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PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF

REFRIGERATOR USING WATER COOLED


CONDENSER
A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted by:
JAIMIN S PATEL. (090210119127)
PATEL RAHUL S. (090210119051)
SUMIT SHUKLA. (090210119128)
PATEL VIRAL R. (100213119002)

In fulfillment for the award of the degree


Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
In
MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT

Government Engineering College, Bhavnagar.


Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad.
April, 2013.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation entitled PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A


REFRIGERATOR USING WATER COOLED CONDENSER has been carried out by JAIMIN
S PATEL, PATEL RAHUL S, SUMIT SHUKLA, PATEL VIRAL R under my guidance in
fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering Department (8th
semester) of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmedabad during the year 2012-13.

Guide: Prof. N.D MEHTA

Head of the Department

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and the help of several
individuals, who in one way or the other have contributed and extended their valuable assistance
in the preparation and completion of this project.
First and foremost, we would like to take this opportunity to thank our project guide Prof.
N.D.Mehta, for his patience, guidance, motivation, and utmost support towards completion of
the project. He has guided us towards obtaining the solution consistently so that we are able to
complete our project on time with the tight schedule. He is a tremendously good guide, who
exhibits his extensive cares, experiences, disciplines and guidance towards his project students.
We would also like to thank other faculty members, classmates, friends who have contributed in
our project and also for their moral support and encouragement.
Last but not least, we would like to show our deepest thankfulness to our family and loved ones,
who have shown us their concern and full support.

INDEX

ACKNOWLEGEMENT
CHAPTER1:-DEFINATION OF PROJECT
1.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
1.2 PROBLEM DEFINATION
CHAPTER2:-LITARETURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 REFRIGERATION VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE
CHAPTER3:3.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF REFRIGERATION CYCLE
3.2 VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE
CHAPTER 4:
4.1 THEORITICAL ASSESSMENT OF REFRIGERATION EFFECT
4.2 ACTUAL COMPONENTS OF WATER-COOLED REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
CHAPTER 5:
5.1 WATER-COOLED CONDENSER CALCULATIONS
5.2 AIR-COOLED CONDENSER CALCULATIONS
5.3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF WATER & AIR COOLED CONDENSER
CHAPTER 6:
6.1 APPLICATION
6.2 COMPARISON
CHAPTER 7: FUTURE SCOPE
CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 1:

DEFINATION OF PROJECT

1.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION.


As refrigeration has become one of the basic needs to modern people, it is important to know
the actual working principle of the domestic refrigerator so that the users can always
maintain the refrigeration system at its maximum performance.
Therefore by understanding the working principle of the refrigeration system, it will allow
the users to make the best use of the domestic refrigerator without wasting any electricity and
materials used.
There are 2 problem statements in this project, first is that Study is needed to analyze the
actual performance of refrigerator and second, is to determine the optimum R COP by using
a refrigerator with water cooled condenser.

1.2 PROBLEM DEFINATION.


Performance analysis of domestic refrigerator using water cooled condenser and to compare the
efficiency of domestic air cooled refrigerator with water cooled refrigerator.

CHAPTER 2:

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION
An integral part of the refrigeration process, the condenser is a heat exchanger that rejects both
the evaporator and compressor heat from the system. ASHRAE 16 (2008) states that compressor
discharges hot high-pressure refrigerant gas into the condenser, which rejects this heat from the
gas to a cooler medium.
This warm condense water is then pumped to cooling tower where the heat is released into the
environment. The case study been analyzed as part of this dissertation uses water cooled
condensers for its chilled water system.
Haines and Myers (2010) states that water cooled condensers are typically of the shell and tube
type with the water in the tubes and the refrigerant in the shell. Water cooled condensers usually
receive a water supply from cooling towers, and most chiller manufacturers recommend that this
condense water should not be below 18 C or above 21 C, because the refrigerant oil may
become restricted in the condenser if outside these parameters.
The process of heat transfer by water cooled condensers is achieved by sensible cooling in the
gas desuperheating and condensate sub cooling stages and by the transfer of latent heat in the
condensing stage. ASHRAE (2008), states that the condensing process is by far the dominant
process in normal refrigeration applications, accountable for 83% of the heat rejected in the
refrigeration process. This rejection heat can be calculated accurately by adding the evaporator
load and the heat equivalent power of the compressor.

