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1.

A transverse wave travels from left to right. The diagram below shows how, at a particular
instant of time, the displacement of particles in the medium varies with position. Which arrow
represents the direction of the velocity of the particle marked P?

2.

The graph shows how the displacement varies with time for an object undergoing simple
harmonic motion.

Which graph shows how the objects acceleration a varies with time t?

3.

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Light travels from air into glass as shown below.

What is the refractive index of glass?

4.

5.

A.

sin P
sin S

B.

sin Q
sin R

C.

sin P
sin R

D.

sin Q
sin S

Which of the following electromagnetic waves has a frequency greater than that of visible
light?
A.

Ultraviolet

B.

Radio

C.

Microwaves

D.

Infrared

Light travels from air into glass as shown below.

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The refractive index of the glass is

6.

A.

sin 30
sin 80

B.

sin 80
sin 30

C.

sin 60
sin 10

D.

sin 10
sin 60

A particle oscillates with simple harmonic motion with period T.


At time t = 0, the particle has its maximum displacement. Which graph shows the variation with
time t of the kinetic energy Ek of the particle?

7.

An object is undergoing simple harmonic motion with light damping. The natural frequency of
oscillation of the object is f0. A periodic force of frequency f is applied to the object. Which of
the following graphs best shows how the amplitude a of oscillation of the object varies with f?
3

8.

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The graph shows measurements of the height h of sea level at different times t in the Bay of
Fundy.

Which of the following gives the approximate amplitude and period of the tides?

9.

Amplitude

Period

A.

6.5 m

6 hours

B.

13 m

12 hours

C.

6.5 m

12 hours

D.

13 m

6 hours

Two waves meet at a point. The waves have a path difference of

. The phase difference

between the waves is


4

10.

11.

A.

rad.
8

B.

rad.
4

C.

rad.
2

D.

rad.

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A string vibrates with fundamental frequency f. The wavelength of the sound produced in air is
. Which of the following correctly gives the frequency of vibration of the fourth harmonic of
the string and the wavelength of the sound in air?
Frequency

Wavelength

A.

f
2

B.

4f

C.

f
2

D.

4f

The graph shows how the velocity v of an object undergoing simple harmonic motion varies
with time t for one complete period of oscillation.

Which of the following sketch graphs best shows how the total energy E of the object varies
with t?

12.

13.

14.

15.

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A force that varies sinusoidally is applied to a system that is lightly damped. Which of the
following must be true of the force for resonance to occur?
A.

It must always be in anti-phase with the oscillations of the system.

B.

Its direction must always be in the direction of motion of the oscillations of the system.

C.

Its frequency must be equal to the frequency of oscillation of the system.

D.

Its amplitude must be equal to the amplitude of oscillation of the system.

Which of the following is a value of wavelength that is found in the visible region of the
electromagnetic spectrum?
A.

4 105 m

B.

4 107 m

C.

4 109 m

D.

4 1011 m

Two waves meet at a point in space. Which of the following properties always add together?
A.

Displacement

B.

Amplitude

C.

Speed

D.

Frequency

The shock absorbers of a car, in good working condition, ensure that the vertical oscillations of
the car are
A.

undamped.
6

B.

lightly damped.

C.

moderately damped.

D.

critically damped.

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16.

The graphs show how the acceleration a of four different particles varies with their
displacement x.
Which of the particles is executing simple harmonic motion?

17.

The diagram below is a snapshot of wave fronts of circular waves emitted by a point source S at
the surface of water. The source vibrates at a frequency f = 10.0 Hz.

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The speed of the wave front is

18.

A.

0.15 cm s1.

B.

1.5 cm s1.

C.

15 cm s1.

D.

30 cm s1.

Two coherent point sources S1 and S2 emit spherical waves.

Which of the following best describes the intensity of the waves at P and Q?

19.

20.

A.

maximum

minimum

B.

minimum

maximum

C.

maximum

maximum

D.

minimum

minimum

93197825 A** Pro Ray


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The shock absorbers of a car, in good working condition, ensure that the vertical oscillations of
the car are
A.

undamped.

B.

lightly damped.

C.

moderately damped.

D.

critically damped.

An object at the end of a spring oscillates vertically with simple harmonic motion. The graph
shows the variation with time t of the displacement x. The amplitude is x0 and the period of
oscillation is T.

Which of the following is the correct expression for the displacement x?

21.

A.

x 0 cos

B.

x 0 cos

C.

x 0 sin

D.

x 0 sin

2
t
T

2
t
T
2
t
T

2
t
T

An object at the end of a spring oscillates vertically with simple harmonic motion. The graph
shows the variation with time t of the displacement x. The amplitude is x0 and the period of
oscillation is T.

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Which of the following is the correct expression for the maximum acceleration of the object?
A.

B.

C.

D.
22.

2
x0
T
2
T2

x0

4 2
T2

x0

4 2
x0
T

One end of a horizontal string is fixed to a wall. A transverse pulse moves along the string as
shown.

