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International Journal of Civil JOURNAL

Engineering and OF
Technology
(IJCIET),
ISSN 0976 6308
INTERNATIONAL
CIVIL
ENGINEERING
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET)

IJCIET

ISSN 0976 6308 (Print)


ISSN 0976 6316(Online)
Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61
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IAEME

ANALYSIS ON UTILIZATION OF CEMENT KILN DUST STABILIZED RED


MUD FOR ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Kuldip Singh1,

R K Pandey2,

C S Mishra3,

A K Rai4,

Dr Y K Bind5

1, 2, 3, 5
4

Dept. of Civil Engineering, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, U.P, India


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SHIATS, Allahabad-211007, U.P, India

ABSTRACT
The cost of red mud disposal is expensive, accounting for about 2% of the alumina price.
Over the years, extensive work has been done by researchers worldwide to develop various
economic ways for the utilization of red mud. The various applications that have been investigated
include.
In the experimental work the Red mud is stabilized with different percentage (i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8,
10 and 12%) of Cement Kiln Dust and Unconfined Compressive strength, Compaction Strength at
Addition of higher percentage of CKD has shown higher values up to 8% addition further addition of
CKD does not play any vital role in increasing the strength of Red mud CKD mix.
At 28 days curing period the mix has shown maximum values at all percentages of CKD
addition. The agglomeration of particles is very good as the percentage of CKD increases. Red mud
replaced with 8% CKD can be used effectively as a sub base and sub grade material.
Keywords: Red Mud, Cement Kiln Dust, CKD.
INTRODUCTION
Red mud is the solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for
alumina (Al2O3) production. Approximately 3540% of the processed bauxite ore goes into the waste
as alkaline red mud slurry which consists of 1540% solids and 0.81.5 tons of red mud is generated
per ton of alumina produced. It is estimated that annually 70 million tons of red mud is produced all
over the world, with 0.7 million tons in Greece, 2 million tons in India, 30 million tons in Australia
and nearly 30 million tons in China. As a solid waste, red mud is usually disposed in mud lakes in
the form of slurry impoundment or stack in ponds as dry mud near alumina plants or directly
discharged through a pipeline into a nearby sea. Due to the characteristics of fine particles, high
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
alkalinity (pH 1012.5) and trace metal content, the disposal of large quantities of red mud has
caused serious environmental problems including soil contamination, groundwater pollution and fine
particles suspension in the sea. Moreover, the storage of red mud in lakes or ponds occupies huge
areas of land, and the storage of dry red mud can also lead to dust pollution which is a serious health
problem for the people living near the red mud storage ponds.
OBJECTIVES
The study has been carried out with the following objective.

Study the Unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength and California bearing ratio
of Red mud and CKD mix.
To assess whether the red mud and CKD mix can be used as a sub base and sub grade material
for road construction or not.

LITERATURE REVIEW
Parekh and Goldberger (1976).defined red mud as highly alkaline (PH=11-13) waste material,
whose mineral components can include hematite, goethite, gibbsite, calcite, sodanite and complex
silicates with cation exchange capacities are comparable with kaolin or illite minerals. The red mud
has more than 50% as clay size particles.
Vogt (1974).observed that the in-situ undrained shear strengths are typically vary high compared to
uncemented clayey soils and it has very high friction angles () varying from = 38-42.
Somogyi and Gray (1977).observed that red mud has compression index  = 0.27-0.39 similar to
silty-clay soils, coefficient of permeability k = 2-20x10cm/s and coefficient of consolidation
 =3-50X10
/s. Red mud tends to have low plasticity [e.g. WL=45%, IP= 10%] and relatively
high specific gravity [GS=2.8-3.3].There is lack of clay mineralogy and these wastes show many
geotechnical properties similar to clayey tailings found in other mineral processing.
Satayanarayana et al. (2012).studied that if red mud was stabilized with different percentages (i.e.
2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 %) of lime 10% of lime has shown higher values of Unconfined Compressive
Strength, Split Tensile strength, and California bearing ratio as compared to other percentages.
Addition of higher percentage of lime has shown higher values up to 10% addition further addition
of lime doesnt play any role in increasing the strength of red mud lime mix. As the percentage of
lime increases the water content required for stabilization is more. The red mud and 10% lime mix
can be used as sub grade and sub base materials for road construction.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Materials used
Red Mud
The red mud used in the experimental programme was collected from Hindustan Aluminum
Company (HINDALCO), Renukoot, Uttar Pradesh. The major chemical composition and
geotechnical properties of red mud are as follows.

