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- cfd-intro
- 2D Turbulent Flow Past a Cylinder in Star
- CFD QP Dec2011
- Fluid Dynamics Lectures
- Intake and Outfall Structures.scherm (1)
- Heat Exchanger
- Huang Paper
- Fluid Mechanics Unit_6
- 24 Ratnayake Melaaen Datta
- Effect of Various Parameters on the Flapping Motion of an Aerofoil
- Oil Blending Mixing and Contamination
- 092Hwa
- Flow Analysis (FLUENT) - Page 4
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- Coding Tutorials for CFD
- NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW INSIDE THE SQUARE CAVITY
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49-56 (2007)

FINITE-VOLUME METHOD WITH 3D MESH MOVEMENT

J. J. R. Williams

Department of Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London, U.K.

E-mail: J.J.R. Williams@qmul.ac.uk

ABSTRACT: In the numerical solution of a free-surface fluid flow problem, an additional conservation equation

(called the space conservation law) has to be solved along with the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations.

In this paper a surface adaptive curvilinear finite volume method for solving free-surface flows is presented. The

computational mesh defines hexahedra that are used as the control volumes in a finite-volume method in which the mesh

moves to adapt to the free-surface. Dependent variables are located at the centre of each volume. Code verification is

carried out on a number of inviscid, laminar and turbulent flow cases and the results show good agreement with

experimental data and theoretical solutions.

1. INTRODUCTION

In many problems of engineering interest, the

boundary of the computational domain can change

with time. For instance, for flow within the cylinder

of an internal combustion engine, the boundary

motion is prescribed for a given engine speed. For

other problems, such as liquid wave propagation

and open channel flows, the motion of the surface is

determined by the fluid flow itself. Many flows in

geophysics and industrial engineering have a gasliquid interface (free-surface). The free-surface

alters the turbulence structure near the surface

significantly. In particular, the kinetic energy of

vertical velocity fluctuations is redistributed to

horizontal motions. Computations of free-surface

flows have now been carried out by a number of

workers [Demirdzic & Peric (1988), Farmer et al

(1994), Kordulla (1983), Muzaferija & Peric (1998),

Th, et al (1994), Thomas, Leslie & Williams (1995)

and Meselhe & Sotiropoulos (2000)] with, in

general, results showing good agreement with

experiments and theoretical solutions. Also, many

methods have been used to track the free-surface.

These can, however, be classified into two major

groups in a manner similar to the techniques used to

follow shocks: interface-capturing and interfacetracking methods. For the interface capturing

method the surface is determined from the volume

of liquid within the computational cell (usually

Cartesian) and an additional equation has to be

solved for this fraction (or concentration). With the

interface-tracking method however a boundaryfitted grid is used which is re-adjusted each time the

free- surface is moved (usually at each time step).

deformations but is not able to model breaking

waves.

The purpose of this study is to develop an energy

conservative finite volume interface-tracking

method to model turbulent flow using either large

eddy or direct numerical simulation in which the

grid moves with the motion of the free-surface.

Results will be presented for a number of inviscid

and laminar flow studies that were used to verify

the correct working of the code and also for large

eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent open channel

flow.

Thomas, Leslie & Williams (1995) reported on a

method that was developed to simulate turbulent

flow in an open-channel. This technique used splitmerged cells at the free-surface and worked within

a Cartesian framework. The code, at the time, was

unique in its ability to model free-surface turbulent

flows but had the drawbacks of not being able to

model wave slopes greater than the cell aspect

ratios (hence necessitating the need for a large

number of cells in the horizontal directions) and

geometries that were not composed of rectangular

elements. One of the major objectives of this work

was therefore to develop a more robust method of

simulating free-surface wave phenomena within a

curvilinear framework. As a consequence, a new

three dimensional curvilinear free-surface code has

been developed that can handle relatively large

deformations of the surface. The adopted scheme is

based on a combination of a three stage RungeKutta (RK3) for the explicit velocity advancement

followed by a backward Euler Volume of Fluid

(VOF) step to update the cell vertices. The work

49

free surface problems that have allowed for the

inclusion of a sub-grid stress model. With this

extension it will be possible to carry out LargeEddy Simulations of free-surface flows in complex

geometries, around surface piercing structures (such

as bridge piers), and around floating bodies. The

technique is simple, conservative, accurate and

stable and it also does not require curviliear transformations of the grid as used by other workers

such as Hodges and Street (1999) and Komari et al

(1993).

