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TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION
AIM
BLOCK DIAGRAM
WORKING
MAJOR COMPONENT
COMPONENT DISCRIPTION
PCB DESIGNING
BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLOGRAPHY
BOOKS:
1) Electronic devices and circuit theory

WEBSITES:
1)

www.efyindia.com

2) www.nationalsemiconductor .com
3) www.datasheet.com

Voltage Regulator (7805)


Voltage regulator ICs are
available with fixed (typically
5, 12 and 15V) or
Variable output voltages.
They are also rated by the
maximum current they can
pass.
Negative
voltage
Voltage regulator
regulators are available,
Photograph
mainly for use in dual
supplies. Most regulators
include some automatic protection from excessive current
('overload protection') and overheating ('thermal protection').
Many of the fixed voltage regulator ICs has 3 leads and look like
power transistors, such as the 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown on the
right. They include a hole for attaching heat sink if necessary.
Features:
1. Internal thermal overload protection
2. No external components required
3. Output transistor safe area protection
4. Internal short circuit current limit
5.
Voltage :
1. 7805..5V
2. 7812.12V
3. 7815.15V

TRANSISTOR

A transistor consists of two junctions by sandwiching either p-type


of n-type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types.
Accordingly, there are two types of transistors namely;
(1)

n-p-n-transistor

(2)

p-n-p-transistor

An n-p-n-transistor is composed of two n-type semiconductors


separated by a thin section of p type. However a p-n-p-transistor is
formed by two p-sections separated by a thin section of n-type. In
each type of transistor the following points may be noted. These
are two p-n junctions. Therefore a transistor may be regarded as
combination of two diodes connected back to back. There are three
terminals taken from each type of semiconductor. The middle
section is a very thin layer. This is the most important factor in the
function of a transistor.
Transistor as an Amplifier.
A transistor raised the strength of a weak signal and thus acts as an
amplifier. The weak signal is applied between emitter base junction
and output is taken across the load Rc connected in the collector
circuit in order achieve faithful amplification the input circuit
should always remain forward biased. This d.c. Voltage V EE is
applied in the input in addition to the signal. This d.c. Voltage is
known as bias voltage and magnitude is such that is always keeps
the input circuit forward besides regardless of the polarity to the
signal. As the input circuit has low resistance therefore a small
change in signal voltage caused an appreciable change emitter
current. This caused almost the same change in collector current
due to transistor action. The collector current flowing through a
high load resistance Re-produced a large voltage across it. Thus a
weak signal applied in the input circuit appears in the amplified
form in the collector circuit it is in this way that a transistor acts as
an amplifier.

Function
Transistors amplify current, for example they can be used to
amplify the small output current from a logic IC so that it can
operate a lamp, relay or other high current device. In many circuits
a resistor is used to convert the changing current to a changing
voltage, so the transistor is being used to amplify voltage.
A transistor may be used as a switch (either fully on with
maximum current, or fully off with no current) and as an amplifier
(always partly on).
The amount of current amplification is called the current gain,
symbol
hFE.
For further information please see the Transistor circuits page.
Types of transistor
There are two types of standard
transistors, NPN and PNP, with
different circuit symbols. The letters
refer to the layers of semiconductor
material used to make the transistor.
Most transistors used today are NPN Transistor circuit symbols
because this is the easiest type to make from silicon. If you are new
to electronics it is best to start by learning how to use NPN
transistors.
The leads are labeled base (B), collector (C) and emitter (E).
These terms refer to the internal operation of a transistor but they
are not much help in understanding how a transistor is used, so just
treat them as labels!

RELAY:-

A relay is really a remotely controlled switch. In the diagram


above, a power circuit contains a switch which is opened and
closed by operation of a relay. The relay is activated by a
magnetic core which is energized when a controlling switch is
closed. As the core is energized, it lifts and closes a pair of
contacts in a second circuit - usually a power circuit. The current
required for the relay is usually much lower than that used for the
power circuit so it can be provided by a battery.

PROGRAMMABLE TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER


A
Synopsis Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of
Degree of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
Electronics and Communication Engineering
SESSION: 2012-13
Submitted to

RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDHYALAYA,


BHOPAL (M.P.)
Submitted by
Lokendra Thakur Sourabh Jain
Manoj Kori
0610EC091015
0610EC091032 0610EC091017

Gourav Poddar
0610EC091013

Under the Guidance of


Er. Nizamuddin
Department of
Electronics & Communication Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING
Infinity Management and Engineering College, Sagar (M.P.) 470002

Name of Institute: Infinity Management and Engineering College, Sagar


Department
: Electronics & Communication

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that synopsis report entitled ----PROGRAMABLE TEMPERATURE


CONTROLLER ---- submitted to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidhyalaya,
Bhopal by Lokendra Thakur, Sourabh Jain, Gourav Poddar and Manoj Kori is a
partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree in B.E with
specialization in Electronics and Communication. The matter embodied is the actual
work by Lokendra Thakur, Sourabh Jain, Gourav Poddar and Manoj Kori and this
work has not been submitted earlier (in part or full) for the award of any other degree.
Candidate Name: Lokendra Thakur, Sourabh Jain, Manoj Kori
Enrollment No : (0610EC091015, 0610EC091032, 0610EC091017)
Er. NIZAMUDDIN
Guide, Department of Electronics
& Communication Engineering,
IMEC, Sagar
COUNTERSIGNED BY

