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Q1) What is the Unit of Heat?(1M)

ANS) Units: BTU (British Thermal Units)
1BTU: It is the amount of energy required to raise 1 Degree Fahrenheit
temperature of 1 Pound of water
It is the amount of heat when added to 1 Pound of water
increases the temperature of water to 1 Degree Fahrenheit
1 Lb = 0.45 Kgs (or) 1kg = 2.2 Lbs.
Types of Heat:Sensible Heat: It can be sensed or measured by an ordinary dry
bulb thermometer.
Eg: Human body temperature can be measured using thermometer
Latent Heat: It cant be sensed or measured by an ordinary dry
bulb thermometer. It is a hidden heat. Latent heat is
absorbed or released when ever there is a change in
Eg: When the water becomes vapor and vice versa
Q2) What is TON & 1 TON = ?(2M)
ANS) TON or Ton of refrigeration: It is the amount of energy required to Freeze 1 pound of water in 24 hours (or)
It is the amount of energy required to Melt 1 Ton of Ice in 24 Hours
Q3) Volume Of Air is measured in?(2M)

ANS) Volume of air is measured in terms of:

CFM = Cubic Feet per Minute
CMH = Cubic Meter per Hour
M3/Sec = Cubic Meter per Second
L/Sec = Liters per second
CMH = 1.7 x CFM
CFM = 2118 x m3/sec
CFM = 2.119 x l/sec
Q4) Whai is ASHRAE?(1M)
ANS) ASHRAE: American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Engineers
Q5) What is the Room Temperature that you maintain in any room?(1M)
ANS) 24 Degree Celcius or 76 Degree Fahreinheit

Q6) How much Fresh Air do you provide in a Bedroom?(2M)

ANS) Fresh Air:
According to ASHRAE 2004 62.1 Ventilation Standards
No. Of People = 2
CFM per Person = 5
Area = 200 SQ FT (Example)
CFM per Sq. Ft = 0.06
Therefore 5 x 2 = 10CFM
0.06 x 200 = 12 CFM
Therefore Total Fresh Air CFM = 10 + 12
= 22CFM
Q7) What are the Air Terminal Devices?(1M)

Q8) How do you design the sizes of Air Terminal Devices?(1M)

ANS) Two parameters are Required: 1. Air Quantity CFM and 2. Air Velocity FPM. The Following Formula can be used Q =
Q9) How much Noise Criteria do you maintain in BETA for Linear Bar Grill & units?(2M)
ANS) 35 Decibels
Q10) What is Single Skin & Double Skin Hoods?(2M)
ANS) Single Skin: Has only the Exhaust System. Double Skin: Has both Exhaust and Fresh Air System

Q11) Calculate Hood Size,Exhaust Air CFM,Exhaust Air Duct Size, Fresh Air CFM & Fresh Air Duct Size(25M)?
Width of the stove = 500mm
Height between stove and Hood = 800mm
Find (a):Hood Size (b): Exhaust Air CFM
(c): Exhaust Air Duct Size (d): Fresh Air CFM
(e): Fresh Air Duct Size
For a wall Type hood and medium cooking?
Solution:- (a): Hood Size:
L = l + 0.8H
= 0.75 + 0.8(0.8)
= 1.39M
M x 3.28 = FT
1.39 x 3.28 = 4.55FT
W = w + 0.8H
= 0.5 + 0.8(0.8)
= 1.14M
M x 3.28 = FT
1.14 x 3.28 = 3.73FT
Therefore Hood Size: L = 4.55Ft and W = 3.73Ft
(b):- Exhaust Air CFM:
CFM = P x 150
Where P = 2L + W for wall type of Hood
Therefore P = 2(4.55) + 3.73
= 12.83
Exhaust Air CFM = P x 150
= 12.83 x 150
= 1925CFM
(c): Exhaust Air Duct Size: Q = A x V
1925 = A x 1800
A = 1925/1800
= 1.06 Sq.Ft (Area of the Duct)
Sqft x 0.093 = Sq.M
1.06 x 0.093 = 0.098Sq.M
(1):- Round Duct: Area = Pi x D2/4
0.098 = 3.14 x D2/4
Therefore Diameter D = Under Root of (0.098 x 4)/3.14
= 0.35M
= 350mm
(2):- Square Duct: Area = 0.098
Therefore Under Root of Area = Under Root of 0.098
= 0.30M
= 300mm
Hence the Width and Height of Square duct is 300 x 300mm