(SCL) which is expressed by the following relation

between the rate of change of control volume and

its surface velocity, has to be satisfied as following:

d

d + W ndS = 0 ,

(5)

s

dt

U ndS = 0,

s

method (FVM) for solving the three-dimensional

flow of an incompressible viscous fluid with

moving control volume surfaces and start with the

conservation equations for mass and momentum in

their integral form:

d + (U W ) ndS = 0,

d

dt

ui d + ui (U W ) ndS

P

=

d +

x

i

g i d + ij n j dS

(6)

hexahedral control volumes using a RK3 scheme

and the pressure correction technique; the pressure

being determined by the solution of equation (6).

Free-surface cells are treated in a similar manner to

interior cells except that there is no flux across the

free-surface and the tangential stress is zero.

Surface tension effects are ignored and the pressure

in free-surface cells is determined by interpolation

between P0 and the cell below. The solution domain

has to be subdivided into a finite number of CVs

which can, in principle, be of any shape and are

defined by edges which form the grid. These grids

are initially formed by either directly specifying

their co-ordinates or by solving functional

relationships. The elevation of the free-surface is

given in terms of a single-valued height function h:

z = h( x , y ,t )

(7)

Surface movement takes place along the corner

grids that can stretch and contract with turbulent

and/or wave motion. The movement is determined

by summing the flows around columns centred at

cell vertices. These flows are determined as a

weighted average at the beginning of the time

step ( = 0 - Forward-Euler), at the end ( = 1 Backward-Euler) or at some interval in between.

For 1 an iterative procedure is adopted. The

corner vertices move in proportion to the surface

movement in order to keep the cell sizes well

distributed. In order that the grid movements are

available for the momentum equations, the verticies

are moved and all (except the surface ones) are

fixed using the velocities at the beginning of the

time step.

Using the above control volume approach,

discretised versions of the Navier-Stokes equations

are established at each nodal point. For control

volumes that are adjacent to the domain boundaries,

the general discretised equations are modified to

incorporate the appropriate boundary conditions

(wall, inflow, outflow and periodicity). The

2. GOVERNING EQUATIONS

d

dt

(1)

(2)

volume (CV) bounded by a closed surface S, U is

the fluid velocity vector whose Cartesian

components are ui (i = 1, 2, 3), W is the velocity of

the control volume surface, t is time, P is the

pressure, gi is the body force in the direction of the

Cartesian coordinate xi, n is the unit vector normal

are the

to S and directed outwards, and

components of the viscous stress tensor defined as:

u u j

(3)

ij = i +

x j xi

Smagorinsky eddy viscosity of the fluid

respectively. The pressure P is split into a

hydrostatic and kinematic component, Pk, as

follows:

P = { P0 g [ z t ( x , y ) z ]} + Pk

(4)

Where P0 is the surface pressure and zt (x,y) is the

vertical distance z to the free-surface. When the

50

momentum equations) and implicity (for the surface

advancement equations). At the end of the RK3

steps and before the surface is advanced, it is

necessary to impose mass continuity on the system

and this is acheived by the projection method in

which the mass flux into each cell is considered and

then solving iteratively for the pressure Pk.

in surface elevation by

x( i , j ,k ) = ( i , j ,k )xt ( i , j ,k )

(14)

y( i , j ,k ) = ( i , j ,k )y t ( i , j ,k )

(15)

z( i , j ,k ) = ( i , j ,k )z t ( i , j ,k )

(16)

where it has been assumed that xb, yb, zb do not

change with time. For the problems solved in this

paper, however, it is sufficient for the mesh to move

only vertically. In this case, in Eq. (15) increases

monotonically with k from 0.0 at zb to 1.0 at zt and

==0. This kind of grid distribution is an

application of the coordination system of Phillips

(1957), which is a special case of the spine method

of Kistler and Scriven (1984).