As stated by CIBSE (2000) an integral part of the condense water process is the cooling towers.
Cooling towers employ evaporative cooling and can cool the condenser water to within 3K of the
ambient wet bulb temperature. A similar process is outlined by ASHRAE (2008), and states that
a cooling tower cools water by a combination of heat and mass transfer. The water to be cooled
is distributed in the cooling tower by spray nozzles, which exposes a very large water surface
area to the atmospheric air. An essential process in the delivery of an efficient condenser water
system, and as outlined by Jayamaha (2006) is the maintaining of the surfaces of these condenser
tubes. The condenser tubes in chillers provide the surface for heat transfer between the
refrigerant and the condenser water.

The scaling or fouling of the condenser tubes surfaces, the resistance to heat transfer increases,
which ultimately reduces the chillers efficiency. CIBSE (1998), states that maintenance of this
part of the process is integral for keeping the systems coefficient of performance high. This is
confirmed by ASHRAE (2008) stating that as scale builds up, the condensing temperature and
subsequent power increase, while the unit capacity decreases.

CHAPTER3: WATER-COOLED REFRIGERATOR


3.1 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF REFRIGERATION SYSTEM:

Refrigeration is defined as the process of extracting heat from a lower-temperature heat source,
substance, or cooling medium and transferring it to a higher-temperature heat sink. Refrigeration
maintains the temperature of the heat source below that of its surroundings while transferring the
extracted heat, and any required energy input, to a heat sink, atmospheric air, or surface water.

3.2 VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION CYCLE

FLOW DIAGRAM OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE


1. Compressor
2. Condenser

3.Expansion valve
4.Evaporator

PROCESSES INVOLVED IN VAPOUR COMPRESSION CYCLE:


1. EVAPORATION
2. COMPRESSION
3. CONDENSATION
4. EXPANSION

EVAPORATION
During this stage, the refrigerant travels through a device called an evaporator that has a
large surface area and typically consists of a coiled tube surrounded by aluminum fins.
The cold fluid is a mixture of liquid and vapor refrigerant as it begins this stage. While
flowing through the evaporator, all the liquid evaporates and absorbs heat from
the enclosed space.
The energy absorbed is used to change the state of the refrigerant from liquid to vapor.
This lowers the temperature of the space, along with whatever food or beverages are
stored in it. The refrigerant exits this stage as a saturated vapor.

COMPRESSION
The heat that was absorbed in the Evaporation stage must be released into the
surroundings, but this will not happen unless the temperature of the refrigerant is higher
than the outside air. This is the purpose of the Compression stage.
A device, predictably called a compressor, raises the pressure of the refrigerant vapor.
Due to basic thermodynamic principles, this causes the temperature of the refrigerant to
rise, leaving the stage as a superheated vapor.
Energy is needed to power the compressor, which is why electricity is required to operate
a refrigerator.
The compressor requires energy and carries out work. This work is transferred to the
refrigerant vapour and is called the compression input. Because of the compression input,
vapour leaves the compressor at a different pressure and the extra energy applied causes
strong superheating of the vapour. Compression input is dependent on plant pressure and
temperature.

CONDENSATION
Now that we have increased the temperature of the refrigerant above that of the
surroundings, we can dissipate the heat necessary to continue the process.
As the hot vapor flows through the condenser, the outside air removes energy and the
refrigerant becomes a saturated liquid. At this point the slightest drop in pressure will
initiate evaporation, which is the basis for the final stage of the process.
The refrigerant gives off heat in the condenser, and this heat is transferred to a medium
having a lower temperature. The amount of heat given off is the heat absorbed by the
refrigerant in the evaporator plus the heat created by compression input.
The heat transfer medium can be air or water, the only requirement being that the
temperature is lower than that which corresponds to the condensing pressure.

EXPANSION
Liquid from the condenser runs to a collecting tank, the receiver. Pressure in the receiver
is much higher than the pressure in the evaporator because of the compression (pressure
increase) that has occurred in the compressor.
To reduce pressure to the same level as the evaporating pressure a device must be
inserted to carry out this process, which is called throttling, or expansion.
Such a device is therefore known either as a throttling device or an expansion device. As
a rule a valve is used a throttle or expansion valve.
By suddenly reducing pressure a conditional change will occur; the liquid begins to boil
and evaporate. This evaporation takes place in the evaporator and the circuit is thus
complete.

