e occasion o f t h e duke's m a r riage t o M a r g a r i t a G o n z a g a in 1579. Since t h e Patanazzis copied
t h e glaze d e c o r a t i o n o f g r o t e s q u e s o n a w h i t e g r o u n d d e v e l o p e d b y t h e earlier F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p , it w o u l d n o t b e s u r p r i s i n g if t h e y h a d also copied t h e F o n t a n a maiolica shapes.
13. W i l s o n 1987, n o . 241 (as " p r o b a b l y U r b i n o , circa 1 5 7 0 80"). A c c o r d i n g t o W i l s o n , this basin is l i n k e d b y style a n d s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o t h e F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p pieces. H e has stated t h a t
t h e s w a n - m o l d f o r m o f t h e British M u s e u m e x a m p l e , w h i c h
is similar o r identical t o t h a t o f t h e G e t t y M u s e u m ' s basin, is t h e
s a m e as that used f o r t h e L o u v r e piece a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e Patanazzi
w o r k s h o p (p. 153). It is m o s t likely t h a t this f o r m o r i g i n a t e d o r
w a s m a d e p o p u l a r in t h e m o r e i n n o v a t i v e F o n t a n a w o r k s h o p
a n d w a s later c o p i e d b y t h e Patanazzi.

BASIN . URBINO

115

35 Tabletop

P o m p e i a n figures and o r n a m e n t . O n maiolica objects


such as this tabletop, however, he painted mainly landscape and genre scenes in a loose, almost sketchy style

B y Francesco Saverio II Maria G r u e (1731-1799)

emphasizing the "rustic" quality of the m e d i u m . T h e

Naples, circa 1760

decorative cartouches and intertwined vegetal motifs on

H : 3.2 c m 1 1/4 in.); D i a m : 59.7 c m (231/2in.)

the tabletop exemplify the eighteenth-century Rococo

86.DE.533

emphasis on freely handled naturalistic motifs and fanciful curvilinear f o r m s . T h e c h a r m i n g and delicate pas-

THIS

MAIOLICA

TABLETOP

IS

PAINTED

WITH

FOUR

toral scenes as well as the depictions of exotic subject

elaborate Rococo cartouches interspersed with landscape

matter such as M o o r s h u n t i n g elephants and ostriches are

scenes of birds and hares in their natural habitat, inter-

also typical of eighteenth-century Rococo. According to

t w i n i n g vegetation, and floral and fruit swags in a palette

a chronology of style established by L. Moccia, this ta-

typical of the G r u e w o r k s h o p : ocher, yellow, purple,

bletop, executed during Saverio's stay at the royal p o r -

light and dark grayish blue, black, and several shades of

celain factory, falls within his third period of production,

greenincluding grayish green, yellowish green, and

w h i c h is typified by predominantly " F r e n c h " subjects

olive g r e e n o n a creamy white g r o u n d . T h e

rendered in a delicate palette on a w h i t e ground. 6 O n e

car-

t o u c h e s c o m p o s e d of scrolls, shells, acanthuses, and

scholar has suggested that Saverio's m a t u r e style was

vegetal motifsenclose M o o r i s h and European h u n t i n g

f o r m e d as the artist, inspired by his travels abroad, at-

scenes after engravings by A n t o n i o Tempesta. 1 T h e re-

t e m p t e d to decorate maiolica w i t h the delicate designs

verse is unglazed.

m o r e typical of porcelain. 7

This w o r k is signed twice with the m o n o g r a m of

Maiolica plaques, favored by the G r u e family, w e r e

Francesco Saverio II Maria G r u e (also k n o w n simply as

developed as supremely pictorial objects f r o m an origi-

Saverio): SG o n the horse's haunch in the scene of E u -

nally functional plate f o r m . Saverio Grue's tabletop is

ropeans h u n t i n g a deer, and FSG on the horse's haunch

particularly innovative since it is an adaptation of the cir-

in the scene of M o o r s h u n t i n g ostriches. It is also in-

cular maiolica plaque to serve a functional purpose. Al-

scribed in t w o cartouches on the obverse:

t h o u g h n o other tabletops by h i m are k n o w n ,

FLAVA

two

????? ????? ?????? ???????? ????????