Which of the following statements are correct for the reflected pulse compared to the forward
pulse?

23.

I.

It moves more slowly.

II.

It has less energy.

III.

It is inverted.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III

Monochromatic light travels from air into water. Which of the following describes the changes
in wavelength and speed?
10

Wavelength

Speed

A.

increases

decreases

B.

increases

increases

C.

decreases

increases

D.

decreases

decreases

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24.

Which of the following graphs shows the variation with displacement x of the speed v of a
particle performing simple harmonic motion.

25.

A particle performs simple harmonic oscillations. Which of the following quantities will be
unaffected by a reduction in the amplitude of oscillations?

26.

27.

A.

The total energy

B.

The maximum speed

C.

The maximum acceleration

D.

The period

Monochromatic light travels from air into water. Which of the following describes the changes
in wavelength and speed?
Wavelength

Speed

A.

increases

decreases

B.

increases

increases

C.

decreases

increases

D.

decreases

decreases

Which graph correctly shows how the acceleration, a of a particle undergoing SHM varies with
11

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its displacement, x from its equilibrium position?

28.

A mass on the end of a horizontal spring is displaced from its equilibrium position by a distance
A and released. Its subsequent oscillations have total energy E and time period T.

An identical mass is attached to an identical spring. The maximum displacement is 2A.


Assuming this spring obeys Hookes law, which of the following gives the correct time period
and total energy?
New time period

New energy

A.

4E

B.

2E

C.

2T

4E

D.

2T

2E

12

29.

30.

31.

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In which of the following regions of the electromagnetic spectrum is radiation of wavelength


600 nm located?
A.

microwaves

B.

radio waves

C.

visible light

D.

X-rays

What is the best estimate for the refractive index of a medium in which light travels at a speed
of 2.7 108 m s1?
A.

0.9

B.

1.0

C.

1.1

D.

2.7

The graph below represents the variation with time of the displacement of an oscillating
particle.

The motion of the object is

32.

33.

A.

over damped.

B.

critically damped.

C.

lightly damped.

D.

not damped.

For a system executing simple harmonic motion, the restoring force acting on the system is
proportional to the
A.

displacement of the system from equilibrium.

B.

amplitude of oscillation.

C.

elastic potential energy.

D.

frequency of oscillation.

A cart, connected to two identical springs, is oscillating with simple harmonic motion between
two points X and Y that are equidistant from point O.
13

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The cart is in equilibrium at

34.

35.

A.

all points between X and Y.

B.

point O only.

C.

points X and Y only.

D.

points O, X and Y only.

During one complete oscillation, the amplitude of a damped harmonic motion changes from
1.5 cm to 0.30 cm. The total energy at the end of the oscillation is E2 and the total energy at the
E
beginning of the oscillation is E1. The ratio 2 is
E1
A.

1
.
5

B.

1
.
25

C.

5.

D.

25.

Plane wavefronts are incident on a boundary between two media labelled 1 and 2 in the diagram.
The diagram of the wavefronts is drawn to scale.

14

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The ratio of the refractive index of medium 2 to that of medium 1 is

36.

A.

0.50.

B.

0.67.

C.

1.5.

D.

2.0.

A wave pulse is travelling to the right along a string.

Which of the following best represents the direction of the velocity of the point P?

37.

38.

A.

B.

C.

D.

For a system executing simple harmonic motion, the restoring force acting on the system is
proportional to the
A.

displacement of the system from equilibrium.

B.

amplitude of oscillation.

C.

elastic potential energy.

D.

frequency of oscillation.

A ray of light is incident on a boundary between glass and air.

Which of the following is the refractive index of glass?


A.

sin 1
sin 3

B.

sin 1
sin 4

15

39.

C.

sin 3
sin 2

D.

sin 4
sin 1

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The graph below shows how the displacement x of a particle undergoing simple harmonic
motion varies with time t. The motion is undamped.

Which of the following graphs correctly shows how the velocity v of the particle varies with t?

40.

The graph below shows how the displacement x of a particle undergoing simple harmonic
motion varies with time t. The motion is undamped.

16

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Which of the following graphs shows how the total energy E of the particle varies with time t?

41.

An orchestra playing on boat X can be heard by tourists on boat Y, which is situated out of sight
of boat X around a headland.

The sound from X can be heard on Y due to


A.

refraction.

B.

reflection.
17

42.

C.

diffraction.

D.

transmission.

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Diagram 1 represents equally spaced beads on a spring. The beads are 1 cm apart.
Diagram 1

A longitudinal wave propagates along the spring. Diagram 2 shows the position of the beads at a
particular instant.
Diagram 2

Which of the following is the best estimate of the wavelength?

43.

A.

2 cm

B.

4 cm

C.

8 cm

D.

16 cm

Diagram 1 represents equally spaced beads on a spring. The beads are 1 cm apart.
Diagram 1

A longitudinal wave propagates along the spring. Diagram 2 shows the position of the beads at a
particular instant.
Diagram 2

18

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Which of the following is the best estimate of the amplitude?

