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Nov 12, 2014

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Action Recognition

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Action Recognition

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Binu M. Nair and Vijayan K. Asari

Computer Vision and Wide Area Surveillance Laboratory,

Electrical and Computer Engineering,

300 College Park Avenue, Kettering Labs KL-302A,

University of Dayton, Dayton, OH - 45469, USA

{nairb1,vasari1}@udayton.edu

http://visionlab.udayton.edu

by modelling variations of the corresponding shape postures with respect

to each action class thereby removing the need for normalization for the

speed of motion. The three main aspects are the shape descriptor suitable

for describing its posture, the formation of a suitable posture space, and

a regression mechanism to model the posture variations with respect to

each action class. Histogram of gradients(HOG) is used as the shape

descriptor with the variations being mapped to a reduced Eigenspace

by PCA. The mapping of each action class from the HOG space to the

reduced Eigen space is done using GRNN. Classification is performed

by comparing the points on the Eigen space to those determined by

each of the action model using Mahalanobis distance. The framework

is evaluated on Weizmann action dataset and Cambridge Hand Gesture

dataset providing significant and positive results.

Keywords: Histogram of gradients(HOG), Generalized Regression

Neural Nets(GRNN), Human Action Modelling, Principal Component

Analysis(PCA), K-Means Clustering.

Introduction

Human gesture recognition has been a widely researched area over the last few

years due to potential applications in the eld of security and surveillance. Early

research on gesture recognition used the concept of space time shapes, which are

concatenated silhouettes over a set of frames, to extract certain features corresponding to the variation within the spatio-temporal space. Gorelick et al. [7]

modelled the variation within the space time shape using Poissons equation and

extracted space time structures which provides discriminatory features. Wang et

al. recognized human activities using the derived form of the Radon transform

known as the R-Transform [17,16]. A combination of a 3D distance transform

along with the R-Transform is used to represent a space time shape at multiple

levels and used as corresponding action features [11].

H. Jiang et al. (Eds.): IEA/AIE 2012, LNAI 7345, pp. 124133, 2012.

c Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

125

words with each word corresponding to a certain set of space-time interest points

which are detected by set of 2D spatial gaussian lter and 1D gabor temporal lters [12]. Here, Niebles et.al computes the probability distributions of the

spatio-temporal words corresponding to each class of human action using a probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model. Another algorithm which is similar is

given by Batra et.al where a dictionary of mid-level features called space time

shapelets is created which characterize the local motion patterns within a space

time shape thereby representing an action sequence as a histogram of these space

time shapelets over the trained dictionary [2]. However, these methods are susceptible to illumination variation or require good foreground segmentation of the

silhouettes. Another approach is to model the non-linear dynamics of the human

action by tracking the trajectories of certain points in the body and capture features from those trajectories. Ali et al. used the concepts from Chaos Theory

to reconstruct the phase space from each of the trajectories and compute the

dynamic and metric invariants which are then used as action feature vectors [1].

This method will be aected by partial occlusions as some trajectories maybe

missing which may aect the metrics extracted. Scovannar et al. used a 3D-SIFT

to represent spatio-temporal words in a bag of words model representation of

action videos [13]. Sun et al extended the above methodology which combined

local descriptors based on SIFT features and hositic moment-based features [15].

The local features comprised of the 2D SIFT and 3D SIFT features computed

from suitable interest points and the holistic features are the Zernike moments

computed from motion energy images and motion history images. The approach

taken here assumes that the scene is static as it relies on the frame dierencing

to get suitable interest points.

A dierent approach for characterizing human action sequences is to consider

these sequences as multi-dimensional arrays called tensors. Kim et al. presented

a new framework called Tensor Cannonical Correlation Analysis where descriptive similarity features between two video volumes are used in nearest neighbour

classication scheme for recognition [8]. Lui et.al however, studied the underlying geometry of the tensor space occupied by human action sequences and

performed factorization on this space to obtain product manifolds [10]. Classication is done by projecting a video or a tensor onto this space and classifying

it using a geodesic distance measure. In this type of methodology, unlike in the

space time approach, it shows much improved performance on datasets with

large variations in illumination and scale. However, the classication is done per

video sequence and not one a set of frames constituting a part of a video sequence. A 3D gradient-based shape descriptor representing the local variations

was introduced by Klaser et al. [9] and is based on the 2D HOG descriptor used

for human body detection [5,6]. Here, each space time shape is divided into cubes

where in each cube, the histogram is computed from the spatial and temporal

gradients. Chin et al performed an analysis on modelling the variation of the

human silhouettes with respect to time [4]. They studied the use of dierent dimensionality reduction techniques such as PCA and LLE and the use of neural

126

networks to model the mapping. The proposed technique in this paper uses the

histogram of spatial gradients in a region of interest, nds an underlying function

which captures the temporal variance of these 2D shape descriptors with respect

to each action and classies a set of contiguous frames irrespective of the speed

of the action or the time instant of the body posture.