plaques decorated w i t h classical scenes are in a private

(blond Ceres, w h o s e hair is enwreathed w i t h grain), re-

collection, Pescara; 8 a plate by the artist in the Victoria

ferring to the R o m a n goddess w h o is protectress of ag-

and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (inv. 241-1876), is deco-

riculture and of all fruits of the earth, and FOR

rated, like this tabletop, w i t h a scenic landscape in w h i c h

TUNAE

???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???

distant figures are occupied w i t h activities of country

o w n fortune), an antique proverb.

life. 9

Saverio was the last m e m b e r of the r e n o w n e d G r u e


familylong

connected

with

the

manufacture

of

painted maiolica at Castelli, in the Italian Abruzzi reg i o n t o have played an i m p o r t a n t role in maiolica p r o duction. B o r n in Naples, he m o v e d w i t h his parents to
Castelli at the age of four and remained there for a n u m ber of years before m o v i n g back s o m e t i m e before 1749.2
In 1758 he applied to enter the royal porcelain factory at
C a p o d i m o n t e , but the factory's manager refused his application on the g r o u n d s that the technique of miniature
painting on porcelain was different f r o m that on maiolica, the m e d i u m to w h i c h he was accustomed. 3 Saverio
finally entered the royal porcelain factory, at that time

MARKS A N D I N S C R I P T I O N S : O n

obverse,

in t w o

car-

???????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????????


???????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ???

BER; o n horse's haunch in scene of Europeans h u n t i n g a


deer, SG; on horse's haunch in scene of M o o r s h u n t i n g
ostriches, FSG.
PROVENANCE: Earl of Warwick, Warwickshire; sold,
Sotheby's, London, M a r c h 4, 1986, lot 24; [Robert Williams, London],
EXHIBITIONS: N o n e .

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. Guillaumin, "Majoliques tardives: A

under Ferdinand IV,4 and appears as director of the ga-

prospecter," Connaissance des arts, no. 419 (1987), p. 12,

hinetto di pittura (painting studio) in 1773 and as director

fig. 4 .

of the tornanti (ceramists w h o w o r k e d on the potter's


w h e e l ) i n 1794. 5

In porcelain Saverio executed statuettes,

small

busts, and reliefs painted in a refined style inspired b y

116 N A P L E S

TABLETOP

CONDITION: Several chips and glaze faults.

N o . 35, detail

N o . 35, detail

N o . 35, detail

N o . 35, detail

ANTONIO TEMPESTA (Italian, 1555-1630). Deer Hunt; Ostrich Hunt; Elephant Hunt; Elephant Hunt,

1598. F r o m H u n t i n g Scenes III.

E n g r a v i n g s , each 9 . 7 X 13.7 c m (313/16X 5 3/8 in.). L o n d o n , B r i t i s h M u s e u m . P h o t o s c o u r t e s y Trustees o f t h e B r i t i s h M u s e u m .

b r u z z o , " Rassegna di studi e di notizie: Castello Sforzesco 9, n o . 8


1. T h e t w o f i g u r e s i n t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f Saverio's deer h u n t
scene are b a s e d o n t h e t w o f i g u r e s in t h e f o r e g r o u n d o f T e m pesta's Deer Hunt, f r o m H u n t i n g Scenes III (W. L. Strauss, ed.,
The Illustrated Bartsch, vol. 37 [ f o r m e r l y vol. 17, pt. 4] [ N e w
Y o r k , 1984], n o . 1115 [166]); t h e c a r t o u c h e d i s p l a y i n g an ostrich

(1981), p p . 3 9 9 - 4 4 0 .