44.

A.

0.4 cm

B.

0.8 cm

C.

1.6 cm

D.

3.2 cm

The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

45.

A wooden block is at rest on a horizontal frictionless surface. A horizontal spring is attached


between the block and a rigid support.

19

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The block is displaced to the right by an amount X and is then released. The period of
oscillations is T and the total energy of the system is E.
For an initial displacement of

X
which of the following shows the best estimate for the period
2

of oscillations and the total energy of the system?


Period
A.

B.

D.

47.

E
2
E
4
E
2
E
4

T
2
T
2

C.

46.

Total energy

Which of the following correctly describes the change, if any, in the speed, wavelength and
frequency of a light wave as it passes from air into glass?
Speed

Wavelength

Frequency

A.

decreases

decreases

unchanged

B.

decreases

unchanged

decreases

C.

unchanged

increases

decreases

D.

increases

increases

unchanged

The diagram below shows a pulse travelling along a rope from X to Y. The end Y of the rope is
tied to a fixed support.

When the pulse reaches end Y it will


A.

disappear.

B.

cause the end of the rope at Y to oscillate up and down.

C.

be reflected and be inverted.

D.

be reflected and not be inverted.


20

48.

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The graph below shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of a particle undergoing
simple harmonic motion.

Which graph correctly shows the variation with time t of the acceleration a of the particle?

49.

The two graphs show the variation with time of the individual displacements of two waves as
they pass through the same point.

21

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The displacement of the resultant wave at the point at time T is equal to


A.

x1 + x2 .

B.

x1 x2 .

C.

A1 + A2.

D.
A1 A2.
1. C 2. D 3. D 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. C 9. C 10. D
11. C 12. C 13. B 14. A 15. D 16. B 17. C 18. A 19. D 20. A
21. C 22. C 23. D 24. D 25. D 26. D 27. A 28. A 29. C 30. C
31. C 32. A 33. B 34. B 35. B 36. B 37. A 38. D 39. C 40. D
41. C 42. C 43. B 44. B 45. B 46. A 47. C 48. B 49. B

22

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2.

The direction of vibration is perpendicular to the direction of propagation restricting A and C as


possible contenders. With the wave travelling from left to right P must lead the particle at the
crest (which can only move downwards at a later instant) thus P moves in direction C.

5.

Although the angles of incidence and refraction were not marked, it was a simple process to
calculate them and then use the usual Snells law relation.

6.

Many candidates thought that kinetic energy can be negative and opted for A or B. This
question clearly caused much confusion suggesting that the candidates had not previously seen
graphs of kinetic energy for SHM.

7.

The candidates clearly understood that the resonant frequency did not shift (as in C) and that the
amplitude of oscillation fell very rapidly as f diverged from f0. Hence A was correct. Many
teachers, however, argued that A, B and D were all equivalent, yet differently scaled, graphs.
This is not the case as the zero has been marked in on the y-axis only. Where the intersection of
the axes is the true origin then both axes will be marked with a zero (as in Q12).

14.

This question highlighted a common confusion between displacement and amplitude.

16.

Although this gave few problems to HL candidates, SL candidates were much more uncertain
with distracter D (effectively x against t).

22.

A surprising number of candidates chose D, perhaps thinking that if it has less energy then it
must necessarily be going slower. The energy of a wave, however, is a function of its
amplitude not its velocity.
If the wall had been rigid then III only would have been a correct response, but as this was not
available, C is the only possibility and we must assume the wall is not rigid.

28.

The time period is unaffected by a change in amplitude but the energy is directly proportional to
the square of the amplitude. A mass oscillating on a spring is not explicitly mentioned on the
syllabus but like the simple pendulum, it is an integral component of Simple Harmonic Motion
(SHM).

29.

Candidates are expected to recall the orders of magnitude of the wavelengths of the principal
radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum, as stipulated by the Guide.

35.

The interpretation of the expression The refractive index of refraction of medium 2 relative to
medium 1 is might have represented some difficulties for students for whom English is not the
mother tongue. Consequently, answers B and C were accepted.

36.

This (challenging) question was about the nature of a wave (here a pulse) as explained via SHM.
It has a slightly negative coefficient of discrimination and high coefficient of difficulty. Because
of the ambiguity in the position of point P (the answer A requires that point P be lower to the
left on the pulse segment), answers A and B were accepted. The published version of this
question will show velocity rather than acceleration in the stem of the question with the relevant
answer being B.

38.

It was disappointing to see the number of students who incorrectly selected B. This would
suggest that they were applying the formula without consideration to the situation. As > 1, and
as 4 > 1, the correct answer must be D. It may be advisable to teach Snells Law by referring
to big and small angles rather than to angles of incidence and refraction.

42.

The responses to this question showed that students had not been carefully introduced to the
physics of longitudinal waves and the meaning of their typical displacement-distance graph.

43.

The responses to this question showed that students had not been carefully introduced to the
physics of longitudinal waves and the meaning of their typical displacement-distance graph.
23