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SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE

EXAMINATION
Semester 2 2009
ELEC4160

ADVANCED DRIVES AND POWER ELECTRONICS


FINAL EXAMINATION
This paper is for Callaghan

Examination duration:

3 hours

Reading time:

10 minutes

students

This examination has 7 pages.


This examination has 6 questions.
Materials supplied by examinations:
Nil 4 Page Booklet
1 12 Page Booklet

Any non-programmable calculators are allowed


Special Instructions:
Students must answer all questions.
All questions are of equal value but parts within questions may not necessarily be of equal
value.
No notes or texts are permitted.

You must hand in this examination question paper and any related materials at the
conclusion of the examination.

ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

FORMULAE SHEET
PI controller transfer function

ki ki
s
T ( s) = k p + = 1 +
ki
s
s

kp

Quadratic Formula
b b 2 4ac
x=
2a

Terminal voltage for V/f drive


V
Rs Ira ,rated
Va = a ,rated

f rated

f + Rs Ira

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ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 1

(20 MARKS)
Motor & gearbox
nload : nmotor = 20
Drum
r = 0.3m
Jd = 50 kg.m2

Mass
M = 1000 kg

A DC motor operates a hoist via a gearbox. The gearbox ratio nload : nmotor = 20 (where n
refers to the number of teeth on a gear). The moment of inertia of the gearbox and motor can
be assumed negligible compared to that of the hoist drum. The hoist drum has a radius, r =
0.3 m, and moment of inertia, Jd = 50 kg.m2. The hoist is raising a 1000kg mass.
(a)

[8 marks] What torque must be applied at the motor shaft to linearly accelerate the
mass from rest to a vertical velocity of 2 ms-1 over a 3 second time period?

The motor is a wound field DC machine. With rated field current the machine has the
following parameters: Ra = 0.2 , La = 1 mH, kE = 1.4 V/(rad/s) and kT = 1.4 Nm/A
(b)

[10 marks] The motor is used to accelerate the mass from rest to 2 ms-1 over a 3
second period and then the velocity of the mass is held constant at 2 ms-1 between 3
and 5 seconds. Plot the following quantities against time during this 5 second period
(you may neglect inductive effects):

(c)

i.

Motor armature current, ia.

ii.

Motor back EMF, ea

iii.

Motor terminal voltage, va.

[2 marks] Suggest a method for moving the hoist rapidly to a new position when it is
unloaded.

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ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 2

(20 MARKS)
Idc
Ra

Iout

La

Ea

Vd

(a)

[10 marks] A switch-mode converter is used to drive a DC motor. The converter is


operating at a switching frequency of 20kHz and Vd = 150V. The average current
being drawn by the DC motor is 8A. The equivalent circuit of the DC motor is Ea =
100V, Ra = 0.25 and La = 4mH. A unipolar switching scheme is used in the
converter.
i.

Plot the output current, Iout, versus time and calculate the peak-to-peak ripple.

ii.

Plot the dc bus current, Idc, versus time and calculate the average current drawn
from the DC bus.

Ia,ref

(b)

PI

Vc

kPWM

Va

Ia

[10 marks] The diagram above represents the torque (current) control loop for a
permanent magnet DC motor. The parameters of the of the DC motor are Ra = 2 and
La = 5.2mH. The switch mode converter has a DC bus, Vd = 60V, and

= 5V.

i.

What is the armature time constant, e ?

ii.

What is gain constant of the switch mode converter, kPWM ?

iii.

Determine the proportional and integral gain values for the PI controller so that
the zero in the PI controller cancels the motor pole and the crossover frequency
of the open-loop transfer function is set to 2kHz.

Page 3 of 7

ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 3
(a)

(20 MARKS)

[10 marks] Draw the space vector diagram for an induction motor under balanced,
sinusoidal steady state operation. Assume the stator circuit is ideal in the sense that it
has no winding resistance or leakage inductance. However, include leakage
inductance in the rotor circuit. Show in your diagram the stator voltage space vector
, stator flux density space vector
and stator current space vector
.
Show the components of the stator current space vector due to the stator magnetising
current

(b)

and the rotor current

[5 marks] In an induction machine at one instant in time the stator current space vector
is
. Calculate the stator phase currents
this current space vector

(c)

corresponding to

[5 marks] A four-pole three-phase induction machine is supplied with balanced 30Hz


voltages. The motor is turning at 850rpm.
i. What is the frequency of the rotor currents?
ii. At what angular frequency does the current space vector rotate?

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ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 4

(20 MARKS)

(a) [5 marks] V/f induction machine drives are governed by the torque expression

where

is a constant determined by the machine design and

is the peak stator magnetising flux density. Explain why


is the
magnetisng flux density used in
as opposed to some other value of flux density. Under
what conditions would it be sensible to make use of a flux density other than the rated
value?
(b) [5 marks] Explain why voltage reduction techniques for controlling motor speed are so
inefficient.
(c) [5 marks] The diagram below shows the torque-capability regions, above and below rated
speed, of an induction machine motor drive. Explain why the shaded regions in the
diagram have shape that they have.

(d) [5 marks] Explain why it is necessary to limit the acceleration/deceleration of a V/f


induction machine motor drive.

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ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 5

(20 MARKS)

Vector controlled induction motor drive with current regulated PPU

The following questions refer to a vector controlled motor drive as shown in the block
diagram above.
a) [5 marks] Explain why it is necessary to know the angle of the flux density space vector
.
b) [5 marks] Outline the relative advantages of vector controlled induction machine drives as
compared to V/f induction machine drives.
c) [5 marks] It is essential for precise control of the torque of a vector controlled induction
machine drive that the slip speed is accurately estimated. What machine parameter has the
most influence over the accuracy of this estimate and why? An expression for the slip
speed is shown below.

d) [5 marks] With reference to the block diagram at the top of the page, describe how the
reference current

is generated.

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ELEC4160 Advanced Drives and Power Electronics

QUESTION 6

(20 MARKS)

a) [5 marks] Describe the various deleterious effects of PWM-inverter output voltage


waveforms. Describe the techniques for mitigating these effects.
b) [5 marks] List three methods by which electric drives are able to ride through voltage
sags. Briefly describe each method.
c) [5 marks] What are the effects of switching frequency harmonics on an electric motor?
How should such a motor be de-rated?
d) [5 marks] Describe the operation of a single phase full bridge converter. How is the
average value of the output voltage controlled?

END OF PAPER

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