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International

Journal of Electronics and Communication


& Technology (IJECET),
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNALEngineering
OF ELECTRONICS
ANDISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)

ISSN 0976 6464(Print)


ISSN 0976 6472(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64
IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/IJECET.asp
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2836 (Calculated by GISI)
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IJECET
IAEME

DIGITAL WATERMARKING ON MEDICAL


IMAGES USING DWT
Jatin Malhan1,

Dr. Anil Kumar Sharma2

M. Tech. Scholar1, Professor & Principal2


Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Institute of Engineering & Technology, Alwar-301030 (Raj.), India

ABSTRACT
In traditional handling of medical records, the patient information and his/her test reports are
kept in different tables or databases or locations. But this type of data management is vulnerable to
human oriented errors. For example, transfer of wrong report to a patient may prove fatal to his/her
health or even his/her life. To avoid this, we suggest hiding the patient information in the test report
itself. It will improve the reliability of medical information system. This is the fundamental idea
behind the presented work. Another noteworthy point is that medical images are very sensitive. So,
while hiding the patient record, care should be taken that this process does not alter or harm the
medical data in the patient record, to avoid the wrong diagnosis. In the presented work, the medical
image is divided into two parts: foreground and background. We differentiate between the two parts
on the basis of adaptive threshold approach. Foreground is the sensitive part and so we use the
background to hide the patient record. For data hiding a DWT based approach is used. For the
evaluation of the final result we use two parameters: MSE and PSNR. The system is also tested
under various attacks which an image can be subjected to.
Keywords: DWT, PSNR, MSE, Extraction, Watermarking.
1. INTRODUCTION
The popularity of electronic media for communication is increasing day by day. Due to this,
secure communication has become an important task in electronic media. Today large techniques are
available with different technologies to provide authentication for the secure communication. Using
authentication as our basis we can find out the authorized user. One of the techniques available for
digital data authentication is encryption which is also called traditional method of authentication.
Watermarking is another significant technique which is available to us. In digital watermarking, we
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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

hide some logo or data in the given image for the purpose of the authenticity of the original data
[1-2]. Generally, to protect the copyright we go for robust watermarking and to verify the
authenticity we go for fragile and semi-fragile watermarking [3-4]. Providing authentication is not an
easy job. It throws so many challenges at us. For example, the watermark embedding algorithm
should not degrade the quality of the original digital media. The watermark should be embedded in a
very secure way so that it can't be removed illegally [5-10]. Digital watermarks can be classified into
two types: Visible and Invisible. This classification is based on the visibility of the watermark to the
casual viewer. Visible watermarks are similar in usage to the bond papers. In bond papers, opacity of
the paper is changed by physically stamping it with an identifying pattern. This marks the
manufacturer of the paper or type of the paper. Such watermarks give rise to digitally stamped
documents. Whereas, invisible watermarks are used to identify the source, author, creator, owner,
distributor or authorized consumer of a document or image. For this usage, the aim is to permanently
mark the image so that the credit is beyond dispute. If there is illegal usage the watermark will
facilitate the claim of ownership. Both visible and invisible watermarks serve to stop theft but their
methodologies are different. The objective of visible watermarks is to convey an immediate claim of
ownership. The main plus point of visible watermark is that they virtually eliminate the commercial
value of the document to a would-be thief without decreasing the documents usage for legal
purposes. An example of visible watermark is found in television networks. TV channels place their
logo on the screen image. Whereas, invisible watermarks, are more of a help in catching the thief.
2. WATERMARKING PROCESS
Watermarking is about to hide some information in a way so that unauthorized person will
not be able to extract this information. It is difficult for a person to extract this information. A
standard watermarking scheme adapted by any multimedia data is shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Basic Watermarking Process


Here figure 1 is showing the basic Watermarking process, which requires main multimedia
object that can be image, audio or the video. The Multimedia Object (MO) is the actual digital
content that provider wants to authenticate. The secret data (WO) is the actual digital information or
the signature that represents the owners authenticity and owner want to hide this information in
multimedia object. If the owner also wants to secure this information some cryptography mechanism
can also incorporated with watermarking process. This cryptographic operation will be handled by
using some secret key (SK). This cryptographic process is optional so that defined in dotted
rectangular box [11][12][13]. As the Watermarking process is performed over these input operations,
finally single Stego object will be obtained. In the equational form the Watermarking process is
given as
SO = Watermarking (MO, WO)
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(i)

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

It shows watermarking process without incorporating cryptographic process. To have security


along with robustness, cryptographic process can also be embedded as shown in Eqn. (ii).
SO = Watermarking (MO, WO, SK)

(ii)

The recovery process from the Stego Object (SO) is reversed to the Watermarking process
and the Watermarking recovery model is shown in figure 2.