2. L. M o c c i a , Le antiche maioliche di Castelli d'Abruzzo

(Rome,

1968), p. 24.
3. C . M i n i e r i - R i c c i o , Gliartefici

( N a p l e s , 1878), p. 26, cited in

A . W. F r o t h i n g h a m , Capodimonte

and Buen Retiro

Porcelains

h u n t is b a s e d o n Tempesta's e n g r a v i n g Ostrich Hunt, f r o m t h e

( N e w Y o r k , 1955), p. 50, n. 2.

s a m e series (no. 1108 [166]); t h e e l e p h a n t h u n t scene is a c o n -

4. T h e B o u r b o n C a p o d i m o n t e f a c t o r y closed i n 1759, and the

also

royal f a c t o r y r e o p e n e d i n B u e n R e t i r o , M a d r i d , u n d e r C h a r l e s

f r o m H u n t i n g Scenes III (nos. 1110 [166], 1114 [166]). A l -

III a y e a r later. C h a r l e s ' son, F e r d i n a n d IV, o p e n e d a royal p o r -

t h o u g h t h e s o u r c e has y e t to b e identified, it is likely t h a t t h e

celain f a c t o r y i n 1771 i n t h e Reale Villa di Portici.

flation o f t w o separate e n g r a v i n g s entitled Elephant Hunt,

deer h u n t in t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f this c a r t o u c h e is based o n a n -

5. U . T h i e m e a n d F. B e c k e r , Allgemeines

o t h e r T e m p e s t a e n g r a v i n g . T h e final c a r t o u c h e scene, a b o a r

Kiinstler, vol. 15 (Leipzig, 1907), p . 124; o t h e r sources indicate

h u n t , is also likely t o b e b a s e d o n o n e o r m o r e T e m p e s t a h u n t

t h a t Saverio b e c a m e d i r e c t o r o f t h e tornanti in 1796 ( M o c c i a

e n g r a v i n g s ( b o a r h u n t s w e r e a f a v o r i t e subject o f t h e e n g r a v e r ) .

[note 2], p . 24).

F o r a discussion o f T e m p e s t a e n g r a v i n g s as sources f o r a Sevres

6. M o c c i a (note 2), p p . 2 4 - 2 5 .

p l a q u e a n d a plate a t t r i b u t e d t o C a n d e l o r o C a p p e l l e t t i o f C a s -

7. S. Levy, Maiolichesettecentesche,

telli, see B . J e s t a z , " L e s m o d e l e s d e l a m a j o l i q u e h i s t o r i e e , " Ga-

63.

Lexikon

der bildenden

vol. 2 (Milan, 1964), p p . 6 2 -

zette des beaux-arts 81 ( F e b r u a r y 1973), pp. 1 1 7 - 1 1 8 , figs. 1 9 -

8. Ibid., pls. 80, 81.

22; f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n o f i c o n o g r a p h i c sources f o r Castelli

9. A . Gonzalez-Palacios, ed., Antiquariato

maiolica, i n c l u d i n g T e m p e s t a e n g r a v i n g s , see F. M o r o , " A l -

657, pl. 2; R a c k h a m 1940, vols. 1, p p . 3 8 2 - 3 8 3 , n o . 1152; 2, pl.

c u n e f o n t i i c o n o g r a f i c h e delle m a i o l i c h e dei Castelli d ' A -

184.

(Milan, 1981), p.

TABLET OP . N A P L E S

119

36 Pilgrim Flask (Fiasca da


Pellegrino)
Soft-paste porcelain
Florence; circa 1575-1587
H : 26.4 c m (10 3/8 in.); D i a m (at lip): 4 c m(19/16in.); m a x .
W : 20 c m (7 7/8 in.)
86.DE.630
NOT

OF T I N - G L A Z E D E A R T H E N W A R E ,

THIS FLASK IS

instead o n e o f the earliest examples of porcelain p r o duced in Europe. 1 It is nevertheless closely related to R e naissance maiolica in that it b o r r o w s its decorative idio m s and continues the tradition of ceramic p r o d u c t i o n as
an art f o r m initiated b y the maiolica masters of the early
Renaissance. B y the late sixteenth century maiolica
w a r e s h a d b e g u n t o decline in popularity a m o n g the affluent,

and in response to the c o n t i n u i n g d e m a n d for

novelty, porcelain c a m e t o d o m i n a t e the m a r k e t f o r l u x urious ceramics.


