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PAVAI COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY-PACHAL,NAMAKKAL

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


STRENGTH OF MATERIALS QUESTION BANK
UNIT-I
PART-A

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Define the terms Poisson's ratio and BuIk modulus.


Explain the effect of change of temperature in a composite bar.
Define principal planes and principal stresses.
Give the relation between modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity.
Write the concept used for finding stresses in compound bars.
How will you find major principal stress and minor principal stress? Also mention how to locate
the direction of principal planes.
State Hookes Law
Define bulk modulus.
What do you mean by principal plane?
A short bar of length 100 mm tapers uniformly from a diameter 30 mm to a diameter of 20 mm
and carries an axial compressive load of 200 KN. Find the change in length of the bar.E= 200
KN/mm2
Estimate the load carried by a bar if the axial stress is 10 N/mm2 and the diameter of the bar is 10
mm.
What is the strain energy stored when a bar of 6 mm diameter 1m length is subjected to an axial
load of 4 KN, E = 200 KN/mm2?
Define strain energy and write its unit.
Give the relation between modulus of rigidity and modulus of elasticity.
Define: Resilience, proof resilience and modulus of resilience.
The youngs modulus and shear modulus of material of material are 120Gpa and 45Gpa
respectively. What is its bulk modulus.
What is a composite bar? How will you find the stress and load carried by each member of a
composite bar?
The principal stress at a point is 100 N/mm2 (tensile) and 50 N/mm2 (compressive) respectively.
Calculate the maximum shear stress at this point.

PART-B
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2.

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In an experiment, a bar of 25 mm diameter is subjected to a pull of 70 kN. The measured


extension on gauge length of 200 mm is 0.09 mm and the change in diameter is 0.0040 mm.
Calculate the Poisson's ratio and the values of three moduli.
A reinforced concrete column 500 mm x 500 mm in section is reinforced with 4 steel bars of 20
mm diameter, one in each corner. The column is carrying a load of 750 kN. Determine the
stresses in concrete and steel bars. Take E, = 270 GPa and E" = 14 GPa Also, calculate load
carried by steel and concrete.
A plane element in a boiler is subjected to tensile stresses of 400 MPa on one plane and 200 MPa
on the other at right angles to the former. Each of the above stresses is accompanied by a shear
stress of 100 MPa. Determine the principal stresses and their directions. Also, find maximum
shear stress.
A mild steel rod of 20 mm diameter and 300 mm long is enclosed centrally inside a hollow upper
tube of external diameter 30 mm and internal diameter of 25 mm. The ends of the tube and rods
are brazed together and the composite bar is subjected to an axial pull of 40 kN. If E for steel and
copper is 200 GN/m2 and 100 GN/m2 respectively, find the stresses developed in the rod and
tube. Also, find the extension of the rod.
A steel rod 5 m long and 25 mm in diameter is subjected to an axial tensile load of 50 kN.
Determine the change in length, diameter and volume of the rod. Take E = 2 x 105 N/mm2 and
Poisson's ratio = 0.30.

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At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are 100 N/mm2 (tensile) and 40 N/mm2
(compressive). Determine analytically the resultant stress in magnitude and direction on a plane
inclined at 60 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress
in the material at that point?
A steel tube 30 mm external diameter and 25 mm internal diameter encloses a gun metal rod 20
mm diameter to which it is rigidly joined at each end. The temperature of the whole assembly is
raised to 150C. Find the intensity of stress in the rod when the common temperature has fallen to
20C. The value of the Youngs modulus for steel and gun metal are 2.1 10 5 N/mm2
respectively. The coefficient of linear expansion for steel is 12 10-6 perC and for gun metal is
20 10-6 perC.
A point is subjected to a tensile stress of 250 MPa in the horizontal direction and another tensile
stress of 100 MPa in the vertical direction. The point is also subjected to a simple shear stress of
25 MPa, such that when it is associated with the major tensile stress, it tends to rotate the element
in the clockwise direction. What is the magnitude of the normal and shear stresses on a section
inclined at an angle of 20 with the major tensile stress?
A compound tube consists of a steel of 140mm internal diameter and 5 mm thickness and an
outer brass tube of 150mm internal diameter and 5mm thick. The two tubes are of same length.
Compound tube carries an axial load of 600KN. Find the stresses carried by each tube and
amount of shortening. Length of the tube is 120 mm. Es=2x105 N/mm2 , Eb =1x105N/mm2.
The state of stress at a certain point in a strained material is shown in Fig. 1. Calculate (i)
principal stresses (ii) inclination of the principal planes (iii) normal, shear and resultant stresses
on the plane MN.

