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Hazardous Area Classification Fundamentals & Cases ATEX congres Mei 2014, Dordrecht, Nederland EX Erik van
Hazardous Area Classification
Fundamentals & Cases
ATEX congres
Mei 2014, Dordrecht, Nederland
EX
Erik van de Kuilen
Shell Global Solutions Inc.
Agenda
Agenda

Fundamentals Ignition Source Control Standards & Practices Area Classification: the Concept Area Classification: a Multistep Process

Cases

Hot Surfaces Management of Change – Gasgroup & Temperature class Negligible Extent Abnormal Operating Conditions - Temporary Zone 1 Management of Change – Release dispersion Heat Exchanger Leakage Ventilation

Q&A

2

Ignition Source Control…. or Not (?)
Ignition Source Control….
or Not (?)
Hot Surface 3
Hot
Surface
3
Ignition Source Control
Ignition Source Control

Ignition Source Control is part of Process Safety Management

Ignition Source Control

Loss of Containment
Loss of
Containment

4

Proper Ignition Source Control reduces explosion risk 10-100x

Ignition Source Control
Ignition Source Control

Ignition Source Control:

Permit to Work system (hot work)

‘No smoking’ areas

Traffic and vehicle control

Hazardous Area Classification

Static Electricity control

Etc.

Area Classification Static Electricity control Etc. Essentially covering all 13 ignition sources (ref. EN 1127)

Essentially covering all 13 ignition sources (ref. EN 1127)

Hazardous Area Classification is only a part of Ignition Source Control

#

Ignition Sources (EN 1127)

1

Hot surfaces

2

Flames & hot gases

3

Mechanical sparks

4

Electrical apparatus

5

Stray currents

6

Static electricity

7

Lightning

8

Radio waves

9

High Frequency EM waves

10

Ionizing radiation

11

Ultrasonics

12

Adiabatic compression

13

Exothermic reactions

5

Hazardous Area Classification: Stds & Practices
Hazardous Area Classification: Stds & Practices

Area Classification is typically following industry stds & practices:

USA / North America:

API RP 500 – Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installation at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Division 1 and Division 2. – North Americas and locations that have ANSI/NEMA designs

API RP 505 – Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class 1, Zone 0, Zone 1, and Zone 2 – North America and locations that have ANSI/NEMA designs

Europe (ATEX 137 since 2003) + rest of the world:

EU: IEC 60079-10 Classification of Hazardous Areas

UK: IP-15 – Energy Institute (previously Institute of Petroleum) Model Code of Safe Practice, Part 15, 3rd edition, July 2005. – United Kingdom

Country local regulations, standards & practices

6

Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept
Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept

Hazardous Area Classification principle:

1.Determine likelihood and dimension of a flammable atmosphere (zone) around certain leak and/or exposure points (LFL boundary)

2.Manage (design, maintain, operate) or eliminate ignition sources within the zone

UFL LFL LFL 7
UFL
LFL
LFL
7
Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept
Hazardous Area Classification: the Concept

Hazardous Area Classification scope:

Flammable fluids (Hydrocarbons, H2, CO, NH3, …)

‘Small’ release sources:

Flanges, pump seals, vents, drains

No catastrophic equipment failure

S

i

i

i

i

*

( em )permanent gn t on sources :

Equipment hot surfaces

Roads / plant vehicles

Machinery motors

Instrumentation

Roads / plant vehicles Machinery motors Instrumentation * Open flame equipment is typically excluded from Area

*Open flame equipment is typically excluded from Area Classification and located outside the classified area

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

1: Determine flammability properties for each fluid and/or equipment item (in particular LFL, UFL, flashpoint, AIT)

fluid and/or equipment item ( in particular LFL, UFL, flashpoint, AIT) Hydrocarbon Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT)
Hydrocarbon Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT)
Hydrocarbon
Auto Ignition
Temperature
(AIT)
fluid and/or equipment item ( in particular LFL, UFL, flashpoint, AIT) Hydrocarbon Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT)

9

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

2: Determine Zone for all equipment items a: Zone type (likelihood of flammable atmosphere):

Release Grade

Equipment

Zone

Zone

(example)

(ventilated)

(confined/

non-

ventilated)

Continuous (>1000

b: Zone extension (dimensions of flammable atmosphere):

hr/yr)

Inside tank

0

0

Primary (10 - 1000 hr/yr)

Sample connection, pits

1

1/0

Secondary (< 10 hr/yr)