Er. SOUMITRA PANDE

DR. SHISHIR JAIN

Head, Department of Electronics

Principal

& Communication Engineering,

IMEC, Sagar

IMEC, Sagar

CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL

The synopsis entitled -PROGRAMABLE TEMPRATURE CONTROLLER - being


submitted by Lokendra Thakur (0610EC091015), Sourabh Jain (0610EC091032),
Gourav Poddar (0610EC091013) and Manoj Kori (0610EC091017)

has been

examined by us and is hereby approved for the award of degree Bachelor of


Engineering (Electronics and Communication), for which it has been submitted. It is
understood that by this approval that the undersigned do not necessarily endorse or
approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusion drawn therein, but approve
the dissertation only for the purpose for which it has been submitted.

(Internal Examiner)

(External Examiner)

Date:

Date:

AIM

The project is based on the concept of developing of


temperature display. The project uses commonly available
components and technologies. And the temperature control
device is used in the factory, mills for controlling and
displaying temperature of machines

PCB DESIGNING
The main purpose of printed circuit is in the routing of
electric currents and signal through a thin copper layer that
is bounded firmly to an insulating base material sometimes
called the substrate. This base is manufactured with
integrally bounded layers of thin copper foil which has to be
partly etched or removed to arrive at a pre-designed pattern
to suit the circuit connections or other applications as
required.
The term printed circuit board is derived from the original
method where a printed pattern is used as the mask over wanted
areas of copper. The PCB provides an ideal baseboard upon which
to assemble and hold firmly most of the small components.
From the constructors point of view, the main attraction of
using PCB is its role as the mechanical support for small
components. There is less need for complicated and time
consuming metal work of chassis contraception except perhaps in
providing the final enclosure. Most straight forward circuit designs
can be easily converted in to printed wiring layer the thought
required to carry out the inversion cab footed high light an possible
error that would otherwise be missed in conventional point to point
wiring .The finished project is usually neater and truly a work of
art.

Actual size PCB layout for the circuit shown is drawn on the
copper board. The board is then immersed in FeCl3 solution for 12
hours. In this process only the exposed copper portion is etched out
by the solution.
(A) LAYOUT DESIGN:
When designing the layout one should observe the
minimum size (component body length and weight). Before
starting to design the layout we need all the required
components in hand so that an accurate assessment of
space can be made. Other space considerations might also
be included from case to case of mounted components over
the printed circuit board or to access path of present
components.
It might be necessary to turn some components around to a
different angular position so that terminals are closer to the
connections of the components. The scale can be checked by
positioning the components on the squared paper. If any
connection crosses, then one can reroute to avoid such condition.
(C) ETCHING PROCESS:
Etching process requires the use of chemicals. acid resistant
dishes and running water supply. Ferric chloride is mostly used
solution but other etching materials such as ammonium per
sulphate can be used. Nitric acid can be used but in general it is not
used due to poisonous fumes.
The pattern prepared is glued to the copper surface of the
board using a latex type of adhesive that can be cubed after use.
The pattern is laid firmly on the copper using a very sharp knife to

cut round the pattern carefully to remove the paper corresponding


to the required copper pattern areas. Then apply the resistant
solution, which can be a kind of ink solution for the purpose of
maintaining smooth clean outlines as far as possible. While the
board is drying, test all the components.
Drilling is one of those operations that call for great care.
For most purposes a 0.5mm drill is used. Drill all holes with this
size first those that need to be larger can be easily drilled again
with the appropriate larger size.

COMPONENT USED
LM35 Temperature sensor.
16 x 2 LCD MODULES
PIC16f876a Micro controller
LM7805 3 Terminal Voltage Regulator
QBC547 NPN TRANSISTOR
12V SPDT RELAY PCB MOUNTS
PCB MOUNT PUSH ON SWITCH
LED
Resistor, Capacitor and Transistor

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

GENERAL
WORKING

DISCRIPTION

&

Here's a standalone digital temperature meter that also controls the


temperature of the heating element of a device according to its
requirement. Use of embedded technology makes this closed-loop
feedback control system efficient and reliable. Micro controller
(PIC16F 876a) allows dynamic and faster control. A push button
switch and liquid crystal display (LCD) make the system userfriendly. The sensed and set temperature values are simultaneously
displayed on the LCD panel. Temperature setting store in the nonvolatile EPROM memory.
The circuit is programmed for 'on'/ 'off control. It is very compact
using few components and can be implemented for several
applications including air-conditioners, water-heaters, snowmelters, ovens, heat-exchangers, mixers, furnaces, in-curators,
thermal baths and veterinary operating tables.
PIC16F876a micro controller is the heart of the circuit as it
controls all the functions.

APPLICATIONS

The circuit is programmed for 'on'/ 'off control.