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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
Table 1: Chemical composition of red mud
Composition
Weight %
35-36
Feo
17-19
Alo
7-9
Si0
5-6
Nao
Cao
3-5
Cement Kiln Dust
Cement kiln dust is created in the kiln during the production of cement clinker. The dust is a
particulate mixture of partially calcined and unreacted raw feed, clinker dust and ash, enriched with
alkali sulfates, halides and other volatiles. These particulates are captured by the exhaust gases and
collected in particulate matter control devices such as cyclones, bag houses and electrostatic
precipitator Several factors influence the chemical and physical properties of CKD.
The Cement Kiln Dust used in the experimental work is collected from JAYPEE Cement
Company, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh. A typical Chemical Composition of CKD is as follows.
Table 2: Typical Composition of Cement Kiln Dust
% by Weight
Constituent
% by Weight
Constituent
55.5
2.1
CaCO
FeO
13.6
KCL
1.4
SiO
CaO
8.1
MgO
1.3
K2SO4
5.9
Na2SO4
1.3
CaSO4
5.2
KF
0.4
Al2o3
4.5
Others
0.7
Experimental Programme
In this present study the Red Mud is stabilized with 2, 4, 6, 8,10 and 12 percent of CKD .the
unconfined compressive strength, split tensile strength and California bearing ratio tests are
conducted at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days curing periods only.
3.2.1 Compaction Characteristics
The compaction characteristics like OMCs (optimum moisture contents), MDDs
(maximum dry densities) are tested for various percentages of CKD i.e., 2 ,4, 6, 8,10 and 12 by dry
weight of red mud as per IS :2720 (part VII) -1980. R.R. Proctor t = Weight of the compacted soil /
volume of the mould
d = t / 1+w
where t = Bulk unit weight
d = Dry unit weight
w = Water content
The test is repeated at different water contents. The dry unit weight of each compacted
sample is plotted against the water content and the curve called compaction curve obtained. Each
data point on the curve represents a single compaction test. The peak point of the compaction curve
corresponds to the maximum dry unit weight, d(max). The water content corresponding to the
maximum dry unit weight is known as the Optimum Moisture Content (OMC).
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
Unconfined Compressive Strength Test
The Red mud is mixed with different percentages (i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12) of CKD and for
each percent of Cement Kiln Dust added to Red mud four specimens are obtained for conducting
tests after 1 day, 3 day 7 day and 28 days.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In the experimental work the Red mud is stabilized with different percentage (i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8,
10 and 12%) of Cement Kiln Dust and Unconfined Compressive strength, Split Tensile Strength and
California Bearing ratio tests are conducted at 1, 3, 7 and 28 days respectively. The results of the
testing program are described within this chapter.
Compaction Characteristics
The compaction characteristics like OMCs (optimum moisture contents), MDDs (maximum
dry densities) are tested for various percentages of CKD i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 by dry weight of
Red mud as per IS: 2720- Part VII-1980.

OMC ( %)

Table 3: OMC and MDD for different percentages of CKD


% of CKD
OMC (%)
MDD (g/cc)
0
22.0
1.42
2
22.9
1.37
4
23.4
1.45
6
23.5
1.34
8
23.6
1.35
10
23.8
1.35
12
24.0
1.34

