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Primary Sources

Bethe, Hans. "Testimony in the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer."Atomicarchive.com:


Exploring the History, Science, and Consequences of the Atomic Bomb. AJ
Software & Multimedia, 1998-2013. Web. 05 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Oppenheimer/OppyTrial2.shtml>.
This source is an interview with Hans Bethe, another physicist that worked with
Robert Oppenheimer on the Manhattan Project. He gives interesting insight on his
colleague, that Oppenheimer would never discuss policy with him. But he also
concludes the interview by saying that Oppenheimer served the United States
very well. This source was valuable, although I would like to acquire more
direct, primary, sources on the Oppenheimer trials.
Dr. Rama, and Dr. Singh. The Hamilton Spectator [Hamilton Ontario, Canada] n.d.,
Forum sec.: D07. Print.
This primary source, a newspaper article from Hamilton Ontario, gives us a
different look into the legacy of Robert Oppenheimer. This article does not
glorify the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it shows
the factual evidence and the horrors of the event. It was reports like these that
made Robert Oppenheimer regret his position and responsibility in the Manhattan
Project. Reports like this made changed his perspective on nuclear warfare, thus
his opposition to the hydrogen bomb. A primary article like this will help us gain
a new perspective on Oppenheimers legacy.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. "Secret." Letter to Dr. Oppenheimer. 29 June 1943. MS.
Washington D.C. A letter from the president that directed the United States
through the second World War, that is a pretty big deal. It is a direct letter to
Oppenheimer, it showcases their relationship. The letter is a perfect source for our
project because Franklin Delano Roosevelt discusses the upmost importance of
Robert Oppenheimer and his leadership of the Manhattan Project. Oppenheimers
vital role in the future of the second World War is enough to merit a letter from
the President. In my future endeavors, I wonder if I will be able to locate
Oppenheimers response to this letter. I feel that the relationship between the two
is not only interesting, but an important part to our research.
The Effects of Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Chairman's Office, 30 June
1946.
Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1946. Print.
The physical effects of the atomic bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
Japan during World War II are described in this government document. This
write-up also includes visuals of the shocking effects of the atomic bombs, both
created by Robert Oppenheimer. Reading about the countless effects of the brutal
weapons helped us to better understand the extent to which atomic bombs damage
a population. The immediate and long-term effects of the atomic weapons and

nuclear radiation are discussed in detail. This source illustrates how appalling the
effects of nuclear weapons are, and how Oppenheimer left an enormous legacy on
warfare by introducing nuclear warfare to the world.
"United States Atomic Energy Commission In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer."
Avalon.law.yale.edu. Yale Law School, n.d. Web. 11 Sept. 2014.
<http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/opp06.asp>.
This source is about Oppenheimers trial and as to whether or not he will have his
security clearance reinstated. Strauss, then as chairman of the AEC, intentionally
put Oppenheimer on trial in order to silence him and his ideas. Oppenheimer was
deemed dangerous because of his previous affiliations with communist
organizations and because he was suspected of giving Soviets information about
the Manhattan Project, and was denied access to private information and never
got back his security clearance.
United States Atomic Energy Commission in the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer."
Archive.org. United States Givernment, n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2014.
<http%3A%2F%2Farchive.org%2Fstream%2Funitedstatesatom007206mbp%2Fu
nitedstatesatom007206mbp_djvu.txt>.
This is a primary source, that is a complete write up from the security hearings of
Robert Oppenheimer. Presumably written by the court stenographer or it was
written down from recordings. I will be honest with you Mr. Sunderland, if you
are even reading this, I did not read this whole thing. The trials took four weeks,
and it would take me months to fully read this. What I did do was I used the
search function on the document and looked for words like Teller treason
legacy and I skimmed the sections from what I found. This is an excellent
because we can use direct quotes from the trial for our project. This is a very
wordy source, but it is the best source I have encountered this far.
Secondary Sources
"About J. Robert Oppenheimer." About J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Oxford
University Press, 1999. Web. 11 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/ai/aboutopp.htm>.
This source was another broad general description of Robert Oppenheimer. What
this source did accomplish was hovering me quotes between Truman and
Oppenehimer. That was interesting and it is a useful way to integrate into our
project. This article focused more on the legacy of Oppenehimer, wether it be his
legacy at Princeton or with the United States courts system during McCarthyism.
But the best part of this source comes from the end where they post several
locations of primary documents, one including the library at Harvard University.
This source was much more of a stepping stone for further research.