3. NUMERICAL METHOD

Mary, University of London. It has a collocated grid

in which the pressure and all three velocities are

located at the centre of hexahedra control volumes,

the boundaries of which can initially be set to

follow a curvilinear arrangement and, for equally

sized control volumes, the special discretisation is

second order. The code can simulate flow between

solid walls or be periodic in one or more horizontal

directions.

5. NUMERICAL RESULTS

number of tests that were chosen to test its validity.

Except for the LES tests, a neutrally stable

Forward-Euler

free-surface

advancement/

Backward-Euler velocity advancement scheme was

used. The choice of resolution for the tests was

based on both the individual problems

requirements and experience.

4. COMPUTATIONAL MESH

The free-surface is approximated by the piecewiselinear grid, as shown in 2D in Fig. 1. The time

evolution of the free-surface is therefore defined by

the motion of the corner points on the surface and,

to keep the internal mesh well distributed, it is

important that it also moves with the surface. This

internal mesh motion can be obtained by solving a

set of equations or can be algebraically related to

the surface motion and either method could be used

in the code. The relation between internal and

surface nodes are given by the following

equations:x( i , j ,k ) x b ( j ,k )

= ( i , j ,k ),

(8)

x t ( j , k ) x b ( j ,k )

y ( i , j , k ) y b ( i ,k )

= ( i , j ,k ),

(9)

y t ( i ,k ) y b ( i ,k )

z( i , j , k ) z b ( i , j )

= ( i , j ,k ),

(10)

zt ( i , j ) zb ( i , j )

where xb, yb, zb and xt, yt, zt denote the elevations of

the corners on the bottom and top boundaries.

Over the time step t = tn - tn-1, the change in

elevation of a corner point:

x( i , j ,k ) = x n ( i , j ,k ) x n 1 ( i , j ,k )

(11)

y( i , j ,k ) = y n ( i , j ,k ) y n 1 ( i , j ,k )

z( i , j ,k ) = z ( i , j ,k ) z

n

n 1

( i , j ,k )

circles denote control volume centers

5.1

Wave tests

5.1.1 Tank sloshing

The transient capability of the code was tested by

predicting the evolution of a wave with an initial

shape given by 1.0 + 0.01cos((1 + x)) as it sloshed

in a tank. The length of the tank and mean depth

was = 1.0, the amplitude a = 0.01, g = 9.8 and the

viscosity and initial velocities were zero. Wall

(12)

(13)

51

were set to 0.02 and 2500 respectively to give

Reynolds (umaxH/) and Froude (umax/(gH)) numbers

of 1250 and 0.5. The code was able to reproduce a

parabolic velocity profile and, with an evenly

spaced resolution of 16 cubed, the computed

surface velocity was 24.78 compared with a

theoretical value of 25.0. Periodic boundary

conditions were used in both horizontal directions

and a no-slip linear/viscous boundary condition was

applied at the bed.

from the free-surface). As the flow was inviscid, it

is expected that the sloshing should repeat itself

without significant decay. For a relatively course

grid where x = y = z = 1/8 and the time step t

= 0.005, the amplitude decayed by only 1.5% over

one wave period. The time dependence of the

amplitude of the fluid on the left and right walls of

the tank (denoted by a solid and a dashed line

respectively) are shown in Fig. 2.

