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Eurocodes:

Background & Applications


GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Worked example
strip foundation
Professor Giuseppe Scarpelli
Universit Politecnica delle Marche
Ancona, Italy
y
Past Vice-Chairman TC250/SC7

13-14 June 2013. Dublin

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
13-14 June 2013. Dublin

GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Spread foundationsDesign of a strip foundation


CASE STUDY

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Design situation:
Strip
S
i foundation
f
d i for
f a concrete building
b ildi whose
h
d i i is
destination
i civil
i il habitation.
h bi i
I is
It
i
composed of four floors. The embedment depth of foundation is 1.5 m; the
groundwater level is situated at 1.5 m from the ground surface. Allowable
settlement is 5 cm.

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

Characteristic values of actions:


-Gk=permanent vertical load;
-Qk=variable vertical load.

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Normal forces (kN)*


C1

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

Gk

-460.147

Qk

-108.138

Gk

-687.103

Qk

-222.355

Gk

-627.8

Qk

-154.012

Gk

-623.915
623 915

Qk

-152.261

Gk

-685.011

Qk

-222.231
222 231

Gk

-416.982

Qk

-108.103

*(shear forces and bending moments are negligible for static conditions)
conditions).
Require foundation width, B to satisfy both ULS and SLS.

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Annex B.3 of Eurocode 7 Part 2

Recommended depth of investigation for spread foundations

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

20-26 m
0-2 m
2-4 m

26-30 m

4-6 m

6-20 m

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

qc (MPa)

20

40

100

u2 (MPa)
200

300

0,0
0

10

10

10

15

15

15

20

20

z (m)

z (m)

CPT results

z (m)

fs (kPa)

qt (MPa)

20

2
25

25

25

30

30

30

35

35

35

40

40

40

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

0,5

1,0

1,5

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Qt

100

200

300

400

500

10

10

15

15

20

z (m)

z (m)

Fr
50

100

20

25

25

30

30

35

35

40

40

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

150

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Normalized CPT soil behaviour type chart after


Robertson (1990).
10

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Eu/cu = f (Ip, OCR)

Duncan and Buchignani (1976).


11

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

cu=(qt-v0)/Nk
Nk=19
Undrained cohesion from CPT test, Lunne et al.
(
(1977)
)
Ed (MPa)
(MP ) = 4 qc
(if qc > 10 MPa)
Oedometric modulus from CPT test (after LunneChristoffersen 1983 - Robertson and Powell 1997)

12

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

Oedometer test results


Sample depth (z) = 25 m
Natural water content (W) =32.74 %
Unit weight () =19 kN/m3
Water depth (zw) = 2.5 m

13

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

50 kPa

100kPa

200kPa

400kPa

800kPa

1600kPa

0,00

0,50

Setttlement (mm)

1,00

1,50

Average Cv=2*10-3 cm2/s

,
2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50
01
0,1

10

100

1000

time (min)

14

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

10000

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Soil Conditions:

k
k

Soil 1: medium dense


sand (0
(0-20
20 m)
= 18.5 kN/m3
c k= 0 k= 38
E = 30 MPa

Soil 2: clayey silt


= 18.5 kN/m3
Cc = 0.36
Cs = 0.022
Cv=2*10-3 cm2/s
Cuk = 80 kPa

15

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Spread foundationsDesign of a strip foundation


BEARING RESISTANCE

13-14 June 2013. Dublin

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

17

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

B=1.5

DA1-1

DA1-2

PARTIAL FACTORS

A1+M1+R1

A2+M2+R1

Vd (kN)

7395.74

5661.00

Nq

48.87

23.17

74.80

27.72

sq

1 04
1.04

1 04
1.04

0.98

0.98

Rd (kN)

15320.80

5676.52

Rd/Vd

2.07

1.00

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

18

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

B=1 21
B=1.21

DA2

PARTIAL FACTORS

A1+M1+R2

Vd (kN)

7160.10

Nq

48.87

74.80

sq

1 03
1.03

0.98

Rd (kN)

7150 58
7150.58

Rd/Vd

1.00

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

19

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

B 1 74
B=1.74

DA3

PARTIAL FACTORS

A1/A2+M2+R3

Vd ((kN))

7590.75
590 5

Nq

23.17

27.72

sq

1.04

0.98

Rd (kN)