Proposed Methodology

In this paper, we focus on three main aspects of the action recognition framework.

The rst is that of feature extraction where a shape descriptor is computed for

the region of interest in each frame. The second is that of a computation of an

appropriate reduced space which spans the shape change variations across time.

The third aspect is that of suitable modelling of the mapping from the shape

descriptor space to the reduced space. A suitable block diagram illustrating the

framework is shown Figure 1.

local representation of the shape and it is partially invariant to illumination.

To obtain a reduced dimensional space where the inter-frame variation among

the HOG descriptors are large, we use the Principal Component Analysis. The

inter-frame variation between the HOG descriptors is due to the change in shape

of a body or hand with respect to a particular action being performed. So, we

propose a modelling of these posture or shape variations with respect to each

action, the underlying idea being the posture variations dier with action class.

A modelling of actions in this manner removes the need for normalization with

respect to time and that a slow or fast moving action of the same class will

not cause any dierence. Only the postures of each frame are correspondingly

mapped onto a reduced space containing variations in time, thereby making

the framework time-invariant. In other words, while classifying a slow action,

the posture variations will occupy a small part of the manifold when compared

to a fast moving action where the posture variations occupy a large section of

the action manifold. Moreover, due to varying speed of the action in dierent

individuals, some of the postures in the action sequence may not be present

during the training phase. So, when these particular postures occur in a test

sequence of an action, the action model can estimate where that posture lies

on the reduced space. This approach gives a more accurate estimation of the

127

Fig. 2. HOG descriptor extracted from a binary human silhouette from the Weizmann

Database [7]

(a) Hand

(b) Gradient

Fig. 3. HOG descriptor extracted from a gray scale hand image from Cambridge Hand

Gesture Database [8]

corresponding location of that particular shape on the action manifold than the

approach which uses nearest neighbours to determine the corresponding reduced

posture point. In this paper, we use a separate model for each action class and

the modelling is done using generalized regression neural networks which is a

multiple-input multiple-output network.

2.1

The histogram of gradients is computed by rst taking the gradient of the image

in the x and y directions and calculating the gradient magnitude and orientation

at each pixel. The image is then divided into overlapping K blocks and the orientation range is divided into n bins. From each block, the gradient magnitudes

of those pixels corresponding to the same range of orientation (belonging to the

same bin) are added up to form a histogram. The histograms from the various blocks are normalized and concatenated to form the HOG shape descriptor.

An illustration of the HOG descriptor extracted from masked human silhouette

image are shown in Figure 2. It can been seen that since the binary silhouette

produces a gradient where all of its points correspond to the silhouette, the HOG

descriptor produces a discriminative shape representation. Moreover, due to the

block operation during the computation of the HOG, this descriptor provides

a more local representation of the particular posture or shape. An illustration

of the HOG descriptor(rst 50 elements) applied on a gray scale hand image is

128

shown in Figure 3. Unlike the binary image, there is some noise in the gradient

image which gets reected onto the HOG descriptor. Since the HOG descriptors are illumination invariant, we can assume that under varying illumination

conditions, the feature descriptors do not vary much.

2.2

The next step in the framework is determine an appropriate space which represents the inter-frame variation of the HOG descriptors. An illustration of the

reduced posture or shape space using PCA is shown for the Weizmann dataset

and the Cambridge Hand dataset using three Eigenvectors in Figure 4. Each

action class of the reduced posture points shown in Figure 4 are color-coded to

illustrate how close the action manifolds are and the separability existing between them. We can see that there are lot of overlaps between dierent action

manifolds in the reduced space and our aim is to use a functional mapping for

each manifold to distinguish between them. We rst collect the HOG descriptors

from all the possible postures of the body irrespective of the action class and

form a space denoting what is known as an action space denoted by SD . We can

express the action space mathematically as

SD = {hk,m : 1 k K(m) and 1 m M }

(1)

where K(m) is the number of frames taken over all the training video sequences

from the action m out of M action classes and hk,m being the corresponding

HOG descriptor of dimension D 1. The reduced action or posture space is

obtained by extracting the principal components of the matrix HHT where H =

[h1,1 h1,1 h1,1 ... hK(M),M ] using PCA. This is done by nding the Eigenvectors

or Eigenpostures v 1 v 2 ...v d corresponding to the largest variances between the

HOG descriptors. In this reduced space, the inter-frame variation between the

extracted HOG descriptors due to the changes of shape of the body (due to the

motion or the action) are maximized by selecting the appropriate number of

Eigenpostures and at the same, reducing the eect of noise due to illumination

Fig. 4. Reduced Posture Space for the HOG descriptors extracted from video sequences

129

Eigenvectors with the highest Eigenvalues corresponds to the direction along

which the variance between the HOG descriptors due to the posture or shape

change is maximum and all the other Eigenvectors with lower Eigenvalues can

be considered as directions which corresponds to the noise in the HOG shape

descriptor.