Figure 2: Watermarking Recovery Process


As we can see, the major input to the process is the Watermarked object (SO). Now to check
the authenticity or to verify the existence of a particular hidden object (WO) we need the availability
of the original Multimedia object (MO) or the Watermarking Object. If the authentication of the
Watermarking process is done under cryptographic approach, there is the requirement of relative
secret key. As the recovery process is performed, the actual Watermarking will be obtained or the
proof of its existence will be obtained [14-15]. The recovery process is shown in Eqn. (iii) & in case
of cryptographic authentication, the recovery process is given by using equaition (iv).
ConfidenceMeasure = WatermarkingRecovery (SO, WO)

(iii)

ConfidenceMeasure = WatermarkingRecovery (SO, WO, SK)

(iv)

3. PROPOSED WORK
Here figure 3 is showing the basic model used by Watermarking approach. As we can see,
the work starts with the input in the form of Source Cover Image and Digital image or information to
hide behind the image. The foremost task is to identify the image regions where data will be stored.
As the region identification is done, the data hiding is performed over the image. This result image is
then processed under the recovery algorithm to perform the decoding. After decoding the hidden data
will be extracted from the image. At the final stage, the analysis of work is done under different
attacks.
Input
Image

Extract
Background Area

Hide Data on
Extracted Image Points

Figure 3: Basic Model of Watermarking Approach

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Generate
Result Image

International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

Watermark Embedding: The improvement over the existing Watermarking process over the images
is here performed in terms of effective area selection. Instead of hiding the data over the complete
image, the effective background area is selected from the image and the data is hidden in this
background area. The work is here performed on the medical images so that the foreground is the
sensitive image area that is required to keep safe. It is required to identify the effective background
from the image and hide the information in background area of medical image. To identify this area,
the adaptive threshold based approach is applied in this work. Once the area is identified, the next
work is to hide the information over this adaptive recognized area. To hide this information, the
DWT based approach is applied over the image. The flowchart of this work is given in figure 4.
After identifying the background area, we apply a 8x8 size window over the cover image to divide
the image into image blocks. This is followed by application of DWT on the cover image. After that
we modify the diagonal features of cover image on the basis of watermark image. Now we take the
inverse DWT of the cover image. We call this image as recomposed cover image. Finally, we obtain
the watermarked image by writing the watermark image into the background of the recomposed
cover image. This completes the watermark embedding process.
Start

Accept the cover image

AA
Identify the adaptive threshold for differentiating between foreground
and background

Extract the background area and refer to it


as detected cover image

Apply a 8x8 size window over the cover image to divide the
image in image blocks

Apply DWT on the cover image

Modify diagonal features of cover image in accordance


with the watermark image

Take inverse DWT of the cover image and refer it as


recomposed cover image

Write the watermark image in the background of recomposed cover


image to get watermarked image

End

Figure 4: Watermark Embedding Process


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

Watermark Extraction: The flowchart of it is shown in the figure 5. First of all we apply a 8x8 size
window which divides the recomposed cover image into blocks. Then we apply DWT on the
recomposed cover image. At this stage, we recall that, we modified the diagonal features of cover
image in accordance with the watermark image during the watermark embedding process. So, we
can form the watermark image by observing the diagonal features of the cover image. Thus, we are
able to extract the watermark and this finishes watermark extraction process.
Start

Apply a 8x8 size window over the


recomposed cover image to divide the image
in image blocks

Apply DWT on the recomposed


cover image

Form the watermark image by observing


diagonal features of the recomposed cover
image

Return the extracted watermark

End

Figure 5: Watermark extraction process


4. RESULTS ANALYSIS
We check the performance of the proposed technique by using two parameters, i.e. MSE &
PSNR. The MSE represents the cumulative squared error between the output image and the original
image. The lower the value of the MSE, the lower the error.

