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PHY10 : Review

A. Vectors
Scalar Quantity - a quantity which only magnitude but no direction
Ex. Speed 40 kph
Vector Quantity - a quantity which has both magnitude and direction
Ex. Velocity- 40 kph due north
Analytical Methods of Finding the Resultant
A. Triangle Method construct a triangle using the 2 given vectors and use concepts of trigonometry such as
Cosine Law, Sine Law or Pythagorean Theorem to solve for the unknown vector.
B. Vector Resolution Method or Component Method- it is the process of resolving the vector to its vertical
and horizontal components
Resultant, R- is the vector sum of 2 or more vectors whose effect is the same as the given set of vectors.
A small boat travels 80.0 km north and then travels 60.0 km east in 1.0 hr. What is the boats displacement
for one-hour trip? What is the boats average speed during the one-hour trip?

B. Kinematics
It is the study of how object moves without regard to the cause of motion.
EQUATIONS for motion along a straight path (x-axis)
VF = VO + at
s = VOt + at2
VF2 = VO2 + 2as
Note : if a = 0 ; V = constant
EQUATIONS for motion along vertical axis (y-axis)
VF = VO + gt
h = VOt + gt2
VF2 = VO2 + 2gh
Note : if object is free-fall or dropped V O = 0
EQUATIONS for Projectile Motion (x-axis)
VOX = VO cos : VOX Hori zontal Component of V O
VOX = VFX = VnX Note : Constant Horizontal Velocities
s = Vx t

Other Important Equations

R = [VO 2 sin (2)] /g
tR = R/VOX

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V F final velocity
V O initial velocity
s horizontal displacement/distance traveled
a constant acceleration
h vertical displacement/ height
g gravitational acceleration = 9.8 m/s 2
Sign Convention (from origin) : s : (+) & h : (+)
V : (+) OR (+)
a : (+) if speeding up OR (+) , hence g = 9.8 m/s2
EQUATIONS for Projectile Motion (y-axis)
VOY = VO sin
: VOY Verti cal Component of V O
VFY = VOY + gt
h = VOYt + gt2
VFY2 = VOY2 + 2gh
Sign Convention (from origin) : s : (+) & h : (+)
V : (+) OR (+)
g = 9.8 m/s2

Note g = + 9.8 m/s2

H = VOY2 /(2g) = (VO sin 2)/(2g)
tH = VOY /g = (VO sin )/g = tR/2


A projectile is fired from a gun and has initial horizontal and vertical components of velocity equal to 30 m/s and
40 m/s, respectively.
a. What is the initial speed of the projectile?
b. Approximately how long does it take the projectile to reach the highest point?
c. What is the speed of the projectile at the highest point in its trajectory?
d. Approximately what is the maximum horizontal distance reached by the projectile

C. Forces & Laws of Motion

Newtons Laws of Motion
Newtons First Law of Motion
An object sitting at rest will remain at rest if the sum of all forces acting on the object is zero. Similarly, if
an object is moving and the sum of the forces acting on the object is zero, then the object will continue to move
in the same direction with same speed. [F = 0]
First Condition of Equilibrium
The body or system at this condition remains at rest or moves in a straight line with constant velocity.
(Translational Equilibrium)
Static Equilibrium refers to all objects at rest.
Dynamic Equilibrium refers to all objects / systems moving at constant velocity
F = R = 0 [FX=0 & FY = 0]
A 2-kg picture frame is supported by two wires where each wire makes 30 with the horizontal. What is the
tension in each wire?

Newtons Second Law of Motion (NSLM)

If an unbalanced force acts on a body, it is accelerated by an amount proportional to the unbalanced force
and in the same direction but inversely to its mass. [a = Fnet / m] or [Fnet = ma]
F =ma where :

FX= maX & FY = 0 (if motion is relatively or purely horizontal)

FX= 0 & FY = maY (if motion is relatively or purely vertical)

Ex: An object moves due to a net force of 37.5 N. It starts at rest and accelerates at 2.5 m/s 2. What is its mass?

Newtons Third Law of Motion

Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts a reaction force of equal
magnitude but opposite direction on the first object. It indicates that forces come in pairs an action force and
reaction force
Friction Force (f) force acting between the body and its surface of contact which is acting parallel but opposite to
the direction of motion

[ f N or f = N ]
Static Friction, f s exists when the body is at rest but has the tendency to slide.
Kinetic Friction, f k opposing force when the body is in motion

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Three identical blocks are pulled or pushed across a horizontal surface by a force F, as shown in the
drawings. The force F in each case has the same magnitude. Which figure will give the least kinetic frictional

A 10-kg block is set moving with an initial speed of 6 m/s on a rough horizontal surface. If the friction force is
20 N, approximately how far does the block travel before it stops?

D. Circular Motion
Centripetal Force (FC)
The net force that causes object to move in a circular path
rather than a straight one.
Centripetal means towards the center, so this goes towards
the axis of rotation.
Centripetal Acceleration (aC)
The acceleration associated with the centripetal force. It also
goes towards the center of rotation.
Also known as the radial acceleration
FC = maC
FC = mv2/R
FC = mR2
FC = 4mR2/T2
FC = 4mR2f2


aC = v /R
v = /R
= 2/T
T = 1/f

v linear or tangential velocity (m/s)

angular velocity (rad/s)
T period of rotation, time for 1 complete revolution (seconds)
f frequency, number of revolutions at a given time (per second or hertz)

Newtons Second Law of Motion Applications

1. Horizontal Circle : FX= maC & FY = 0
1.1 Flat Curve
v linear or tangential velocity (m/s) : vMAX maximum velocity
vMAX = (SRg)
S static coefficient of the road surface
1.2 Banked Curve
R radius of curvature (m)
tan = v /(Rg)
banking angle ()
= tan [v /(Rg)]
2. Vertical Circle (Non Uniform) : FX= 0 & FY = maC
@ Lowest Point
@ Highest Point
aCmax = vMAX2/R
aCmin = vMIN2 /R
FC is maximum
FC is minimum

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Ex: A 10 kg garbage bag is whirled into a uniform circular motion. The diameter of this circle is 50m. If the
centripetal force was measured to be 84,100 N, what is the linear speed of the garbage bag?

E. Newtons Law of Gravitation

-Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to
the product of the masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

F = Gm1m2 / (R2)
m1 & m2 masses of the two particles (kg)
R distance between the two particles (m)

F force of attraction (N)

G gravitational constant = 6.67 x10-11 N m2 /kg2

Determining the Acceleration Due to Gravity, g

1. Consider an object of mass m falling near a planets surface, the force of attraction is the gravitational pull of
the planet toward the object is the weight of the object on that planet.
G m MPlanet/ R2 = mg
g = G Mearth/ R2
If the earth were three times farther from the sun than it is now, the gravitational force exerted on it by
the sun would be

three times as large as it is now

nine times as large as it is now
one-third as large as it is now
one-ninth as large as it is now

2. Using the size comparison between the planets mass and radius to that of earths

gX = gE(MX/ME)(RE/RX)2
3. To get mass of center planet (M1), radial distance (R) & orbital period (T), the Gravitational force is equated to
the Centripetal force.

GM1M2 /R2 = M2aC
(M2 is the orbiting object)
GM1/R = aC
GM1/R2 = 42R/T2
Cross multiply to simplify:

GM1T2 = 42R3

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(From here you can derive most of the needed equations)