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# Zeke Merchant

11/10/14
Exam 2 Review Questions
ME 411
1. How do laminar and turbulent boundary layer profiles
differ?
a. Turbulent boundary layer
i. Inertial effects dominate
ii. Grows faster than laminar boundary layer
iii. Greater heat and momentum transfer lead to thicker
boundary layers
b. Laminar boundary layer
i. Viscous effects dominate
ii. Grows slower than turbulent boundary layer
2. Which (laminar or turbulent) has a higher shear stress at
the wall? Why?
a. The turbulent boundary layer has a higher shear stress at
du
the wall because shear stress is defined as =
and
dy
turbulent boundary layers grow at a faster rate than
laminar boundary layers
3. When will a thermal boundary layer develop?
a. A thermal boundary layer will develop whenever there is
temperature difference between a surface and its
surroundings.
4. Does advection or diffusion dominate convective heat
transfer?
a. Advection (the bulk/macroscopic flow of a fluid) is the
driving force of convective heat transfer
5. What is the difference between a local and average
convection coefficient?
a. Local convection coefficient is the convection coefficient at
a given point x
i. This is used to find the heat flux at a given point
b. Average convection coefficient is used to calculate the heat
transfer rate for the entire region
6. If a function for a local convection coefficient is given,
how is the average coefficient found?

1 h ( x ) dx
h=
L0

u x
a. R e x =

## 8. What is the physical interpretation of Reynolds number?

a. Reynolds number represents a ratio of inertial to viscous
forces
9. What is the critical Reynolds number at which flow
transitions from laminar to turbulent for flow over a flat
plate?
a. R e xcr =5.0 105
10.
Which boundary layer grows quicker, a laminar or
turbulent?
a. The turbulent boundary layer grows quicker
11.
What are the equations for laminar and turbulent
boundary layer growth?
5x
a. Laminar: =
R ex
b. Turbulent:

=0.37 xR e

1
5

12.
What is the equation for Nusselt number? Does it
vary for a cylinder, tube, or flat plate? How?
hx
a. Local Nusselt number: N u x =
k
h L
b. Average Nusselt number: Nu L =
k
c. Varies by geometry
hD
i. Cylinder: N u D =
k
ii. Tube:
1. T s=const N u D=3.66
2. q's' =const N u D =4.36
hL
iii. Flat plate: N u L =
kf
13.
What is the physical interpretation of Nusselt
number?

## a. The physical interpretation of Nusselt number is the ratio of

convection to pure convection heat transfer
14.
The Nusselt number is a function of which other
nondimensional numbers?
a. Nu=f (R e L , Pr )
15.
How does Nusselt number vary for a laminar
boundary layer, a turbulent boundary layer, and the
transitional region?
a. Laminar:

1
1 3
2
x

for

N u x =0.332 R e Pr

b. Turbulent:

1
4 3
5
x

N u x =0.0296 R e Pr

c. Transitional:

4
5
L

[Pr 0.6 ]
for

1
3

Nu x = 0.037 R e A Pr

[0.6 Pr 60]
for

## [0.6 Pr 60, R e x R e L 108 ]

cr

i. Where:
16.

4
5
xcr

A=0.037 R e 0.664 R e

1
2
x cr

## What is the definition of Prandtl number?

a. The Prandtl number is defined as the ratio of the
momentum diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity

17.
What is the physical interpretation of Prandtl
number?
a. Prandtl number is the measure of the relative effectiveness
of heat transfer by diffusion in the fluid and thermal
boundary layers
18.
What value should fluid properties be evaluated at
when computing a Nusselt number? Does this ever vary?
a. Nusselt numbers are always evaluated at a film
T +T
temperature T f = s
2
19.