11. An alloy circular bar ABCD 3 m long is subjected to a tensile force of 50 kN as shown in figure.
If the stress in the middle portion BC is not to exceed 150 MPa, then what should be its diameter?
Also find the length of the middle portion, if the total extension of the bar should not exceed by 3
mm. Take E = 100 GPa.

12. Stresses at a point are px = 80 N/mm2, py = -35 N/mm2, q = 11.5 N/mm2. Determine principal
planes, principal stresses and maximum shear stress.
UNIT-II
PART-A
1. Draw the shear force diagram for a cantilever beam of span 4 m and carrying a point load of 50
KN at mid span.
2. Draw the bending stress and shear stress distribution due to bending of beam with rectangular
cross section.
3. Define shear force and bending moment.
4. What do you mean by the point of contraflexure?

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Write the assumption in the theory of simple bending.


Write the equation for the simple bending theory.
When will bending moment is maximum.
A rectangular beam 100 mm wide and 250mm deep is subjected to a maximum shear force of 50
KN. What is the shear stress at a distance of 25mm above the neutral axis?
Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for a cantilever of span 4 m carrying a
uniformly distributed load of 2 KN/m over the entire span.
Sketch the bending moment diagram of a cantilever beam subjected to UDL over the entire span.
Write down relations for maximum shear force and bending moment in case of a cantilever beam
subjected to uniformly distributed load running over entire span.
A cantilever beam 3 m long carries a load of 20 kN at its free end. Calculate the shear force and
bending moment at a section 2 m from the free end.
Sketch (a) the bending stress distribution (b) shear stress distribution for a beam of rectangular
cross section.
Draw the shear force diagram for a simply supported beam of 5 m span is subjected to a
clockwise moment of 15kN.m at distance of 2 m from the left end.
Sketch the bending and shear stress distribution for T section.
Show that the shear stress over a rectangular section is parabolic.

PART-B
1. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the beam shown in Fig and also indicate
the points of contra flexure if any.

a.
2. A simply supported beam is loaded as shown in fig . Draw the shear force and bending moment
diagrams.

a.
3. A timber of rectangular section is to support a load of 20 KN uniformly distributed over a span of
3.6 m, when the beam is simply supported. If the depth of the section is to be twice the breadth
and the stress in the timber is not to exceed 7 N/mm2, find the breadth and depth of the cross
section. How will you modify the cross section of the beam, if it carries a concentrated load of 30
KN placed at the mid span with the same ratio of breadth to depth.
4. A I section beam 350mmx250mm has a web thickness of 12.5mm and a flange thickness of
25mm.if carries a shearing force of 20 tonnes at a section. sketch the shear stress distribution
across the section.

5. A beam of length 10 m is simply supported at its ends carries two concentrated loads of 5 kN
each at a distance of 3 m 7 m from the left support and also a uniformly distributed load of 1
kN/m between the point loads. Draw shear force and bending moment diagrams. Calculate the
maximum bending moment.
6. Draw shear force and bending moment diagram for the simply supported beam shown in Fig. 1.
Also, find the maximum bending moment and its position.

a.
7. Two beams are simply supported over the same span and have the same flexural strength.
Compare the weights of these two beams, if one of them is solid and the other is hollow circular
with internal diameter half of the external diameter.
8. cast iron beam is of T-section as shown in Fig. 2. T}r,e beam is simply supported on a span of 6
m. The beam carries a uniformly distributed Ioad of 2 kN/m on the entire length (span).
Determine the maximum tensile and maximum compressive stress.

a.
9. A simply supported beam of 4 m span is carrying loads as shown in figure. Draw the shear force
and bending moment diagrams for the beam.

UNIT-III
PART-A
1. Define torsional rigidity of the solid circular shaft.
2. Find the torque which a shaft of 50 mm diameter can transmit safely, if the allowable shear stress
is 75 N/mm2.
3. Differentiate open coiled helical spring from the close coiled helical spring and state the type of
stress induced in each spring due to an axial load.

