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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013

ARAB JOURNAL OF
MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES

Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

Arab J Math Sci xxx(xx) (2013), xxxxxx

Q1

MOURAD RAHMANI

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5

USTHB, Faculty of Mathematics, P.O. Box 32, El Alia, Bab Ezzouar,


16111 Algiers, Algeria

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Received 22 September 2012; revised 18 January 2013; accepted 7 February 2013

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Abstract. In this paper, we study some properties of Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices and related polynomials. We answer the following question: there is a relation
between Stirling and Eulerian polynomials. Can we nd a new relation between Dowling polynomials and other polynomials generalizing Eulerian polynomials? In addition, some congruences for Dowling numbers are given.

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Keywords: Bell polynomials; Congruences; Dowling lattices; Eulerian polynomials;


Hankel determinant; Whitney numbers

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Mathematics Subject Classication: 05B35; 05A15; 11B73

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1. INTRODUCTION

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In 1973, Dowling [10] introduced a class of geometric lattices called Dowling lattices.
These lattices denoted Qn(G) are indexed by a positive integer n (rank) and a nite
group G of order m P 1. The most important example of Dowling lattices is obtained
by letting G be the trivial group (e), then Qn(e) is the geometric lattice of partitions
Pn+1 of the set {0,1, . . . ,n}.
Using Mobius function of a nite partially order set, Dowling gave the characteristic
polynomial of Qn(G)


n t1
Pn t; m m
;
m n

29

where (x)n is the falling factorial dened by (x)n = x(x  1)    (x  n + 1),(x)0 = 1.

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* Tel.: +213 550639567.


E-mail addresses: mrahmani@usthb.dz, rahmani.mourad@gmail.com.
Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.

Production and hosting by Elsevier


1319-5166 2013 King Saud University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajmsc.2013.02.002
Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
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No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 2
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M. Rahmani

It is well known that Whitney numbers of the rst kind wm(n,k) are the coefcient of
tk of the characteristic polynomial Pn(t;m)of Qn(G) and Whitney numbers of the second
kind Wm(n,k) are the number of elements of corank k of Qn(G). Dowling proved that
Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices of both kinds satisfy the orthogonality relations
and also satisfy the following recursions
wm n; k 1 mn  1wm n  1; k wm n  1; k  1

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and

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In 1996, Benoumhani [2,4] established most properties (generating functions, explicit formulas, recurrence relations, congruences, concavity) of Whitney numbers of
Dowling lattices. He also introduced two kinds of polynomials [2,3] related to Whitney
numbers of Dowling lattices: Dowling polynomials Dm(n,x) and TannyDowling polynomials F m n; x. The results reported in the present paper are complementary to those
obtained by Benoumhani and make points, especially in EulerianDowling polynomials. More precisely, the question which was asked by Benoumhani in [2,3] is: There is a
relationPbetween Stirling and Eulerian polynomials. Can we nd a new relation between k Wm n; kxk and other polynomials generalizing Eulerian polynomials? The
answer to the previous question is yes.
The present paper is organized as follows. We rst introduce in Section 2, our notations and denitions. Then we present in Section 3 some properties and some combinatorial identities related to Dowling polynomials and TannyDowling polynomials.
The answer to the previous question is in Section 4. Some congruences for Dowling
numbers are presented in Section 5. Finally, r-Dowling numbers are also considered
in Section 6.

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Wm n; k 1 mkWm n  1; k Wm n  1; k  1:

2. DEFINITIONS

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AND NOTATIONS

In this section, we introduce some denitions and notations which are useful in the rest
of the paper. The (signed) Stirling numbers of the rst kind s(n,k) are the coefcients in
the expansion
n
X
xn
sn; kxk :
k0

Thus s(0,0) = 1, but s(n,0) = 0 for n P 1, and it is also convenient to dene s(n,k) = 0
if k < 0 or k > n. The recurrence
sn 1; k sn; k  1  nsn; k;
is well known and easy to see, and we also have the generating function
X
1
xn
k
ln1 x
sn; k :
k!
n!
nPk