American Experience: Oppenheimer Hearings." PBS. PBS by WGBH, 1996 - 2009. Web.
05 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/peopleevents/pandeAMEX66.html>.
This source details the Oppenheimer Trials from 1954. It is an interesting turn
from my previous research because it gives an overview of the trials, and thus, the
demise of Oppenheimer. This is my first source that has gone in depth, albeit
slightly, into the Oppenheimer trials. This source uses quotes from the trial, as
well as some of the 39 people who testified. The most notable being Edward
Teller, a rival of Oppenheimer who worked on the Manhattan Project, and later,
the Hydrogen Bomb. It is a rather broad source, but it has given me a direction to
go in.
The Atomic Energy Commission, Buck, Alice. N.p.: U.S. Department of Energy, 1983.
Web. 11 Sept. 2014
This source didn't give much specific information on Robert Oppemheimer, but
rather, it gave me information on the comission that he ran. The Atomic Energy
Comission was headed by Oppenhimer but he on no way ran it. Knowing what I
know about Oppenhimer, and what I learned from this source, Oppenheimer had
little control of the comission. His personal beliefs had no cashay because they
Atomic Energy Comission had little to nothing to do about peaceful atomic
warfare. This was not the best source for learning about the legacy of Robert
Oppenhiemer, and it did little to teach me about Oppenehimer's leadership.
Bird, Kai, and Martin J. Sherwin. American Prometheus: The Triumph and
Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2005. Print.
This source is a long book that is filled with information that I already know. The
one interesting thing that this book has is a very different perspective on Robert
Oppenheimer's story. This book uses quotes to detail Oppenheimer's tragedy, but
it is told as if it is a novel. It uses many quotes from Oppenheimer's trial and the
harsh politics behind it. The book is lengthy and probably filled with extra
information that we do not need, the book will regardless be a useful resource.
Blackwell, Jon. "1953: Oppenheimer's Fall." 1953: Oppenheimer's Fall. The Trentonian,
n.d. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.capitalcentury.com/1953.html>.
This source is more than anything, qualitative. It gives a decent summation of
Robert Oppenheimer, but it specializes in his fall. It has a link to the documents of
his trials, a useful source, but not particularly useful in the legacy of
Oppenheimer. It also gives an interesting look into the relationship between
Truman and Oppenheimer, when Roosevelt had a positive relationship with him,
his predecessor did not.
Broad, William J. "Transcripts Kept Secret for 60 Years Bolster Defense of
Oppenheimers Loyalty." The New York Times. The New York Times, 11 Oct.
2014. Web. 14 Oct. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/12/us/transcripts-