Flange, pump seal

2

1

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

2: Determine Zone for all equipment items b: Zone extension (dimensions of flammable atmosphere):

IP 15: Direct Example Approach 11 IP 15: Point Source Approach
IP 15: Direct Example Approach
11
IP 15: Point Source Approach
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

3: Determine fluid ignition parameters (ref. Literature)

a: the Gasgroup for the released fluid* b: the Temperature Class for the released fluid

Fluid (typical)

Gas

group

Alkanes

II

A

Ethylene, EO, CO

II

B

Hydrogen

II

C

T

Temperature

class

(deg C)

1 450

 

2 300

 

3 200

 

4 135

 

5 100

 

6 85

 

Released

Ignition

Gasgroup

Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT) (deg C)

T

fluid

Energy

class

(mIE)

Methane

0.28

I /II A

525

T1

Ethane

0.24

II

A

510

T1

Propane

0.25

II

A

460

T1

Hexane

0.24

II

A

230

T3

Ethylene

0.07

II

B

425

T2

Hydrogen

0.01

II

C

560

T1

Benzene

0.2

II

A

498

T1

Ethylene

0.06

II

B

429

T2

Oxide

 

12

* Also ‘apparatus’ group or ‘explosion’ group; a parameter related to the sensitivity for ignition

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

4: Complete the Hazardous Area Classification Design Basis and develop the drawings….

A Multistep Process 4: Complete the Hazardous Area Classification Design Basis and develop the drawings…. 13
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
///// Zone 2 14
///// Zone 2
14
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process
Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

Hazardous Area Classification: A Multistep Process

5: Implement and/or verify in the field: (incl. selected explosion protection: ia, ib, d, e,
5: Implement and/or verify in the field:
(incl. selected explosion protection: ia, ib, d, e, n,
)
equipment nameplates
hot surfaces
roads & vehicles
NAME PLATE:
6: Risk assess and/or modify any
deviations from the required area
classification
Universal Supplies Ltd,
CE 0999
Trans type 100
II G
EEX ib IIC T4
40 C < Ta < 70 C
ACB 00 ATEX 9999
Apparatus parameters
Serial No. 991234
(Ignition Hazard Analysis)
7: Document !
(Area Classification Design Basis,
Explosion Protection Document)
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16

Hazardous Area Classification – Some Cases

1. Hot Surfaces

2. Management of Change – Gasgroup & Temperature class

3. Negligible Extent

4. Abnormal Operating Conditions - Temporary Zone 1 operation

5. Management of Change – Release dispersion

6. Heat Exchanger Leakage

7. Ventilation

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17

Hot Surfaces

Hot equipment surfaces can be an ignition source, if the surface temperature exceeds the Auto Ignition Temperature (AIT) of the released fluid:

Operating temperature > Gasoline AIT
Operating temperature > Gasoline AIT

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Hot Surfaces

Risk Considerations (Ignition Hazard Analysis):

What is the actual Heating Medium line surface temperature? Is the line insulated or could it be ? Is the insulation gas tight? Are there any flanges? Will the Gasoline indeed reach the Heating Medium line and heat up to AIT? Could any Gasoline leak points perhaps be eliminated or relocated? Could the Heating Medium line be rerouted/shielded off?

API RP 2216-03:

Ignition Risk of Hydrocarbon Liquids and Vapors by Hot Surfaces in Open Air:

“ignition of hydrocarbons by a hot surface should not be assumed unless the surface temperature is approximately 360 °F (182°C) above the accepted minimum ignition temperature of the hydrocarbon involved.”

Consider ignition due to hot surface*:

Zone 0 & Zone 1: fluid AIT

Zone 2: fluid AIT + 180 °C.

* EN1127 indicates 80% of AIT for Zone 0 and 1 and AIT for Zone 2

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Hot Surfaces

A new insulated Steam line (Operating Temperature > 300 C) into an existing pipe track (conservatively) classified as Zone 1 with fluids AITs < 250 C:

New steam line

AITs < 250 C: N e w s t e a m l i n e

Existing pipe track

Zone 1

Alternative: installing a new 2 km pipe rack

Risk Considerations (Ignition Hazard Analysis):

API 2216 not applicable for Zone 1 (only for well ventilated systems) What is the Steam line surface temperature? What about flanges? Where are the Hydrocarbon leak sources? Close to Steam line hot points? Could the Steam line be shielded/segregated from the Hydrocarbon lines?