The Stirling numbers of the second kind, denoted S(n,k), appear as coefcients when
converting powers to binomial coefcients

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Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

 
n
X
x
x
k!Sn; k
:
k
k0
n

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They have a combinatorial interpretation involving set partitions. Specically, S(n,k),


is the number of ways to partition a set of n elements into exactly k nonempty subsets
(0 6 k 6 n). The Stirling numbers of the second kind can be enumerated by the following recurrence relation
Sn 1; k kSn; k Sn; k  1;
or explicitly
Sn; k

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100

 
k
k n
1X
1kj
j:
k! j1
j

The number of all partitions is the Bell number /n, thus


n
X
/n
Sn; k:
k0

The polynomials
n
X
/n x
Sn; kxk ;
k0

are called Bell polynomials or exponential polynomials. The rst few Bell polynomials
are
/0 x 1;
/1 x x;
/2 x x2 x;
/3 x x3 3x2 x;

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106
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108
109
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/4 x x4 6x3 7x2 x:
The exponential generating function for the polynomials /n(x) is
X
zn
/n x expxez  1:
n!
nP0
Now, if xn(x) and /n(x) are ordinary and exponential generating functions of the
sequence k!S(n,k), then (cf. [19])
Z 1
xn x
/n kxek dk:
0

The polynomials
n
X
xn x
k!Sn; kxk ;
k0

are called geometric polynomials [21]. The rst few geometric polynomials are

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
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No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 4

M. Rahmani

x0 x 1;
x1 x x;
x2 x 2x2 x;
x3 x 6x3 6x2 x;
x4 x 24x4 36x3 14x2 x:

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125

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The numbers xn(1) called ordered Bell numbers or Fubini numbers, count the number of ordered partitions of {1, 2, . . . , n}.
As Comtet in [9, p. 244], we dene Eulerian polynomials An(x) by

n 
X
n
An x dn;0
xk ;
3
k

1
k1
 


n
n
where
are Eulerian numbers.
is the number of permutations of length n
k
k1
with exactly k rises (i.e., the number of times it goes from a lower to a higher number,
reading left to right).
The rst few Eulerian polynomials are
A0 x 1;
A1 x x;
A2 x x2 x;
A3 x x3 4x2 x;

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A4 x x4 11x3 11x2 x:

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Using the Frobenius [11] result


n
X
nk
An x dn;0 x k!Sn; kx  1

k1

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147

149

n
X
nk
k!Sn 1; k 1x  1 ;

k0

we can easily establish the following connection between Eulerian polynomials and
geometric polynomials


1
n
n
An x dn;0 xx  1 xn
 xx  1 ;
x1
or
xn x


 

xn1
1x
An
 dn;0 1:
x
1x

Substituting (3) in (6) we get


n1  
X
n
k
xn x 1
1 x xnk ;
k
k0

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

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Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

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157

159
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161

 
n
since
dn;0 , we obtain the relationship between geometric polynomials and
n
Eulerian numbers (see for instance [21, p. 737])
n  
X
n
k
xn x
1 x xnk :
7
k
k0
It has been shown by Benoumhani that the rst and second kind Whitney numbers
of Dowling lattices are dened, respectively, by
1
k
X
zn 1 mz m ln1 mz
;
wm n; k
n!
mk k!
nPk
X
zn
ez
Wm n; k k emz  1k ;
n! m k!
nP0

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9

or explicitly by
wm n; k

n
X

1

ik

163

i0

164

n  
X
n

 
i
mni sn; i;
k

10

mik Si; k
i
k  
k
1 X
ki
n
k
1 mi 1 :
m k! i0 i

Wm n; k

11

ik

166
167
168
169
170

12

For more details on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices see [2,10].


