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SAP R/3

SALES AND DISTRIBUTION


Training Material for beginners

-2-

Index
Page no.

Enterprise structure

Master Data

Material Master Data


Customer Master Data
Sales Order

4
5
6

Pricing Procedure
Condition Tables
Condition Types
Access Sequences
Pricing
Pricing Procedure Determination
Customer Pricing Procedure
Document Pricing Procedure
Pricing Limits
Pricing by Item Category
Condition Exclusion Groups

7
7
8
10
10
12
12
12
13
13
14

Bills of Material

16

Incompletion Logs

17

Delivery and Invoicing

17

Delivery
Post Goods Issue
Invoicing

17
19
19

Account Determination

20

Output Determination

21

Tax Determination

22

Tables

24

-3-

The Structure of SAP Sales and Distribution


Organizational data
This is the structure of the company, whereby each area of the business is
represented by a hierarchical element.
Consider for example a sales organization ZZZ1 (sales org. zenith). This is
assigned to a company code ZZZ2 (Iceland_india_2). The sales organization has four
distribution channels namely direct sales (Z1), wholesale (Z2), inter-company (Z3) and
distr. Channel 7 (Z7). Also the divisions product division 001 (Z1), product division 002
(Z2) and product division 7 (Z7) are created and assigned to the sales organization.

Company Code
ZZZ2

Sales
Organization
ZZZ1

Direct Sales
Z1

Product Division 1
Z1

Wholesale
Z2

Inter Company
Z3

Product division 2
Z2

Distribution
Channel
Z4

Product Division 7
Z7

Distribution
Channels

Divisions

One sales organization can be related to only one company code.


Distribution channels and divisions are assigned to the sales organization.
Sales organization, distribution channels and divisions together are known as
the Sales Area.
Sales organization and distribution channel are to be mapped with plant.

Now that the enterprise structure is created, we create new materials in the material
master.

-4-

Document Master Data


All the business transactions are stored in the form of documents which map to
tables, in order to maintain the data systematically.

Customer and Material Master Data


All the materials and costumer details are maintained in the material master data
and customer master data respectively.

Creation of new material

[MM01] is the transaction code for create material.


The material name, type and industry sector are entered in respective fields.
The plant, sales organization and distribution channel to which the material
belongs are provided.
The description, basic unit of measure (BOM) and other details are provided for
the material.
The material is then created.

-5-

The key fields in the creation of a material are:


The type of material
The plant, sales organization and distribution channel to which it belongs to
The units of measure of the material
The shipping and loading details
The above process is repeated for all the materials. If we would like to change the
properties of an existing material, the transaction code is [MM02] and to view the
properties of a material, the transaction code is [MM03].

Now, we create new customers in the customer master

Creation of new customer

[XD01] is the transaction code for customer creation.


An account group is chosen and the company code, sales organization,
distribution channel and division to which the customer belongs are provided. If

-6-

the customer is to have the data of any other old customer, the data is provided in
the reference part.
The details of the customer are provided and then the costumer is created.

The key fields in the creation of customer are:


Account group, sales organization, distribution channel and division to which the
customer should belong to
The details of the customer
Shipping details
The transaction code for changing/updating an existing customer record is [XD02] and
[XD03] allows the user to view the details of existing customer.

Following the above steps, materials ZZ02, ZZ03 and customers AA0000, AA0001 are
created.

Sales Order
Whenever the customer gives an inquiry about products/materials, the sales
organization provides a quotation for which the customer places an order. We now
prepare a sales order for the requested materials.

Creation of Sales Order

[VA01] is the transaction code for creation of sales order.


The creation screen prompts for sales order type, sales organization, distribution
channel and division.
The sales order type distinguishes between the sales order documents. This can be
created by using the transaction code [VOV8].
Once the sales order type and the organizational data are provided, we need to
provide the details like sold-to-party, ship-to-party, material details etc.,
The sales order is created with all the required data.

-7-

The key fields in the creation of sales order are :


Sales order type
ship-to-party and sold-to-party details
material name, quantity and sales unit of the material

Pricing Procedure
Once the sales order is created, we would be interested in the pricing the
customer. The largest configuration technique used in sales and distribution is the
condition technique. The pricing procedure will have a condition type and an access
sequence based on which the pricing for the customer is decided. Each condition type
has a different access sequence, which is based on multiple tables and the fields required
in them.
The pricing procedure includes creation of condition tables, condition types and access
sequences. Based on these, we generate the pricing for the customer.