%
Fig.1: OMC of Red mud with different percentages of CKD
Table 3 shows the variation of maximum dry density and optimum moisture content values of
Red mud and Cement Kiln Dust mixes. As the percentage of CKD increases an increase in OMCs is
observed. The maximum dry density decreases at 2 percent of CKD but the mix shows an increase in
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
MDD for 4% of CKD. The decrease in MDD may be due to flocculation of Red mud particles when
CKD added to it, and increase in OMC is due to high water content are needed for effective mobility
of particles under flocculation condition.
UCS for Red mud with CKD.
The samples of sizes 38 mm diameter and height of 76 mm are prepared by static compaction
method to achieve maximum dry density at their optimum moisture content. All the prepared
samples are cured for 1 day, 3 days, 7 days and 28 days by maintaining 100% humidity. Unconfined
compressive tests are conducted after completion of their curing periods at a strain rate of 1.25
mm/min.
Table 4: Unconfined Compressive Strength of Red mud with different percentages of CKD
CKD
Curing periods (days)
(%)
1
3
7
28
2
0.95
1.039
2.16
5.802
4
1.124
1.980
3.02
6.42
6
2.84
3.46
5.15
10.50
8
3.55
5.43
7.285
12.39
10
3.20
4.79
6.48
10.65
12
2.93
4.07
5.85
10.27
14
12
10

UCS
kg/cm

1 Day

3 Days

7 Days
4

28 Days

2
0
2

10

12

%
CKD

Fig.2: UCS for Red mud with CKD.


Fig.2 and table 4 show the variation of UCS value with increase of CKD. As the percentage
of CKD increases UCS values are increasing. It can also be seen that with increasing curing time
UCS values are also increasing and this accepts up to 8% dosage and beyond 8% a little decrease is
observed.
From the figure and table it is identified that at early days of curing periods a significant
increase in UCS values and at higher curing periods i.e. 7 days and 28 days a rapid increase in UCS
value is observed. This increase is high for 7 days compared to 28 days curing period.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 8, August (2014), pp. 56-61 IAEME
From the test data it is also observed that 8% CKD dosage gives maximum values for all
curing periods especially for 7 and 28 days and beyond 8% a decrease trend is observed. Hence 8%
CKD dosage can be taken as optimum for stabilization of Red mud
CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusion 1-Addition of higher percentage of CKD has shown higher values up to 8% addition
further addition of CKD does not play any vital role in increasing the strength of Red mud CKD mix.
Conclusion 2 -At 28 days curing period the mix has shown maximum values at all percentages of
CKD addition.
REFERENCE
[1]

IS 2720- Part- 7-1980, Determination of Water Content-Dry density relation Using Light
Compaction.
[2] IS 2720- Part- 10-1980, Determination of Unconfined Compressive Strength of Soil.
[3] IS 2720- Part- 16-1980, Determination of California Bearing Ratio.
[4] Rai S, Wasewar KL, Mukhopadhyay J, Kyoo Yoo C, Uslu H. Neutralization and utilization
of red mud for its better waste management; ARCH. ENVIRON. SCI. 2012; (6):13-33.
[5] Geologydata.info. Info portal of geology with special reference to Rajasthan, India.
Available: www.geologydata.info/bauxite_deposits.htm.
[6] Indian Aluminium Industry Indian Primary Aluminium Market (2009). Available:
www.scribd.com/doc/.../19149792-Indian-Aluminium-Industry.
[7] Goldberg DC, Gray AG, Hamaker JC, Raudebaugh RJ, Ridge JD, Runk RJ. Processes for
extracting Alumina from non bauxite ores. Alkaline Processes for low grade bauxites.
[8] P Arti Pamnani and Meka Srinivasarao, Municipal Solid Waste Management in India: A
Review and Some New Results, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology
(IJCIET), Volume 5, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 1 - 8, ISSN Print: 0976 - 6308, ISSN Online:
0976- 6316.
[9] Soumya Gupta, R K Pandey, C S Mishra and A K Rai, An Effective Way to Minimize the
Waste & Cost in Indian Construction Industry, International Journal of Civil Engineering &
Technology (IJCIET), Volume 5, Issue 7, 2014, pp. 100 - 106, ISSN Print: 0976 - 6308,
ISSN Online: 0976- 6316.
[10] Brijesh Kumar and Nitish Puri, Stabilization of Weak Pavement Subgrades using Cement
Kiln Dust, International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4,
Issue 1, 2013, pp. 26 - 37, ISSN Print: 0976 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 6316.

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