The Dowling polynomials and TannyDowling polynomials were evidently rst
introduced by Benoumhani [2,3]. They are usually dened in the following way:
n
X
Dm n; x
Wm n; kxk
13
k0

F m n; x

n
X

k!Wm n; kxk :

14

172

k0

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It is not difcult to see that


Z 1
F m n; x
Dm n; kxek dk:

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3. SOME

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180

PROPERTIES OF

POLYNOMIALS

Theorem 1. For m P 1, Whitney numbers of the second kind Wm (n,k) satisfy the
recursion

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Wm1 n; k
183

DOWLING

n
X

1
k

m 1 mnk

1

j0

nj

 
n
m 1j Wm j; k;
j

15

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajmsc.2013.02.002

AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 6

M. Rahmani

184

with W1(n,k) = S(n + 1,k + 1).

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Proof. Expression (12) may be rewritten as

186
nk

m 1
Wm1 n; k
k!

k  
X
k
i0

1

ki


i

1
m1

n


n
n
k  
k
m 1 X
1
1
ki

i

1
m mm 1
m 1k k! i0 i
nj 
j
n X
k  
n  
X
k
n
m 1
1
1
ki

1
i
m
mm 1
j
m 1k k! i0 i
j0
" 
#


j
n
k 
X
n
k
mk
1
1 X
n
ki
nj
m 1

1 mi 1
mm 1 mk k! i0 i
j m 1k mnj
j0
 
n
X
1
j n
nj

1
m 1 Wm n  j; k;
k
j
m 1 mnk j0

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which is the required expression (15). h

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Theorem 2. For m P 1, Dowling polynomials Dm(n,x) satisfy the recursion

191

193



 
n
1 X
mx
nj n
j
Dm1 n; x n
1
;
m 1 Dm j;
m j0
m1
j

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with D1(n,x) = x1/n+1(x).

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Proof. By using (13) and (15), we obtain

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198


k
 
n
n
X
1 X
m
nj n
j
x ;
Dm1 n; x n
1
Wm j; k
m 1
m j0
m1
j
k0

199

we arrive at the desired result.

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Theorem 3. For m P 1, we have

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F m1 n; x
203

16



 
n
1 X
m
nj n
j
x
;
1
F
j;
m

1
m
mn j0
m1
j

204



d
F 1 n; x 1 x1 xn x  n;0
.
x

205

Proof. Combining (14) and (15), we easily arrive at the desired result.

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Theorem 4. For m P 1, Dowling polynomials Dm(n,x)satisfy

17

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

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211
213

n  
x
X
n
:
Dm n; x
mi / i
m
i
i0

18

Proof. By using (13) and (11), we get


n  
n
 x k
X
X
n
Dm n; x
: 
mi Si; k
m
i
i0
k0

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219

We note that the identity (18) can be viewed as a binomial transform. Given a sequence ak, its binomial transform bk is the sequence dened by
 
n  
n
X
X
n
nk n
bn
1
ak ; with inversion an
bk :
k
k
k0
k0

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From this observation we obtain

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Corollary 1.

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217

222
224
225

/n

x
m

x/n x

n  
X
n
i0

229
231
232
233

235
236
237
238
239
241
242
243
245

19

By substituting m = 1 in (18) and (19), we obtain the well-known results.

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n  
n
1 X
ni
1 Dm i; x:
n
m i0 i

1

ni

/i1 x;

n  
X
n
/i x:
i
i0

/n1 x x

20

21

As the result of Chen [7] for the binomial transform, we have




l  
n  
X
X
l
nk
n
lk
22
anks
1nk blks :
k
s
k
s
k0
k0
 
Substituting ak : mk /k mx ; bk : Dm k; x and l = s = n into (22), we get a curious
identity of Simons type (see [5]) which has the interesting property that the binomial
coefcients on both sides are the same


n  
n  
x X
X
n
nk
n
nk
nk

mk / k
1 Dm k; x;
23
m
k
k
k
k
k0
k0
and for m = 1, we have a curious identity for Bell polynomials


n  
n  
X
X
n
nk
n
nk
nk
x/k x
1 /k1 x:
k
k
k
k
k0
k0

24

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 8

M. Rahmani

247

Now, setting m = 1, x:2x in (16) and setting m = 2, x:2x in (18), we get another
curious identity for Bell polynomials.