kept-secret-for-60-years-bolster-defense-of-oppenheimersloyalty.html?module=Search&mabReward=relbias%3As%2C%7B%222%22%3
A%22RI%3A16%22%7D&_r=1>.
This recently published source gives us a new look into the corrupt trials of
Robert Oppenheimer. This shows us that some of the testimonies that were
sympathetic to Robert Oppenheimer were removed and classified. This means
that the source I gathered that recited his entire transcript was most likely
tampered with because it was published before these documents were released.
This shows us that the documents on Robert Oppenheimer are part of his legacy
that the United States government wants to keep secret.
Buck, Alice L. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission. Rep. Washington D.C: U.S
Department of Energy, 1983. IAEA. Web. 11 Sept. 2014.
<http://iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/14/796/14796361.pdf
>.
This report, written by Alice Buck, an Assistant secretary for Management and
Administration for the US Department of Energy, describes the progression of the
Atomic Energy Commission throughout the Cold War. Originally created to strive
to find and establish the peaceful atom, because of the Cold War, the
commission instead played a key role in the development of the military atom
for national protection. Several new laboratories were set up for the research and
development of nuclear energy for medical, military, physical, and biological
purposes and the hydrogen bomb, something that the General Advisory
Committee,which Oppenheimer was a part of, advocated strongly against. While
the AEC eventually came to an end, the many facilities it created established a
legacy that helped greatly in the advancement of knowledge and usage of nuclear
energy, including the progress of the peaceful atom, which the United States also
provided to other countries.
Cassidy, David C. J. Robert Oppenheimer and the American Century. New York, NY: Pi,
2005. Print.
Although we have established a stable foundation of our knowledge of J. Robert
Oppenheimers career, this book has helped us to analyze Oppenheimers legacy
and lasting effect on the use and development of nuclear weapons in the United
States. Not only does this book trace Oppenheimers achievements and
discoveries, but it communicates the lasting effects that Oppenheimers work has
left on the world. Additionally, this book examines the scientific power and
advancement the United States attempted to exert upon the rest of the world after
the success of the Manhattan Project.
Chafe, William H. The Achievement of American Liberalism the New Deal and Its
Legacies.
New York: Columbia UP, 2003. Print.

We focused on the chapter of this book that discussed the ethical responsibilities
of the scientist. This chapter specifically discussed Robert Oppenheimers
position as the lead developer in the Manhattan Project, and the ethical dilemma
he faced after creating one of the deadliest, most powerful weapons in the
world. Richard Polenberg, the author of this chapter, acknowledges that
Oppenheimer built a horrific device which caused thousands of deaths and
casualties, but that Oppenheimer did not take the effects of the atomic bomb
lightly. Polenberg argues that in resigning from the Manhattan Project and
leading the Atomic Energy Commission shortly after the atomic bombs were
dropped, Oppenheimer did the ethically correct thing, as he vouched for the
careful control of atomic weapons development.
Conant, Jennet. 109 East Palace: Robert Oppenheimer and the Secret City of Los
Alamos. New
York: Simon & Schuster, 2005. Print.
A history and analysis of the development of the secret Manhattan Project, a
classified atomic weapons development project from World War II, this book
illustrates the projects lasting effect on mankind, as well as J. Robert
Oppenheimers central role in the undertaking. Conant, the granddaughter of
James B. Conant, the administrator of the Manhattan Project and the classified
Los Alamos bomb laboratory, describes the enigmatic nature of the Los Alamos
research and testing facility, and the brilliance and significance of Robert
Oppenheimer. The book focuses largely on the progress of the Manhattan
Project, and on Oppenheimers role in the project and in the early development of
nuclear weapons. As the leading figure in the project, Oppenheimer had a
permanent effect on the development of nuclear weapons.
Goodchild, Peter. J. Robert Oppenheimer: Shatterer of Worlds. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin, 1981.
Print.
This book provides a concise history of the four major phases of J. Robert
Oppenheimers professional life: his time as a young physicist at the University of
California, his time as director of the Manhattan Project, his time of crisis during
his involvement in the Atomic Energy Commission, and his final years at the
Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey. In addition to detailed
interviews with Oppenheimers surviving friends, colleagues, and enemies, as
well as insightful commentary from author Peter Goodchild, this book ties in well
with our groups decision to focus our research on the four earlier mentioned
phases of Oppenheimers life.
Haddock, Brandon. "Faces of Energy; Julius Robert Oppenheimer; Physicist Pioneered
Nuclear Reaction." The Augusta Chronicle [Georgia] 4 Nov. 2000: n. pag. Print.
As columnist Brandon Haddock describes Oppenheimers fear and eventual
resentment of his own creation, Haddock also sympathizes with