Condition Tables
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic Functions, Pricing, Pricing Control,
Define Condition Tables
TRANSACTION CODE :

[V/05]

The condition table is given a name


The fields for the table are selected from the list of the available fields
given on the right hand side of the screen
The dependency of the table on the validity period and release status is
defined

-8-

Once the table is created, the technical view gives the details of the tables in
which the fields are present. Then the table can be created either for a package or as a
local object.

Condition Types
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic Functions, Pricing, Pricing Control,
Define Condition Types
TRANSACTION CODE :

[V/06]

The condition type and name are given


The condition class, calculation type, rounding rule etc., are given
The valid from and to dates are given so as to specify the period in which the
condition is valid
The access sequence which is to be used for the condition type is specified.
The scale basis defines if the scale is value based or quantity based or formula
based

-9-

- 10 -

Access Sequence
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic Functions, Pricing, Pricing Control,
Define Access Sequence
TRANSACTION CODE :

[V/07]

As mentioned earlier, the access sequence should be maintained from most specific to
most general.
For ease of use, the access sequence is named similar to the condition type
The condition tables that are considered are entered in the access sequence
fields
The exclusive indicator should be set. It determines that if a condition record
is successfully found, the system will stop searching for further condition
records

This access sequence must be assigned to a condition type. Now that the condition type is
created and that access sequence is created and assigned, we can now assign the
condition type to pricing procedure.

Pricing
Pricing is the combination of creating correct pricing procedures that map the
business needs and processes and keeping to the legal requirements placed on the
business.

MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic Functions, Pricing, Pricing Control,
Define and Assign Pricing Procedures, Maintain Pricing Procedures
TRANSACTION CODE :

[V/08]

- 11 -

Creation of pricing procedure

A new procedure is created and given a meaningful name and description


Then the procedure is selected and the control tab is selected
Now, we will be faced with a screen as shown below

The step and counter columns specify the order in which the procedure is
executed
The CTyp and description gives the condition type used in the procedure
The fro and to fields are used in two circumstances :
1. To define the range for a subtotal
2. To define basis for a calculation
The Man column indicates if the condition assigned to it is allowed to be
processed automatically or manually
The SuTot field assigns a subtotal key to a step in the procedure
The ActKey and Accrls (the account key and accruals account keys) are
used to assign account keys, which in turn are assigned to GL accounts
that are used by the Finance department to register postings

It is always better to give some space in between the steps so as to allow future
editing of the pricing procedure.

- 12 -

Pricing Procedure Determination


The pricing procedure is allocated to the sales document or billing document by a
determination rule, based on the customer master record, the sales document, and the
sales area.

Customer Pricing Procedure (CuPP)


MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Define and assign pricing procedures, Define customer pricing procedure
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OVKP]

We assign an alphanumeric key with a short description.


The CuPP indicator is then assigned to customer master record in the sales screen.

Document Pricing Procedure (DoPP)


MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Define and assign pricing procedures, Define document pricing procedure
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OVKI]

We assign an alphanumeric key with a short description.


The DoPP is then assigned to sales order type. In some cases if we want to have the same
pricing procedure for a sales document as in a billing document, we may allocate a
different DoPP to a billing document.

After the creation of customer pricing procedure (CuPP) and document pricing
procedure (DoPP), we assign the CuPP to customer master record and DoPP to Sales
order type or billing document. The CuPP and DoPP are then assigned to Sales Area

- 13 -

The above diagram shows the determination of a pricing procedure on the basis of
customer pricing procedure, document pricing procedure and sales area.

Pricing Limit
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Define condition types, Define upper and lower limits for conditions
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OVB2]

When we have a condition type which can be altered manually in the sales
document, in order to ensure that there is no room left for misuse, we apply lower and
upper limits for the condition type. The condition types calculation type controls the
calculation type of the limit. If the calculation type for the condition is percentage, the
limit will also be based in percentage terms.

