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Instructional Design Model Comparison 1

Robin Johnson
Dr. Kevin Pyatt
EDUC 533
Instructional Design Model & Instructional Strategy Comparison

A.) An instructional design model can be compared to a roadmap. It helps visualize the goal
and destination by providing a structure or system of pathways to be chosen by the user. This
system is made up of interrelated parts much the same as highways on a map, but instead are
highways of designed models that are each different but strive to achieve the same goal. These
design systems help analyze performance problems and design instruction that allow the user to
create and control the system rather than those that occur naturally (Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009).
An instructional design model sets up a predetermined structure made up of components to be
decided by the instructor in systematic format. The models vary from one another much the same as
different routes on a map and become the choice of the user. Instructional designs provide of way of
finding solutions and the chosen theory shows how to tackle the problem and apply to the
technology of practice (de Lisle, 1997). Many instructional design systems have differences in their
structural procedure but most include the basic characteristics of the Addie model consisting of the
five phases of instructional design, analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation.
The instructional strategy is the mode of transportation to be used within the design system and
strategies chosen to achieve the goal. For instructors, this means analyzing, determining,
developing, implementing, and evaluating in a systematic format. What takes place within this
system or template is determined by the driver or instructor. Models and strategies are similar in
that each has a desired goal and is based on theoretical learning processes and therefore are

Instructional Design Model Comparison 2

instrumental to one another in achieving these goals. The instructional design model serves only as
a map or blueprint whereas instructional strategy is flexible, capable of revision and change as it
works within the instructional design model. Each serve the same goal or purpose but have different
modes of operation; one is static and the other is dynamic. The instructional design provides a
structure of components such as in the Dick and Carey Systems Approach. This systematic linear
pattern follows nine sequences of components starting with identifying instruction goals and ending
with conducting summative evaluation. Revision and change is dependent on the feedback from
each component. This linear process is helpful because it brings together one coherent whole of
many concepts, however, some considers this system as inflexible and assumes human behavior in
instructional situations is predictable (Winn, 1997). In contrast, instructional designs such as
Blooms Taxonomy are circular and show a continuous improvement model that is useful where
planning, development, implementation and revision all occur at the same time or in multiple cycles
(Dick, Carey & Carey, 2009). What is important is that instructional design models may be different
in structure but each is instrumental in the navigation of developmental pathways where disciplines
are mastered by acquiring certain skills and competencies through practice and not from emulating
the model itself (Senge, 1990), therefore, serve as a useful tools in the providing a navigational map
of learning in which instructional strategies flow and travel.

Instructional Design Model Comparison 3

Dick & Carey Model

Identify and conduct instructional
goals and analysis, and identify entry

Write performance objectives, develop

criterion referenced tests, and develop
instructional strategy.

Develop and design instructional

materials and design conduct
formative evaluation.

Implementation is not included as a

separate step. Implementation occurs
during design and development.

Design and conduct summative


Blooms Taxonomy
Analysis: Separates material or concepts
into component parts so that its
organizational structure may be understood
such as appraising, calculating, comparing,
contrasts, criticizing, differentiate,
distinguish, examine, experiment and
Synthesis: builds a structure or pattern from
diverse elements. Puts parts together to form
a whole with emphasis on creating new
Cognitive: first one must be mastered
before the second one can take place.
Knowledge & Comprehension: arrange,
define, duplicate, label, list, memorize,
name, order, recognize, reproduce state,
retell, select, explain, discuss, describe.
Applies to what was learned in the
classroom into novel situations, experience,
problem solving, use of facts and rules, and
applying information to produce some
Make judgments about the value of ideas
and material and their progression in

The Dick & Carey model works well when focusing or targeting a specific age group as in K-12 but
can be easily adjusted to adapt to other age groups or classrooms depending on the subject. It also
seems able to target and trouble shooting key areas needed for development such as an older person
returning to school and needing to refresh their skills. This would make sense for an
interdisciplinary class meant to build up skills and expose the student to a variety of college
expectation whereas the Blooms taxonomy is based more on three areas of learning. These three
areas of learning are cognitive, affective and psychomotor. Memorizing and learning rules are
important in Blooms taxonomy but how to approach this will be unique. Blooms taxonomy is a
type of analytic model in search of the most effective design to incorporate instructional strategies
bringing these three learning applications together. The Blooms Taxonomy model could work
within a number of system models with a vast area covering instructional strategies. This model
works within a step by step system weaving in and out of different criteria. The Understanding by
Design would seem suitable for this taxonomy but the Dick and Carey model would seem ideal for
the systematic process of step by step instruction. The Dick and Carey model is considered a
prescriptive model while the Blooms Taxonomy is considered to be a modern model under
objective taxonomies.



Instructional Design Model Comparison 4

solving &

Teacher as
Facilitator and
Elaboration of
knowledge &
processing of


Flexibility in
design and
students from
old to new

Case studies,
narratives, &

open ended
problems that
become more
resolution and

interaction in

Inquiry based
learning, skills
Feedback and
of learning that
has taken place

Student Centered


21st Century

Model 1

Model 2

Student centered because

these students carry lifetime
experiences and have
additional base knowledge
that can and should be used.
Individual reflection,
observation of power and
responsibilities, and the
changing nature of class
progress after.

Student centered where they

collaboratively solve problems
and reflect on their experiences
and new experiences learned.

Technology based
instruction and move
through sequence of need to
know information and pace.

Feedback and refection of what

has taken place. Working from
simple to complex with evidence
of improvement of analytical,
technical and or critical thinking
Actively problem solving that
help in working memory
limitations; learning to learn

Ease of Use

Depends on instructors use

of facilitation,
implementation of strategies
for subject matter, and
careful consideration of time
limits and assessments.

Guidance of learning processes

rather than to provide knowledge.

These two models work together well since an older adult will utilize their past experience based
knowledge to learn and grow. The Problem-based Learning model is designed with this purpose in
mind. It also uses problems solving for the adult learner to learn new information and compare with

Instructional Design Model Comparison 5

old information. An example of this is past biases and learning different points of view through
small groups. Adult learners are used to understanding what they do in life and need to know the
reason they are learning something new and how it applies or will benefit them. Adult learners are
problem-centered in their orientation of learning and like real life examples. Problem based learning
is a good instructional strategy that would work well in Understanding by Design for the adult
learner; however, there are other important strategies that should need to be considered and
implemented such as technical based learning.