7612 07
7612.07

Rd/Vd

1.00

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

3.50

D = 0 m, ' = 38

Rd/Vd

3.00
2.50

DA1-COMB1

2.00

DA2-COMB2

1 50
1.50

DA2
DA3

1.00
0.50
0.00
0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

B (m)

20

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

12.00

B = 1.74 m , '=38
10.00

DA1-COMB1

Rd/Vd

8.00

DA2-COMB2
6.00

DA2
DA3

4.00
2.00
0.00
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

D (m)

21

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

10 00
10.00
9.00

B = 1.74 m , D = 0 m

8.00

DA1-COMB1
DA1
COMB1

Rd/Vd

7 00
7.00
6.00

DA2-COMB2

5.00

DA2

4 00
4.00
3.00

DA3

2.00
1 00
1.00
0.00
20.0

22

22.0

24.0

26.0

28.0

30.0

32.0

'k ()

34.0

36.0

38.0

40.0

42.0

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

44.0

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

Spread foundationsDesign of a strip foundation


CHECK FOR
SERVICEABILITY

13-14 June 2013. Dublin

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Immediate settlement
n

s0 =

s 0 = qB

qB
0 1 (1 2 )
E

i =1

I = 01

Janbu et al. (1956)

square
circular

24

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

I(H i ) I (H i 1 )
(1 2 )
Ei

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

....considering the single strip footing

25

q (kPa)=

167.32

B (m) =

1.50

L (m) =

21.40

H ((m)) =

50

0.3

E' (kPa) =

30000

H/B =

666 7
666.7

D/B =

L/B=

14.3

0 =

1 =

1.8

(m)=

0.014

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

....considering an equivalent
spread foundation spanning
over the whole building base
area

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

q (kPa) =

64.77

B (m) =

15.50

L (m) =

21.40

H1 =

20

H2 =

50

1 =

0 30
0.30

2 =

0.50

cu (kPa) =

80.00

Eu (kPa) =

32000

E' (kPa) =

30000

H1/B =

1.29

H2/B =

64 52
64.52

D/B =

0.00

L/B=

1.38

1.00

1 (1) =

0.50

1.00

1 (2) =

0.70

(m)=

0.021

26

(1)

(2)

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Oedometric settlement

k
k

Soil 1: medium
dense sand (0-20 m)
= 18.5 kN/m3
cc = 0
=
= 38
E = 30 MPa

Soil 2: clayey silt


= 18.5 kN/m3
Cc = 0.36
Cs = 0.022
Cv=2*10-3 cm2/s
Cu = 80 kPa

27

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

6.6.2 (5) The depth of the compressible soil layer to be


considered when calculating settlement should depend on the size
and shape of the foundation, the variation in soil stiffness with
depth and the spacing of foundation elements.

28

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Stress increment

29

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

l
layers

z
(m)

z (from
g.s.)
(m)

z
(kPa)

u
(kPa)

''z
(kPa)

e0

z
(kPa)

z /'z

''z_fin
(kPa)

ef

Sed
(m)