248

Corollary 2. The following formula holds true

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251
252
253

n  
n  
X
X
n k
n k
nk
2 x/k x
2 1 /k1 x:
k
k
k0
k0

Similarly, we obtain
Theorem 5. For m P 1, we have

254

F m n; x
256

n  
X
n

i0

257

xn

x

259

mi xi

xxn x 1

n1

262

n  
X
n
i0

263

1 xxn x dn;0
265

268
269
271
272
274
275
276
277
279
280
281

25

n  
n
1 X
ni
1 F m i; x;
n
m i0 i

260

266

x
;
m

1

n  
X
n
i0


n  
X
n
lk

ni

x 1xi x;

xxi x;

26

27

28

nk

1 F m l k  s; x
k
s
k0

l  
x
X
l
nk

;
mnks xnks
m
k
s
k0

29



n  
n  
X
X
n
nk
n
nk
nk
xxk x 1
1 xk x;
k
k
k
k
k0
k0

30

n  
n  
X
X
n k
n k
n
nk
2 xxk x 1
2 1 1 xxk x:
k
k
k0
k0

31

Proof. The identity (25) can be found in [3], here we give a simple proof. Combining
(14) and (11), we get
n  
n
 x k
X
X
n
k!Wm n; kx
:
mi k!Si; k
m
i
i0
k0
k0

n
X

The relation (26) is the inverse binomial transform of identity (25). As a special case, we
get (27) and (28) by using Theorem 3 and setting m = 1 in (25) and (26).

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

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Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

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283
284
285

 
By substituting ak : mk xk mx and bk : F m k; xin (22), we get (29). The relation
(30) is a special case, by setting m = 1 and n = s = l in (29).
Finally, setting m = 1, x:2x in (17) and setting m = 2, x:2x in (25), we get (31).
This completes the proof. h

290

The Hankel transform of a sequence an is the sequence of Hankel determinants


Hn(an), where Hn(an) = det(ai+j)06i,j6n. It is well-known that the Hankel transform


of sequences an and bn are equal (see [13]).
n1
Qn
2
In 2000, Suter [20] proved that Hn Dm n; 1 m
k1 k!, we shall give the
following generalization

291

Corollary 3.

286
287
288
289

292


Hn Dm n; x xm

n1

294
295

296

n
Y

k!:

k1

Proof.
 Using
 the fact that
n1
Qn
2
x
h
k1 k! (cf. [17]).


 
Hn Dm n; x Hn mn /n mx

4. EULERIANDOWLING

297

and

Hn /n x

POLYNOMIALS

300

In this section, we dene EulerianDowling polynomials and we derive some elementary properties. According to (5), the following denition provides a natural generalization of Eulerian polynomials.

301

Denition 1. EulerianDowling polynomials Am n; x are dened by

298
299

302

Am n; x

n
X

i!Wm n; ix  1

i0


x  1 F m n;
n

304

ni


1
:
x1

32
33

305

309

From the above denition, we can rewrite Am n; x as



n X
ni 
X
ni
nik k
Am n; x
x
i!Wm n; i1
k
i0 k0
!


n
n
X
X
nik n  i

1
i!Wm n; i xk :
k
i0
k0

310

Now, we dene EulerianDowling numbers am(n,k) by

306
307

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

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Q1 10
311
313
314
315
317
318
319
320

322
323
324

326

M. Rahmani



n
X
ni
nik
am n; k
1
i!
Wm n; i:
k
i0

34

For m = 1, we have

a1 n; k dn;0

n
k1

The following elementary properties of EulerianDowling polynomials are given


Theorem 6. The exponential generating function for Am n; x is
X
zn
mx  1ex1z
Am n; x
:
n! mx  1 1  emx1z
nP0
Proof. From (32) and (9)
n
X
X
zn X
1
zx  1
Am n; x
i!
W
n;
i
m
n! iP0 x  1i nPi
n!
nP0

X expzmx  1  1i
;
expzx  1
mx  1
iP0

327

we arrive at the desired result.