T h i s flask is o n e of t h e exceedingly scarce wares
p r o d u c e d in the M e d i c i porcelain factory; r o u g h l y sixty
o f these objects r e m a i n today. Characteristic of these
Medici porcelain w a r e s are the signs o f their e x p e r i m e n tal nature: the w h i t e clay base o f t e n displays a p i n k or gray
cast; the glaze is f r e q u e n t l y blurred, w i t h small bubbles
or a w i d e crackle; a n d the clay b o d y s o m e t i m e s sagged
o u t of shape w h e n the object w a s fired. T h e M u s e u m ' s
flask is an exceptionally beautiful piece, since it displays
the finest qualities o f M e d i c i porcelain, including a well-

N o . 36, a l t e r n a t e v i e w

f o r m e d , translucent w h i t e b o d y decorated w i t h clear designs in blue underglaze evidencing a restrained and sensitive t o u c h .
This flask m o s t likely served as a display piece. T h e
applied side loops, certainly never used to suspend the
object f r o m a pilgrim's shoulder, assume the f o r m of
g r o t e s q u e masks, reflecting the influence o f c o n t e m p o r aneous maiolica wares (see n o . 32). T h e blue arabesques
and the stylized floral embellishment including rose, carnation, tulip, and palmette m o t i f s are derived f r o m T u r k ish Iznik w a r e dating f r o m a b o u t 1500.2
T h e m o s t p o w e r f u l influence f o r the glaze decoration of this flask, h o w e v e r , c a m e f r o m C h i n e s e b l u e - a n d w h i t e porcelain of the early M i n g dynasty (1368-1644).
T h i s translucent M i n g porcelain w a s a particular favorite
in Italy, partly because it appeared t o unite characteristics
of b o t h p o t t e r y (sturdiness, colorfulness) and glass (ref i n e m e n t , translucency), t w o crafts Italian artists had
mastered b y the late fifteenth century. 3 Indeed Italian
maiolica ceramists w e r e sufficiently aware of these

120

FLORENCE . PILGRIM

FLASK

N o . 36, u n d e r s i d e

Chinese wares to attempt to imitate t h e m in their alla por-

to detail. T h e other flasks are u n m a r k e d , although the

cellana earthenware decoration (see, for example, no. 21).

underside of one of the Louvre flasks (inv. OA 3103) is

In the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries Ve-

inscribed w i t h the w o r d prova (trial), indicating that it

netian potters endeavored to manufacture porcelain, b u t


the rare examples that remain appear to be n o t h i n g m o r e
than a porcellana contrefatta (counterfeit porcelain) of
o p a q u e w h i t e lattimo glass painted with enamel colors. 4
C o n t e m p o r a r y sources suggest that Ferrarese potters
produced porcelain in the 1560s and 1570s, although
n o n e of these vessels have been identified, and a recipe of

was probably an early experimental piece.'


MARKS AND INSCRIPTIONS: O n u n d e r s i d e , t h e d o m e o f

Santa Maria del Fiore accompanied by F; a m a r k resembling 3 scratched u n d e r the glaze and painted w i t h blue
glaze; on rim, three hatch marks(?) inscribed before glaze
firing.

1583 f r o m Ferrara in the M o d e n a archives identifies the

PROVENANCE: William Spence, Florence, until 1857;

"porcelain" material as m a d e of the same w h i t e tin glaze

purchased by Alessandro Foresi in 1857; subsequently

and fine clay that w e r e used to m a k e earthenware

sold to Giovanni Freppa, Florence, and then to Eugene

maiolica. 5

Piot, Paris (sold, Paris, M a r c h 19, 1860, lot 82, to Al-

After he had purchased the Palazzo Pitti in 1550,

phonse de Rothschild); Baron Alphonse de Rothschild,

Grand D u k e C o s i m o I de' Medici built w o r k s h o p s be-

Paris; Baron E d o u a r d de Rothschild, Paris; Baron G u y

hind it to encourage the recondite arts of tapestry w e a v -

and Baroness Marie-Helene de Rothschild, Paris.

ing, crystal carving, pietra dura mosaic, and porcelain


production. B e r n a r d o Buontalenti was apparently the
supervisor for m o s t of the grand duke's artistic ventures,

E X H I B I T I O N S : Exposition

retrospective

Paris,

du Trocadero,

1878.

although Giorgio Vasari, writing of Buontalenti in 1568,

BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Jacquemart,

predicted that he "will be m a k i n g vessels of porcelain in

Medicis," Gazette des beaux-arts 3 (December 1859), p.