(3):- Rectangular Duct: Area = W x H

0.098 = W x 0.3
W = 0.098/0.3
= 0.32M
~ 350mm
Hence the Width and Height of Rectangular duct is 350 x 300mm
(d): Fresh Air CFM = Exhaust Air CFM x 0.8
= 1925 x 0.8
= 1540CFM
(e): Fresh Air Duct Size: Q = A x V
1540 = A x 1800
A = 1540/1800
= 0.855 Sq.Ft (Area of the Duct)
Sqft x 0.093 = Sq.M
0.855 x 0.093 = 0.08Sq.M
(1):- Round Duct: Area = Pi x D2/4
0.08 = 3.14 x D2/4
Therefore Diameter D = Under Root of (0.08 x 4)/3.14
= 0.319M
= 350mm
(2):- Square Duct: Area = 0.08
Therefore Under Root of Area = Under Root of 0.08
= 0.28M
= 300mm
Hence the Width and Height of Square duct is 300 x 300mm
(3):- Rectangular Duct: Area = W x H
0.08 = W x 0.25
W = 0.08/0.25
= 0.32M
~ 350mm
Hence the Width and Height of Rectangular duct is 350 x 300mm
Q12) How do you calculate CFM for Toilets?(2M)
ANS) CFM = M3 x A.C.H/ 1.7
Q13) To select a fan in Commercial Toilets, what are the things that are required?(2M)
ANS) 1) Volume of Air and 2) Static Pressure
Q14) Difference between Axial and Centrifugal Fans
ANS) Axial Fan: Has the Parallel Movement of Air. Centrifugal Fan: Has the Perpendicular Movement of Air
Q15) Explain Vapour Compression Cycle?

ANS) Cooling take place when liquid evaporates to become gas.

COMPRESSOR: Most refrigerant gases can be made into the liquid form by raising its
pressure (and cooling it, which I handled by the condenser).
CONDENSER: During compression the refrigerant becomes hot because of two reason:
(a) work done on it. (b) Refrigerant is converted from gas to liquid releasing its latent
This heat has to be removed to enable the gas to condense into a liquid easily.
EVAPORATOR: The liquid refrigerant from the condenser is injected through capillary
(or) expansion valve into the cooling coil which has a bundle of tubes.
Inside the cooling coil pressure is low because of throttling device on one side & the
compressor suction on the other side. In the low pressure, the liquid refrigerant tarts
evaporating rapidly by soaking surrounding sensible heat & this is what causes the
Q16) What is COP and EER?
ANS) COP: Coefficient of Performance. EER: Energy Efficiency Ratio
Q17) What is Partition, Ventilation & Infiltration?
ANS) Partition: It is common wall between Conditioned and Unconditioned Space.
through Window Cracks and Door Openings
Q18) How to you Design a Duct?
ANS) There are Three Standard Methods to Design a Duct
2. Velocity Reduction Method
Q19) Design a Duct using Equal Friction Method
ANS) Find out the CFM and Maintain the Constant Friction Throughout the Ducting to follow Equal Friction Method
Q20) What should be the HWS & HWR Temperatures in a Cooling Tower?
ANS) HWS = 106 & HWR = 98 Degree fahreinHeit based on the Ambient Conditions
Q21) What should be the CWS & CWR in any Chiller?
ANS) CWS = 45 & CWR = 55 Degree FahreinHeit as per the Standards
Q22) What is VAV & CAV
ANS) VAV: Variable Air Volume & CAV: Constant Air Volume
Q23) What are the things we have in Indoor unit & Outdoor Unit
ANS) Indoor Unit: Evaporator Coils and Blower Fan
Q24) Which units consume power

Q25) What is the advantage if I use VAC instead of VCC?

ANS) Power Consumption on the daily basis will be lowered down
Q26) What are the ASHRAE Recommendations for Pipe Designing?
ANS) Maximum Velocity is 4 FPS & Maximum Head Loss is 4 FT/100FT
Q27) Formula for GPM
ANS) GPM = Ton x 12000/ 500 x Delta T

Q28) Decoupler Sizing: How do you size a Decoupler?

ANS) Decoupler Sizing: Minimum Length of the Decoupler should be 3 times the diameter of the pipe & the Friction Loss
Q29) Where do we use "U" trap? Why do we use "U" trap?
ANS) U Traps are used in almost all Air Conditioning Systems like Split Ac's, Casette AC's, Fcu's, AHU's Etc
Q30) Types of false ceiling with section view.
ANS) 1) Plain or Flat False Ceiling 2) Step False Ceiling 3) Tiles False Ceiling
Q31) If a Bed room of Area 10 x 15 then what will be the capacity of AC in that room?
ANS) 10Ft = 3M and 15Ft = 4.5M. Therefore L x W = 3M x 4.5M = 13.5 M2.
Ton = 400CFM
Q32) What is Qs & QL. Explain?
ANS) Qs is the Sensible Heat and QL is the Latent Heat
Q33) Name the types of insulation used for ducting & why do we use insulation.
ANS) Fibre Glass Insulation, Rubber Insulation and Canvas Type Insulation.
Outside Hot Air should not effect the Air moving inside the Duct which is chilled.
Q34) Name the different types of material used for duct fabrication.
ANS) GI Duct, Aluminium Sheet Metal, Fibre Glass Duct, Thick Black Mild Steel, Galvanized Steel Sheet & PUF
Q35) What are the different gauges of duct.
ANS) 16,18,20,22,24 & 26 with the Thickness 1.8, 1.2, 0.9, 0.7, 0.6 & 0.5mm