328
329

In [2,3], Benoumhani asked for the analog of (7) for F m n; x. The answer to the previous question is given in the following theorem.

330

Theorem 7.

331

F m n; x
333
334
335

337
338
339
340

am n; k1 x xnk :

35

k0

Proof. From (33), we can write F m n; x as





k
n
X
1x
1x
F m n; x xn Am n;
;
xn am n; k
x
x
k0
which completes the proof.

As a special case, we have the well known result.


Corollary 4.

341

xn 1
343

n
X

n  
X
n
k0

2k :

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

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Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

344

Proof. By setting m = 1, x = 1 in (35) and using Theorem 3, we get

345

2xn 1  dn;0
347
348
349

351
352

355
356
357

359

n 
X


dn;0

k0

n
k1

from which it follows that


n1  
X
n k
xn 1 dn;0
2;
k
k0
 
n
since
dn;0 , we obtain the result.
n
5. CONGRUENCES

353
354

11


2k ;

FOR

DOWLING

NUMBERS

By using the Gessel method [12], we shall give some congruences for Dowling numbers.
m
We consider the polynomials Rn;k t for xed m, dened by the exponential generating
function
k
X m zn
1 ln1 mz
:
Rn;k t etz 1 mzm
n!
mk k!
nPk

36

360
361

Theorem 8. The following explicit representation formula holds true

362
m

Rn;k t
364

 
n
X
j n
1
wm n  j; ktj :
j
j0

37

365

Here wm(n,k) are Whitney numbers of the rst kind.

366

Proof. From the generating function (8) we have

367

369

 
n
zn X
zn X zn X
j n

1 t
wm n; k
1
wn  j; ktj :
n! nP0
n! nPk
n! nP0 n! j0
j

z
m
Rn;k t

nPk

n n

zn
n!

Equating the coefcients of

371

Theorem 9. The double generating function for Rn;k t is

372
374
375

we get the result.

370

Rn;k t

n;kP0

u1
zn k
u etz 1 mz m :
n!

38
m

Proof. From (36) and using the fact that Rn;k t 0 for k > n, we get

376

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 12

M. Rahmani

378

X m zn X
Xln1 mzuk 1
m1 tz
k
Rn;k t
u 1 mz e
m
k!
n! k
nPk
k


1
u

1 mz m ez exp ln1 mzm : 

379

Theorem 10. The Rn;k t satisfy the following recurrence relation

380
m

Rn1;k t Rn;k1 t  1 t mnRn;k t  mntRn1;k t;

382

39

383

with initial conditions R0;0 t 1 and Rn;k t 0 if k > n or k < 0.

384

Proof. Let R(u,z) be the double generating function (38). Then by differentiation with
respect to z we obtain

385
386

1 mz

388
389
390

or equivalently
X

394

Rn1;k t mnRn;k t

n;k

392
393

d
Ru; z u  1  t1 mz Ru; z;
dz
zn
n!

uk

X

Rn;k1 t  1 tRn;k t  tmnRn1;k t

n;k

zn
n!

uk :

Comparing the coefcients of zn! uk on both sides of the above equation, we arrive at
the desired result. h

396

Taking t = 1 in (39) and a little computation gives the following table of values:
Table 1.

397

Theorem 11.

395

398

 
n
i
X
X
i
m
n
ij
Rn;k tDm i k; t t n! m
Si  j; nDm j; t
j
j0
k0

n!mn tn ; i n

;
0;
06i<n

400

40

401

where Rn;k t is dened in (37).

402

Proof. Let f(x) be the generating function for Dowling polynomials, so that

Rn;k 1.