## What is the drag crisis, and why does it occur?

a. Not a fucking clue

20.
At what Reynolds number does the drag crisis occur
for a cylinder? For a sphere?
a. Not a fucking clue

21.
How does the local convection coefficient vary, as a
function of theta, for flow over a cylinder that
experiences 1) a laminar boundary layer, 2) transition to
turbulence, 3) a turbulent boundary layer, 4) flow
separation, 5) a wake region? How are these parameters
affected by Reynolds number?
a. Laminar boundary layer:
b. Transition:
c. Turbulent boundary layer:
d. Flow separation:
e. Wake:
22.
How is the Nusselt number computed for a jet
impinging on a plate?

h DH
, Pr , Ar ,
where Nu=
a. Nu=f
DH
k
D for round nozzle
i. Where: D H =
2 W for a slot nozzle

23.
How does Nusselt number vary with slot width and
height above a plate for a jet impinging on a plate?
a. Nusselt number is proportional to height above plate and
inversely proportional to slot width
24.

## How is Reynolds number computed for internal flow?

u D
a. R e D = m

25.
Is the Reynolds number a function of axial location
in internal flow? Why, or why not?
a. Reynolds number is not a function of axial location in
internal flow. It is a function of the mean velocity.
26.
What is the critical Reynolds number at which flow
transitions from laminar to turbulent for internal flow?
a. R e x =2,300
cr

27.
What does it mean to have a fully-developed
internal flow?
a. In a fully developed internal flow, both the thermal and the
fluid boundary layers have approached a mean value
28.
How is the fluid entry length computed for both
laminar and turbulent flow?

x fd ,h
=0.05 R e D
D
x
b. Turbulent: 10 fd ,h =60
D
a. Laminar:

29.
How is the thermal entry length computed for both
laminar and turbulent flow?
x fd ,t
a. Laminar:
=10
D
x fd ,t
b. Turbulent:
=10
D
30.
How is mass flow rate computed for an internal
flow?

um A
a. m=
31.

## What is the definition of a mean velocity?

a. The mean velocity is an average or bulk flow velocity at
any cross section

32.
How is mean velocity computed from a known
velocity profile?
r
2
a. um = 2 u ( x , r ) r dr
ro 0
o

33.

## What is the definition of a mean temperature?

a. A mean temperature is an average or bulk flow
temperature at any cross section
34.
How is the mean temperature computed for a known
temperature profile?
R
2
u ( x , r ) T ( x ,r ) r dr
a. T m ( x )=
2
um R 0
35.
How are um, u(r), and dp/dx, related for laminar
flow? How are they related for turbulent flow?
a. Laminar flow:
dP 8 um
=
i.
2
dx
ro
2
2
r o dP
r
1
ii. u ( r )=
4 dx
ro

( )[ ( ) ]

iii.

[ ( )]

u (r)
r
=2 1
um
ro

b. Turbulent flow:

36.

d T m q 's' P
i.
=
dx mC
p
What is the definition of a friction factor?
a. Friction factor is a dimensionless drop in pressure for
internal flow

37.
What is the thermal energy equation, and how is it
applied to internal flows?
p [ ( T m +d T m )T m ]
a. Thermal Energy Equation: d qconv = mC
b. It is used to develop an equation for how the mean
temperature varies in the axial direction
38.
How does the mean velocity vary along a pipe?
r
2
a. um = 2 u ( x , r ) r dr
ro 0
39.
How does the mean temperature vary along a pipe?
''
d T m qs P
P
a.
=
=
h ( T s T )
dx
mC
p m
Cp
40.
How does the velocity profile vary along a pipe?
a. Before entering the pipe, the velocity profile is constant
b. After entering the pipe, the velocity profile goes to zero at
the inner surfaces of the pipe
c. Flow becomes fully developed and the velocity profile
remains constant afterward
41.
How does the temperature distribution vary along a
pipe?
a. The temperature distribution is linear
q' ' P
b. T m ( x )=T m ,i + s x
Cp m

42.
How does the mean temperature vary for constant
surface temperature?
''
qs P
a. T m ( x )=T m ,i +
x
Cp m

43.
How does the mean temperature vary for constant
surface heat flux?
T o T sT m , o
PL
=
=exp
h
a.
p
T i T sT m , i
mC
o