a short t i m e , " indicating that n o n e yet existed. O n l y after

276; A. Jacquemart and E. Le Blant, Histoire artistique, in-

"La porcelaine

des

the grand duke's death in 1574 was porcelain finally p r o -

dustrielle

duced in the Boboli Garden w o r k s h o p s under the pa-

no. 5; A. Foresi, Sulleporcellane medicee (Florence, 1869),

tronage of his son, Francesco I. In 1575 Andrea Gussoni,

pp. 15ff., 29 (erroneously lists Baron Gustave de R o t h -

a Venetian ambassador to Florence, w r o t e that Francesco

schild, Paris, as owner), reprint f r o m Piovani

had rediscovered the m e t h o d of m a k i n g porcelain and

(July 1859); H . Darcel, "Les faiences franqaises etles p o r -

et commerciale

(Paris, 1862), p . 644,

de la porcelaine

Arlotto

that a "Levantine" (elsewhere referred to as "a Greek

celaines a u T r o c a d e r o , " Gazette

w h o had traveled to the Indies") helped indicate h o w to

v e m b e r 1878), p. 762; M . le Baron Davillier, Les origines

produce it. 6 This porcelain p r o d u c t i o n apparently con-

de la porcelaine en Europe (Paris, 1882), pp. 3 9 - 4 1 , 1 1 4 -

18 ( N o -

des beaux-arts

tinued for a few decades following Francesco's death in

115, n o . 2 9 ; C . d e G r o l l i e r , Manuel

1587, after which, surprisingly, almost a century passed

laine (Paris, 1914), no. 2309; S. de Ricci, "La porcelaine

before soft-paste porcelain was revived at R o u e n b y

d e s M e d i c i s , " i n Faenza,

Louis Poterat in 1673and later at Saint-Cloud.

miche:

L'opera

Museo

d'un decennio,

de I'amateur

Internazionale

1908-1918

de

delle

porce-

Cera-

(1918), p . 29, n o .

O n e finds the largest collections of Medici porcelain

22 (also states erroneously that flask belonged to Baron

in the Victoria and Albert M u s e u m , L o n d o n (nine

Gustave de Rothschild and was passed to his son, R o b -

pieces); the M u s e e National de Ceramique, Sevres (eight

ert);

pieces); the British M u s e u m , L o n d o n (four pieces); and

(Faenza, 1936), p. 31, no. 28; A. Lane, Italian Porcelain

G.

Liverani,

Catalogo

delle

porcellane

dei

Medici

the Metropolitan M u s e u m of Art, N e w York (four

(London, 1954), p. 5, pl. 3c; C . le Corbeiller, "A Medici

pieces).8 O n l y three other Medici porcelain pilgrim flasks

Porcelain Pilgrim Flask," GettyMusJ 16 (1988).

are k n o w n to exist: t w o are in the Musee du Louvre,


Paris, and display typically Chinese-influenced landscape decoration; one is in the Victoria and Albert M u seum, L o n d o n , w i t h a candelieri grotesque decoration
and, like the present w o r k , applied masks for the lateral
loops. O n l y the Getty M u s e u m ' s flask displays the M e dici porcelain factory m a r k of a cathedral d o m e and the
letter F (for Francesco I de' Medici) o n the underside.
Here, moreover, the cathedral-dome m a r k is particularly
large and beautifully painted, with exceptional attention

122

FLORENCE . PILGRIM

FLASK

CONDITION: A small chip on the r i m of the foot, which


occurred after the bisque firing but before glaze had been
applied. (That the ceramists f o u n d no need to m e n d or
redo the chipped b o d y is p r o o f that they were well satisfied with such a successfully f o r m e d and fired, albeit
blemished, object in this experimental medium.)