Table 1
nnk

0
1
2
3
4

1
2
m+4
2m2  6m  8
6m3 + 19m2 + 24m + 16

1
m  4
2m2 + 9m + 12
6m3  30m2  48m  32

1
3m  6
11m2 + 30m + 24

1
6m  8

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

403



t
fx exp x emx  1 :
m

405
406
407
409
410
411

413

Then f(x) satises the functional equation




t
fx y fx exp y emy  1emx :
m
Using Taylors theorem, we have
X
yk
fx y
fk x ;
k!
kP0

417
418
419

Now, set z expmy1


in (41), we get
m

m1

Multiplying both sides by etz 1 mz


fx exptzemx  1

425
426
427

m1

ln1 mzk
;
mk k!

fx

tn zn mx
e  1n :
n!

Since
1

433

438
439

X
nP0

etz 1 mzm

437

fk xetz 1 mz

and

429

434
435

we obtain

kP0

fx exptzemx  1
430
431

42

X
1
ln1 mzk
fx1 mzm exptzemx :
fk x
k
m k!
kP0

421
422
423

41

d
where fk x dx
k fx, it follows that
X
xi
fk x
Dm i k; t :
i!
iP0

414
415

13

X m zn
ln1 mz

Rn;k t ;
mk k!
n!
nPk
k

and
X
1 mx
xi
n
e  1
mi Si; n :
n!
i!
iPn

43

It follows from (42) that


X
ln1 mzk X k X m zn
1

fk x1 mz m etz
f x Rn;k t
mk k!
n!
nP0
kP0
kP0

441
442
443

n
XX xi zn X
m
Rn;k tDm i k; t;
i!
n!
nP0 iP0
k0

and by (43), we get

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajmsc.2013.02.002

AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 14

M. Rahmani

X
nP0

445

tn zn fx

X
X
1 mx
xn X i
xi
e  1n
tn zn Dm n; t
m Si; n
n!
n! iPn
i!
nP0
nP0


i
X
XX xi zn
i
tn n! mij

Si  j; nDm j; t:
i!
n!
j
j0
nP0 iP0
xi zn
,
i! n!

Equating coefcients of

447

It is clear from (40) that the right-hand side is divisible by n!.

448
449
451
452
453

we get the results.

446

Corollary 5. Let n,i be non-negative integers with i 6 n, we have


n
X
m
Rn;k tDm i k; t  0mod n!:

44

k0

Let us give a short list of these congruences by taking t = 1 in (44) and using the
Table 1.

454

mDm i mDm i 1 Dm i 2  0 mod 2;


456

4m2  2Dm i 2m2 3mDm i 1 3mDm i 2 Dm i 3  0 mod 6:

6. R-DOWLING

457

POLYNOMIALS

In 1984, Broder [6] generalized the Stirling

numbers of the second kind to the so-called


n
r-Stirling numbers of the second kind
as follows: as the number of partitions of
k
459 Q2
r
460
{1, 2, . . . , n} into exactly k nonempty, disjoint subsets, such that the rst r elements are
461
in distinct subsets. They may be dened recursively as follows:
462


n
0;
n < r;
k r


n
dk;r ;
n r;
45
k r


n1
n1
n
k

; n > r;
464
k
k1 r
k r
r
458

465
466
467
468
469
470
472

where dk,r is the Kronecker symbol.


r-Whitney numbers of both kinds have appeared in [15] as a common generalization
of Whitney numbers and r-Stirling numbers. Recently, Choen and Jung [8] have used
these numbers to extend earlier results of Benoumhani. They dened r-Dowling polynomials by means of
n
X
Dm;r n; x
Wm;r n; kxk ;
46
k0

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

473
474
475

477
478
479

481
482
483
484
485
487
488
489
491

15

where Wm,r(n,k) are r-Whitney numbers of the second kind of Dowling lattices Qn(G)
dened by


n  
X
n
jr
nj
jk
Wm;r n; k
;
m r  rm
47
j
kr r
jk
or expressed in terms of Stirling numbers of the second kind
n  
X
n
Wm;r n; k
mjk rnj Sj; k:
j
jk