leak sources? Close to Steam line hot points? Could the Steam line be shielded/segregated from the
leak sources? Close to Steam line hot points? Could the Steam line be shielded/segregated from the
leak sources? Close to Steam line hot points? Could the Steam line be shielded/segregated from the

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Management of Change – Gasgroup and T Class
Management of Change – Gasgroup and T Class

Installing new equipment in

New IIA-T2 equipment / zone (max surface temp. 300 ̊C) Existing IIA-T3 and p zone
New IIA-T2 equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 300 ̊C)
Existing IIA-T3 and
p
zone (max surface
temp. 200 ̊C)
IIC-T3 E
q
ui ment /
existing facility New IIC-T2 equipment / zone (max surface temp. 300 ̊C) Existing / Replaced
existing facility
New IIC-T2 equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 300 ̊C)
Existing / Replaced IIA-T3
Equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 200 ̊C)
T2 equipment in T3 zone IIA equipment in IIC zone New IIA-T2 equipment / zone
T2 equipment
in T3 zone
IIA equipment in
IIC zone
New IIA-T2 equipment / zone
(max surface temp. 300 ̊C)
Zone with Negligible Extent (NE)
Zone with Negligible Extent (NE)

During facility decommissioning residual Hydrocarbons at low/no pressure may retain inside and dictate need for Area Classification .

EN 60079-10-1 has introduced the concept of Zone with Negligible Extend (NE). Zone 2 NE is accepted by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and does not require control of ignition sources within it.

Approach is being considered for de-commissioning of platforms in North Sea:

Good High Ventilation required Normal outside conditions
Good High
Ventilation
required
Normal outside
conditions
Abnormal Operating Conditions (Drilling WHCP)
Abnormal Operating Conditions (Drilling WHCP)

Platform Well Head Control Panel (WHCP) cabinet (ca. 3 m3) is located in Zone 2 and internally classified Zone 1. Zone 2 is based on normal production.

During HAZOP it was found that for 3-6 months every 3-4 yrs, the platform is also used to drill new wells. This would require 3 m radius Zone 1 conditions extending over the WHCP.

Relocate/renew the cabinet for Zone 0 ?

Alternative? During Zone 1 operation:

cabinet for Zone 0 ? Alternative? During Zone 1 operation: Provide gas detection in/near the cabinet

Provide gas detection in/near the cabinet to indicate increased gas concentration inside/outside the cabinet. Install ventilation on the cabinet to maintain Zone 1 inside

Management of Change – Standards & Dispersion
Management of Change – Standards & Dispersion

New filter unit for FCC product

Distance from proposed location to nearby road: 7.5 m Zone radius/distance to road according local standard: 15 m

This would require closure or major rerouting of main access road to Control Room and Unit….

Physical Effect Modeling:

Dispersion analysis shows max release size 4.5 m from filter unit leak points Supported by IP 15 Area Classification point source method

size 4.5 m from filter unit leak points Supported by IP 15 Area Classification point source
IP 15 Point Source
IP 15 Point Source
Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)
Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)

Leaking Heat Exchanger(s) resulting in Hydrocarbon in open Cooling Water Returns and may be ignited (CW Return not classified).

To reduce the risk:

Zone 1/2 for the CW Return? Install gas / Hydrocarbon detection in CW Return + Close off the road in case of gas detection to prevent ignition by passing vehicle A similar case:

Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)
Heat Exchanger Leakage (Cooling Water Return)

New designs would have closed CW return lines, classified CW towers and Hydrocarbon vent in the return line:

CW tower fire Hydrocarbon Vent Line CW Return Line Ref. API 505
CW tower fire
Hydrocarbon Vent Line
CW Return Line
Ref. API 505
Ventilation (Winterizing)
Ventilation (Winterizing)

During winter, some plants are ‘sheltered’ to prevent freezing problems. This could impact the natural ventilation and the Zoning.

Winterizing scre ens

Ventilation (Winterizing)
Ventilation (Winterizing)

Design and locate the screens such that (natural) ventilation is still adequate:

50% LEL for secondary grade release 25% LEL for continuous & primary grade release

(ref. IEC 60079-10 ventilation calcs)

Open area for ventilation

Zone 2 facility
Zone 2 facility

If not adequate, then need to consider artificial ventilation and/or gas detection

Q & A
Q & A
Q & A
Q & A

Q & A

Q & A
Q & A
Q & A
Q & A