4. Calculate the maximum torque that a shaft of 125mm diameter can transmit if the maximum
angle of twist is 1 in a length of 1.5 m. Take C= 70 103 N/mm2.
5. What are springs? Name the two important types.
6. Express the strength of a solid shaft.
7. Give the expression for finding deflection of a closely coiled helical spring.
8. What do you mean by torsional rigidity of a shaft? Also, give the expression for finding power
transmitted by a shaft.
9. How will you find maximum shear stress induced in the wire of a close-coiled helical spring
carrying an axial load?
10. Find the torque which a shaft of 50 mm diameter can transmit safely, if the allowable shear stress
is 75 N/mm2.
11. Differentiate open coiled helical spring from the close coiled helical spring and state the type of
stress induced in each spring due to an axial load.
12. A hollow circular bar having external diameter twice the inner diameter is used as a beam. If the
bar is subjected to a bending moment of 40 kNm and the allowable bending stress in the beam is
limited to 100 MN/m2, find the inner diameter of the bar.
13. What are the two conditions to be satisfied in the design of a circular shaft.
14. Write the expression for stiffness of a close coiled helical spring.
15. Find the minimum diameter of shaft required to transmit a torque of 29820 Nm if the maximum
shear stress is not to exceed 45 N/mm2.
PART-B
1. A closely coiled helical spring of round steel wire 5 mm in diameter having 12 complete coils of
50 mm mean diameter is subjectedt o an axial load of 150 N. Find the deflection of the spring and
the maximum shearing stress in the material. Modulus of rigidity (C) = 80GPa. AIso, find
stiffness of the spring.
2. A solid cylindrical shaft is to transmit 300 kN power at 100 rpm. If the shear stress is not to
exceed 60 N/mm2, find its diameter. What percent saving in weight would be obtained if this
shaft is replaced by a hollow one whose internal diameter equals to 0.6 of the external diameter,
the length, the material and maximum shear stress being the same.
3. A closely coiled helical spring of round steel wire 10 mm in diameter having 10 complete turns
with a mean diameter of 12 cm is subjected to an axial load of 250 N. Determine
(i) the deflection of the spring
(ii) maximum shear stress in the wire and
(iii) stiffness of the spring and
(iv) frequency of vibration.
Take C = 0.8 x 105 N/mm2 .
4. (i)Obtain a relation for the torque and power, a solid shaft can transmit.
(ii) A solid steel shaft has to transmit 100 kW at 160 r.p.m. Taking allowable shear stress as 70
MPa, find the suitable diameter of the shaft. The maximum torque transmitted in each revolution
exceeds the mean by 20%.
5. (i)Derive an equation for deflection of an open coiled helical spring. (8)
(ii)A closely coiled helical spring is made up of 10 mm diameter steel wire having 10 coils with 80
mm mean diameter. If the spring is subjected to an axial twist of 10 kN-mm, determine the bending
stress and increase in the number of turns. Take E as 200 GPa.
6. Calculate the power that can be transmitted at a 300 rpm by a hollow steel shaft of 75 mm
external diameter and 50 mm internal diameter when the permissible shear stress for the steel is
70N/mm2 and the maximum torque is 1.3 times the mean. Compare the strength of this hollow
shaft with that of an solid shaft. The same material, weight and the length of both the shafts are
the same
7. A helical spring of circular cross-section wire 18 mm in diameter is loaded by a force of 500 N.
The mean coil diameter of the spring is 125 mm. The modulus of rigidity is 80 kN/mm2.
Determine the maximum shear stress in the material of the spring. What number of coils must the
spring have for its deflection to be 6mm?