Pricing by Item Category


MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Define Pricing by Item Category, Activate pricing for item caterories
TRANSACTION CODE : [OVK0]
Here, we can define for each item category, if the item is relevant for pricing. The
two columns pricing and statistical value determine the pricing of the item category.

If the item is not relevant for pricing, the pricing field is left blank

- 14

If standard pricing is to be carried out for the item, then the pricing field is
indicated with an X
The statistical column indicates if the item must be used for statistical purposes,
that is, in the updating the logistics information system

Condition Exclusion Groups


Step 1 : Creating a condition exclusion group
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Condition exclusion, Condition exclusion for groups of conditions, Define
condition exclusion groups
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OV31]

Assign an alphanumeric key and a description to the condition exclusion group created.
There are four possible methods for using condition exclusion groups

Selection of most (or least) favorable Condition type within a condition


exclusion group
Selection of most (or least) favorable condition record of a condition type if
more condition records exist
Selection of most (or least) favorable of the two condition exclusion groups
An exclusion procedure in which if a condition type in first group exists in the
document, all condition types in the second group are set to inactive.

Step 2 : Assign condition types to the exclusion group


MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Condition exclusion, Condition exclusion for groups of conditions, Assign
Condition types to exclusion groups
TRANSACTION CODE : [OV32]

- 15 Assign condition types to the condition exclusion group.


Step 3 : Assign Condition Exclusion Group to Pricing Procedure
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Pricing, Pricing control,
Condition exclusion, Condition exclusion for groups of conditions, Maintain
condition exclusion for pricing procedures
TRANSACTION CODE : [VOK8]

Select the pricing procedure for which the condition exclusion is to be active
Select the Exclusion button and assign the condition exclusion group to the
pricing procedure

Note that the condition type in the exclusion group must exist in the pricing procedure
and have valid condition records created for them.
Points to be noted while using condition exclusion groups :

When using the best condition record within a condition type, only one condition
type is to be used in the exclusion group. Also the exclusive indicator on the
access sequence assigned to that condition type is to be deactivated or else, the
system will merely find the first condition record and stop searching for other
records.
If the exclusive indicators are not set, but condition record exists for the condition
tables in the access sequence, and no condition exclusion group exists for the
condition type, the system will bring all valid condition records into the sales
document.

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Bills of Materials (BOM)


A Bills of Materials (BOM) is a collection of materials that make up a product.
The Bills of Materials (BOM) process can be complex and dependent on Sales and
distribution as well as other modules such as Materials Management or Production
Planning.
A computer can be considered as an example of BOM. The header item or main
item, the computer, could be constituted of many subcomponents or subitems: a hard
drive, a keyboard, and a monitor. It is these subitems of the BOM along with the header
item that make up the BOM. When the customer places his order, he orders the header of
the BOM only and the subitems are automatically included in the sales order.
Due to the BOM having header and item levels, the system does not process
pricing, inventory control, and delivery processing at both levels. There are two types of
processing
Main Item Level Processing
Sub-Item Level Processing

Main Item Level Processing


The material master records should have the item category group ERLA in the
Sales 2 screen of the finished product. In this case, the associated sub items function only
as text items, and thus are not relevant for delivery. This process ensures that pricing,
inventory control, and delivery processing is carried out at the header level that is for the
finished product only.

Sub-Item Level Processing


If the sub items are to be responsible for pricing, inventory control, and delivery
processing, the item category should be entered as LUMF on the material master record
in the Sales 2 screen. This ensures the subcomponents are relevant for processing.

The Delivery Group


The sub items of a BOM may be available at different times due to the lead times
in procurement (MM) and production (PP). The delivery group can be used to indicate
that all the sub items must be delivered together. This means that the sub items must be
delivered as a group. If a delivery group applies, it is indicated on the item category. if a
delivery group is assigned to the item category of the sub items, the system will
determine the latest schedule line of the items and confirm the delivery date according to
that last schedule line.

- 17 For a delivery group to perform correctly, the following must be ensured

The delivery group can only contain one BOM.


It cannot contain any fixed quantities.
It cannot contain any items that have partial delivery indicator C (one-time
delivery).
It cannot contain any partially delivered items.
It can only contain items that can be at least partially delivered.
It can only contain items that have a maximum of one requested schedule line.