Oppenheimer. Whereas many accounts of Oppenheimer portray him as arrogant


and entitled, this article characterizes Oppenheimer as an innocent, intelligent,
rightfully-entitled scientist who was put into a situation unaware of the
results. This different perspective is very interesting to our research.
Hewlett, Richard G., and Oscar Edward. Anderson. The New World; a History of the
United States Atomic Energy Commission. University Park: Pennsylvania State UP, 1962.
Print.
This book mainly focuses on the initial discovery and testing of the nature of
atomic fission, and all the different aspects and considerations of the creation of
the first atomic bomb. This book illustrates the entire process in which the first
atomic bomb was created, from the ideas and controversies discussed in the White
House and the United Nations, to the initial tests in the laboratories. The more
technical and procedural aspects of the birth of the atomic bomb are outlined in
this book.
Hijiya, James A. "The "Gita" of J. Robert Oppenheimer." Proceedings of the American
Philosophical Society 144.2 (2000): 123-67.Www.amphilsoc.org. American
Philosophical Society. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.amphilsoc.org/sites/default/files/proceedings/Hijiya.pdf>.
Showing the impact the Gita, a Hindu scripture that tells the story of a man who
has to go to war with his own family and friends, had on Oppenheimer, Hijiya
explains through this essay how Oppenheimer, a pacifist, would even think of
bombing two cities. Oppenheimer learns from this story duty to ones job, fate,
the idea that what happened to Hiroshima and Nagasaki happened because it was
fated and could not be reversed, and faith, the idea that, no matter the morality of
the deed he was performing, he would be able to remain a moral being, detaching
himself from the consequences, and therefore allowing him to work for the
Manhattan Project. While this is not all of the story, this is still a very important
factor as to Oppenheimers seemingly contradictory thinking and the origin of his
famous quote: I am become death, the destroyer of worlds.
"J. Robert Oppenheimer Centennial - Exhibit." J. Robert Oppenheimer Centennial Exhibit. University of California Berkley 2004. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.
<http://cstms.berkeley.edu/archive/oppenheimer/exhibit/>.
This source is an exhibit on the complete life of Robert Oppenheimer. It details
his life through several chapters maticulously described. It is biased however
because it was published by the University of California, Berkley. In the article it
describes Robert Oppenehimer's demise at Berkley. They use quotes by
professors from Berkley and make it seem like Robert Oppenheimer was devasted
when he had to leave Berkley. While that was true, it was for different reasons
then leaving Berkley that how was upset. This source gave a different angle to the
demise of Robert Oppenheimer, albeit, a biased one.

"J. Robert Oppenheimer's Legacy." Institute for Advanced Study. Princeton University,
2014. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.ias.edu/people/oppenheimer/legacy>.
J. Robert Oppenheimers Legacy is the first source I have encountered that has
detailed the legacy of Oppenheimers influence on education. Other sources have
described his work in education after his abolishment from the Atomic Energy
Commission, but never depicted his legacy in that area. This source also describes
some of what Nobel Prize winners had to say about how Oppenheimer bridged
the gap between science and the public. This source also lists the sources it used,
which is always nice because it makes it easier to find quality, qualitative, and
authoritative sources.
Kunetka, James W. Oppenheimer, the Years of Risk. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall, 1982.
Print.
The complex character of J. Robert Oppenheimer and his career in the public eye
are dissected in this book. Mainly focusing on the height of Oppenheimers
career (from 1942 to 1954), this book contains comprehensive data from
classified documents from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the U.S.
Department of Energy, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This book also
includes interviews with several of Oppenheimers family members and
associates, and examines Oppenheimers enormous impact on matters of atomic
energy and development.
Kuznick, Peter J. "A Tragic Life: Oppenheimer and the Bomb." A Tragic Life:
Oppenheimer and the Bomb. Arms Control Association, n.d. Web. 12 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.armscontrol.org/print/1851>.
A biography depicting Oppenheimers life as tragic, this source, that combines
evidence and commentary from four different books, illustrates the transition
Oppenheimer experienced from an advocator of the atomic bomb, to the complete
opposite. Originally for the use of the atomic bomb for the termination of WWII,
Oppenheimer, as described by Kuznick, had a change of heart after seeing the
disastrous effects of the bomb and discovering the real political desires behind the
bomb. As a part of the GAC, he strongly urged the idea of an international
organization that controlled and regulated the use of nuclear energy. His
leadership in this part, however, was essentially disregarded by both President
Truman and another scientist, Strauss, and his legacy of seeking a peaceful
solution has been marred and overlooked because of his enormous popularity as
the destroyer of worlds.
Macmillan, Priscilla J. The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer: And the Birth of Modern
Arms Race. New York: Viking, 2005. Print.
Author Priscilla J. Macmillan provides an excellent summation and analysis of the
turbulent years in which Robert Oppenheimer faced charges of violating national