where: I(i,j) is the value of the pixel in the original image., K(i,j) is the value of the pixel in the
output image, m and n are rows and columns respectively in the input image. The PSNR block
computes the peak signal to noise ratio, in decibels, between two images. This ratio is often used as a
quality measurement between the original and output image. The higher the PSNR, the better the
quality of the output image.
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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

where MSE is mean square error and numerator represents square of the maximum
fluctuation in the input image data type. For example, if the input image has a double-precision
floating-point data type, then MAX is 1. If it has an 8-bit unsigned integer data type, then MAX is
255. In the presented work, we take MAX as 255. We have tested our technique on seven cover
images. These cover images are shown in figure 6. All cover image files have the extension jpg.
_copyright.bmp is our watermark image. It is shown in figure 7. After applying the watermark
embedding process, discussed before, we get the watermarked image. This is shown in figure 8.
After applying the watermark extraction process, discussed before, we get the extracted watermark.
This is shown in figure 9. Now we subject the watermarked image to various attacks and try to
extract the watermark from attacked watermarked image. First attack is Unsharp attack and its
resultant image is shown in figure 10. Next attack is Gaussian noise attack and its resultant image is
shown in figure 11. Third attack is Gaussian blur attack and its resultant image is shown in figure 12.
Note that figures 8,9,10,11 and 12 correspond to the cover image 1.jpg.

Figure 6: Cover images (a) 1.jpg, (b) 2.jpg, (c) 3.jpg, (d) 4.jpg, (e) 5.jpg, (f) 6.jpg, (g) 7.jpg

Figure 7: Watermark image (_copyright.bmp)

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

Figure 8: Watermarked Image (1.jpg plus watermark image)

Figure 9: Extracted watermark

Figure 10: Watermarked image after Unsharp Attack


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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

Figure 11: Watermarked Image after Gaussian Noise Attack

Figure 12: Watermarked Image after Gaussian Blur Attack

Table 1 lists various experimental results on several cover images. PSNR 1 represents the
PSNR between cover image and watermarked image. MSE 1 represents the MSE between cover
image and watermarked image. PSNR 2 represents the PSNR between original watermark and
extracted watermark. MSE 2 represents the MSE between original watermark and extracted
watermark. PSNR 21 is the PSNR when the watermarked image is subjected to Unsharp attack.
PSNR 22 is the PSNR when the watermarked image is subjected to Gaussian noise attack. PSNR 23
is the PSNR when the watermarked image is subjected to Gaussian blur attack.

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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN 0976
6464(Print), ISSN 0976 6472(Online), Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 55-64 IAEME

Cover
Image

PSNR 1

Table 1: Experimental results


MSE 1
PSNR 2
MSE 2 PSNR 21 PSNR 22 PSNR 23

1.jpg

82.7689

.00034

64.0414

.0256

62.0002

58.7267

56.7175

2.jpg

80.5626

.00057

65.0105

.0205

63.2496

61.4887

60.2393

3.jpg

84.3963

.00024

66.2599

.0154

64.0414

61.4887

59.8917

4.jpg

86.1101

.00016

63.2496

.0308

62.0002

61.0311

59.8917

5.jpg

84.8080

.00021

71.0311

.0051

64.0414

61.4887

59.8917

6.jpg

87.4208

.00012

66.2599

.0154

60.2393

57.0517

55.2333

7.jpg

83.8857

.00027

66.2599

.0154

64.0414

60.6172

58.7267

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE


An effective watermarking approach is defined by generating the dynamic mask over the
cover image. To generate the mask, adaptive threshold approach is applied. Based on this analysis,
the background area detection is performed over the image. The background area is the core area
where the information hiding is performed. Once the core area is identified, the next work is to hide
the information object over this area. To hide the information, the DWT based frequency analysis
approach is applied. The work is here implemented in MATLAB environment in user friendly way.
The obtained results show the effective information storage and retrieval. The analysis of work is
here performed under MSE and PSNR values. The work is tested on different medical images. The
work is also tested under different attacks. The results are satisfactory. The work can be extended in
future under following aspects.

The work can be performed on different media types such as audio, video etc.
The work can be performed on different complex image formats including DICOM images,
PGM images etc.
The work can be optimized by using some optimization algorithm such as PSO etc.

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