Incompletion Log
Whenever a sales document is prepared, it can be checked if the document is
complete or not by referring to the incompletion log. This incompletion log gives the
details of the fields that are required to be filled so that the document can be processed
further. It is mandatory for the document to be complete before proceeding further.

Delivery and Invoicing


Once the sales order is created, the goods are to be sent for delivery and the
invoicing is to be made. The sales order can be sent to delivery or directly invoiced, that
is, in the case of non-delivery items.

Delivery
When a sales order is to be delivered, we create a delivery document. After the
delivery document is prepared, the posting goods issue is done.
Delivery Document Type
A delivery document type is similar to the sales order document type. The settings
control how the delivery is to be carried out at highest level and it has a delivery item
category assigned to it.
MENU PATH :
IMG, Sales and distribution, Shipping, Deliveries, Define delivery types
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OVLK]

If the required delivery document type exists, it is selected. Else, a new document is
created by copying the existing type and editing it.

- 18

The sales document type is to be assigned to the delivery document type.


The storage location and the shipping point are given in the sales order.
The item categories of a delivery are referenced from the sales order.
The shipping conditions, loading group and the delivering plant decide the
shipping point.
It is important that this shipping point is assigned to the plant.

Delivery Process
It is possible to create a delivery either via the menu path, individually from the
sales document, or via the delivery due list.
For creating an individual delivery document :
MENU PATH :
IMG, Sales and distribution, Shipping, Delivery, Create
TRANSACTION CODE :

[VL01]

The shipping point, selection date and the sales document number for which the delivery
is to be done are required.
For creating the delivery through the sales document, clicking sales document, deliver
creates the delivery document.

- 19 -

Post Goods Issue (PGI)


Once the delivery document has been prepared and the goods have been
transferred to the carrier, the goods issue is posted.
The posting of goods issue causes the system to :

Update the stock quantities


automatically update the posting to the general ledger accounts

Invoicing
Invoicing may be done directly from the sales order document or after the
delivery and posting goods issue is done. Thus, the billing process can be order or
delivery-related and may include the billing of standard deliveries as well as the creation
of debit and credit memos.

Billing Document Type


The billing document is similar to the delivery document. We can maintain an
existing document or copy and edit an existing one as per our requirements. The header
data of a billing document defines how the invoice is to behave.
MENU PATH :
IMG, Sales and distribution, Billing, Billing documents, Define billing
types

Billing Process
It is possible to create a billing either via the menu path or individually from the
sales document.
For creating via menu path, the transaction code is [VF01].
For creating the billing document via sales order, clicking sales document, billing
generates the billing document.
Once a billing document is created and saved with no errors, the system will
automatically post the document to accounting. If an automatic posting block is placed,
then the system will only post the billing document once it is released by selecting
Logistics, Sales and distribution, Billing, Billing document, Change, Release to
accounting.

- 20 The flow of the sales document can be traced at any time using the display
document flow button or shift+F5 in the display sales order screen.

Account Determination
Account determination also uses the condition technique in order to allocate the
correct GL account to the account key, as assigned in the pricing procedure. Whenever a
sale is posted to accounting, a determination procedure is used to find the accounts, the
account determination procedure. This procedure contains a condition type to find which
account to post to based on the conditions of the sale. The condition type searches all the
records that contain accounts for conditions that match the sale in the order of the access
sequence. As soon as it finds a record that matches the conditions, it returns a condition
value (in this case the GL account).

MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic functions, Account assignment,
Revenue account determination, Check master data relevant for account
assignment
Through Check master data relevant for account assignment, we can create account
assignment grouping criteria. This grouping criteria provides the system with an extra
variable in determining the required account number.
To recreate new entries, the existing standard can be copied and renamed using an
alphanumeric key of two characters with a short description. After the creation of these
account keys, it must be ensured that they are assigned to the material master record. The
same is true for the customer account keys.

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Account determination is possible by going to IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic


functions, Account assignment, Revenue account determination, Define dependencies of
revenue account determination.