The energy decay of a viscous Airy wave of

steepness 0.05 was investigated for varying degrees

of spatial and time resolution. The wavelength, box

length and fluid depth were each given a value of

1.0 and g was 9.81. This resulted in a wave celerity

of 1.25 with a period of 0.8. Periodic boundary

conditions were used in the horizontal directions

and, for the inviscid runs, a free-slip velocity

condition on the bed. Whilst, for the viscous runs, a

no-slip linear/viscous boundary condition was used

on the bed. For x = y = z = 1/16 and the time

step t = 0.0064 the wave Courant number was

0.32 and the changes in potential (PE), kinetic (KE)

and total energy (TE) over one wave period are

shown in Table 1. Also shown are results for a

value of viscosity of =0.001 together with the

numerical predictions of Thomas, Leslie &

Williams (1995) who used a Cartesian code with

split-merged surface cells. For comparison purposes,

it is useful to know that the theoretical total energy

decay is calculated to be 11.9% for =0.001.

elevation on the left (solid line) and right (broken line)

walls for a zero-viscosity fluid and free-slip condition on

the walls

In order to test the three-dimensional characteristics

of the code the decay of a small amplitude inviscid

radially symmetric wave was modelled. The wave

had an initial Gaussian profile following the

relationship 0.7 + 0.01exp((r r0)2/10), where r2 =

2

2

x y

x2 + y2 and r02 = n + n and periodic

2 2

boundary conditions were used in both horizontal

directions. Results show the wave to be perfectly

symmetrical about its centre and for the peak to be

at an approximate radial distance of 17 cells. This

compares favourably with a theoretical value of

16.9 cells (determined by the wave velocity) and

with the approximate value of 18 cells obtained

from the numerical predictions of Thomas, Leslie &

Williams (1995).

Further testing was then carried out by simulating

viscous flow in a trapezoidal channel. The channel

had dimensions of length = 6, depth = 1, base width

= 2 and the side slopes were 45 degrees. and g

were set to 0.02 and 2500 respectively to give

5.2

Viscous flow tests

5.2.1 Couette flow

The code was first run for a channel of depth H = 1,

length = 6 and width = 4 and periodic boundary

conditions were used in both horizontal directions.

52

of 1250 and 0.5. The number of grids used in the

streamwise, spanwise and vertical directions was 64,

32 and 32 respectively with the grids in the

streamwise and vertical directions being evenly

spaced. However, in the spanwise direction, the 32

cells were evenly spaced both across the bottom and

top of the trapezium and the vertical grids were

fanned out between. A periodic boundary condition

was used in the streamwise direction and a no-slip

linear/viscous boundary condition along the walls

and bed. Fig. 3 shows the computed steady state

streamwise velocity contours, which appear to be

very satisfactorily. A steady state maximum

velocity of 21.26 was obtained which compares

with a theoretical value of 25.0 for an infinitely

wide channel. A similar problem was run by

Thomas, Leslie & Williams (1995) with the same

box size and resolution but with the sides treated as

a series of steps in the Cartesian grid. The

maximum velocity obtained from this simulation

was 22.22. This result, together with the above

mentioned velocity contour plots, indicated that the

code was working satisfactorily.

model was used with a constant set to 0.1 and with

Van Driest damping (1956) near the bed. Cartesian

coordinates were used and the grid resolution (in

wall

units)

was

x+=32.0,

y+=21.38,

+

+

z (min)=2.67 and z (max)=9.30 for the

streamwise, spanwise and vertical directions

repectively. Thus regular spacing was used in the

horizontal directions but the vertical spacing was

such that the first grid above the bed was at the

resolution of 1/64 and the others were stretched

gradually. A second order time discretisation

scheme was used.

The mean velocity profile u+=um/ur normalized by

the wall shear velocity is shown in fig. 4. Within the

laminar sublayer z+ < 6 the profiles converge onto

the linear law u+ = z+, and beyond z+ > 30 show

logarithmic behaviour. The computed profile

closely follows the log-law u+ = k-1 ln (z+) + 5.29

(where the von Karman constant is determined as k

= 0.41) and the experimental data of Nezu & Rodi

(1986). There is, however, some evidence of a wake

region near the free surface associated with the

boundary condition du+ / dz = 0 at z+ = Re+.

mesh and subgrid model; , Nezu & Rodi (1986),

experimental data; - - -, wall laws

Fig. 3. Velocity profiles in the trapezoidal channel flow

shear velocity are shown in fig. 5. The comparisons

of the computed turbulence intensities are made

against the experimental measurements of Nishino

& Kasagi (1989) and Komori et al (1982).