security. During that time, the U.S. government questioned whether


Oppenheimer was the charismatic, loyal genius who developed the atomic bomb
and helped to end World War II, or whether he was a traitor who was secretly
aiding the Soviet Union. Macmillan chronicles the very conspiracies which were
an attempt to destroy Oppenheimer, as well as the truth about Oppenheimers
mysterious identity in the years following his time working on the Manhattan
Project.
McGrath, Patrick J. "Scientists, Business, and the State, 1890 -1960."Scientists, Business,
and the State, 1890 - 1960. Vol. II. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina, 2002. N. pag.
Print.
This source gives us an overall look at important scientists from 1890 through
1960. Robert Oppenheimer, being the head scientist on the Manhattan Project is
one of those on the shortlist. This book goes into moderate detail about
Oppenheimer and his contributions to the science community. From this source I
gathered information about his legacy after his security clearance was revoked.
The scientific community held Oppenheimer in high regard after his hearing, as
did Princeton University. This source could help us with his legacy in the
scientific community.
Monk, Ray. Robert Oppenheimer: A Life inside the Center. New York City: Doubleday,
Random House, 2012. Print.
This biography, which encompasses virtually every major aspect of and event in
J. Robert Oppenheimers life from beginning to end, most significantly analyzes
Oppenheimers decision to abandon his work on nuclear development, and his
transition to striving to limit nuclear development during his time as Chairman of
the Atomic Energy Commissions General Advisory Committee. The moral and
ethical questions that would become the central aspects of the debates around
nuclear weapons development are investigated in this book. Oppenheimers
enduring influence on both nuclear development and its corresponding debates are
made apparent by author Ray Monk.
Rhodes, Richard. "Nuclear Options." The New York Times. The New York Times, 15
May 2005. Web. 24 Sept. 2014.
<http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/15/books/review/15RHODESL.html?pagewanted=all
>.
Describing Oppenheimers professional life and work on the Manhattan Project,
this article gives a brief rundown of Oppenheimers understanding of his own
effects on the world through his development of the first atomic bomb. This
source mostly reiterates what we already know about Oppenheimers work on the
Manhattan Project and the atomic bomb, but it also has a few important
statements about Oppenheimers own feelings about his creation of such a
devastating, horrific weapon.