2.3

GRNN

The mapping from the HOG descriptor space (D 1) to the reduced posture or

shape space (d 1) can be represented as SD Sd where Sd = {pk,m : m =

1 to M } and p is a vector representing a point in the reduced posture space.

In this framework, we aim to model the mapping from the HOG to the posture space for each action m separately using the Generalized Regression Neural

Network [14,3]. This network is a one-pass learning algorithm which provides

fast convergence to the optimal regression surface. It is memory intensive as it

requires the storage of the training input and output vectors where each node

in the rst layer is associatedwith one training point. The network models the

N

yi radbasis(xxi )

= i=1

where (y i , xi ) are the trainequation of the form y

N

i=1 radbasis(xxi )

is the estimated point for the test input x. In our

ing input/output pairs, y

algorithm, since a lot of training points are present, a lot of nodes have to be

implemented for each class which is not memory ecient. To get suitable training points that marks the transitions in the posture space for a particular action

class m, k-means clustering is done to get L(m) clusters. So, the mapping of the

HOG descriptor space to its reduced space for a particular action class m can

be modelled by a general regression equation given as

L(m)

=

p

i,m exp(

p

i=1

L(m)

i=1

2

Di,m

)

2 2

2

Di,m

exp(

)

2 2

i,m )T (h h

i,m )

; Di,m = (h h

(2)

i,m ) are the ith cluster centres in the HOG descriptor space and

where (

pi,m , h

the posture space. Selection of the standard deviation for each action class

is taken as the median Euclidean distance between the corresponding actions

cluster centres. The action class is determined by rst projecting the consecutive

set of R frames onto to the Eigenpostures. These projections of the frames given

(m)r of the

by pr : 1 r R is compared with the estimated projections p

corresponding frames estimated by each of the GRNN action model using the

Mahalanobis distance. The action model which gives the closest estimates of

the projections is selected as the action class.

130

The algorithm presented in this paper has been evaluated on two datasets,the

Weizmann Human Action [7] and the Cambridge Hand Gestures [8]. The histogram of gradients feature descriptor has been extracted by dividing the detection region into 7 7 overlapping cells. From each cell, a histogram of gradient is

computed with 9 orientation bins which are normalized by taking the L2norm,

and the normalized histograms are concatenated to form the feature vector of

size 441 1.

3.1

samples performed by dierent people. The background in these video sequences

are static with uniform lighting at low resolution and so, silhouettes of the person

can be extracted by a simple background segmentation. HOG features, computed

for these silhouettes represent the shape or the postures of the silhouette at one

particular instant. During the training phase, all the frames of every training

sequence of each class are taken together to get the HOG feature set for each

action class. The test sequence is split up into overlapping windows (partial

sequences) of size N with an overlap of N 1. The HOG features of each frame

of the window is compared with the estimated features from each action class

model corresponding to this particular frame using Mahalanobis distance, and

the appropriate distance from each class is computed by taking the L2 norm

of the distances for each frame. The action model which gives the minimum

nal distance measure to the testing partial sequence is determined to be its

action class. Table 1 gives the results for the framework with GRNN having 10

clusters with a window size of 20 frames. The testing is done by using leave-10

out procedure where 10 sequences, each one corresponding to a particular action

class are considered as the testing set while the remaining sequences are taken

as the training set. The variation of the overall accuracy for dierent window

sizes of 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 23, 25, 28, 30 of the test partial sequences are shown in

Figure 6.

131

a4 - jforward ; a5 - run ; a6 - side ; a7 - wave1 ; a8 - skip ; a9 - wave2 ; a10 - walk

a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10

a1 99

a2

100

a3

100

a4

99

a5

98

1

a6

9

90

a7

2

97

a8

2

97

a9

3

96

a10

4

95

Fig. 6. Average Accuracy computed for the action classes for window size

10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 23, 25, 28, 30

3.2

The dataset contains 3 main actions classes showing dierent postures of the

hand, at, spread out and V-shape. Each of the main classes has three other subclasses which diers in the direction of movement. In total, we have 9 dierent

action classes which diers in the posture of the hand as well as its direction

of motion. The main challenge is to dierentiate between dierent motion and

shape at dierent illumination conditions. The dataset is shown in Figure 5(b).

