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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014

17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS AND


COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)
ISSN 0976 6464(Print)
ISSN 0976 6472(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 117-126
IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/IJECET.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2836 (Calculated by GISI)
www.jifactor.com

IJECET
IAEME

INTELLIGENT STUDENTS TRACKING SYSTEM IN CAMPUS BASED ON


RFID AND ZIGBEE
P.S.Kiran Kumar1,
1

Dr. Shankaraiah2

(Assistant Professor in E & E Engineering, VVIET, Mysore, Karnataka, India)


2
(Professor, Dept. of E & C Engineering, SJCE, Mysore, Karnataka, India)

ABSTRACT
With the rapid increase in the number of institutions as well as number of students in every
institution, it is very difficult to monitor whether the students are attending the classes as per the time
table or not. Even the students are in the campus but not present in the classes during the class hour.
In the existing system, presence of students in the class is being monitored by taking attendance
manually in the class. In this paper, we propose an intelligent student tracking system based on RFID
and ZigBee wireless network. The proposed system reads the RFID tags data through RFID reader,
and then sends it to PC node by a custom wireless protocol on the ZigBee. PC node gives
corresponding warning or hints by the result of matching master-slave RFID tag information. Here
each and every student is assigned with different RFID tags with individual tags numbers and the
RFID readers are placed in campus at different locations which identifies the persons coming to that
location by reading tag numbers of the students and intimates to the control room about their status.
Keywords: Microcontroller, RFID, Student Tracking, Zigbee.
1. INTRODUCTION
As the number of institutions as well as the number of students in each institution is
increasing it is harder to monitor the presence of students in class during the class hours. In existing
system students should be monitored continuously whether they are attending the classes or not
manually in the classes by means of taking attendance but there are many chances of student
escaping from different ways.
In the proposed paper, an intelligent campus student tracking system will be designed and
implemented based on the RFID and ZigBee network which keeps track of where the student moves
with in the campus. The system reads the RFID tags data through RFID reader, and then sends it to
PC node by a custom wireless protocol using ZigBee. PC node gives corresponding warning by

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

verifying with the time table stored in the database and updates the report table appropriately if the
student is anywhere else other than classroom during class hours.
Here each and every student is assigned with different RFID tags with individual tags
numbers and the RFID reader are placed in campus at different locations which identifies the
students moving from place to place automatically by reading tag numbers of the students and
intimates to the central server about their status.
The proposed system would help to keep track of whether the students are regularly attending
the classes or not. The main aim of this paper is to keep track of students movement within the
campus and also to provide a warning / update report table if student is outside the classroom during
class hours as per the timetable stored in the database.
2. RELATED WORKS
Intelligent campus security tracking system (iCST) [1] was designed and implemented based
on RFID and ZigBee network. iCST reads the RFID tags data through RFID & ZigBee node, and
then sends it to PC node. PC node gives corresponding warning. When the warning occurs, user can
logon the web system to get the real-time tracking for valuables (with embedded slave RFID); where
the thief arrives any one access control node, it would be blocked. User can also manage his own
valuables such as lending and recovery operation through the Web manager centre.
Traditional methods of monitoring production in enterprises by humans on site are unable to
meet the expectations for efficiency, accuracy and cost as product lifecycles are shortened
continuously. Setting up an RFID and ZigBee based manufacturing monitoring system [2] is a good
approach to improve monitoring efficiency so as to improve management efficiency in enterprises.
RFID technology has been used to provide a more efficient way to identify and track items at
the various stages throughout the supply chain [3] in large retail industry. Real time traceability using
RFID technology on Lego Robot simulation environment and LabVIEW interface was developed
that can be similarly implemented in small and medium scale (SMI) industry.
Provides an overview of different services deployed in intra-organizational RFID [4] systems
and analyzes system architectures implemented today. We also compare emerging standards
developed by the EPC global community that aim to standardize system interfaces and reader
protocols in RFID deployments.
RFID and ZigBee based system architecture at the network level for tracking the vehicle
information [5] which has been sent to the centralized server will be developed. The aim is to
provide a simple and easy solution to track the location of the moving vehicle. Compared to the old
systems, ZigBee based network architecture is able to provide information about the vehicle
accurately. The vehicle will be having a unique RFID tag (Radio Frequency Identification). The
RFID reader is placed in particular places. For the beneficial features of RFID, we integrate RFID
readers into the Vehicle tracking Information System.
An information protection system [6] (named PC-guard) using systems engineering and
RFID technology. The login verification code can be notified in advance by using the PC-guard
system because every PC user having their own Auto-tag will be checked with PC RFID reader. The
information in the PC will be protected with RFID and the vibration sensor as the PC be turned on
and be invaded.
A Digital Campus Security System (DCST) [7] has been designed and implemented base on
the RFID, ZigBee and GSM network. DCST reads the RFID tags and sends information to PC node
through ZigBee network and gives alerts through GSM network. If any invalid RFID (Thief)
information comes into PC, user will logon the web system to get the real-time tracking for
valuables.
RFID based attendance system [8] is one of the solution for reducing the students overall
academic performance since taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