It is very compact using few components and can be implemented
for several applications including air-conditioners, water-heaters,
snow-melters, ovens, heat-exchangers, mixers, furnaces, incurators, thermal baths and veterinary operating tables

Capacitors

Function
Capacitors store electric charge. They are used with resistors in
timing circuit because it takes time for a capacitor to fill with
charge. They are used to smooth varying DC supplies by acting as
a reservoir of charge. They are also used in filter circuits because
capacitors easily pass AC (changing) signals but they block DC
(constant) signals.
Capacitance
This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. A large
capacitance means that more charge can be stored. Capacitance is
measured in farads, symbol F. However 1F is very large, so
prefixes are used to show the smaller values.

COMPONENT DESCRIPTION
TRANSFORMER
DEFINITION:

The transformer is static electoral machine that transformers


alternating current stems into another of different voltage
current. However power remains the some during
transformation. Those transformers play a major part in
transmission an distribution of ac power.

one
and
the
the

PRINCIPAL:
A transformer consists of laminate magnetic core forming the
magnetic frame. Primary and secondary coils are wound upon the
two cores of the magnetic Frame, linked by the common magnetic
flux O. When an alternating voltages is applied across the primary
the coil. a current flows in the producing the magnetic flux in the
transformer core:Transformers are classified as:Position of the windings with respect or core i.e.

Core type transform


Shell type transform
Transformation ratio
Step up transformers
Step down transformers
Core & Shell types:
Transformer is one simplest electrical machine which consists of
windings wound of the laminated magnetic core there are two
possibilities of putting up the windings on the core. Winding
encircle the core in the case of core type transformer. Cores
encircle the windings e. g. shell type transformer.

Transformer and Faraday's Law

Ideal Transformer Calculation


For an ideal:

Power
Power used = PP = PS =

watts

The ideal transformer neglects losses to resistive heating in the


primary coil and assumes ideal coupling to the secondary (i.e., no
magnetic losses).
Numerical example
More realistic treatment: Calculation with primary losses</A.<
td>
Notes: For this exploratory calculation, you may enter data for any
parameter except the power. Then click on the active text for the
parameter you wish to calculate; values will not be forced to be
consistent until you do. For primary calculations, the voltage and
number of turns in the secondary will be considered to be
established and vice versa. Default values will be entered for
unspecified parameters, but all values except the power may be

changed.

DIODES

It is s two terminal devices consisting of a P-N junction formed


either in GE or SI crystal. The P and N type regions are referred to
as anode and cathode respectively. Commercially available diodes
usually have some means to indicate which lead is P and which
lead is N. Standard notations consists the number proceeded by IN
such as In 240 & 250. Here 240 and 250 correspond to color band.
Diodes are polarized, which means that they must be inserted into
the PCB the correct way round. This is because an electric current
will only flow through them in one direction (like air will only
flow one way through a tire valve).Diodes have two connections,
an anode and a cathode. The cathode is always identified by a dot,
ring or some other mark.
The PCB is often marked with a + sign for the cathode end. Diodes
come in all shapes and sizes. They are often marked with a type
number.
Detailed characteristics of a diode can be found by looking up the
type number in a data book. If you know how to measure
resistance with a meter then test some diodes. A good one has low
resistance in one direction and high in the other. There are
specialized types of diode available such as the zener and light
emitting diode (LED).

LM35
LM35 Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors
General Description The LM35 series are precision integratedcircuit temperature sensors, whose output voltage is linearly
proportional to the Celsius (Centigrade) temperature. The LM35
thus has an advantage over linear temperature sensors calibrated in
Kelvin, as the user is not required to subtract a large constant
voltage from its output to obtain convenient Centi- grade scaling.
The LM35 does not require any external calibration or trimming to
provide typical accuracies of 14C at room temperature and
34C over a full 55 to +150C temperature range. Low cost is
assured by trimming and calibration at the wafer level. The
LM35s low output imped- ance, linear output, and precise
inherent calibration make interfacing to readout or control circuitry
especially easy. It can be used with single power supplies, or with
plus and minus supplies. As it draws only 60 A from its supply, it
has very low self-heating, less than 0.1C in still air. The LM35 is
rated to operate over a 55 to +150C temperature range, while
the LM35C is rated for a 40 to +110C range (10 with
improved accuracy). The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C,
LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92
transistor package. The LM35D is also avail- able in an 8-lead
surface mount small outline package and a plastic TO-220
package.
Features n Calibrated directly in Celsius (Centigrade) n Linear +
10.0 mV/C scale factor n 0.5C accuracy guaranteeable (at +25C)
n Rated for full 55 to +150C range n Suitable for remote
applications n Low cost due to wafer-level trimming n Operates
from 4 to 30 volts n Less than 60 A current drain n Low selfheating, 0.08C in still air

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Power supply section 12v DC&05v


DC

LM35
Sensor

A/D
Conv
erter

LCD DISPLAY 16*2

Micro
chip
16f876a
Micro
Controller

Relay
Drive
CIRC
-UIT

Relay-1