Rhodes, Richard. "Richard Rhodes: On Richard Teller's Role in the Oppenehimer


Trials." PBS. PBS, 1996-2009. Web. 06 Oct. 2014.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/bomb/filmmore/reference/interview/rhodes12.htm
l>.
Another interview involving the Oppenheimer trials. This research check has been
focused less on Oppenheimer, and more on trying to harness his legacy in the
field of American history and atomic research. This source from PBS, a credible
and authoritative source, is an interview with American historian Richard Rhodes.
It details all about the testimony of Teller, from the research I have gathered - is a
shameful blemish in American history. A testimony from a high profile man like
Teller is one of the reasons Oppenheimers legacy was so tainted for the year
following his trial. This topic of research has become very interesting.
Roff, Sue Rabbitt. Hotspots: The Legacy of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. London: Cassell,
1995.
Print.
This book discusses the sheer devastation the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki faced after atomic bombs were dropped on them. The book states how
many of the people who were affected by the blasts were not killed
instantaneously, but how they suffered from long, painful deaths, in what many
described as the atomic plague. This source also addresses the legacy the
atomic bombs left on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the world. In addition to
discussing the physical effects of the bombs, Roff touches on the social and
economic effects of the bombs.
Schweber, Silvan S. "J. Robert Oppenheimer, Proteus Unbound." Einstein and
Oppenheimer. Cambridge: HArvard U, 2008. N. pag. Print.
This source is an overview of Robert Oppenheimer, from start to finish, his entire
career and life, but it is not a broad context source. It is from the Library of
Congress so it is an authoritative source. It gives an extensive quote from George
Kennan, describing Oppenheimer as exceptional. It is a personal account of
Oppenheimer, it describes him not having a sense of himself, possibly making
him vulnerable to the communist temptations or an easy target during
McCarthyism. I have yet to encounter a source that gives this detailed of a
description of Oppenheimers personality.
Shapin, Steven, and Charles Thorpe. "Who Was J. Robert Oppenheimer? Charisma and
Complex Organization." Social Studies of Science 30.4 (2000): 545-90. Print.
This article explores Oppenheimers leadership as scientific director of the atomic
bomb project at Los Alamos Laboratories. This article characterizes
Oppenheimer as a charismatic leader and explores the implications of his
leadership style and legitimacy on his research team. This source is useful in
showing how Oppenheimer was able to use his personality and genius to interact
with his team in a way that convinced them of the moral and scientific urgency of

their research. The article is especially interesting because it relies on participants


testimonies about what it was like to work under Oppenheimer at Los Alamos
during such an important historical period.
Shermer, Michael. "The Curious Case of J. Robert Oppenheimer." Rev. of The Trials of
J. Robert Oppenheimer. Scientific American 25 Jan. 2009: n. pag. Scientific American. 25
Jan. 2009. Web. 29 Sept. 2014. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/robertoppenheimer-documentary/>.
This review essay in Scientific American, a popular science magazine,
deconstructs The Trials of J. Robert Oppenheimer, a PBS film by David Grubin,
that aired in 2009. Oppenheimer is presented as an out-of-place visionary,
whose scientific genius, combined with his personal hubris and colossal ego, got
in the way of peoples willingness and ability to appreciate the wisdom of his
moral insights into complex scientific questions. The essay lauds the film for
revealing how Oppenheimers personality flaws tarnished his legacy.
Valiunas, Algis. "The Agony of Atomic Genius." The New Atlantis: A Journal of
Technology and Society (2006): 85-104. Web.
<http://www.thenewatlantis.com/publications/the-agony-of-atomic-genius>.
This article narrates Oppenheimers evolution as a scientist and leader of the
Manhattan Project and analyzes his internal agony over the moral questions and
practical implications of developing and using atomic weaponry. This source also
explores Oppenheimers fears and doubts about humankinds ability to apply such
an awe-inspiring technology for good and peace versus evil and
destruction. Additionally, this article offers interesting insights into criticisms
about Oppenheimers leadership and legacy, based on the failure to appreciate the
wisdom of Oppenheimers concerns.
York, Herbert F. The Advisors: Oppenheimer, Teller, and the Superbomb. San Francisco:
W.H.
Freeman, 1976. Print.
An examination of the strategic, technical, and human aspects of the debate that
would lead to the decision to build the first hydrogen bomb, this book presents the
controversy about the development of the first atomic and hydrogen bombs. This
source also provides detailed historical context for the creation of the first atomic
and hydrogen bombs. This book thoroughly examines the acceleration of the
nuclear arms race, and the legacy of Robert Oppenheimer and his creation of the
first atomic bomb on the international fight for nuclear superiority.