consuming and inefficient. This system can automatically capture students attendance by flashing
their card at RFID reader and save data in the PC.
In the proposed paper, the students will be continuously monitored for their presence in the
class room during the class hours. If he is in any other location other than class room during class
hours as per the time table stored in the database, a warning will be provided as well as the report
table will be updated for history purpose.
3. PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
In the proposed system, following 4 different locations like Class Room, Canteen,
Entrance and Rest Room are considered where RFID readers are placed. Every student shall be
provided with an RFID tag, which he needs to keep with him all the time, while he is in the campus.
He will not be able to operate any doors (Entrance, Class Room, Rest Room, and Canteen) without
the RFID cards.
The front end HMI screen will be provided to manage the student database, Time table and
the report containing the information about presence of student in various places other than class
during class hours as per the time table.
The RFID readers placed at different locations, are connected to the serial ports of the
microcontroller. The microcontroller validates the data received by the RFID readers and sends the
RFID & location through Zigbee wireless network to the PC.
The Application program in the PC validates the RFID students information with the time
table data stored. If student is present in any location other than Class Room during class hours as
per time table, the students information will be updated in to the report database.
The proposed system architecture diagram is as shown in below figure Fig.1

RFID Reader
Location 0
CLASS ROOM

Zigbee Transmitter

Zigbee Reciever

RFID Reader
Location 1
CANTEEN

RFID Reader
Location 2
ENTRANCE
ARM Controller
RFID Reader
Location 3
REST ROOM

Figure 1: System Architecture Diagram


4. PROPOSED SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
The proposed system is implemented using following components:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

LPC 2148 ARM Controller


RFID Readers NSK 125 Series
ZigBee Transreceivers CC2500
PC Node
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

4.1 LPC2148 ARM Controller


ARM7 LPC2148 [9] is ARM7TDMI-S core board microcontroller that uses 16/32-bit 64 pin
from Philips (NXP). All resources inside LPC2148 is quite perfect, so it is the most suitable to learn
and study. If user can learn and understand the applications of all resources inside MCU well, it
makes user development easier and can develop many excellent applications. The development
board is as shown in below figure Fig.2
4.1.1 Technical specifications:
Processor
: LPC2148
Clock speed : 12MHz
Red LED
: Power Indicator
Power
: 7 15V AC / DC at 500mA
Voltage Regulator: 5V on board

Figure 2: LPC 2148 Development Board


4.2 RFID Readers NSK125 Series
The NSK125 series RFID Proximity OEM Reader Module [10] has a built-in antenna in
minimized form factor. It is designed to work on the industry standard carrier frequency of 125 kHz.
The RF reader module with an internal or an external antenna facilitates communication with ReadOnly transponderstype UNIQUE or TK5530 via the air interface. The tag data is sent to the host
systems via the wired communication interface with a protocol selected from the module Both TTl
and Wiegend Protocol.
The RF module is best suited for applications in Access Control, Time and Attendance, Asset
Management, Handheld Readers, Immobilizers, and other RFID enabled applications. The RFID
reader is as shown in below figure Fig.3.

Figure 3: RFID Reader Module


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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

The RF module is best suited for applications in Access Control, Time and Attendance, Asset
Management, Handheld Readers, Immobilizers, and other RFID enabled applications. The RFID
reader is as shown in below figure Fig.3.
4.3 ZigBee Transreceivers CC2500
CC2500 RF Module [11] is a transreceiver module which provides easy to use RF
communication at 2.4GHz. It can be used to transmit and receive data at 9600 baud rates from any
standard CMOS / TTL source. This module is a direct line in replacement for serial communication
and it requires no extra hardware and no extra coding works in Half Duplex mode i.e. it provides
communication in both directions, but only one direction at same time. The ZigBee module is as
shown in below figure Fig.4.
4.3.1 Features
 Supports Multiple Baud Rates (9600)
 Works on ISM band (2.4GHz)
 No complex wireless connection software or internal knowledge of RF required to connect
serial devices
 Designed to be as easy to use as cables
 No external antenna required
 Plug and play device
 Works on 5V DC supply
4.3.2 Specifications

Input Voltage - 5V DC

Baud Rate - 9600

RS 232 Interface and TTL Interface

Range Max 30m Line of Sight

Figure 4: ZigBee Module

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

4.4 PC Node
PC node contains:






The PostgreSQL 8.4 database to store the students information, Timetable information and
report information.
The NetBeans IDE is used to develop the application in Java.
Keil Vision is used to develop firmware for LPC 2148 controller
Provides power supply to ZigBee module through USB port
The ZigBee is connected to PC through USB to Serial converter module

4.5 Sequence of operation


The sequential flow of system operations are described in following steps





When student swipes his RFID card in any location, the RFID reads sends the RFID
information to the microcontroller
Microcontroller then validates the RFID information, adds up the location ID and sends it to
PC through ZigBee wireless network
The application in PC receives the RFID & location information, retrieves the time table to
verify the class timings
If student is present in any location other than class room during class hours as retrieved from
the time table, then the corresponding information will be updated to reports database.