1,00

0,50

20,25

374,63

174,13

200,50

0,91

21,67

0,11

222,17

0,86

0,023

0,012

2,00

0,50

20,75

383,88

179,03

204,84

0,90

20,87

0,10

225,71

0,86

0,022

0,011

3,00

0,50

21,25

393,13

183,94

209,19

0,90

20,10

0,10

229,29

0,86

0,021

0,010

4,00

0,50

21,75

402,38

188,84

213,53

0,90

19,37

0,09

232,90

0,86

0,020

0,010

5,00

0,50

22,25

411,63

193,75

217,88

0,89

18,68

0,09

236,55

0,86

0,019

0,009

6 00
6,00

0 50
0,50

22 75
22,75

420 88
420,88

198 65
198,65

222 22
222,22

0 89
0,89

18 01
18,01

0 08
0,08

240 24
240,24

0 86
0,86

0 018
0,018

0 009
0,009

7,00

0,50

23,25

430,13

203,56

226,57

0,89

17,38

0,08

243,95

0,86

0,017

0,009

8,00

0,50

23,75

439,38

208,46

230,91

0,88

16,78

0,07

247,69

0,85

0,016

0,008

9,00

0,50

24,25

448,63

213,37

235,26

0,88

16,20

0,07

251,46

0,85

0,015

0,008

10,00

0,50

24,75

457,88

218,27

239,60

0,88

15,66

0,07

255,26

0,85

0,015

0,007

11,00

0,50

25,25

467,13

223,18

243,95

0,88

15,13

0,06

259,08

0,85

0,014

0,007

12,00

0,50

25,75

476,38

228,08

248,29

0,87

14,63

0,06

262,93

0,85

0,013

0,007

13 00
13,00

0 50
0,50

26 25
26,25

485 63
485,63

232 99
232,99

252 64
252,64

0 87
0,87

14 16
14,16

0 06
0,06

266 79
266,79

0 85
0,85

0 013
0,013

0 006
0,006

Stot=

0,033

30

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

layers

z
(m)

z (from
g.s.)
(m)

z
(kPa)

u
(kPa)

'z
(kPa)

z
(kPa)

z /
/'z

'z_fin
(kPa)

ef

Sed
(m)

1,00

2,00

21,00

388,50

181,49

207,02

20,48

0,10

227,50

0,86

0,022

0,043

2,00

2,00

23,00

425,50

201,11

224,40

17,69

0,08

242,09

0,86

0,017

0,035

3 00
3,00

2 00
2,00

25 00
25,00

462 50
462,50

220 73
220,73

241 78
241,78

15 39
15,39

0 06
0,06

257 17
257,17

0 85
0,85

0 014
0,014

0 029
0,029

4,00

2,00

27,00

499,50

240,35

259,16

13,48

0,05

272,64

0,84

0,012

0,024

5,00

2,00

29,00

536,50

259,97

276,54

11,88

0,04

288,42

0,84

0,010

0,020

6,00

2,00

31,00

573,50

279,59

293,92

10,54

0,04

304,46

0,83

0,008

0,017

7,00

2,00

33,00

610,50

299,21

311,30

9,40

0,03

320,70

0,83

0,007

0,014

8,00

2,00

35,00

647,50

318,83

328,68

8,43

0,03

337,11

0,82

0,006

0,012

9,00

2,00

37,00

684,50

338,45

346,06

7,60

0,02

353,65

0,81

0,005

0,010

10 00
10,00

2 00
2,00

39 00
39,00

721 50
721,50

358 07
358,07

363 44
363,44

6 88
6,88

0 02
0,02

370 31
370,31

0 81
0,81

0 004
0,004

0 009
0,009

11,00

2,00

41,00

758,50

377,69

380,82

6,25

0,02

387,07

0,80

0,004

0,008

12,00

2,00

43,00

795,50

397,31

398,20

5,71

0,01

403,90

0,80

0,003

0,007

13,00

2,00

45,00

832,50

416,93

415,58

5,23

0,01

420,81

0,79

0,003

0,006

13,00

2,00

47,00

869,50

436,55

432,96

4,81

0,01

437,76

0,78

0,003

0,005

13,00

2,00

49,00

906,50

456,17

450,34

4,43

0,01

454,77

0,78

0,002

0,005

Stot=

0,243

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

Settlement time development


p

H
2H

32

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l
qc (MPa)

fs (kPa)

qt (MPa)
20

40

100

u2 (MPa)
200

300

0,0

10

10

10

15

15

15

20

z (m)

z (m)

z (m)

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

20

0,5

1,0

1,5

20

25

25

25

30

30

30

35

35

H 1.5 m

40

settleme
ent (m)

time (days)
0

20

40

60

80

100

35

120

140

0,00
40

40

0,01
0,02
0,03
0 04
0,04

33

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

160

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with
ith worked
k d examples
l
qc (MPa)
20

40

100

u2 (MPa)
200

300

0,0

10

10

10

15

15

15

20

z (m)

z (m)

20

25

25

30

30

30

35

35

0,00
0 05
0,05

time (months)
10

40

15

0,5

1,0

20

25

40

34

fs (kPa)

qt (MPa)

settlemen
nt (m)

z (m)

13 14 J
13-14
June. D
Dublin
bli

2H 7 m

H 3.5 m

35

20

1,5

25
40

0,10
0,15
0,20
0 25
0,25

2013. Giuseppe Scarpelli. All rights reserved

30

Eurocodes:
Background & Applications
GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN with worked examples

13-14 June 2013. Dublin

Geotechnical design
with worked examples
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