Preliminary results are given of a turbulent flow

large eddy simulation that has been carried out for

which experimental data is available. The Reynolds

number, Re+ (defined as urd/), was equal to 171

and the Froude number (umax/gd) was 0.55. The

channel has sizes of depth, d =1, length = 6, width =

2 and periodic boundary conditions were used in

53

Fig. 6, provides a detailed schematic of the dune

geometry used, lengths H and L are 20mm and

6.6H, respectively. The overall length was 400mm

and the width of the computation was set equal to L.

Again a Smagorinsky subgrid model was used with

a constant set to 0.1 together with Van Driest

damping (1956) near the bed.

Komori et al. (1982), computed Re+=176; , Nishino &

Kasagi (1989) experimental Re+=180

Fig. 6. Dune geometry

computed and experimental urms near the bed.

However, away from the bed, the computed results

are slightly lower than those measured. The

agreement between the computed and measured vrms

values is reasonably good but the computed are,

again, slightly lower than those measured. There is

excellent agreement amongst the wrms computed

profiles with the experimental measurements except

very near the surface. Here there is a slight upturn

in the computed velocity which is attributed to

resolution effects as a result of the vertical grid

stretching.

Near the surface, the agreement between measured

and computed values is not as good as near the bed.

Although, the measurements of vrms and wrms of

Komori et al (1982) are also not consistent with

those of Nishino & Kasagi (1989) where they

overlap in the middle depth. It is possible that the

differences may be due the different physical

boundary conditions in place, i.e. channel centerline

and free-slip surface. The effect of the free surface

is to increase the intensity of the horizontal

components of turbulence whilst reducing the

vertical component in a thin layer close to the

surface.

was taken for flow across multiple dune beds,

across 17th and 18th dune out of 22, to ensure fully

developed flow. Computationally this is achieved

by enforcing periodic boundaries in both the

streamwise and spanwise domain. The simulation

was allowed to run for 46 large eddy turnover times

(letots) to allow for the flow to become fully

developed and then statistics were taken over a

further 16 letots. A letot for this work is defined as:

L

T=

(17)

U*

where L and U* are the characteristic length and

shear velocity respectively.

The experimental Reynolds and Froude numbers

were 5.8 x 104 and 0.39 respectively, giving a

computational maximum streamwise velocity of

40.8.

In order to capture the near-wall large velocity

gradients, the cells in the vertical direction were

gradually stretched from z+(min)= z+(average)/2

using a hyperbolic-tan function. The resolution in

wall units was x+=107.6, y+=88.8 and

z+(average)=67.6.

Figs. 7 and 8 compare the mean streamwise

velocity and turbulence intensity at various

locations across the dune to measured experimental

data. Both mean and intensity data computed agree

well with available data, however the intensities

tend to show a larger discrepancy. Differences

can be attributed to the relatively large

resolution used in the simulation and to the

difficulty in accurately measuring turbulent flows.

Large eddy simulation of flow over a twodimensional dune has been computed and compared

with available of Balachandar et al. (2002). The

geometry and flow conditions are computed from

Yue, Lin and Patel (2005), however a coarser

resolution has been used. Yue, Lin and Patel used a

resolution of 80 x 64 x 84 (x,y,z), the current

54

Fig. 7. Mean velocity profiles at various locations

Fig. 8. RMS plots of streamwise velocity normalised by the free-stream velocity

55

free-surface flows that utilizes boundary fitted grids.