CHAPTER 4

4.1 THEORETICAL ASSESSMENT OF REFRIGERATION EFFECT


AIR COOLED CONDENSER:
Q=MCA(T2-T1)
CA=1.010KJ/KG C0
WATER COOLED CONDENSER:
Q=MCW(T2-T1)
CW=4.184KJ/KG C0
FROM THE ABOVE CALCULATION IT IS OBSERVED THAT HEAT REJECTION IN
WATER COOLED REFRIGERATOR IS 4.1425 TIMES THE AIR COOLED
REFRIGERATOR.

4.2 COMPONENTS OF ACTUAL MODEL FOR WATER-COOLED


REFRIGERATION SYSTEM
COMPRESSOR

ROTARY TYPE COMPRESSOR


The job of the compressor is to suck vapour from the evaporator and force it into the
condenser. The most common type is the piston compressor, but other types have won
acceptance, e.g. centrifugal scroll and screw compressors.

The piston compressor covers a very large capacity range, right from small single
cylinder models for household refrigerators up to 8 to 12 cylinder models with a large
swept volume for industrial applications.
In the smallest applications the hermetic compressor is used, where compressor and
motor are built together as a complete hermetic unit. For medium sized plants one of the
most common compressors is the larger sizes of hermetic compressors in either piston or
scroll versions.

CONDENSER

COPPER MADE CAPILLARY COIL


WITH FLOW RATE 5LTR/HR
The purpose of the condenser is to remove the amount of heat that is equal to the sum of
the heat absorbed in the evaporator and the heat produced by compression. There are
many different kinds of condenser.
Shell and tube condenser. This type of condenser is used in applications where sufficient
cooling water is available. It consists of a horizontal cylinder with welded-on flat end
caps, which support the cooling tubes. End covers are bolted to the end plates.
The refrigerant condensate flows through the cylinder, the cooling water through the
tubes. The end covers are divided into sections by ribs. The sections act as reversing
chambers for the water so that it circulates several times through the condenser. As a rule,
the water becomes heated 5-10 C when it has passed through a condenser.
If it is desirable or necessary to cut down on the amount of water an evaporating
condenser can be used instead. This type of condenser consists of a housing in which
there is a condensing coil, water distribution tubes, deflection plates and fans.

The warm refrigerant vapour is led to the top of the condensing coil after which it
condenses and runs from the bottom of the coil as liquid.
Water distribution tubes with nozzles are placed Over the condensing coil so that water is
spread over and runs down the coil. The fans direct a strong flow of air across the
condensing coil. When the falling drops of water meet the upward air flow some of the
water will evaporate. his absorbs the necessary evaporating heat from the refrigerant
vapour and causes it to condense.

EXPANSION VALVE

THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION VALVE

The main purpose of the expansion valve is to ensure a sufficient pressure differential
between the high and low pressure sides of the plant.
The simplest way of doing this is to use a capillary tube inserted between the condenser
and evaporator. The capillary tube is, however, only used in small, simple appliances like
refrigerators.
Expansion valve cause it is not capable of regulating the amount of liquid that is injected
into the evaporator. A regulating valve must be used for this process, the most usual
being the thermostatic expansion valve, which consists of a valve housing,capillary tube
and a bulb.
The valve housing is fitted in the liquid line and the bulb is fitted on the evaporator outlet.
An evaporator fed by a thermostatic expansion valve.

EVAPORATOR

ALUMINIUM MADE EVAPORATOR


WITH FLOW RATE 160LTR/HR

The evaporator is an important device used in the low pressure side of a refrigeration system. The
liquid refrigerant from the expansion valve enters into the evaporator where it boils and changes
into vapour.
The function of an evaporator is to absorb heat from the surrounding location or medium which is
to be cooled, by means of a refrigerant.
The temperature of the boiling refrigerant in the evaporator must always less than that of the
surrounding medium that the heat flows to the refrigerant.
The evaporator becomes cold and remains cold due to the following two reasons:

The temperature of the evaporator coil is low due to the low temperature of the refrigerant inside
the coil.