5. RESULTS
HMI screens to manage students data is as shown in below figures Fig.5 & Fig.6. Fig.5 is used
to add new students data while Fig. 6 is used to edit / update the existing students data.

Figure 5: Add Student Data

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Figure 6: Edit Student data


HMI screen to enter the time table data is shown in below figure Fig.7. The weekly timetable
is updated in to the database using this screen.

Figure 7: Time Table


The time table data entered during testing is as shown in below figure Fig.8. The data is
entered using the HMI screen shown above in figure Fig.7.

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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

Figure 8: Time Table


When the student is present in any location other than class room during class hours as per time
table is presented as a warning as well as will be updated in the report table as shown in below
figures Fig.9 & Fig.10.

Figure 9: Warning message Pop-up

Figure 10: Report Database


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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
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6. CONCLUSION
As seen from the results, with the intelligent Campus Student Tracking System, we can track
and maintain a history of the students movement in various locations within the campus, during
class hours. This in-turn helps in improves the attendance of students in class room during class
hours.
Also History of the students absenteeism can be maintained in the report table over a period
of time (may be for a semester). If the student is not attending the classes, then from the data stored
in report database, parents can be updated with their wards history. Also an absenteeism report can
be sent to parents at regular intervals.
Implementation of this application is easier in the new upcoming institutions. The RFID
readers can be placed at suitable locations near the entrance of class rooms, library, rest room etc.
Even in the existing institutions also this can be implemented with additional work / cost.
Future Scope
Limitation of this project is that the student may skip showing of RFID cards at the RFID
reader location. A group of student may enter together, once one RFID is presented to the RFID
reader and the door opens. To avoid this in future, a camera can be installed at the entrance. The
students photo would also be captured in the database along with RFID tag. If a student enters any
location with-out swiping the RFID tag, then the camera can capture his photo, carry out image
processing and compare with the photo stored in database. Get their corresponding RFID tag and
present location. If a mismatch is found with respect to present location obtained from database and
the current location from RFID reader and camera, a warning message can be sent to the student as
well as any suitable actions can be taken.
Also with ZigBee, maximum distance for wireless communication is around 100 mtrs. If the
distance needs to be increased then networked ZigBee topology should be employed. This
Networked ZigBee topology affects the response time.
7. REFERENCES
Journal Papers
[1] Ying Chen; Yuntao Wang; Xiaokang Li; Li Gao, "The design and implementation of
intelligent campus security tracking system based on RFID and ZigBee," Mechanic
Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), 2011 Second International Conference on,
vol., no., pp.1749,1752, 15-17 July 2011.
[2] QiangRuan; Wensheng Xu; Gaoxiang Wang, "RFID and ZigBee based manufacturing
monitoring system," Electric Information and Control Engineering (ICEICE), 2011
International Conference on, vol., no., pp.1672, 1675, 15-17 April 2011.
[3] Elshayeb, S.A., Bin Hasnan, K., Chua Yik Yen, RFID technology and ZigBee networking in
improving supply chain traceability Instrumentation, Communications, Information
Technology, and Biomedical Engineering (ICICI-BME), 2009 IEEE International Conference
[4] Floerkemeier C., Sarma S., An Overview of RFID System Interfaces and Reader Protocols,
RFID, 2008 IEEE International Conference.
[5] Anuradha, P.; Sendhilkumar, R., "Design and implementation of zigbee-RFID based vehicle
tracking," Sustainable Energy and Intelligent Systems (SEISCON 2011), International
Conference on , vol., no., pp.689,694, 20-22 July 2011.
[6] Kuan, J. H.; Chang, J.; Ho, J., "A development of information protection system using system
engineering and RFID technology," System Science and Engineering (ICSSE), 2010
International Conference on, vol., no., pp.427,432, 1-3 July 2010.
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Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Current Trends in Engineering and Management ICCTEM -2014
17 19, July 2014, Mysore, Karnataka, India

[7] Anil BabuPurella, Implementation of Digital Campus Security System based on RFID,
ZigBee and GSM ISSN: 2230-7109 (Online) ISSN: 2230-9543 (Print), IJECT Vol. 3, Issue 4,
Oct Dec 2012.
[8] Ankita Agrawal, Ashish Bansal, Online Attendance Management System using RFID with
Object Counter ISSN 0974-2239, Vol. 3, No. 3 (2013), pp. 131-138.
Data sheets
[9] Data sheets and the user manuals of LPC2148.
[10] Data sheets for RFID Readers NSK125 series.
[11] Data sheets for CC2500 ZigBee Module.

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