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Recitation Week 4

Chapter 5
Problem 5.25. A bag of cement whose weight is Fg hangs in equilibrium from three wires shown in Figure P5.24. Two of
the wires make angles 1 = 60.0 and 2 = 40.0 with the horizontal. Assuming the system is in equilibrium, show that the
tension in the left-hand wire is
Fg cos 2
(1)
T1 =
sin(1 + 2 )

1
T1

T2
T3
Fg

Balancing forces on the cement bag, T3 = Fg .


Balancing forces on the wire joint is a bit mor complicated and deserves a free body diagram.

F1

F2

1 + 2 1
2

2
j

F3
Where weve chosen a coordinate system such that F2 has no y component.
Balancing forces in the y direction,
0 = T1 sin(1 + 2 ) T3 cos(2 )
T1 = T3

cos(2 )
cos(2 )
= Fg
,
sin(1 + 2 )
sin(1 + 2 )

(2)
(3)

which is what we set out to show.


Problem 5.28. An object of mass m1 = 5.00 kg placed on a frictionless, horizontal table is connected to a string that passes
over a pulley and then is fastened to a hanging object of mass m2 = 9.00 kg as shown in Figure P5.28. (a) Draw free-body
diagrams of both objects. Find (b) the magnitude of that acceleration of the objects and (c) the tension in the string.

m1

m2
(a)

T
N

m2

m1

T
Fg

Fg

(b) Because the rope does not stretch, both objects have the same magnitude of acceleration. Using F = ma on both objects,
we can solve for a.
T = m1 a

(4)

m2 g T = m2 a

(5)

m2 g m1 a = m2 a

(6)

m2 g = (m1 + m2 )a

(7)
2

a=

m2 g
9.00 kg 9.80 m/s
=
= 6.30 m/s2
m1 + m2
5.00 kg + 9.00 kg

(8)

(c) Plugging the solution for a back into either of the F = ma equations,
T = m1 a =

m1 m2 g
5.00 kg 9.00 kg 9.80 m/s2
= 32.1 N
=
m1 + m2
5.00 kg + 9.00 kg

(9)

Problem 5.30. Two objects are connected by a light string that passes over a frictionless pulley as shown in Figure P5.30.
Assume the incline is frictionless and take m1 = 2.00 kg, m2 = 6.00 kg, and = 55.0 . (a) Draw free-body diagrams of both
objects. Find (b) the magnitude of the acceleration of the objects, (c) the tension in the string, and (d) the speed of each
object 2.00 s after it is released from rest.

m1

m2

(a)

T
T
m1

N
m2

m1 g

m2 g

(b) Because the rope does not stretch, both objects have the same magnitude of acceleration. Using F = ma on both objects,

we can solve for a. m2 is the heavier object, so well pick the positive direction to be dropping m2 and raising m1 .
T m1 g = m1 a

(10)

m2 g sin() T = m2 a

(11)

T = m1 (g + a)
m2 g sin() m1 (g + a) = m2 a

(12)
(13)

g(m2 sin() m1 ) = a(m1 + m2 )


m2 sin() m1
m1 + m2
6.00 kg sin(55.0 ) 2.00 kg
= 9.80 m/s2
2.00 kg + 6.00 kg
= 3.57 m/s2

a=g

(c) Plugging the solution for a back into either of the F = ma equations,


m1 + m2 + m2 sin() m1
m2 sin() m1
= m1 g
T = m1 (g + a) = m1 g 1 +
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
m2 (1 + sin())
m1 m2
= m1 g
=g
(1 + sin())
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
2.00 kg 6.00 kg
= 9.80 m/s2
(1 + sin(55.0 )) = 26.7 N
2.00 kg + 6.00 kg

(14)
(15)
(16)
(17)

(18)
(19)
(20)

(d) Because the string does not stretch, the speed of both objects are the same. Because the acceleration is constant,
v = a t + v0 = a t = 3.57 m/s2 2.00 s = 7.14 m/s

(21)

Problem 5.38. A car is traveling at 50.0 mi/h on a horizontal highway. (a) If the coefficient of static friction between road
and tires on a rainy day is 0.100, what is the minimum distance in which the car will stop? (b) What is the stopping distance
when the surface is dry and s = 0.600?
(a) A normal force with magnitude mg is required to keep the car from accelerating in the vertical direction (and either
sinking into the pavement or levitating above it). The frictional resistance has magnitude
Ff = s N = s mg ,

(22)

Ff = ma = s mg

(23)

a = s g .

(24)

which gives a deceleration of

Because the car is moving, you might expect the coefficient of kinetic friction would be more appropriate. However, if the
wheels are not skidding (e.g. with anti-lock brakes), the tire does not slide over the road, so you use the coeffient of static
friction. You would use a coefficient of kinetic friction if you were analyzing the disk/brake-pad interaction.
For constant acceleration problems,
v 2 = v02 + 2a(x x0 )

(25)

(see my solution to Prob. 2.33 for a derivation). We can use this forumla to solve for the stopping distance
v 2 v02
v02
v2
=
= 0 .
2a
2a
2s g

(26)

1.61 km 1.00 h

= 22.4 m/s .
1.00 mi 3600 s

(27)

x = x x 0 =
Converting the initial speed to m/s,
v0 = 50.0 mi/h
Plugging into our formula for stopping distance
x =

v02
(22.4 m/s)2
=
= 255 m .
2s g
2 0.100 9.80 m/s2

(28)

(b) Plugging the new s into our formula for stopping distance
x =

v02
(22.4 m/s)2
= 42.5 m ,
=
2s g
2 0.600 9.80 m/s2

(29)

which is much shorter.