The low temperature of the refrigerant remains unchanged because any heat it absorbs is
converted to latent heat as boiling proceeds

WATER PUMP
According to above specification of our refrigeration system we would be using compatible
water pump of following specification:
Submersible water pump with
flow rate 400 liters/hr
single phase pump
1 amp rating
power input 5 watts

REFRIGERANT
Refrigerants are used as working substances in a Refrigeration systems.
Fluids suitable for refrigeration purposes can be classified into primary and secondary
refrigerants.
Primary refrigerants are those fluids, which are used directly as working fluids, for
example in vapour compression and vapour absorption refrigeration systems.
These fluids provide refrigeration by undergoing a phase change process in the
evaporator.
R134a, which is a substance of the ethane group with the formula CH2FCF3 and has a
normal boiling point of 26.1 C. Its thermodynamic properties make it suitable as a refrigerant
for medium temperature applications such as domestic refrigerators.

CHAPTER 5

CALCULATIONS

5.1 WATER-COOLED REFRIGERATION TEMPERATURE READING

t1=compressor inlet temperature- (17 oc)


t2=compressor outlet temperature- (70 oc)
t3=condenser outlet temperature- (30 oc)
t4=evaporator inlet temperature- (-5.2 oc)

By above temperature and with the help of thermodynamic properties of R134a refrigerant, we
get enthalpy as:
H1 = 408.69 KJ/KG (vapour enthalpy)
H2 = H2+CP (T2 - T2)
= 419.82+0.996 (343-303)
= 454.66 KJ/KG
H3=H4=241.72 (liquid enthalpy)
pump power consumed= 0.005KW
(conversion of power in KW to KJ/KG)

(KJ/KG) * (KG/S) = KW
Therefore, we have power rating of 0.005kw, now
(0.05*3600)/400 = 0.045 KJ/KG

COP = (H1-H4 )/ (H2-H1)


= (408.69-241.72) / (454.66-408.69) +0.045

= 3.62

5.2 AIR-COOLED REFRIGERATION TEMPERATURE READING


t1=compressor inlet temperature- (16 oc)
t2=compressor outlet temperature- (81 oc)
t3=condenser outlet temperature- (54 oc)
t4=evaporator inlet temperature- (-2 oc)

By above temperature and with the help of thermodynamic properties of R134a refrigerant, we
get enthalpy as:
H1 = 407.61 KJ/KG
H2 = H2+CP (T2 - T2)
= 424.83+0.996 (354-327)
= 451.72 KJ/KG
H3=H4=277.89 (liquid enthalpy)
COP = (H1-H4 )/ (H2-H1)
= (407.61-277.89) / (451.72-407.61)

2.941

5.3 COMPARISON OF PERFORMANCE:

FACTOR

AIR-COOLED
SYSTEM

WATER-COOLED
SYSTEM

POWER CONSUMED

0.09 KWHR

0.10 KWHR

COFFICIENT OF
PERFORAMNCE

2.941

3.62

REFRIGERATION EFFECT

129.75 KJ/KG

166.97 KJ/KG

CHAPTER 6

6.1 APPLICATIONS OF WATER-COOLED REFRIGERATION SYSTEM


It is used in various industrial building for maintaining the temperature of industrial
spaces.
It is used for cooling of various machineries used in manufacturing and production
houses.
It is used for keeping ambient environment for various wildlife creatures.
It is used in air conditioning of public hub like malls, super market, halls, auditorium etc.
It is used in medical practices for preserving medicines and specimens.
It is used for preservation of vegetables, food, specimen in labs etc.

6.2 MERITS & DEMERITS OF WATER-COOLED SYSTEM


Water Cooled Advantages
Usually have a longer life
Higher efficiency
Indoor placement
Larger tonnage capabilities
Refrigeration containment
High heat transfer capacity due to high thermal conductivity of water.

Water Cooled Disadvantages


Additional maintenance costs
Water treatment costs
Mechanical room needed

CHAPTER 7:

CONCLUSION

As per our analysis on working and advantages of water cooled refrigerator, if we surpass other
disadvantages, it can be concluded that the use of water cooled refrigerator can help in increasing
the efficiency of refrigerator and also produce good refrigeration effect compared to
conventional refrigeration system with equally consumption of electricity.

In short, water-cooled refrigeration is more economical than air-cooled refrigeration system; if it


is used for larger ton capacity it gives high coefficient of performance.

CHAPTER 8:

FUTURE SCOPE

In near future, if the circulation and treatment of water which is used for cooling of condenser if
automated by employing some sensors & made more better & economical, its maintenance cost
can be reduced for long term usage.

We can even make our system more compatible by reducing its size which would further help in
reducing overall cost of the system if mass production is done.

As a matter of fact the breakdown of water pump occurs in our system, it could also be used as
air-cooled system by just installing air circulation system in condenser tank.