8. A solid shaft is subjected to a torque of 100 Nm. Find the necessary shaft diameter if the
allowable shear stress id 100 N/mm2 and the allowable twist is 3 per 10 diameter length of the
shaft. Take C = 1 105 N/mm2.
9. A hollow shaft, having an internal diameter 50% of its external diameter, transmits 600 kW at
150 rpm. Determine the external diameter of the shaft if the shear stress is not to exceed 65
N/mm2 and the twist in a length of 3 m should not exceed 1.4 degrees. Assume maximum torque
= 1.2 times the mean torque and modulus of rigidity = 1 105 N/mm2
10. A hollow shaft with diameter ratio 3/8 is required to transmit 500 kW at 100 rpm, the maximum
torque being 20% greater than the mean. The maximum shear stress is not to exceed 60 N/mm 2
and the twist in a length of 3 m is not to exceed 1.4Calculate the minimum diameters required for
the shaft. C = 84 kN/mm2.
11. A close coiled helical spring is to have a stiffness of 1.5 N/mm of compression under a maximum
load of 60 N. The maximum shearing stress produced in the wire of the spring 125 N/mm2. The
solid length of the spring is 50 mm. Find the diameter of coil, diameter of wire and number of
coils C = 4.5 104 N/mm2
UNIT-IV
PART-A
1. Calculate the maximum deflection of a simply supported beam carrying a point load of 100 kN at
mid span. Span = 6 m, EI = 20000 KN/m2.
2. State moment area theorems.
3. Draw conjugate beam for a cantilever carrying uniformly distributed load over the entire span.
4. A rectangular R.C. simply supported beam of span 3 m and cross section 200 mm 350 mm
caries a point load of 100 KN at its mid span. Find the maximum slope and deflection of the beam
if E = 0.2 105. N/mm2.
5. Write the equation giving maximum deflection in case of a simply supported beam subjected to
udl over the entire span.
6. What is the relation between slope, deflection and radius of curvature of a beam?
7. A cantilever beam of span of 2 m is carrying a point load of 20 kN at its free end. Calculate the
slope at the free end. Assume EI = 12 103 kN-m2
8. List any four methods of determining slope and deflection of loaded beam.
9. Write down the equations for maximum deflection of a simply Supported beam loaded with a
central point load.
10. What are the methods for finding out the slope and deflection at a section?
11. Why moment area method is more useful, when compared with double integration?
12. Explain the Theorem for conjugate beam method?
13. Define method of Singularity functions?
14. What are the points to be worth for conjugate beam method?
15. What are the different sections in which the shear stress distribution is to be obtained?
16. What do you mean by shear stress in beams?
17. What is the formula to find a shear stress at a fiber in a section of a beam?
18. What is the shear stress distribution rectangular section?
19. What is the shear stress distribution Circular section?
20. State the main assumptions while deriving the general formula for shear stresses
21. Define: Shear stress distribution
22. What is the ratio of maximum shear stress to the average shear stress for the rectangular section?
23. What is the ratio of maximum shear stress to the average shear stress in the case of circular
section?
24. What is the shear stress distribution value of Flange portion of the I-section?
25. What is the value of maximum of minimum shear stress in a rectangular cross section?
26. What is the shear stress distribution for I-section?
27. How will you obtained shear stress distribution for unsymmetrical section?
28. Where the shear stress is max for Triangular section?
29. Where shear stress distribution diagram draw for composite section?

PART-B
1. Beam is simply supported at its ends over a span of 10 m and carries two concentrated loads of
100 kN and 60 kN at a distance of 2 m and 5 m respectively from the left support. Calculate (i)
slope at the left support (ii) slope and deflection under the 100 kN load. Assume EI = 36 10 4
kN-m2.
2. A beam AB of length 8 m is simply supported at its ends and carries two point loads of 50 kN and
40 kN at a distance of 2 m and 5 m respectively from left support A. Determine, deflection under
each load, maximum deflection and the position at which maximum deflection occurs. Take
E=2x105 N/mm2 and I=85 x106 mm4.
3. A cantilever AB, 2 m long, is carrying a load of 20 kN at free end and 30 kN at a distance 1 m
from the free end. Find the slope and deflection at the free end. Take E = 200 GPa and I =
150X106 mm4
4. For the beam shown in Fig. Find deflection at C and maximum deflection. EI = 360000 kNm2.

5. A beam of length 6 m is simply supported at the ends and carries two point loads of 48 kN and 40
kN at a distance of 1 m and 3 m respectively from the left support. Compute the slope and
deflection under each load. Assume EI = 17000 kNm2.
6. A horizontal girder of steel having uniform section is 14 meters long and is simply supported at
its ends. It caries concentrated loads of 12 tonnes and 8 tonnes at two points 3 metres and 4.5
metres from the two ends respectively. I for the section of the girder is 160X103 cm4 and E
=2.1X108 kg/cm2 calculate the deflection of the girder at points under the two loads.
UNIT-V
PART-A
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What are assumptions involved in the analysis of thin cylindrical shells.