These grids may have a curvilinear arrangement and

are free to move with the surface motion. A number

of invisid and viscous flow tests have been carried

out that show that the code is both accurate and

robust. Results have also been given of two largeeddy simulations of open channel flow and these

have been compared with previous simulations at a

similar Reynolds number and with the experimental

measurements. The agreement with published

numerical and experimental data is generally very

good and provides confidence in the codes accuracy

although it has not been tested for very steep waves.

The code has been developed with the long term aim

of simulating turbulent flow around surface piercing

structures, floating and submersible craft and work is

continuing along these lines.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

REFERENCES

Yue W, Patel VC (2002). LDV, PIV and LES

investigation of flow over a fixed dune.

Proceedings of the symposium held at Monte

Verit: Sedimentation and Sediment Transport,

kluwer academic, 171-178.

2. Demirdzic I, Peric M (1988). Space Conservation

Law in Finite Volume Calculations of Fluid Flow.

Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 8:1037-1-50.

3. Eckelmann H (1974). The structure of the viscous

sublayer and the adjacent wall region in a

turbulent channel flow. J. Fluid Mech. 65:439-.

4. Farmer J, Martinelli L, Jameson A (1994). Fast

Multigrid Method for Solving Incompressible

Hydrodynamic Problems with Free Surfaces.

AIAA J. 32(6), June 1994.

5. Hodges BR, Street RL (1999). On Simulation of

Turbulent Nonlinear Free-Surface Flows. J.

Comp. Phys. 151:425-457.

6. Homori S, Nagaosa R, Murakami Y (1993).

Direct Numerical Simulation of Threedimensional Open-channel Flow with Zero-shear

Gas-Liquid Interface. Phys. Fluids A 5(1).

7. Kistler SF, Scriven LE (1984). Coating Flow

Theory by Finite Element and Asymptotic

Analysis of the Navier Stokes System. Int. J.

Numer. Meth. Fluids 4:207-229.

8. Komori S, Ueda H, Ogino F, Mizushina T (1982).

Turbulence structure and transport mechanism at

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14.

15.

16.

17.

18.

19.

Heat Mass Trans. 26:513-521.

Kordulla W (1983). Efficient Computational of

Volume in Flow Predictions. AIAA J. 21.

Meselhe E, Sotiropoulos F (2000). ThreeDimensional Numerical Model with Deformable

Free-Surface for Open-Channels. IAHR J.

Hydraulic Research 38(2).

Muzaferija S, Peric M (1998). Computational of

Free-surface Flows Using Interface-tracking and

interface capturing Methods. Nonlinear Water

Wave Interaction, O. Mahrenholtz, and M.

Markiewicz, eds., Chap. 2, Computational

Mechanics Publications, Southampton.

Nezu I, Rodi W (1986). Open channel flow

measurements with a laser doppler anemometer.

J. Hyd. Engng., ASCE, 112-5:335-354.

Nishino K, Kasagi N (1989). Turbulence

statistics measurement in a two-dimensional

channel flow using a three-dimensional particle

tracking velocimeter. Seventh Symposium on

Turbulent Shear Flows. Stanford University,

2:1063-1075.

Phillips NA (1957). A Coordinate System

Heaving Some Special Advantages for Numerical

Forecasting. J. Meteorol. 14:184-185.

Th JL, Raithby GD, Stubley GD (1994).

Surface-Adaptive Finite-Volume Method For

Solving free Surface Flows. Numer. Heat

Transfer, Part B, 26:367-380.

Thomas TG, Leslie DC, Williams JJR (1995).

Free Surface Simulations Using a Conservative

3D Code. J. Comp. Phys. 116:52-68.

Thomas PD, Lombard CK (1979). Geometric

Conservation Law and Its Application to Flow

Computations on Moving Grids. AIAA J. 17(10),

1979.

Van Driest ER (1956). On turbulent flow near a

wall. J. Aero. Sci. 23:1007-1011.

Yue W, Lin C-L, Patel VC (2005). Large eddy

simulation of turbulent open-channel flow with

free surface simulated by level set method.

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