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Electronics Engineering Department

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Homework No. 2

Final Term

Engineering Probability and Statistics

Prepared by

Alexa Marrie Bautista

T3A

Submitted to

Engr. Marife A. Rosales

Instructor

INFERENTIAL STATISTICS

Most researchers have limited access to the phenomena they study, especially

behavioral phenomena. As a result, researchers use procedures that allow them to

interpret or infer the meaning of data. These procedures are called inferential statistics.

or generalize observations made with samples to the larger population

from which they were selected.

interest. This is the group about which scientists will generalize.

referred to as a population parameter.

taken from a population of interest. A characteristic (usually

numeric) that describes a sample is referred to as a sample

statistic.

Selecting a sample is more practical, and most scientific research you read comes from

samples and not populations A characteristic that describes a sample is called a sample

statisticthis is similar to a parameter, except it describes characteristics in a sample

and not a population. Inferential statistics use the characteristics in a sample to infer

what the unknown parameters are in a given population

STATISTICAL TESTING

In general, a statistical test involves four elements to a statistical test:

Null Hypothesis (written as H0): The "tried and true situation", or "the status

quo", or "innocent until proven guilty"

Alternative Hypothesis (written as Ha): This is what you suspect (or hope)

is really true, the new situation, "guilty" - in general it is the opposite of the null

hypothesis

sample and compute some number based on the sample data

Rejection Region: Do we reject the null hypothesis (and therefore accept the

alternative), or do we declare our test inconclusive, and if we do decide to reject

the null hypothesis, what is the probability that our decision is incorrect.

WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS?

Hypothesis is a statement about the value of a population parameter developed

for the purpose of testing.

Examples of hypotheses, or statements, made about a population parameter are:

o

The mean monthly income from all sources for systems analysts is

$3,625.

sentenced to prison.

Hypothesis Testing is a procedure, based on sample evidence and

probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable

Following is a five-step procedure for testing a hypothesis.

5 STEPS IN THE HYPOTHESIS TESTING PROCEDURE

1. State the null hypothesis and the alternate hypothesis.

Null Hypothesis is a statement about the value of a population parameter.

Alternate Hypothesis is a statement that is accepted if evidence proves null

hypothesis to be false.

2. Select the appropriate test statistic and level of significance.

When testing a hypothesis of a proportion, we use the z-statistic or z-test

and the formula

t-statistic according to the following conditions.

If the population standard deviation, , is known and either the data is

normally distributed or the sample size n > 30, we use the normal distribution (zstatistic).

When the population standard deviation, , is unknown and either the data

is normally distributed or the sample size is greater than 30 (n > 30), we use the

t-distribution (t-statistic). A traditional guideline for choosing the level of

significance is as follows:

(a) the 0.10 level for political polling

(b) the 0.05 level for consumer research projects, and

(c) the 0.01 level for quality assurance work.

3. State the decision rules.

The decision rules state the conditions under which the null hypothesis will

be accepted or rejected. The critical value for the test-statistic is determined by

the level of significance. The critical value is the value that divides the non-reject

region from the reject region.

4. Compute the appropriate test statistic and make the decision.

When we use the z-statistic, we use the formula

Compare the computed test statistic with critical value. If the computed

value is within the rejection region(s), we reject the null hypothesis; otherwise, we

do not reject the null hypothesis.

5. Interpret the decision.

Based on the decision in Step 4, we state a conclusion in the context of

the original problem. Final conclusions always fall on any of these two

options: either reject

the

null

hypothesis or

we declare

the

test

invalid.

Rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it is true is called a Type I Error. That's exactly the error we will be computing in the procedure

above when we reject the null hypothesis. It should, of course, be small so

that we can be confident in our decision to reject the null hypothesis.

Accepting the null hypothesis when in fact it is false is called a Type II Error. This type of probability is not covered by our procedure (which is

why we will never accept the null hypothesis, we rather declare our test

inconclusive if necessary)

EXAMPLE

PROBLEM

aptitude exam is 75 with a standard deviation of 8.1. A random sample of 100

students in one school was taken. The mean score of these 100 students was

71. Does this indicate that the students of this school are significantly less

skilled in their mathematical abilities than the average student in the district?

(Use a 5% level of significance.)

SOLUTION

In this problem, we know the mean and standard deviation for the

population, = 75 and = 8.1 (all sixth graders in district A). We also know

the mean for the sample of 100 students in a certain school in district A. Thus,

we are testing the sample mean against the population mean with a

population standard deviation ( is known).

This is a large sample because n > 30 which is usually used to determine

whether to use large or small sample techniques. Since is known and n >

30, we use the z-test that is based on the normal curve or normal distribution.

Step 1. State the null hypothesis (contains =, , or ) and alternate

hypothesis (usually contains not). Think of the statement Does this indicate

that the students of this school are significantly less

skilled in their

students of this school are significantly less skilled, we write the alternate

hypothesis as

Step 2. Select a level of significance.

Stated in the problem as 5% or = 0.05

Step 3. Use z-test because is known and the sample (n=100) is a large

sample (n > 30).

Recall that in the normal curve, Z=0 corresponds to the mean. Z=1, 2,

3 represent 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations above the mean; the negatives

are below the mean.

Since the alternate hypothesis states < 75, this is a one tailed test to the

left. For a = 0.05, we find z in the normal curve table that gives a probability of

0.05 to the left of z. This means the negative of the z value (critical value)

corresponding to a table value of 0.5 - 0.05 = 0.45 or z = -1.645. That is P(z <

-1.645) = 0.05. . Because 0.4500 is exactly half way between 0.4495 and

0.4505, we get half way between 1.640 and 1.650 to get z = 1.645. Since 71

is to the left of 75, we have z = -1.645. That is P(z < -1.645) = 0.05.

Thus, we reject the null hypothesis if z < -1.645. And accept the alternate

hypothesis that the students in the school sampled are less skilled in math

aptitude than those in district A.

The sample of 100 students have been tested and found that their mean

score was 71. Using the statistical test (z-test) identified in Step 3 compute

the test statistic by the formula from Step 3.

Since the computed z = -4.938 < -1.645 (critical z value), we reject the

null hypothesis that the students in the school are not less skilled in

mathematical ability. Thus, we conclude that the sixth graders in the school

are less skilled in mathematical ability than the sixth graders in District A.

REFERENCES

o http://cfcc.edu/faculty/cmoore/0801-HypothesisTests.pdf

o http://pirate.shu.edu/~wachsmut/Teaching/MATH1101/Testing/test.html

o http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40006_Chapter1.pdf

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