The access sequences can be maintained by going to IMG, Sales and Distribution,
Basic functions, Account assignment, Revenue account determination, Define access
sequences and account determination types.
The standard system has an account determination type with the key KOFI which has five
condition tables assigned to it. This KOFI access sequence can be used for most
businesses, with the possible exception being that maybe not all the condition tables will
be used. In this case, the access sequence is copied, renamed and then this new access
sequence is allocated to the relevant account determination type (condition type). Within
the new access sequence, one would now be able to delete condition tables that are not
being used, thus improving on system performance response times.
The account determination procedure is then assigned to a billing type. This can
be done by going to IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic functions, Account assignment,
Revenue account determination, Define and assign account determination procedures,
Assign account determination procedure.
One now needs to create the account keys that are going to be used in the system.
This is possible by going to IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic functions, Account
assignment, Revenue account determination, Define and assign account key. Here one
can create an account key, which is a three-character alphanumeric key with a short
description. The assignment of the account key is the actual process of assigning the
account key to the condition type.

By going to IMG, Sales and Distribution, Basic functions, Account assignment,


Revenue account determination, Assign G/L accounts we can assign the G/L accounts to
the condition table. Before the GL accounts can be assigned to the condition tables, the
chart of accounts and the GL accounts must be created by the FI module.

Output Determination
Output is a form of media from a business to one of its business partners. The possible
media forms are printouts, faxes, telexes, e-mails, and electronic data interchange (EDI).
The output can be sent to any of the partners defined in the document. Outputs are
usually in the form of order confirmations, delivery notes, invoices, and shipping
notifications

- 22 An output type is simply a type of output and it contains all the control features
for the output. It defines the kind of output, which business transaction it applies to,
which business partner receives the output and how the output is sent. The output type is
thus the central component of the output determination.
MENU PATH :
IMG, Sales
determination

and

distribution,

Basic

functions,

Output,

Output

Output determination can be maintained as


originating from the customer master record
originating by using the condition technique
Output determination using the condition technique
MENU PATH :
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Output, Output
determination, Output proposal using the condition technique, Maintain output
determination for sales documents
The output determination is similar to that of the pricing procedure determination. The
steps for output determination are :
1. The required fields are put into the field catalog
2. The condition tables are created
3. The access sequences are created
4. The condition tables are assigned to the access sequence
5. The condition types are created
6. The access sequence is assigned to the condition types
7. The determination procedure is created and condition types are assigned to it
8. The determination procedure is assigned to the sales document

Tax Determination
The SAP R3 system automatically determines and calculates taxes based on the
organizational structure, country, region, or city of delivering plants and country or
receiving customer in combination with tax relevancy indicators on the customer and
material master records.
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Taxes, Define tax
determination rules
TRANSACTION CODE :

[OVK1]

- 23 -

When assigning the tax condition type or tax category to the country key, the
system will only list the condition types that are regarded as type taxes in the condition
class of the condition type.

After assigning the tax condition type or tax category to the country key, one
needs to specify if more than one tax is required and in which order the system is to
access the condition records. This is done by assigning the relevant tax condition types to
the relevant country keys and by assigning an access sequence number.
The country codes must be defined and the city codes must also be defined if
applicable to the areas. This can be done by accessing the Define Regional Codes.
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Taxes, Define Regional
Codes
Now, the delivery plant must be assigned to the country/city code for tax purposes
and then the indicators that are represented in the customer and material master records
should be created.
MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Taxes, Assign Delivery
Plants For Tax Determination
It can be specified if the customer is liable for taxes or not. One can then assign a
relevancy indicator to the tax condition type or tax category in the menu option. The
system uses the indicator as found in the Billing view of the customer master record.
Similarly, the relevancy indicator for the material type can also be specified in the menu
option.

- 24 -

MENU PATH
IMG, Sales and distribution, Basic functions, Taxes, Define Tax
Relevancy of Master Records

Tables
All the data that is stored either as a customer or material or sales order is actually
stored in the form of tables. Each table has its own significance. Some of the tables that
are used are :
Customer master data : KNAI / KABI / KNVV
Material master data : MARA / MARC
Sales order Header : VBAK
Sales order Item
: VBAP
Delivery
: LIKP / LIPS
Invoice
: VBRK / VBRP
All the tables can be accessed by using the transaction code [SE16] or [SE11].

References

Implementing SAP R3 Sales and Distribution -- Glynn C. Williams


www.sdn.sap.com