Define Thin Shell.
Mention the types of stresses produced in thin cylindrical shells.
A boiler of 800 mm diameter is made up of 10 mm thick plates. If the boiler is subjected to an
internal pressure of 2.5 MPa, determine circumferential and longitudinal stress.
A cylindrical pipe of diameter 1.5 m and thickness 1.5 cm is subjected to an internal fluid
pressure of 1.2 N/mm2. Determine the longitudinal stress developed in the pipe.
A spherical shell of 1 m diameter is subjected to an internal pressure 0.5 N/mm 2. Find the
thickness if the thickness of the shell, if the allowable stress in the material of the shell is 75
N/mm2.
A cylindrical shell of 500 mm diameter is required to withstand an internal pressure of 4MPa.
Find the minimum thickness of the shell, if maximum tensile strength in the plate material is 400
N/mm2 and efficiency of joint is 65%. Take factor of safety as 5.
Find the thickness of the pipe due to an internal pressure of 10 N/mm2 if the permissible stress is
120 N/mm2. The diameter of pipe is 750 mm.
Define thin cylinder?
What are types of stress in a thin cylindrical vessel subjected to internal pressure?
What is mean by Circumferential stress (or hoop stress) and Longitudinal stress?
What are the formula for finding circumferential stress and longitudinal stress?
What are maximum shear stresses at any point in a cylinder?
What are the formula for finding circumferential strain and longitudinal strain?

15. What are the formula for finding change in diameter, change in length and change volume of a
cylindrical shell subjected to internal fluid pressure p?
16. What are the formula for finding principal stresses of a thin cylindrical shell subjected to internal
fluid pressure p and a torque?
17. Define Lames theory.
18. What are the stresses acting on the thick cylinders?
PART-B
1. Calculate the thickness of metal necessary for a cylindrical shell of internal diameter 160mm to
withstand an internal pressure of 25MN/m2, if maximum permissible tensile stress is 125MN/m2.
2. To measure the longitudinal and circumferential strains, strain gauges were fixed on the outer
surface of a closed thick cylinder of diameter ratio2.5. At an internal pressure of 276MN/m2 these
strains were recorded as 11.016X10-5and 44.28X10-5 respectively. Determine youngs modulus
and modulus of rigidity.
3. A thick cylinder of 150mm outside radius and 100mm inside radius is subjected to an external
pressure of 30MN/m2and internal pressure of 60MN/m2. Calculate the maximum shear stressin
the material of the cylinder at the inner radius.
4. In a steel member, at a point the major principal stress is 180MN/m2,and the minor principal
stress is compressive. If the tensile yield point of the steel is 225 MN/m2, find the value of minor
principal stress at which yielding will commence, according to each of the following criteria of
failure:
1. i). Maximum Shearing stress
2. ii) Maximum total strain energy
3. iii) Maximum shear strain energy. Take poissons ratio:0.26
5. A solid shaft transmits 1000kw at 300r.p.m. maximum torque 2 times the mean. The shaft is
subjected to a bending moment which is 1.5 times mean torque. The shaft is made of a ductile
material for which the permissible tensile and shear stresses are 120MPa and 60MPa respectively.
Determine the shaft diameter using a suitable theory of failure. Give justification for theory used.
6. A cylindrical shell 3 m long which is closed at the ends, has an internal diameter of 1 m and a
wall thickness of 20 mm. Calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses induced and also
changes in the dimensions of the shell, if it is subjected to an internal pressure of 2.0 N/mm2.
Take E = 2x 105 N/mm2 and = 0.3.
7. A cylindrical shell 800 mm in diameter, 3 m long is having 10 mm metal thickness. If the shell is
subjected to an internal pressure of 2.5 N/mm2,
(i)
the change in diameter
(ii)
the change in length and
(iii)
the change in volume.
(iv)
Assume the modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio of the material of the shell as
200 kN/mm2 and 0.25 respectively.
8. A Cylindrical shell 3 meters long has 1 metre internal diameter and 15 mm metal thickness.
Calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses induced and also changes in the
dimensions of the shell, if it is subjected to an internal pressure of 15 kg/cm2.Take E = 2.0X106
kg/cm2 and Poisson's ratio = 0.3.