There are 5 sets, each containing dierent illuminations of all the action classes

with class having 20 sequences. From each of the video sequences, we applied skin

segmentation to get a rough region of interest, and extracted the HOG based

shape descriptor from the gray scale detection region. Unlike the descriptors

extracted from silhouettes in the Weizmann dataset, these descriptors contain

noise variations due to dierent illumination conditions. The testing strategy

we used is the same as that of the Weizmann with leave-9 out video sequences

132

Table 2. Confusion Matrix and Overall Accuracy for Cambridge Hand Gesture Dataset

(a) Confusion Matrix

a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9

a1 94.0

1

5

a2

91.0 6

3

a3 2

1 95.0

2

a4

91.0 1

8

a5

5 85.0 10

a6

1 99.0

a7

83.0 3 14

a8

86.0 14

a9

1 13 9 77.0

Acc 96.11 73.33 70.00 86.67 87.72

where each test sequence corresponds to an action class. The confusion matrix

for the action classes obtained from the framework with 4 clusters is given in

Table 2(a). We can see that if all the illumination conditions are trained into

the system, the overall accuracy obtained with the framework is high. Using

the same testing strategy, we tested the system for overall accuracy for each

set and this is given in Table 2(b). For set1, the overall accuracy is high as the

non-uniform lighting does not aect the feature vectors and noise is diminished

by the partial illumination variant property of the HOG descriptor. For sets 4

and 5, it shows moderate accuracies while sets 2 and 3 give an average overall

accuracy.

In this paper, we presented a frame work for recognizing actions from partial

video sequences which is invariant to the speed of the action being performed. We

illustrated this approach using the Histogram of Gradients shape descriptor and

computed the mapping from the HOG space to the reduced dimensional posture

space using Principal Component Analysis. The mapping from the HOG space

to the reduced posture space for each action class is learned separately using

Generalized Regression neural network. Classication is done by projecting the

HOG descriptors of the partial sequence onto the posture space and comparing

the reduced dimensional representation with that of the estimated posture from

the GRNN action models using Mahalanobis distance. The results shows the

accuracy of the framework as illustrated on the Weizmann database. However,

when using the gray scale images to compute the HOG, severe illumination conditions can aect the framework as illustrated by the Hand Gesture database

results. In future, our plan is to extract a shape descriptor which represents

a shape from a set of corner points where relationships between them are determined in the spatial and temporal scale. Other regression and classication

schemes will also be investigated in this framework.

133

References

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In: IEEE 11th International Conference on Computer Vision, ICCV 2007, pp. 18

(October 2007)

2. Batra, D., Chen, T., Sukthankar, R.: Space-time shapelets for action recognition.

In: IEEE Workshop on Motion and video Computing, WMVC 2008, pp. 16 (January 2008)

3. Bishop, C.M.: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Information Science

and Statistics), 1st edn. Springer (2006), corr. 2nd printing edn. (October 2007)

4. Chin, T.J., Wang, L., Schindler, K., Suter, D.: Extrapolating learned manifolds for

human activity recognition. In: IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, ICIP 2007, vol. 1, pp. 381384 (October 2007)

5. Dalal, N., Triggs, B.: Histograms of oriented gradients for human detection. In:

IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition,

CVPR 2005, vol. 1, pp. 886893 (June 2005)

6. Dalal, N., Triggs, B., Schmid, C.: Human Detection Using Oriented Histograms of

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7. Gorelick, L., Blank, M., Shechtman, E., Irani, M., Basri, R.: Actions as spacetime shapes. Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 29(12),

22472253 (2007)

8. Kim, T.K., Wong, S.F., Cipolla, R.: Tensor canonical correlation analysis for action

classification. In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition,

CVPR 2007, pp. 18 (June 2007)

9. Klaser, A., Marszalek, M., Schmid, C.: A spatio-temporal descriptor based on 3dgradients. In: Proceedings of the British Machine Vision Conference (BMVC 2008),

pp. 9951004 (September 2008)

10. Lui, Y.M., Beveridge, J., Kirby, M.: Action classification on product manifolds.

In: IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2010,

pp. 833839 (June 2010)

11. Nair, B., Asari, V.: Action recognition based on multi-level representation of 3d

shape. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory

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12. Niebles, J., Wang, H., Fei-Fei, L.: Unsupervised learning of human action categories

using spatial-temporal words. In: British Machine Vision Conference, BMVC 2006

(2006)

13. Scovanner, P., Ali, S., Shah, M.: A 3-dimensional sift descriptor and its application to action recognition. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on

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14. Specht, D.: A general regression neural network. IEEE Transactions on Neural

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15. Sun, X., Chen, M., Hauptmann, A.: Action recognition via local descriptors and

holistic features. In: IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and

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