48

Note that (46) reduces to Dowling polynomials by setting r = 1 and to r-Bell polynomials Br(n,x) by setting m = 1. In another recent paper the author [18] has shown
the relationship of r-Bell numbers to Bell numbers by

n

r
X
X
nr
Br n; 1

sr; k/nk :
kr r
k0
k0
Hence we have

n

r
X
X
nr
Br n; x
xk
sr; kxr /nk x:
kr r
k0
k0

49

493
494

In this section, we show all the results of Section 3 concerning Dowling polynomials
can be extended to r-Dowling polynomials. In particular, the relationship of r-Dowling
polynomials to Bell polynomials.

495

Theorem 12. r-Dowling polynomials may be expressed in terms of Bell polynomials

492

496

Dm;r n; x
498

n  
x
X
n
:
mj rnj /j
m
j
j0

50
h

499

Proof. By using (46) and (48), we get the result.

500

504

Now we want to generalize (21); setting m = 1 in (50), we obtain the well-known


result (see [16])
n  
X
n nj
Br n; x
r /j x:
j
j0

505

It follow from (49) that

506

Corollary 6.

501
502

507
509
510
511

n  
r
X
X
n nk r
sr; k/nk x:
r x /k x
k
k0
k0

51

Example 1. In [14], Mansour and Shattuck dened a sequence (Cn)nP1 with four
parameters by means of

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AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Q1 16
512
514
515
516
517

519
520
521

M. Rahmani

Cn a; b; c; d abCn1 a; b; c; d cCn1 a d; b; c; d;
where C0(a,b,c,d) = 1 and they derived some formulas involving Ci and Bell polynomials /i(x) dened by
  
n
X
n
c
:
Cn a; b; c; d bn anj dj
/j
bd
j
j0
Now, if we assume that d divides a, then we deduce the following explicit formula
c
bdna=d X
sa=d;
k/
;
nk
bd
ca=d k0
a=d

Cn a; b; c; d
523
524
525
526

528
529

by setting x = c/bd and r = a/d in (51).


In particular, for l P 1


l
1 1
1X
ln Cn 1; 1; ;
sl; k/nk :
n
l l
l k0
Corollary 7.

530
532
533
534

mn /n

x
m

537

540

542
543
544
545
547
548

550

1

nk

k0

 
n nk
r Dm;r k; x:
k

52

Corollary 8. Bell polynomials satisfy the relation


xr /n x

539

n
X

To generalize (20), substituting m = 1 in (52) and using (49), we get

535

538

n X
r
X

1

nk

k0 j0

 
n nk
r sr; j/kj x:
k

53

We note that the identity (53) can be viewed as the inverse Stirling transform of (see
for instance [1])
 
n X
r
X
n j
nk
/nr x
j Sr; j
x /k x:
k
k0 j0
Analogous formulas to (23), (24) can be derived. We omit all proofs.
Theorem 13. The following results holds true

n  
X
n
n k m k
k0

/k

x
m


n  
X
n
nk 1
Dm;r k; x;
rk
k
k
k0



n  
n  
r
X
n
n k r /k x X
n
nk 1 X

sr; j/kj x:
x
rk
rk j0
k
k
k
k
k0
k0

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajmsc.2013.02.002

AJMSC 53

No. of Pages 17

26 February 2013
Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices

551
552

554
555

17

Theorem 14. r-Dowling polynomials have the Hankel transform





  n1 Y
n
Dm;r n; x
mx
2
Hn
k!:

rn
r2
k1


n1
Qn
2
In particular, Hn Dm;r n; x Hn Dm n; x mx
k1 k!.

556

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

557
558

The author would like to thank an anonymous reviewer for careful reading of this
manuscript and their constructive remarks.

559

REFERENCES

560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589

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590

591

Q1 Please cite this article in press as: M Rahmani. Some results on Whitney numbers of Dowling lattices. Arab J Math Sci
(2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajmsc.2013.02.002