Problem 5.47. Two blocks connected by a rope of negligable mass are being dragged by a horizontal force (Fig. P5.47).
Suppose F = 68.0 N, m1 = 12.0 kg, m2 = 18.0 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between each block and the surface
is 0.100. (a) Draw a free-body diagram for each block. Determine (b) the acceleration of the system and (c) the tension T in
the rope.

m1

m2

(a)

N2
N1
Ff 1

m1

m2

TF

f2

m1 g

m2 g

(b) Because the string does not stretch, the blocks will have the same acceleration, and can be treated as a single block.
F (m1 + m2 )g = (m1 + m2 )a
F
a + g =
m1 + m2
F
a=
g
m1 + m2
68.0 N
=
0.100 9.80 m/s2 = 1.29 m/s2
12.0 kg + 18.0 kg

(30)
(31)
(32)
(33)

(c) We can use the horizontal force on m1 to calculate the tension


T m1 g = m1 a

(34)

m1
F
=F
m1 + m2
m1 + m2
12.0 kg
= 68.0 N
= 27.2 N
12.0 kg + 18.0 kg

T = m1 (g + a) = m1

(35)
(36)

Problem 5.63. A crate of wieght Fg is pushed by a force P on a horizontal floor as shown in Figure P5.63. The coefficient
of static friction is s , and P is directed at an angle below the horizontal. (a) Show that the minimum value of P that will
move the crate is given by
s Fg sec
P =
(37)
1 s tan
(b) Find the condition on in terms of s , for which motion of the crate is impossible for any value of P .

P
crate

(a) The normal force must resist both the force of gravity and the vertical component of P, so
N = Fg + P sin() .

(38)

This moves the crate when the horizontal component of P balances the force of friction.
P cos() = s N = s (Fg + P sin())

(39)

P (cos() s sin()) = s Fg

(40)

P (1 s tan()) = s Fg sec()
P =

(41)

s Fg sec()
,
1 s tan()

(42)

which is what we set out to show.


Note that this formula is only valid when there is an actual normal force to provide friction. Therefore P cos() > 0. We can
posit, without loss of generality, that P > 0, in which case the restriction is 90 < < 90 . By symmetry, the situation for
the backside 180 is just a mirror image of the frontside.
(b) As P becomes larger, the Fg component of our horizontal force balance becomes negligable, so we cannot move the block
when
P cos() s P sin()
1
tan()
s
 
1
arctan
c ,
s

(43)
(44)
(45)

where the last step uses the fact that tan() is strictly increasing on the range (90 , 90 ).
What does this mean about our answer to (a)? Lets rework the condition to look more like the denominator in the (a)
answer.
1
tan()
(46)
s
1
0
tan()
(47)
s
0 1 s tan() ,
(48)
so the denominator is negative or zero for c . For just below the cutoff, the denominator is small but positive, and
you get a really large value for P . For = c , the denominator is zero, and you get an infinite value for P . For above the
cutoff, the denominator is negative, so P is also negative, which, as I pointed out in (a), is not allowed.
The whole thing is a bit easier to understand if we rephrase the answer to (a) as
P =

s Fg
C
=
= (A cos() B sin())1 ,
cos() s sin()
cos() s sin()

(49)

where C = s Fg , A 1/C, and B s /C = 1/Fg . We can consolidate to a single trig term using
sin(a b) = sin(a) cos(b) cos(a) sin(b)
(D sin(a b))

(50)
1

= (D sin(a) cos(b) D cos(a) sin(b))

(51)

Matching with our formula,


=b

(52)

A = D sin(a)

(53)

B = D cos(a)

(54)

A
1/C
1
=
=
B
s /C
s
 
1
a = arctan
s

tan(a) =

D=

(55)
(56)
1 + 12
1
s
=
2s
Fg

 

1
csc arctan
.
s

B
B

  = B
=
cos(a)
cos arctan 1s
1

P = D1 (sin(a b))

=q

Fg
1+

1
2s

1+

(57)

(58)

This doesnt look as clean as the phrasing in (a), but it makes the dependence of P on much clearer. For example, P is
obviously negative for > c arctan(1/s ). The dependency on over the rest of the range is
P csc(c ) =

1
sin(c )

(59)

Because s is a positive number, 1/s will also be positive, and c will be between 0 and 90 . The status on all possible
angles looks something like

c
cos() > 0
P >0
Taking the cos() > 0 portion of our P dependence (where
with the reflection (which applies when cos() < 0, we get


 


q Fg
csc arctan 1s
1
1+ 2
P =
s

 


F
1

q g

csc
arctan

180
+

1+ 1
s

the equation we started with in (a) applies, and combining it

if c < 180 c
if 90 < c

(60)

if 180 c < 180 or 180 90

2
s

which looks like

c
1
2

where Ive just plotted the dependence of P , setting the constant Fg /


straight lines in this polar plot.

term equal to 1. Note that the csc makes nice,