44.
How is convection heat transfer computed for
constant surface temperature?
a. q conv =h A s T lm

T o T i
b.
where : T lm=

[ ]

To
ln
Ti

Ti

T o
=

T sT m (x)
A s=PL
T sT m ,i

45.
How is convection heat transfer computed for
constant surface heat flux?
a. Do a CV analysis to prove that q s=q conv
b. q conv =q's' ( PL)
46.
How are the relations for convection heat transfer
for either constant wall temperature or constant surface
heat flux derived?
a. These relations are created by applying the thermal energy
equation to a control volume
b. Make some simplifying assumptions
47.
Is there an easier way to compute the values if both
the mean inlet and outlet temperatures are known?
p ( T m , oT m ,i )
a. q conv =mC
48.

How is Tm defined?
a. Not a clue
b. Change in mean temperature as a function of r maybe?

49.
What s the Nusselt number correlation for fullydeveloped flow with constant surface temperature?
a. Nu=3.66
50.
What s the Nusselt number correlation for fullydeveloped flow with constant surface heat flux?
Nu=4.36
a.
51.
How does the local Nusselt number relate to the
mean Nusselt number for both scenarios? Why?

a. Laminar: Nu Nu

b. Turbulent: Nu= Nu
i. Since the entry lengths for turbulent flow are
x
generally short, 10 fd 60, it is often easier to
D

## assume that Nu= Nu

52.
What is the Graetz number?
a. Const used to calculate Nu # in long tube

( )

53.

## How does Graetz number related to entry length?

T +T
D
a. G z D=
R e D Pr for T s=const , Pr 5, T f = m,i m , o
x
2
calculations
b. G z D used Nu

( )

54.
How is a convection coefficient found for flow that is
not fully developed?
3.66
1
+0.04999 G z D tanh ( G z D )
1
2
a.

b.
c.

D=
Nu

## tanh 2.264 G z d3 + 1.7G z D3

tanh 2.432 P r 6 G z D6
for [ T s =const , Pr 0.1, T f ]

Nu k
h L h=
Nu=
k
L

55.
Does it matter if all or a portion of an internal flow
of interest is fully developed or not, if it is desired to find
h? Why?
a. Always, the Nusselt # Correlation depends on whether or
not the internal flow is thermally developed, hydraulically
developed, neither, or fully developed.
56.
What is the difference between forced and free
convection?What is the volumetric thermal expansion
coefficient?
a. Forced convection is convection due to external means
b. Free convection occurs when flow is caused by buoyancy
forces
c. The volumetric thermal expansion coefficient is
represented by the symbol and it represents how
( x ) varies with T ( x )
57.

How is it calculated?
1
a. For an ideal gas: =
T
b. All other variances can be found in Appendix A where
=f (T )

58.

## What is the Grashof number?

a. In free convection, Reynolds # is driven by the velocity of
the buoyancy forces instead of the stream velocity,
therefore it is replaced by Grashof #

b.

2
L

G r L =R e =

( T sT ) g L3
2

59.
What is the physical description of the Grashof
number?
a. Grashof # is the ratio of Buouyancy Forces to Viscous
Forces
60.
How do you determine if forced convection, or free
convection is more important for the overall heat transfer
rate?
a. If the Grashoff Number is much less than Reynolds
Number, then buoyancy forces can be neglected
b. If the Grashoff Number is much more than Reynnolds
Number, then the Buoyancy Forces dominate
61.
convection flows?
Gr x 14
a. N u x =
g ( Pr )
4
b. g s not gravity , g=f ( Pr )

( )

1
2

c.

g ( Pr )=

0.75 Pr
1
2

(0.609+1.221 P r +1.238 Pr )

1
4

62.
Bonus question: What should optimal fin spacing be
to maximize heat transfer? (see Figure 9.4)
63.
What is the Rayleigh number?
64.
What is the physical interpretation of Rayleigh
number?
65.
What is the critical number at which buoyancy
driven flow transitions from laminar to turbulent?
66.
When does free convection occur?
67.