1. F o r a concise discussion o f t h e h i s t o r y a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f
M e d i c i porcelain a n d its appeal in s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Italy, see
R . L i g h t b o w n , " L ' e s o t i s m o , " i n G . B o l l a t i a n d P. Fossati, eds.,
Storia dell'arte italiana, pt. 3, vol. 3 (Turin, 1981), p p . 4 5 8 - 4 6 5 .
2. See, f o r e x a m p l e , R a c k h a m 1959, pls.- 2 0 - 9 6 ; C . Fiocco et
al., Storia dell'arte ceramica ( B o l o g n a , 1986), p p . 6 6 - 6 9 ; G . S a v age a n d H . N e w m a n , An Illustrated History of Ceramics

(Lon-

d o n , 1985), p. 159.
3. For an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Medicis' l o v e f o r a n d e x t e n s i v e
collections o f E a s t e r n , especially C h i n e s e , ceramics, see M .
Spallanzani, " C e r a m i c h e nelle raccolte M e d i c e e , " in Le arte del
principato Mediceo (Florence, 1980), p p . 7 3 - 9 4 ; a c c o r d i n g t o t h e
d o c u m e n t s p u b l i s h e d there, t h e M e d i c i s ' collection o f C h i n e s e
ceramics far e x c e e d e d their collection o f n a t i v e (Faentine a n d
Urbinate) ware.
4. G . L o r e n z e t t i , " U n a fiaschetta veneziana di v e t r o ' l a t t i m o '
dei p r i m i del secolo X V I , " Dedalo 1 (1920), p. 248; R . S c h m i d t ,
Das Glas (Berlin, 1922), fig. 56.
5. L a n e 1954, p p . 2 - 3 .
6. Ibid., p. 3.
7. A c u r i o u s a d d e n d u m t o M e d i c i p o r c e l a i n p r o d u c t i o n b e f o r e
t h e late s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y consists o f t w o small b o w l s i n t h e
Victoria a n d A l b e r t M u s e u m , L o n d o n , i n s c r i b e d I. G . P . F . 1627
and G.G.P.F.

1638, a n d a small b o w l in V i e n n a i n s c r i b e d

I.G.

1629(ibid., p p . 6 - 7 , figs. 4 a - b ) . P o s s i b l y e x e c u t e d i n P a d u a ,
these u n u s u a l b o w l s display q u a l i t i e s w h i t e n e s s , thinness,
h a r d n e s s , a n d t r a n s l u c e n c y t h a t are v e r y similar t o t h o s e o f
porcelain. W h e t h e r these w o r k s are s i m p l y v e r y t h i n e x a m p l e s
o f h i g h - q u a l i t y maiolica o r o t h e r early e x p e r i m e n t s in p o r c e lain has yet t o b e established. T h e i r floral d e c o r a t i o n a n d h a r d ,
w h i t e bodies, h o w e v e r , w e r e u n d o u b t e d l y i n f l u e n c e d b y N e a r
a n d Far E a s t e r n m o d e l s .
8. M o s t o f t h e M e d i c i porcelain objects k n o w n t o exist are r e p r o d u c e d in G . C o r a a n d A . Fanfani, La porcellana dei Medici
(Milan, 1986).
9. O t h e r M e d i c i porcelain m a r k s i n c l u d e F s u r r o u n d e d b y the
letters M. M. D. E. II, f o r " F r a n c i s c u s M e d i c i s M a g n u s D u x
E t r u r i a e S e c u n d u s " (on a e w e r in t h e L o u v r e ) , a n d six balls i n scribed FMMED

II, f o r " F r a n c i s c u s M e d i c i s M a g n u s E t r u -

riae D u x S e c u n d u s " (on a plate in t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n M u s e u m


o f A r t and o n a large e w e r in t h e B a r o n Elie d e R o t h s c h i l d collection, Paris).

PILGRIM

FLASK

FLORENCE

123

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PROFILES

In all cases the scale is 1:4.

N o . 2 (85.DE.441)

N o . 22 (84.DE. 1 10)

N o . 23 (84.DE. 111)

N o . 3 1 (84.DE. 118)

N o . 30 (84.DE. 117)

125

N o . 15 (84.DE. 103)

N o . 26 (84.DE. 1 13)

N o . 33 (84.DE. 120)

126

N o . 4 (84. DE. 94)

N o . 20 (84.DE. 108)

N o . 18 (84.DE. 106)

N o . 21 (84.DE. 109)

N o . 19 (84.DE. 107)

N o . 29 (84.DE 116)

PROFILES

No.

34

(86.DE.539)

N o . 2 7 ( 8 4 . D E . 1 14)

PROFILES

127